WorldWideScience

Sample records for air pollution abatement

  1. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  2. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  3. Air pollution abatement in heating sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalen, J.; Pytel, P.; Romanczak, A.; Velina, S.; Verkleij, J.; Yasko, D. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, and Research Center for Photoenergetics of Organic Materials, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to formulate recommendations to reduce the air pollution in the heating sector in Poland. influence the use of energy by changing their behaviour. The main question concerns the options, related policy instruments and their effects on air pollution reduction. Five sub-questions were formulated (1) how is the heating sector structured and what are the effects of the related air pollution?; (2) What are the technological, organizational and behavioral options for pollution reduction, and how much do they contribute to pollution abatement?; (3) What are the policy instruments to implement the options?; (4) What are the financial and environmental effects of related options and instruments?; and (5) How can the various options and policy instruments be combined into a policy proposal? The main questions for this research have been elaborated by literature study and by interviews, both in the Netherlands and in Poland. figs., tabs., 67 refs.

  4. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  5. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Air Pollution Abatement Policy of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU E Y; CHOU C K; TU G B

    2007-01-01

    As only about 15% of the total time of people in Hong Kong was spent outdoors, it would be more valuable if the associated effectiveness and impact of the recently proposed abatement measures could be expressed in terms of the improvement in the total exposure levels. This paper uses an exposure assessment model developed from the local microenvironment concentration data together with our surveyed time activity patterns to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed air pollution abatement policy. Prior to the enforcement of abatement measures, about 2.5 % of the young group and 1.2% of the adult group having their exposure levels exceeded that defined by the current 8-hour PM10 standard (180 μg/m3). With the enforcement of abatement measures, only 0.3% of the adult group would be restored to a safe level.

  7. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  8. Too high expectations. Air pollution abatement: Will Germany achieve its goal?; Zuviel versprochen. Klimaschutz: Erreicht Deutschland das Ziel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, V. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Aussenstelle Plataforma Solar, Almeria (Spain). Abt. Systemanalyse

    2003-04-01

    Germany is the world-wide leader in air pollution abatement, but its ambitious goals will not be met if it does not make bigger efforts. (orig.) [German] Deutschland gilt als Vorreiter im internationalen Klimaschutz und hat sich selbst hohe Ziele gesteckt. Es droht jedoch, an den eigenen Anspruechen zu scheitern, wenn keine groesseren Anstrengungen zum Klimaschutz getroffen werden. (orig.)

  9. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  10. Modeling and Economics of Air Pollution Abatement Policies in the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, A.; Garcia-Reynoso, A.

    2008-05-01

    Using meteorological and air quality models it has been possible to study the air pollution phenomenon in the Valley of Mexico. This capability together with the development of a system to obtain vehicular emissions in Mexico City, allow estimating the possible reductions in Ozone concentrations because of the introduction of new car technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV´s) in Mexico City. Using this data together with epidemiological studies, a prediction on avoided cases of mortality and morbidity due to reduction in ambient concentrations of Ozone are obtained. Monetary values of these reductions are calculated valuating this car technology change. This methodology will allow the prediction on health benefits because of the introduction of bio fuels and other vehicular technologies in Mexico City.

  11. Just in time. Goals and key elements of the German air pollution abatement programme; Just in time. Ziele und Eckpfeiler des Klimaschutzprogramms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, F.

    2001-03-01

    After prolonged discussions, the German government agreed on a new, 421 page, air pollution abatement programme on 18 October 2000. Funds will be provided from the sales of the UMTS licences. [German] Nach zaehen Verhandlungen innerhalb der Bundesregierung und den finanziellen Moeglichkeiten, die sich aus der Versteigerung der UMTS-Lizenzen voellig unerwartet ergaben, hat das Kabinett am 18. Oktober 2000 dem neuen - 421 Seiten starken - Klimaschutzprogramm zugestimmt. (orig.)

  12. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  13. Energy conservation, an economically beneficial air pollution abatement measure. Final report; Energiesparen - Klimaschutz, der sich rechnet. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.; Jochem, E.; Schleich, J.; Walz, R.; Krenicky, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kohlhaas, M.; Diekmann, J.; Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Strebel, H. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Australia). Inst. fuer Innovationsmanagement

    1998-11-01

    The book intends to put the discussion of economic effects of air pollution abatement and energy efficiency increasing measures on a more rational basis. It addresses all parties taking part in the political discussion. ARguments are presented in a clear and transparent form that will also help the layman. The reader is enabled to interpret data and analyze them critically. A very important basis is the recognition of the various decision making patterns in which the cost and benefits of energy efficiency increasing patterns are key arguments. [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Argumentationshilfe ist es, die Diskussion um die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Klimaschutzmassnahmen, und insbesondere von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen, zu versachlichen und transparent zu machen. Sie richtet sich insbesondere an Politiker, aber auch an Vertreter von Wirtschaftsverbaenden und anderen Nicht-Regierungsorganisationen, die an dieser politischen Diskussion teilnehmen. Insofern wurde besonderes Gewicht auf eine einfache, klare und anschauliche Argumentation gelegt, die auch fuer betriebs- oder volkswirtschaftliche Laien verstaendlich ist. Die Argumentationshilfe versetzt den Leser in die Lage, die Zahlenangaben zur wirtschaftlichen Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung zu interpretieren und ihre Herleitung kritisch zu bewerten. Eine erste wichtige Grundlage dafuer ist das Erkennen der verschiedenen Entscheidungszusammenhaenge, in denen mit Kosten und Nutzen von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen argumentiert wird. Nach einer kurzen Beschreibung und Abgrenzung dieser verschiedenen Argumentationsebenen im Ueberblick (Abschnitt 2) werden anschliessend fuer jede Ebene (Abschnitt 3 bis 5) die zentralen Einflussparameter aufgezeigt, die bestimmen, ob eine eher positive oder eher negative wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz ausgewiesen wird und in welcher Groessenordnung sich die Werte bewegen. Die Annahmen, die in die

  14. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHG

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Global and local - air pollution abatement in the 21st century. Seminar No. 14 of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern; Global und Lokal - Klimaschutz fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Rauh, K.; Haury, H.J. (comps.)

    1999-08-01

    Scientists of Germany's major climate research institutes and an expert of the world climate research programme presented current information on climate trends. They informed on the results of international efforts to prevent global warming after the Buenos Aires conference and presented global climate scenarios of the future. Further issues were local air pollution abatement (energy management, thermal insulation), communal air pollution abatement concepts, and state funding in Bavaria and elsewhere. [German] Wissenschaftler aus den bedeutendsten Instituten deutscher Klimaforschung sowie ein Vertreter des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms stellten aktuelle Erkenntnisse zur Entwicklung unseres Klimas vor. Sie informierten ueber Ergebnisse internationaler Klimaschutzpolitik nach der Klimakonferenz in Buenos Aires und praesentierten Szenarien fuer das globale Klima der Zukunft. Sie widmeten sich ausserdem Fragen des lokalen Klimaschutzes unter den Aspekten Energiemanagement, Waermeschutz und diskutierten ueber kommunale Klimaschutzkonzepte sowie Foerdermoeglichkeiten in und ausserhalb Bayerns. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Roger; Ionescu, Anda; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaëlle; Perrussel, Olivier; Languille, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris R.-A. Lefèvre1, A. Ionescu1, J. Desplat2, R. Kounkou-Arnaud2, O. Perrussel3, B. Languille4 At the beginning of the 21st century air pollution in Paris continued to considerably decrease. An evident visual consequence was the replacement of thick gypseous black crusts by thin grey coverings on the façades. A quantitative approach of this phenomenon was taken by measurement in the field, followed by calculation using Dose-Response Functions (DRF) and mapping the geographic distribution on a grid of 100m x100m of: 1) The total surface of façades of buildings and monuments in the part of Paris inscribed on the UNESCO List between the Ile Saint-Louis and the Concorde Square; 2) The surface of limestone and window glass present on each façade; 3) The distribution of SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration every year from 1997 to 2014; 4) The response of materials to climatic and pollution doses; 5) The effective damage to limestone and window glass. Results of measurements in the field: 1) The 772 buildings and monuments inventoried have 20 674 m in length and 414 811 m2 in façade surface: they are representative of the centre of Paris; 2) Limestone occupies 348 268 m2 and window glass 207 394 m2; 3) The mean annual concentration in SO2 dropped from 20 to less than 3 μg m-3; NO2 from 60 to 40 μg m-3 and PM10 from 30 to 20 μg m-3. Results by application of DRF: 4) Limestone recession was divided by 5 in 18 years, from 10 to 2 μm y-1, but with only a spatial variation of 2%; 5) Limestone reflectance increased from 70.5 to 72.5 %; 6) The annual mass of deposited and neo-formed particles on window glass decreased from 100 to 20 μg cm-2; 7) The annual haze of window glass decreased from 8 to 3.5%. Effective damage to stone and glass: 8) The mean annual mass of limestone eroded on the façades decreased according to time but with an irregular

  18. Soft Institution, Public Recognition and Efficiency of Air Pollution Abatement%制度软化、公众认同对大气污染治理效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝庆新; 陈超凡

    2015-01-01

    大气污染治理问题受到了政府和公众的广泛关注,然而传统研究并未对政府、公众行为和大气污染治理之间的关系予以足够重视. 文章构建了一个制度软化、公众认同与大气污染治理之间的理论模型并提出研究假说,采用Super-SBM模型对我国各省份大气污染治理效率进行测算,通过构建面板分位数模型对研究假说进行经验论证,得到以下结论:首先,大气污染治理效率测算结果表明,研究期内我国大气污染治理效率的省际格局变化不大,中部地区大气污染治理效率高于东部和西部地区. 其次,全国、中部及西部经验结论符合研究假说,即财政分权和晋升锦标赛引致的制度软化对区域大气污染治理效率具有负向冲击,公众认同对大气污染治理效率有正向影响,且公众认同在一定程度上可以弥补制度软化引致的效率下降,但东部经验与研究假说相反. 最后,晋升激励使得地方政府容易忽视大气污染治理的供给;环境规制对大气污染治理效率的影响在条件分位上具有"波特拐点"特征;产业转型升级的环境效应在东部地区并不明显,但在中西部地区显著;技术进步促进大气污染治理效率提升在全国范围内显著;外商投资能通过技术外溢、严格的规制标准提升大气污染治理效率,但目前这种正向影响只存在于东部地区. 故需要将环境质量指标及相关要素纳入地方政府的政治考评体系、改革和完善我国的财政分税制体制、引导公民自觉参与和监督大气污染治理、推进传统产业发展与现代服务业的有机融合等.%Air pollution has drawn wide attention and concern of government and the public. But traditional researches did not attach adequate importance to the relationships between the behaviors of government&public and air pollution abatement. Firstly, a model is established to reveal the mechanism between the soft

  19. Poverty and pollution abatement. Evidence from lead phase-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, F.G. [Department of Economics, Loyola College in Maryland, 4501 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests that poverty prevents nations from abating many forms of pollution. Considerable research also proposes a competing claim, that poverty delays but does not prevent pollution abatement. Neither position enjoys persuasive empirical support. Data describing the phase-out of leaded gasoline allow for empirical investigation and they support the latter claim-that poverty delays but does not prevent pollution abatement. Many poor nations have solved the problem of vehicular lead pollution and they have tended to follow rich nations in doing so. The phase-out achievements of richer nations have generated much of the ability and will that has enabled poor countries to solve the problem. The pattern of abatement sequencing and its root causes present important implications for environmental policy and research. (author)

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  1. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  2. Private sector investments in pollution abatement and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, P.

    1996-06-01

    Capital expenditures for pollution abatement and control in the business sector were presented. An analysis of the data showed that from 1985 to 1993, expenditures increased from $141 million to $1.1 billion. The analysis was based on industry sectors, i. e., the manufacturing sector, the paper and allied products industry, the primary metals industry, the chemical and chemical products industry, the mining industry, and electricity, gas and other utilities. Results were classified by province. The annex on environmental statistics includes a section of summary statistics for the NAFTA countries.It was suggested that the substantial increase in capital expenditures for pollution abatement and control ought to be seen in the context of general public awareness of environmental problems. Stricter regulation of polluting industries also has been a contributing factor.

  3. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  4. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  5. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  6. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  8. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues.

  9. Air pollution abatement by road traffic and social acceptability. A case study; Misure anti-inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino: uno studio del caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes the research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome (Italy). [Italian] Il rapporto descrive una ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e su un campione di cittadini di due quartieri di Roma, che si propone di esaminare il grado di accettazione sociale di una serie di misure tendenti a ridurre l'inquinamento atmosferico causato dal traffico veicolare urbano, dal momento che trova unanime consenso riconoscere al traffico veicolare e piu' in generale al sistema di vita urbano le maggiori responsabilita' per quanto riguarda la produzione di sostanze inquinanti nell'aria.

  10. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  11. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  12. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers.......The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...

  13. Evaluation of energy efficiency in plants of thermal waste treatment. Statement of the committee VDI 3460 of the commission on air pollution abatement of VDI and DIN - Standardization committee KRdL; Bewertung der Energieeffizienz in Anlagen zur thermischen Abfallbehandlung. Stellungnahme des Ausschusses VDI 3460 der Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN - Normenausschuss KRdL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahren und Umwelt; Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    2007-07-01

    In the year 2006, the commission on air pollution abatement of VDI and DIN submitted the concept of the regulation VDI 3460 with the title ''Reduction of emissions - energy conversion during the thermal waste treatment''. This regulation describes the methodical determination of the energy efficiency in thermal waste treatment plants. The inclusion of the calculation equation into the concept of the regulation mentioned above is not appropriate. For this, the contribution under consideration supplies five substantial points of criticism. Altogether, the proposal of determining the energy efficiency according to the concept of the regulation mentioned above does not correspond to scientific realizations and practical experiences.

  14. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  15. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  19. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  1. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  2. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  3. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  4. Stoves Improvement and Indoor Air Pollution Abatement in Rural Area in China%改炉改灶措施降低农村室内空气污染的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦昌; 郭亚菲; 刘凡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of improved stoves on reducing indoor air pollution in poor rural areas.Methods One thousand households were selected and divided into intervention group and control group in poor rural areas in Guizhou province, the stove/ventilation improvement was conducted for 500 households of intervention group. One hundred households were selected from each group of 500 households as measurement subjects, and emission concentration of stoves combustion pollutant (PM4, SO2, CO), stove fuel consumption, thermal efficiency of the stove, concentration of indoor air pollutant (SO2, CO), personal exposure to indoor air pollutant SO2 were monitored in field to evaluate the effects of the improved stoves on reducing indoor air pollutant. Results Compared with the control group, the concentrations of SO2 and CO in the intervention group of improved stoves decreased by 61.1% and 37.8% respectively. The emission concentrations of PM4, SO2, CO of improved stoves decreased by 57%-90%, the fuel consumption reduced by 36%-43% and the thermal efficieney increased by over 20%compared with the traditional stoves. Conclusion Stoves improvement is one of effective intervention measure to reduce indoor air pollution in poor rural areas in China.%目的 通过现场实测,探讨我国农村贫困地区采用改良炉灶措施在降低室内空气污染方面所达到的效果.方法 于2006至2007年在贵州省贫困农村地区选择500户家庭作为干预组,将老式北京炉改造为回风炉或将旧煤灶改造为带有烟囱的新型燃煤台灶;在相同地区另外选择500户作为对照组,保持家庭原有燃煤方式.分别从干预组和对照组抽出100户家庭,以炉灶燃烧污染物(PM4、SO2、CO)排放浓度、炉灶燃料消耗量、燃烧热效率、室内空气污染物(SO2、CO)浓度和SO2个体暴露浓度等指标评价改良炉灶的效果.结果 与对照组家庭比较,炉灶改良的干

  5. Measures for noise pollution abatement in existing cooling tower systems; Massnahmen zur Geraeuschminderung an bestehenden Kuehlturmanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, R. [Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Lindau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The operator`s order discussed by the paper was for planning and performance of backfitting measures for noise pollution abatement in an existing cooling tower system equipped with sound attenuation devices. Although the existing plant was operating in compliance with the legal noise emission limits, residents of neighbouring dwellings had been complaining about noise pollution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe, eine nachtraegliche Massnahme zur Laermminderung an einer bestehenden, mit Schalldaempfern ausgeruesteten Anlage zu planen und durchzufuehren, wurde vom Betreiber einer Rueckkuehlanlage gestellt. Der vom Gesetzgeber definierte Grenzwert fuer den Nachtbetrieb wurde mit der bestehenden Anlage zwar erreicht, doch die Anwohner fuehlten eine Belaestigung durch den Anlagenbetrieb. (orig./GL)

  6. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  7. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr).

  8. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  9. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  10. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  11. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  13. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  14. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; CHEUNG Siu Gin; SHIN Paul K.S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution,a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam,which is a non-polluted,shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island.The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution,and one site in the outside-harbor area,which was relatively clean.In addition,sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control.Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites,placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam.Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-,3-,and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics.The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods,while it took three and eight weeks,respectively,for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control.These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  15. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  16. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  17. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  18. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  19. Air Pollution Policy in Europe: Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Bollen; Corjan Brink

    2012-01-01

    This paper (CPB/PBL) uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU’s air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove...

  20. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... http://www.epa.gov/greenheart/ . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  1. Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

  2. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  4. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China.

  5. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  6. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  7. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  8. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  9. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  10. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, A

    1996-02-01

    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  11. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  12. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  13. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  14. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  15. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  16. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  17. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  18. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  19. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that i

  20. Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163365.html Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk? Fine particles from power plants ... 1, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may cause more than just lung disease: New ...

  1. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  2. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  3. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  4. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: restructuring the policy and research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin

    2006-06-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community over the past 15-20 years, the research that has since been undertaken has failed to identify appropriate mitigation measures, and has done little to advance understanding of why contamination persists. Moreover, the strategies used to educate operators about the impacts of acute mercury exposure, and the technologies implemented to prevent further pollution, have been marginally effective at best. The mercury pollution problem will not be resolved until governments and donor agencies commit to carrying out research aimed at improving understanding of the dynamics of small scale gold mining communities. Acquisition of this knowledge is the key to designing and implementing appropriate support and abatement measures.

  5. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  6. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  7. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  8. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  9. Basic characteristics of the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammich, S.

    1987-02-02

    The paper abstracted informs about the basic principles characterizing the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic. The author deals with the constitutional principles, the National Culture Law valid since 1970 and conceived as a general pollution law, the planning of pollution abatement, legal aspects of water pollution abatement, air pollution abatement, waste management, noise pollution abatement and radiation protection. Particular emphasis is on the legal sanctions devised to ensure the observance of environmental laws and restrictions which are both part of the administrative, civil and economic laws and of the disciplinary and criminal laws. (HSCH).

  10. Environmental policy. Resolution of the German Federal Government concerning the Air Pollution Abatement Programme of the Federal Republic of Germany based on the fourth report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2} Reduction`); Umweltpolitik. Beschluss der Bundesregierung zum Klimaschutzprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf der Basis des Vierten Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` (IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Air pollution abatement is a key issue in German environmental policy. This was stressed again in the 4th report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`), in which the Federal Government confirmed its goal of a 25% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 as referred to 1990. This report contains the government decision, the formulatio of the task assigned to the IMA, and the 4th report of the IMA. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Klimavorsorge ist ein Schwerpunkt der deutschen Umweltpolitik. Dies hat das Bundeskabinett mit der Verabschiedung des 4. Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` nachdruecklich unterstrichen. Mit diesem Beschluss bekraeftigt die Bundesregierung erneut ihr Ziel, die CO{sub 2} Emissionen bis 2005 um 25 % gegenueber 1990 zu senken. Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt den Beschluss, der Bundesregierung, den Auftrag der Bundesregierung an die Interministerielle Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) und den 4. Bericht der IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``. (orig./SR)

  11. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  13. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  14. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  15. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  16. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  17. Cashing in on VAM : capturing value by generating carbon offset credits from ventilation air methane abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhan, S.; Buchanan, M. [Verdeo Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The recent developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) policies and carbon offset markets have created an opportunity for coal mines to extract value from their ventilation air methane (VAM) emissions. The methane that is discharged from ventilation systems accounts for nearly half of all methane emissions from active coal mines in the United States. Some mining companies have already begun capitalizing on this revenue opportunity, and are in the process of designing and implementing VAM oxidation for emission abatement purposes. Using existing regenerative thermal oxidizer technology, coal mines with sufficiently high methane concentrations in their discharged ventilation air can develop projects with internal rates of return greater than 25 per cent, merely by monetizing the emission reduction to generate a tradable carbon offset credit. Although the federal carbon offset program in the United States depends on the passage of federal climate change legislation, many States have already begun developing their own cap-and-trade programs. Several voluntary programs have also developed frameworks to certify carbon offset projects and register credits. The Climate Action Reserve program has approved VAM oxidation as an eligible project type. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  19. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  20. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J Braz

    2009-06-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter particles (aerodynamic diameter biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles.

  1. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  2. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  3. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  4. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  5. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  6. Benefits of European Climate Policies for Mercury Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rafaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model, which prepared projections of mercury releases to the atmosphere through 2050, based on the current air pollution control policies in each country. Data on mercury emissions from individual sectors were subsequently disaggregated to a fine spatial resolution using various proxy parameters. Finally, the dispersion of mercury in the atmosphere was computed by the chemistry transport model, implemented to the air quality system, Polyphemus. The simulations provided information on changes in concentrations and depositions of various forms of mercury over Europe. Scenarios that simulate a substantial expansion of renewable energies within the power sector indicate extensive co-benefits for mercury abatement, due to the restructuring of the energy system and changes in the fuel mix. The potential for mercury reductions in Europe depends on the rate of fuel switches and renewable technology deployment, but is also influenced by the stringency and timing of the air quality measures. The overall scope for co-benefits is therefore higher in regions relying on coal combustion as a major energy source.

  7. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  8. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  9. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  11. Curbing air pollution in Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.

    China is a country with fairly rich energy resources. Coal is the dominant fuel in the cities and causes serious environmental pollution. In 1983, Tianjin used about 8,550,000 tons of coal. The total suspended particulate matter during the heating season was 0.72 mg/m/sup 3/ in Tianjin urban area, over four times the maximum allowable concentration of 0.15 mg/m/sup 2/. One of the causes is the 1,060,000 small stoves burning coal for heating. Tianjin has decided to use coal gas and geothermal as a substitute for burning raw coal. Retrofitting of the First Power Plant has began converting it to a co-generation plant and geothermal district heating. Geothermal exploration work has been carried out for fourteen years from 1970 in Tianjin. At present geothermal energy has been used in industrial processing and space heating and has proven economical. The predicted increase in geothermal energy from 1985 to 2000 will be only 3% of total energy requirements. Although the percentage is low, this capacity can replace a considerable amount of coal. It is expected that 15% of the residents can use geothermal for heating in the nineties and effectively reduce the air pollution. 7 references.

  12. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  13. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  14. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  15. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  16. AIR POLLUTION INVESTIGATION AND PROVIDING SYSTEM OF CONTROL IN KHORASAN STEEL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental pollutant in steel industry is air pollution due to the process of its products. Optimise sitting for this industry, in a great extend will prevent pollutants and emissions. Khorasan Steel Company is located near some populous villages and three rivers. It is necessary to perform an investigation for providing abatement and control of air pollution, in time of planning and manufacturing of control instruments. The manufacturing company has determined air pollution reduction instruments in this site, according to the emission suspended particulate and its climatic conditions. The air pollution reducer's instruments were used back-fither. But, this offer was not agreed by the Department of the Environment of Iran. Perhaps, this disagreement was announced just for another original problem, which was the site selection of plants. This research was on the filtration which has been offered by the manufacturing company, if this selection can improve the future regional air pollution. These figures, of course, were obtained from the present data and plume rise particulate, considering Gausian distribution mode for all the rural population and rivers rounding to the site, up to 5 km. The results showed that the produced particulates were less than permissible limit and the proposed methods will improve the complex air pollution difficulties So, the proposed methods were provided for increasing the control and operating the system for conducting of cyclone before input of particulate to the back-filter.

  17. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  18. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  19. RAINS: Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Only one computer model has ever been at the center of major international environmental negotiations. That model is RAINS. Twice it has been central to renegotiation of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the umbrella convention regarding air pollution across all Europe. It also underpins the European Union policy and directives on air pollution. Countries in Southeast Asia are turning to the model for help with their growing air pollution problems. RAINS will be used to determine emission ceilings for emissions of four key pollutants in EU countries - sulphur, ammonia, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The same four pollutants are also the subject of a parallel negotiation in Geneva under the convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The article and illustrations outline the model`s development and its structure in 1998, the historic role it has played in negotiations and some examples of its output. They highlight the central role of IIASA`s Transboundary Air Pollution project where a team of 12 works on the RAINS model and related issues. IIASA`s next goal is to develop a model of particulates pollution and incorporate it into RAINS. The information needed (such as particle sizes and chemical properties) and at what geographical scale must be identified to create an inventory of emissions suitable for RAINS modelling. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Gregory John

    Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes

  1. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  2. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  3. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  4. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban air......The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... pollution climates, particulate pollution in general together with gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are those where further field measurements, characterization and laboratory studies are urgently needed in order to fully assess the health impact on the urban...

  5. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m(3) for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2.

  6. Outdoor Air Pollution and Pterygium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Woong; Choi, Yoon Hyeong; Hwang, Sung Ha; Paik, Hae Jung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM10 after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.

  7. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  8. Statistical distributions of air pollution concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    Methodologies and limitations in describing air quality through statistical distributions of pollutant are discussed, and the use of extreme statistics in the evaluation of different forms of air quality standards are explained. In addition, the interpretation of rollback calculations with regard to air quality standards is discussed. (JMT)

  9. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  10. Impact of air pollution on health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzyzanowski, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of health risks due to air pollution should be an important indicator for setting the priorities for the environmental policies and for the abatement of the pollution. The scale of such assessment depends on the level, and scope, of the policy decisions relying on the evaluation. The analysis may range from an estimate of the health impact of a single pollution source, through the risk assessment in a community or a region of a country, to an international, or pan-continental approach. Such assessment, addressing population of all Europe, was one of the aims of the project `Concern for Europe`s Tomorrow` (CET). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health completed this project, and the corresponding report, as a contribution to the Second European Conference on Environment and Health which gathered ministries of health and of environment from all European countries in Helsinki in June 1994. Using the report as the background information, the ministries have endorsed the `Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe`, the document formulating common environmental health policy of the Region. In this article, the summary of the evaluation will be presented and the main constraints of the pan-European approach will be addressed. (author)

  11. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  12. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  13. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  14. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  15. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  16. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  17. Factors Behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Decomposition of the Changes in Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete [Research Department, Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway); Medin, Hege [Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve theory suggests that economic growth in the long run may reduce environmental problems. In this article, we use a decomposition analysis to isolate eight different factors, in order to investigate the origins of changes in emissions to air over the period from 1980 to 1996. Among these factors are economic growth, changes in the relative size of production sectors and changes in the use of energy. Given constant emissions per produced unit, economic growth alone would have contributed to a significant increase in the emissions. This potential degradation of the environment has been counteracted by first of all more efficient use of energy and abatement technologies. In addition, the substitution of cleaner for polluting energy types and other technological progressions and political actions have reduced the growth in emissions. Consequently, the growth in all emissions has been significantly lower than economic growth, and negative for some pollutants. The results indicate that policymakers may reduce emissions considerably through creating incentives for lower energy use and substitutions of environmental friendly for environmental damaging energy types, in addition to support environmental friendly research or to conduct direct emission reducing actions, such as abatement requirements or banning of environmental damaging products. This is particularly relevant to countries and sectors with relatively high energy intensities and low pollution abatement.

  18. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  19. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  20. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  1. Air Pollution Simulation based on different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin

    2017-01-01

    Simulation distribution of pollutants (SOx and NOx) emitted from Cirebon power plant activities have been carried out. Gaussian models and scenarios are used to predict the concentration of pollutant gasses. The purposes of this study were to determine the distribution of the flue gas from the power plant activity and differences pollutant gas concentrations in the wet and dry seasons. The result showed that the concentration of pollutant gasses in the dry season was higher than the wet season. The difference of pollutant concentration because of wind speed, gas flow rate, and temperature of the gas that flows out of the chimney. The maximum concentration of pollutant gasses in wet season for SOx is 30.14 µg/m3, while NOx is 26.35 µg/m3. Then, The simulation of air pollution in the dry season for SOx is 42.38 µg/m3, while NOx is 34.78 µg/m3.

  2. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  3. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    recognize the imminent health risks that indoor air pollution causes. One reason for this disparity is the lack of education or public awareness on indoor air pollution as an environmental and public health problem. However, it was found that there was great public interest in the issue once the residents were made aware of the health problems resulting from indoor air pollution. Among the respondents, 60% of library workers, 70% of office workers, 80% of teachers, 80% of bus terminal workers, and 90% of underground workers were worried about the effects of indoor air pollution. The study and the survey results conclude that the government should prepare national strategies to manage indoor air quality. It is recommended that such strategies aim to strengthen existing outdoor air pollution abatement programs, create a national indoor air pollution managing system, prepare policy measures aiming at the reduction of health risks, simultaneously implement regulations and recommendations for improving indoor air quality, and initiate action from the associated industries. The study strongly recommends the establishment of a government indoor air quality committee involving all government agencies related with indoor air pollution control. The committee should facilitate communication and action between the various agencies in order to effectively manage indoor air pollution. Specifically, the government indoor air quality committee will need to prepare policies for managing indoor air quality, to prepare regulation standards and recommendation guidelines, to cooperate each other and ultimately to reduce public health risks. Each governmental agency should also independently sustain their responsibility to control indoor air quality. According to the recommendations of this study, the Korean government would need to establish the necessary policies for controlling indoor air quality, and the government would need to recognize the importance of the health problems caused by

  4. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  5. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im

  6. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  7. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  8. Combustion-generated indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, C.D.; Budnitz, R.J.; Traynor, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    It is obvious from this study that elevated levels of gaseous air pollutants (CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/) and particulate sulfur and nitrogen compounds are present in indoor environments with gas cooking and heating appliances. High levels of CO and NO/sub 2/ approach or exceed promulgated and proposed ambient air quality standards. Such findings certainly indicate a potential impact of combustion-generated indoor air pollution on human health; and if borne out by further work, they may ultimately have a large impact on the future design of epidemiological studies, on energy conservation strategies for buildings, and on the need for more stringent control of air pollution from indoor combustion sources.

  9. Effect of substrate depth and rain-event history on the pollutant abatement of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Martin; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Saad, Mohamed; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different thickness of green roof substrate with respect to nutrient and heavy metal retention and release. To understand and evaluate the long term behaviour of green roofs, substrate columns with the same structure and composition as the green roofs, were exposed in laboratory to artificial rain. The roofs act as a sink for C, N, P, zinc and copper for small rain events if the previous period was principally dry. Otherwise the roofs may behave as a source of pollutants, principally for carbon and phosphorus. Both field and column studies showed an important retention for Zn and Cu. The column showed, however, lower SS, DOC and metal concentrations in the percolate than could be observed in the field even if corrected for run-off. This is most probably due to the difference in exposition history and weathering processes.

  10. Air pollution in the last 50 years - From local to global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Air pollution in the industrialised world has in the last 50 years undergone drastic changes. Until after World War II the most important urban compound was sulphur dioxide combined with soot from the use of fossil fuels in heat and power production. When that problem was partly solved by cleaner fuels, higher stacks and flue gas cleaning in urban areas, the growing traffic gave rise to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in some areas photochemical air pollution, which may be abated by catalytic converters. Lately the interest has centred on small particles and more exotic organic compounds that can be detected with new sophisticated analytical techniques. Simultaneously with the development in compounds, the time and geographical scale of interest have increased. First to transboundary air pollution, which in decades and on continents can degrade ecosystems, later to the depletion of the ozone layer and especially to the increasing greenhouse effect with climate change that will change the conditions for nature and mankind on the entire globe. The possibilities to study these large scale phenomena have been greatly enhanced by the development of electronic computers that can handle large data sets and calculate various scenarios. All these processes take place in the thin layer of gases around the Earth, the atmosphere. Although the abatement is often restricted to a single aspect, they are often connected and should when possible be treated as whole.

  11. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  12. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  13. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  14. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  15. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  16. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  17. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  18. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  19. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  20. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  1. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  2. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  3. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  4. Health costs caused by oil extraction air emissions and the benefits from abatement: the case of Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netalieva, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology and results of a cost–benefit analysis of air quality control during oil production in the Caspian Region in Kazakhstan are presented. The benefits are defined as the decrease in health costs from reduced air pollution. The health costs are the income losses which depend on the attri

  5. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  6. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  7. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is...

  8. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  9. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  10. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  11. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  13. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehlow, J

    2015-03-01

    All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  14. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  15. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  17. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  18. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  19. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  20. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  1. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  2. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  3. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations.

  4. Air Pollution Assessment Combusting Fermented Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Čepanko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the problem of air pollution burning organic waste from agricultural and drinks production sectors. Chicken and pig manure and biogas dregs after extraction, i.e. after the process of fermentation in laboratory bioreactors were selected as an object of research. The article presents the method of fermented waste incineration and the experimental results of waste incineration. Periodic surveys of kiln load disclosed that under combustion, pollutant concentrations change over time depending on the stage of combustion.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and v...

  6. Energy and Air Pollution: World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    OECD, IEA, IIASA

    2016-01-01

    WEO 2016 SR: Contribution to the IEA’s 2016 World Energy Outlook Special Report on Energy and Air Pollution (IIASA Contract No. 16-106) - Around 6.5 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to air pollution - Energy production and use are by far the largest man-made sources of air pollutants - Technologies to tackle air pollution are well known Clean air is vital for good health. Yet despite growing recognition of this imperative, the problem of air pollution is f...

  7. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., implementable provisions for taking emission control actions necessary to prevent ambient pollutant... Control District. (5) Bay Area Air Quality Management District. (6) Ventura County Air Pollution Control... under Rule 122; there is no time schedule for the Air Pollution Control Officer to initiate the call...

  8. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  9. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-07-11

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m³), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years' gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m³, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  10. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  11. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  12. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  13. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  14. Adsorption-electro-desorption treatment of air polluted by VOCs; Traitement de l'air charge en COV par adsorption-electrodesorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrenat, A.; Le Cloirec, P. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes 44 (France)

    2004-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pollutants involved in the greenhouse effect. Their abatement is today seriously controlled when they are produced by industrial classified facilities. This paper presents a air treatment system based on the adsorption by activated carbon tissues. The filters are regenerated by electrical heating. The physico-chemical and electrical properties of activated carbon tissues are presented first with their adsorption properties with respect to VOCs. Then the design of a specific adsorber is described: adsorption filters, pressure drops and air flow, implementation and efficiency. Finally, the efficiency results obtained on a real-scale industrial plant are presented. (J.S.)

  15. Perspectives in chronobiology of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupfel, M. (French National Inst. of Health, Paris); Halberg, F.; Mordelet-Dambrine, M.; Magnier, M.

    In a series of experiments, male and female Sprague Dawley rats, kept in light (L) from 06/sup 00/ to 18/sup 00/ alternating with darkness (LD 12:12) inhaled different concentrations of carbon monoxide (50-1700 ppM) at each of two test times, 12h apart. A decrease in flow of CO/sub 2/ (Vco/sub 2/) resulting from CO inhalation was greater in the active dark (D) than resting light (L) span. Experimental hypoxic mortality of male and female mice also shows circadian variations, being greater in the D than in the L span. Moreover, a difference of mortality was observed between hypoxic exposures performed at 12/sup 00/ (in LD or DL) and hypoxic exposures performed at 00/sup 00/ (in LD or DL). Such results await tests of any extent to which they model responses of human beings to air pollution. In human beings any external environmental circadian, circaseptan and circannual variations in air pollution as such may serve to a variable extent as socioeconomic synchronizers of innate rhythms with a corresponding frequency, rather than as solely generators of time patterns in any physiopathologic response to air pollution. 17 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  17. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  19. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  20. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  1. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  2. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application for Treatment of Polluted Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of heterogeneous photocatalysts for the abatement of environmental problems has received increased attention during the last three decades. The photocatalyst used in most of these studies was titanium dioxide. This fact relates to the unique physical and chemical properties of titanium dioxide and similar semiconductor materials, such as ZnO, MgO,WO3, Fe2Oa, CdS, etc. that may be utilized for a wide range of potential applications. Specifically, upon ultraviolet irradiation these materials exhibit photocatalytic activity that enables the oxidative destruction of a wide range of organic compounds and biological species on their surface. In addition, these materials may also exhibit photocatalytically induced superhydrophilicity that converts the hydrophobic character of the surface to hydrophilic when exposed to UV light. This causes the formation of uniform water films on the surface of these materials, which prevents the adhesion of inorganic or organic components and thus retains a clean surface on the photocatalyst. Photocatalytic materials may be deployed on surfaces of various substrates, such as glass, ceramics or metals to provide layers that exhibit photocatalytic activity when they are exposed to light. Excitation of a photocatalyst leads to the creation of electrons and holes in the semiconductor material. Furthermore, these electrons and holes interact with molecules adsorbed on the semiconductor and can induce charge transfer process that results in the degradation of the adsorbate. The commercial potentials of heterogeneous photocatalysis are huge, including medical applications, application in the field of architecture (particularly for the cultural heritage purposes, facade paints, etc., automotive and food industries (cleaner technologies, non-fogging glass and mirrors, product safety, textile and glass industry, as well as in environmental protection (water and air purification and disinfection. After the discovery that

  3. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned.

  4. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  5. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  6. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air... for the California SIP, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Rule 502 (New Source...

  7. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  8. Evaluating Hong Kong's air pollution legislation and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ping-hei, Benny; 黃丙熙

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental problem that poses numerous health risks to those exposed to it. The adverse health effects are compounded in a place as dense as Hong Kong and further intensified due to its proximity to industrial and manufacturing plants across the border in Mainland China. Hong Kong has attempted to address the issue of air pollution through the enactment of legislation and policies such as the 1983 Air Pollution Control Ordinance and Air Quality Objectives, but so f...

  9. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines of vehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others. Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impacts of the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoring along different roads in the area of...

  10. Exposure to urban air pollution risk: yesterday, today, tomorrow; L'exposition au risque lie a la pollution urbaine de l'air: hier, aujourd'hui, demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaut, G. [Mairie de Paris, Service de l' Ecologie Urbaine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the air law, the first harmful effect of atmospheric pollution is the impact on human health. Urban areas are characterized by cumulated concentrations of activities (industries, space heating systems, transportation systems), of pollutant emissions (chimneys, exhaust systems), of concentrations in the air and of populations exposed to pollution effects. All these elements make that urban populations have to face an increasing sanitary risk, in particular the most sensible people. This paper aims to present how this risk has been taken into consideration with time by the authorities and the public himself. The feeling (bad smells) was considered in the first approaches while the progresses made in analytical chemistry have permitted to quantify trace amounts of toxic compounds and to estimate the risk. The toxicity of pollutants is better known, in particular when high concentrations are observed (industrial environment). The development of air quality monitoring has permitted to carry on epidemiologic studies defining the sanitary effects of different pollutant mixtures. These effects are today demonstrated and some of the epidemiological results recently obtained are recalled. Tomorrow, progresses will have to be made to answer the essential questions: who breathes what, where and how long. Future studies will have to precise the space-time budget of the citizen when exposed to urban pollution. The indoor pollution, in particular in the residential sector, is an essential point of progress, but tomorrows challenge will be to convince citizens that they have a role to play in pollution abatement (eco-citizenship). (J.S.)

  11. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District ACTION: Final rule... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  12. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  13. Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

    Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

  14. Emission taxes and the market for abatement goods and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Maia [INRA-AgroParisTech UMR Economie Publique, F-78000 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Nimubona, Alain-Desire [Department of Economics, University of Waterloo (Canada); Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard [HEC Montreal, CIRANO and CIRAIG (Canada); Ecole Polytechnique (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper examines the effect of emission taxes on pollution abatement and social welfare, when abatement goods and services are provided by a Cournot oligopoly with free-entry. We point out initially that a higher tax not only increases demand for abatement; it also makes polluters less sensitive to price. This attracts a larger number of abatement suppliers while possibly inducing each one of them to produce less. Total abatement always goes up, however, when the delivery of abatement goods and services exhibits decreasing returns to scale. We then calculate the welfare-maximizing emission tax and compare it to the Pigouvian tax. (author)

  15. Abatement and degradation pathways of toluene in indoor air by positive corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, J; Dewulf, J; Sysmans, W; Leys, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2007-08-01

    Indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds often exceed outdoor levels by a factor of 5. There is much interest in developing new technologies in order to improve indoor air quality. In this work non-thermal plasma (DC positive corona discharge) is explored as an innovative technology for indoor air purification. An inlet gas stream of 10 l min(-1) containing 0.50+/-0.02 ppm toluene was treated by the plasma reactor in atmospheric conditions. Toluene removal proved to be achievable with a characteristic energy density epsilon(0) of 50 J l(-1). Removal efficiencies were higher for 26% relative humidity (epsilon(0)=35 J l(-1)), compared with those at increased humidities (50% relative humidity, epsilon(0)=49 J l(-1)). Reaction products such as formic acid, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-propyl furan, 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol are identified by means of mass spectrometry. Based on these by-products a toluene degradation mechanism is proposed.

  16. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  17. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  18. Athletic performance and urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, R.J.

    1984-07-15

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, ''reducing smog'' of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

  19. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  20. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  1. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s dise...

  2. Air pollution and the birth weight - are they correlated?

    OpenAIRE

    Zisovska, Elizabeta; Lazarevska, Liljana; Arsenova, Jagoda

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution has harmful effects to fetuses. Pregnant women have to be protected from a dirty air environment and smoking. The birthweight is a determinant of neonatal well being, and recently published studies potentiated air pollution as a potential factor for low birthweight, and that was investigated in our study. The results showed more Small-for-gestational age babies in the central city district (highly polluted) compared to the eastern rural area, and because we exclu...

  3. Gene-air pollution interaction and cardiovascular disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Baccarelli, Andrea; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Hence, gene-environment interactions studies can be a tool for exploring the mechanisms and the importance of the pathway in the association between air pollution and a cardiovascular outcome. In this article we present a systematic review of the studies which have examined gene–environment interactions in relation to the cardiovascular health effects of air pollutants. We identified 16 papers meeting our search cri...

  4. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  6. Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Pérez Ballesta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

  7. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality.

  8. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  9. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley...

  10. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act... air pollution emergency episodes and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority...

  11. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafogguiia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated...... the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure.......91-1.63) per 10 μg/m. CONCLUSION: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which...

  12. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates.

  13. The DMU-ATMI THOR Air Pollution Forecast System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Den-mark. The integrated system consists of a series of different air pollu-tion models, which cover a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities......) and applications. The goal of the system is, on continuous basis, to produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most important air pollution species on different scales. Furthermore, the system will be an integrated part of the national urban and rural monitoring programmes and will be used for emission...... reduction scenarios supporting decision-makers. Currently, the THOR system consists of a numerical weather forecast model, ETA, a long-range air pollution chemistry-transport model, DEOM, an urban background model, BUM, and an operational street pollution model, OSPM. The ETA model is initialized...

  14. Monitoring of air pollution; Surveillance de la pollution de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-12-01

    In the Paris area, the annual average contents continue to decrease for the sulfur dioxide, the particulates, the carbon monoxide and the lead that respect the national and european air quality criteria. The annual average in benzene continues to decrease but the quality objective is always exceeded for five years. No particular trend appears for the nitrogen dioxide, even if 1998 was less polluted than the previous years. The quality objectives are always exceeded for this pollutant on every traffic stations and on 40% of urban stations. A light trend to decrease for nitrogen oxides and a trend to increase for ozone in the city of Paris. (N.C.)

  15. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  16. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  17. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  18. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  19. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J., E-mail: juergen.vehlow@partner.kit.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  20. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  1. Mathematical studies of photochemical air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In Part I, a new, comprehensive model for a chemically reacting plume, is presented, that accounts for the effects of incomplete turbulent macro-and micro-mixing on chemical reactions between plume and ambient constituents. This Turbulent Reaction Plume Model (TRPM) is modular in nature, allowing for the use of different levels of approximation of the phenomena involved. The core of the model consists of the evolution equations for reaction progress variables appropriate for evolving, spatially varying systems (local phenomenal extent of reaction). Part IA (Chapters 1 to 3) contains a detailed description of the TRPM structure and comparison of calculations with measurements, as well as a literature survey of reactive plume models. Part IB (Chapters 4 to 7) contains studies on the turbulent dispersion and reaction phenomena and plume dynamics, thus exposing in detail the underlying concepts and methods relevant to turbulent reactive plume modeling. New formulations for describing in-plume phenomena, such as the Localized Production of Fluctuations Model for the calculation of the plume concentration variance are included here. Part II (Chapter 8) presents a collection of distribution-based statistical methods that are appropriate for characterizing extreme events in air pollution studies. Applications to the evaluation of air quality standards, formulation of rollback calculations, and to the use of plume models are included here.

  2. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  3. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  4. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Sbihi, Hind; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorized traffic is an important source of both air pollution and community noise. While there is growing evidence for an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on reproductive health, little is known about the association between traffic noise and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We evalu

  5. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodruff, T.J.; Parker, J.D.; Adams, K.; Bell, M.L.; Gehring, U.; Glinianaia, S.; Ha, E.; Jalaludin, B.; Slama, R.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between a

  6. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  7. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, L.; Burnett, R.T.; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Jerrett, M.; Pope, C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2012-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. Th

  8. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  9. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  10. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  11. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the…

  12. Running Large-Scale Air Pollution Models on Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  13. Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  14. Long-Term Calculations with Large Air Pollution Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  15. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  16. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  17. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  18. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  19. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  20. Invited commentary: Assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution.

  1. Automotive air pollution : issues and options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Asif; Sinha, Kumares; Walsh, Michael; Varma, Amiy

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to transboundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been re...

  2. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  3. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    of needle felts can be produced. All filter media , both woven and nonwoven , should have the right finish. Cotton and wool fabrics should be preshrunk...filtration, selection of the filtering media may present a special problem. In adsorption, certain situations require that the adsorbed contaminant...Discussion of Filtration and Fabric Types Two basic types of filtration occur in commercial fabric filters : (1) " media " or fiber filtration and (2) layer or

  4. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  5. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    1 General Cyclone Categories 2-11 2-2 Conventional Centrifugal Cyclone 2-14 2-3 Multiple Cyclone 2-15 2-4 Mechanical Centrifugal Collector 2-17 2-5...and how the collected particles leave the unit. The four cyclone categories are: 1. tangential inlet and axial dust discharge a. Conventional (large

  6. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  7. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  8. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  9. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air...

  10. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  11. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  12. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana J.; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  13. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  14. Air Pollution and Serum Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Maayan Yitshak; Kloog, Itai; Liberty, Idit F.; Katra, Itzhak; Novack, Lena; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies demonstrated an adverse effect of chronic exposure to air pollution (AP) on metabolic syndrome and its components. In a population-based study, we investigated the association between exposure to ambient AP and serum glucose (SG), among subjects with normal glucose, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 1,063,887 SG tests performed in 131,882 subjects (years 2001–2012). Exposure data included daily levels of SO2, NO2 and other pollutants of industrial, traffic, and nonanthropogenic sources. Demographical, clinical, and medications purchase data were assessed. Log-transformed SG levels were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for seasonal variables and personal characteristics. SG increases (%increase [95% CI]), among subjects with normal glucose, IFG, and DM, respectively, were associated with 6.36 ppb increase of NO2 measured 24 to 72 hours before the test (0.40% [0.31%; 0.50%], 0.56% [0.40%; 0.71%], and 1.08% [0.86%; 1.29%]); and with 1.17 ppb increase of SO2 measured 24 hours before the test (0.29% [0.22%; 0.36%], 0.20% [0.10%; 0.31%], and 0.33% [0.14%; 0.52%]). Among DM population, weakest association was observed among patients treated with Metformin (0.56% increase in SG [0.18%; 0.95%]). In conclusion, NO2 and SO2 exposure is associated with small but significantly increased levels of SG. Although DM patients were found to be more susceptible to the AP induced SG variations, Metformin treatment seem to have a protective effect. Given the chronic lifetime exposure to AP and the broad coverage of the population, even small associations such as those found in our study can be associated with detrimental health effects and may have profound public health implications. PMID:26166095

  15. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  16. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  17. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  18. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  19. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  20. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  1. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  2. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  3. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  4. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate...

  5. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  6. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  7. 77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  8. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  9. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD). (1) The following specified portions...

  10. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  11. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  12. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  13. 78 FR 6740 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  14. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

  15. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  16. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal cos

  17. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  18. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  19. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  20. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  1. Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

    Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

  2. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  3. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  4. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control... U.S.C. 804(2). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  5. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  6. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  7. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... the relationships between ambient air pollution and biological markers of dose and early response. The evidence for each marker was evaluated using assessment criteria which rate a group of studies from A (strong) to C (weak) on amount of evidence, replication of findings, and protection from bias. Biomarkers...

  8. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni

    2016-01-01

    air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant......OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic-related...

  9. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory...

  10. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  11. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  12. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. [High Mesa Technologies LLC, Santa Fe, NM (United States)]|[High Mesa Technologies LLC, Irvine, CA (United States); Jones, M.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  13. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population.

  14. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  15. An integrated assessment of two decades of air pollution policy making in Spain: Impacts, costs and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Conlan, Beth; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Narros, Adolfo

    2015-09-15

    This paper analyses the effects of policy making for air pollution abatement in Spain between 2000 and 2020 under an integrated assessment approach with the AERIS model for number of pollutants (NOx/NO2, PM10/PM2.5, O3, SO2, NH3 and VOC). The analysis of the effects of air pollution focused on different aspects: compliance with the European limit values of Directive 2008/50/EC for NO2 and PM10 for the Spanish air quality management areas; the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen on ecosystems; the exceedance of critical levels of NO2 and SO2 in forest areas; the analysis of O3-induced crop damage for grapes, maize, potato, rice, tobacco, tomato, watermelon and wheat; health impacts caused by human exposure to O3 and PM2.5; and costs on society due to crop losses (O3), disability-related absence of work staff and damage to buildings and public property due to soot-related soiling (PM2.5). In general, air quality policy making has delivered improvements in air quality levels throughout Spain and has mitigated the severity of the impacts on ecosystems, health and vegetation in 2020 as target year. The findings of this work constitute an appropriate diagnosis for identifying improvement potentials for further mitigation for policy makers and stakeholders in Spain.

  16. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS) was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  17. Effects of air pollution on growth in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Maja; Stanković, Aleksandra; Jović, Sladjana; Kocić, Biljana; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2014-06-01

    The growth is considered a very sensitive indicator of the impact of environment of the health status of children. The aim of the study was to investigate whether air pollution is related to children's growth. The subjects were 1059 pupils, aged 7-11 years, living for more than ten years in the same home in the city of Nis (Serbia). Exposed group of children (N = 545) were attending the school located in a city area with a high level of air pollution, while the children (N = 514), in the comparison group, designed as non-exposed group, were attending the school in the area with a lower level of air pollution. The air concentrations of black smoke, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and lead in sediment matter were determined in ten-year period. Air pollution is associated with children's height and weight, specially before the age of 9 years. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of thinness in children exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants (p = 0.038). It might be possible that air pollution negatively contributed to the growth rate in urban children.

  18. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  19. 76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  20. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  1. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  2. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  3. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  4. Plans and Measures for Avoiding Casting-Air-Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian

    2003-01-01

    This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.

  5. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  6. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  7. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases...

  8. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  9. Forest Fires, Air Pollution and Mortality in Southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan Sastry

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author assesses the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution generated by a widespread series of fires that occurred mainly in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. The author describes how the forest fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to determine whether there were mortality effects and to assess how large and important these were. The author also investigates whether the mort...

  10. Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad H. Lee; Rahman, Nur H.A.; Suhartono; Mohd T. Latif; Maria E. Nor; Nur A.B. Kamisan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API) at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and ...

  11. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective r...

  12. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  13. Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2005-01-01

    The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

  14. The impacts of air pollution on maternal stress during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Luo, Zhongcheng; Kan, Haidong; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of air pollution with maternal stress during pregnancy, we enrolled 1,931 women during mid-to-late pregnancy in Shanghai in 2010. The “Life-Event Scale for Pregnant Women” and “Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale” (SCL-90-R) were used to evaluate life event stress and emotional stress, respectively. Air pollution data were collected for each district where pregnant women lived during pregnancy. We associated ambient air pollution with stress scores using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjusting for relevant covariates, an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in sulphur-dioxide (SO2) (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.52) and particulate-matter with an aerodynamic-diameter air pollutants than among women experiencing low levels (P1-P25) of pollutants. The stronger associations and higher levels of pollutants were observed in the cool season than in the warm season. SO2 increases on the recruitment day were also associated with an increased risk of high depression scores (P75-P100). Our findings supported a dose-dependent association between air pollution and emotional stress during pregnancy.

  15. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases.

  16. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  17. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to replic......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... and risk of brain tumors which was found in our previous study. The suggestion of an increased brain tumor risk at high exposures merits further attention as does the differing results according to tumor morphology....

  18. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  19. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Isakov; Saravanan Arunachalam; Stuart Batterman; Sarah Bereznicki; Janet Burke; Kathie Dionisio; Val Garcia; David Heist; Steve Perry; Michelle Snyder; Alan Vette

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutan...

  20. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  1. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  2. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  3. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  4. The impacts of air pollution on maternal stress during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Luo, Zhongcheng; Kan, Haidong; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of air pollution with maternal stress during pregnancy, we enrolled 1,931 women during mid-to-late pregnancy in Shanghai in 2010. The “Life-Event Scale for Pregnant Women” and “Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale” (SCL-90-R) were used to evaluate life event stress and emotional stress, respectively. Air pollution data were collected for each district where pregnant women lived during pregnancy. We associated ambient air pollution with stress scores using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjusting for relevant covariates, an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in sulphur-dioxide (SO2) (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.52) and particulate-matter with an aerodynamic-diameter pollutants than among women experiencing low levels (P1-P25) of pollutants. The stronger associations and higher levels of pollutants were observed in the cool season than in the warm season. SO2 increases on the recruitment day were also associated with an increased risk of high depression scores (P75-P100). Our findings supported a dose-dependent association between air pollution and emotional stress during pregnancy. PMID:28098225

  5. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  6. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  7. A mathematical formulation for optimal control of air pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 曾庆存

    2003-01-01

    The problem of optimal control of air pollution using weather forecastresults and numerical air pollution models is discussed. A mathematical formulation of the problem is presented. The control is an act on pollution sources with feasible constraints. Based on forecasted weather conditions, the objective ofthe optimal control is to minimize total cost caused by control under the constraint that the pollution concentrations over a certain period and a certain spatial domain are less than some specified values. Using the adjoint method, an effective algorithm is given. Since the optimal solutions are based on weather forecasts, the errors in weather forecasts will cause uncertainties in the optimal solutions. Estimation of impacts of weather forecast errors on the optimal solutions is discussed using the adjoint sensitivity analysis technique that is an approximated, however very effective method. The adjoint sensitivity analysis technique can be used to calculate the impacts of errors in wind, temperature and initial pollutant concentration fields on performances of the optimal control.

  8. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  9. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  10. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  11. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  12. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  13. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  14. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  15. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  16. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  17. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  18. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  19. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  20. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation.

  1. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  2. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 μm are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 μm) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its

  3. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  4. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD.

  5. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies.

  6. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  7. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  8. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  9. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  10. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  11. Eliminating air pollution from petrol engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujral, I.S.; Dave, R.K.; Shende, S.; Saxena, L.M.

    1976-03-01

    A review is given of various methods of controlling nitrogen oxides emissions from automobile spark ignition engines. Methods discussed include exhaust gas recirculation, catalytic conversion, afterburning, burning of non-stoichiometric mixtures, and water injection. It is concluded that the combined use of a catalytic converter and an afterburner is the most feasible option for meeting pollution standards. (PMA)

  12. 76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River..., Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone,...

  13. 10-Year Study Links Faster Progression of Atherosclerosis to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) was the first U.S. research study to measure directly how long-term exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of heart disease.

  14. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ...'') request for approval to implement and enforce Air Pollution Control Regulation Number 36, Control of Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution Control.... Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional Administrator, EPA New England. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  15. Cost-Effective Emission Abatement in Europe Considering Interrelations in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corjan Brink

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3, which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4. Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an impact (either beneficial or adverse on emissions of the others. These side effects are usually ignored in policy making. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce acidification and eutrophication as well as agricultural emissions of N2O and CH4 in Europe, taking into account interrelations between abatement of NH3, N2O, and CH4 in agriculture. The model used is based on the RAINS (Regional Air pollution INformation and Simulation model for air pollution in Europe, which includes emissions, abatement options, and atmospheric source-receptor relationships for pollutants contributing to acidification and eutrophication. We used an optimisation model that is largely based on the RAINS model but that also includes emissions of N2O and CH4 from agriculture and technical measures to reduce these emissions. For abatement options for agricultural emissions we estimated side effects on other emissions. The model determines abatement strategies to meet restrictions on emission and/or deposition levels at the least cost. Cost-effective strategies to reduce acidification and eutrophication in Europe were analysed. We found that NH3 abatement may cause an increase in N2O emissions. If total agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions in Europe were not allowed to increase, cost-effective allocation of emission reductions over countries in Europe changed considerably.

  16. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  17. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk; Vera Innokentievna Yankova; Tatyana Isaakovna Vitkina; Anna Vladimirovna Nazarenko; Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of formation of air quality and to determine the impact of the studied factors on asthma morbidity in Vladivostok. Methods: The evaluation of air pollution in Vladivostok was done using long-term (2008–2012) monitoring data (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.). The levels of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde (mg/m3) in six stationary observation posts were assessed. We studied the aerosol suspensions of solid particles, which were collected during snowfall from precipitation (snow) and air in 14 districts with different levels of anthropogenic impact. Melted snow was analyzed on laser granulometry. The impact of air pollution on the distribution of asthma morbidity was evaluated in various age groups by data of federal statistical observation obtained from 8 adults and 7 children municipal clinics in Vladivostok (2008–2012). Results: The content of suspended particulate components of pollution remained more stable, due to the features of atmospheric circulation, rugged terrain and residential development. The nano- and micro-sized particles (0–50 mm), which can absorb highly toxic metals, prevail in dust aerosols. These respirable fractions of particles, even in small doses, can contribute to the increase in asthma morbidity in the city. Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%). It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  18. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  19. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-11-01

    oxidant concentrations and the importance of the aerosol microphysical coupling within the range of expected future changes. For changes in oxidant concentrations caused by future air pollution mitigation, we do not find a significant effect for the global annual mean radiative aerosol forcing. In the extreme case of only abating SO2 or carbonaceous emissions to a maximum feasible extent, we find deviations from additivity for the radiative forcing over anthropogenic source regions up to 10% compared to an experiment abating both at the same time.

  20. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  1. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  2. Particulate air pollution and hospitalization for asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K.; Spinks, J.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Chinese University, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., (Hong Kong))

    1992-05-01

    Age-specific quarterly asthmatic hospital discharge rates in Hong Kong during 1983 to 1989 were examined in relation to mean levels of six pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total suspended particles (TSP), respiratory suspended particles (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Discharges from the hospital of children under 14 years of age represented 56% of 33,952 discharges recorded in all age groups. Trends of adult hospitalization rates over time remained stable during the study period. In children, however, there was an increase in these rates, particularly marked in the age group of 1 to 4 years. Univariate analysis revealed a strong correlation between quarterly mean TSP and hospital discharge rate for the 1 to 4-year-old children (r = .62, P less than .001). In the 5 to 14-year-old age group, there was an inverse relationship between hospital discharge rate and sulfur dioxide level (r = -.38, P less than .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounding variables (seasonal and annual trends of asthma hospitalizations) confirmed these relationships. A highly significant linear regression equation was derived between hospitalization rate for ages 1 to 4 years and total suspended particles (P less than .001). The highly significant correlation between pollution and asthmatic hospitalization rate for the 1 to 4-year-old group suggests that young children are vulnerable to the adverse environmental effects of pollution. Auditing these relationships offers a logical basis for approaching control.

  3. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  4. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  5. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirak Zenebe Gebreab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use regression (LUR modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS. Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines.

  6. Development of Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Prediction by Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyati Pradini Yudison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available People living near busy roads are potentially exposed to traffic-induced air pollutants. The pollutants may intrude into the indoor environment, causing health risks to the occupants. Prediction of pollutant exposure therefore is of great importance for impact assessment and policy making related to environmentally sustainable transport. This study involved the selection of spatial interpolation methods that can be used for prediction of indoor air quality based on outdoor pollutant mapping without indoor measurement data. The research was undertaken in the densely populated area of Karees, Bandung, Indonesia. The air pollutant NO2 was monitored in this area as a preliminary study. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured by passive diffusion tube. Outdoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 94 locations, consisting of 30 roadside and 64 outdoor locations. Residential indoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 64 locations. To obtain a spatially continuous air quality map, the spatial interpolation methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW and Kriging were applied. Selection of interpolation method was done based on the smallest root mean square error (RMSE and standard deviation (SD. The most appropriate interpolation method for outdoor NO2 concentration mapping was Kriging with an SD value of 5.45 µg/m3 and an RMSE value of 5.45 µg/m3, while for indoor NO2 concentration mapping the IDW was best fitted with an RMSE value of 5.92 µg/m3 and an SD value of 5.92 µg/m3.

  7. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  8. Assessment of socioeconomic costs to China's air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Guan, Dabo; Jiang, Xujia; Peng, Liqun; Schroeder, Heike; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Particulate air pollution has had a significant impact on human health in China and it is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and high mortality and morbidity. These health impacts could be translated to reduced labor availability and time. This paper utilized a supply-driven input-output (I-O) model to estimate the monetary value of total output losses resulting from reduced working time caused by diseases related to air pollution across 30 Chinese provinces in 2007. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was used as an indicator to assess impacts to health caused by air pollution. The developed I-O model is able to capture both direct economic costs and indirect cascading effects throughout inter-regional production supply chains and the indirect effects greatly outnumber the direct effects in most Chinese provinces. Our results show the total economic losses of 346.26 billion Yuan (approximately 1.1% of the national GDP) based on the number of affected Chinese employees (72 million out of a total labor population of 712 million) whose work time in years was reduced because of mortality, hospital admissions and outpatient visits due to diseases resulting from PM2.5 air pollution in 2007. The loss is almost the annual GDP of Vietnam in 2010. The proposed modelling approach provides an alternative method for health-cost measurement with additional insights on inter-industrial and inter-regional linkages along production supply chains.

  9. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  10. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  11. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan

    2002-02-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia.

  12. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective...

  13. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

  14. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...

  15. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  17. Microbial community changes during different empty bed residence times and operational fluctuations in an air diffusion reactor for odor abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel

    2017-03-08

    The succession of bacterial and fungal populations was assessed in an activated sludge (AS) diffusion bioreactor treating a synthetic malodorous emission containing H2S, toluene, butanone and alpha-pinene. Microbial community characteristics (bacterial and fungal diversity, richness, evenness and composition) and bioreactor function relationships were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs) and after process fluctuations and operational failures (robustness test). For H2S, butanone and toluene, the bioreactor showed a stable and efficient abatement performance regardless of the EBRT and fluctuations applied, while low alpha-pinene removals were observed. While no clear positive or negative relationship between community characteristics and bioreactor functions was observed, ecological parameters such as evenness and community dynamics seemed to be of importance for maintaining reactor stability. The optimal degree of evenness of the inoculum likely contributed to the high robustness of the system towards the fluctuations imposed. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fungi (Hypocreales, Chaeatothyriales) were the most abundant groups retrieved from the AS system with a putative key role in the degradation of butanone and toluene. Typical H2S and alpha-pinene degraders were not retrieved from the system. The inoculation of P. fluorescens, a known alpha-pinene degrader, to the system did not result in the enhancement of the degradation of this compound. This strain was likely outcompeted by the microorganisms already adapted to the AS environment.

  18. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  19. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  20. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  1. Is air pollution a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essouma, Mickael; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory debilitating disease triggered by a complex interaction involving genetic and environmental factors. Active smoking and occupational exposures such as silica increase its risk, suggesting that initial inflammation and generation of rheumatoid arthritis-related autoantibodies in the lungs may precede the clinical disease. This hypothesis paved the way to epidemiological studies investigating air pollution as a potential determinant of rheumatoid arthritis. Studies designed for epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis found a link between traffic, a surrogate of air pollution, and this disease. Furthermore, a small case-control study recently found an association between wood smoke exposure and anticyclic citrullinated protein/peptide antibody in sera of patients presenting wood-smoke-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, reports addressing impact of specific pollutants on rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity across populations are somewhat conflicting. In addition to the link reported between other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and particulate matters/gaseous pollutants, experimental observation of exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity in mice models of collagen-induced arthritis after diesel exhaust particles exposure as well as hypovitaminosis D-related autoimmunity can help understand the role of air pollution in rheumatoid arthritis. All these considerations highlight the necessity to extend high quality epidemiological researches investigating different sources of atmospheric pollution across populations and particularly in low-and-middle countries, in order to further explore the biological plausibility of air pollution's effect in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This should be attempted to better inform policies aiming to reduce the burden of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  4. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  5. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter dated and received August 17, 2009... Sadredin, Executive Director/Air Pollution Control Officer of San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control... emission control requirements of Rule 4684 are consistent with the California Air Resources Board's...

  6. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwid

  7. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control... and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3. Farms can change owners...

  8. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act). DATES... Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section...

  9. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  10. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  11. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  12. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  13. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China.

  14. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  15. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  16. Priority One: Environment. Air Pollution and Your Health, Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Patricia; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed to be used with secondary school students and the unit Air Pollution and Your Health. Material for the teacher includes the following: (1) an introduction to the unit; (2) a discussion of the sections of the unit; (3) instructional objectives; (4) suggestions for use of filmstrips, worksheets, reference materials,…

  17. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

  18. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  19. Susceptibility to air pollution in elderly males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Vonk, J M; van der Zee, S C; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Schouten, J P; Postma, D S

    2005-01-01

    It is important to know which individuals in the general population have increased susceptibility to air pollution. The aim of this study was to identify susceptible subgroups by studying airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and sex. Diary data on lower and upper respir

  20. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  1. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  2. Urgent problems of improving background air pollution monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlyand, M E; Volberg, N S; Lavrinenko, R F; Rusina, E N

    1988-01-01

    For more than 12 years, systematic observations of background air pollution have been carried out in accordance with the WMO Programme using the network of USSR stations located in sparsely populated settlements and in a number of neighbouring cities. The parameters involved include spectral radiation measurements, determination of chemical composition of precipitation and the concentrations of a number of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis of the data obtained allows conclusions to be drawn on the capabilities of the current system and to evaluate methods of improving it.In order to further improve the monitoring system, it is recommended that the system should perform the same observations on air pollution and precipitation as carried out by other international and national programs, and also to create centralized laboratories to deal with the analysis of samples from these monitoring stations. Additionally, solid sorbents are emerging as an effective means of sampling certain air pollutants. They may be sent by post, they increase the accuracy of measurements and allow air sampling intervals of up to 7-10 days, thus synchronizing this period with the interval of precipitation sampling.

  3. Impact of Air Pollution on California Central Valley Fog Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century, trends in California Central Valley fog frequency have changed dramatically without explanation. While episodes of dense radiation fog, known regionally as Tule Fog, increased steadily from 1930-1970, analysis from both ground and remote sensing measurements confirm a 46-50% reduction in fog days in the last 30 years (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014, Herkes et al., 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the recent decline in radiation fog can be explained by the rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in Central Valley fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better support this upward then downward temporal trend. Automobile use greatly increased emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) midcentury, followed by a large decrease in vehicle emissions due to statewide regulation from 1980 to present. In the Central Valley, NOx from automobile emissions contributes to the formation ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), the dominant hygroscopic aerosol in the valley's wintertime boundary layer that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) necessary for fog droplet formation. Thus, changes in air pollution not only affect the number of CCN, but may also impact the density and persistence of fog episodes. Using NOAA meteorological records throughout the twentieth century, we will show the correlation between fog frequency, air pollution, and climatic drivers. We conclude that fog trends are closely correlated with changes in air pollution, rather than solely climate change.

  4. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  5. Enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO(2) domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2010-04-01

    Data suggest that domes of high CO(2) levels form over cities. Despite our knowledge of these domes for over a decade, no study has contemplated their effects on air pollution or health. In fact, all air pollution regulations worldwide assume arbitrarily that such domes have no local health impact, and carbon policy proposals, such as "cap and trade", implicitly assume that CO(2) impacts are the same regardless of where emissions occur. Here, it is found through data-evaluated numerical modeling with telescoping domains from the globe to the U.S., California, and Los Angeles, that local CO(2) emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Although health impacts of such changes are uncertain, they are of concern, and it is estimated that that local CO(2) emissions may increase premature mortality by 50-100 and 300-1000/yr in California and the U.S., respectively. As such, reducing locally emitted CO(2) may reduce local air pollution mortality even if CO(2) in adjacent regions is not controlled. If correct, this result contradicts the basis for air pollution regulations worldwide, none of which considers controlling local CO(2) based on its local health impacts. It also suggests that a "cap and trade" policy should consider the location of CO(2) emissions, as the underlying assumption of the policy is incorrect.

  6. Air pollution exposure is associated with restrictive ventilatory patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Vonk, Judith M.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Plaat, Diana A.; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. In a recent paper, Adam et al. [2] showed significantly impaired levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) associated with exposure to the ambien

  7. The Effects of a Blizzard on Urban Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Armando; Bein, Frederick L.

    1981-01-01

    The chronology and effects of a 1978 blizzard on Indianapolis' air pollution levels (ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide) are used as a case study for geography classes. Photographs, graphs, and maps are provided as examples of meteorological data collection and interpretation. (AM)

  8. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  9. Elderly Exposure to Air Pollutants: Measuring, assessing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Silva, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on the estimation of the human exposure to air pollutants, and gives special attention to one of the most susceptible groups in the general population - elders. To fulfil the goal the work was conducted following the risk assessment paradigm and, consequently, was divided into 5

  10. Mortality, migration, income, and air pollution: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzo, S.R.; Novak, K.M.; Galdos, F.; Hakoopian, R.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1978-06-02

    The interrelationships among different demographic factors, specific causes of death, median family income, and estimated air pollution emissions were examined. Using the Medical Data Base (MEDABA) developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the entire population of the United States was cross-tabulated by income and emission levels of air pollutants. Path analysis was used to examine a number of patterns and relationships for each age, race, and sex group containing a minimum of 10,000 persons. Competitive and complementary effects were observed. These effects were frequently age dependent and occasionaly sex related. This specialized data base, the application of path analysis, and the development of a dynamic population and mortality model, in combination, proved to be a useful tool for investigating the effects of energy related pollutants on the exposed population.

  11. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    . More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  12. Insect abatement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  13. [Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control.

  14. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ≥4% of the annual number for ≥2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were 0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

  15. Air pollution biomonitoring survey in Morocco using k0-INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui, R. M.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chakir, E.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is an essential step in any economical and social development policy. The atmospheric pollution study is a principal task due to the importance of atmospheric transfer of pollutants. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by different micro-climates influencing, on one hand, the transfer range of trace elements and, on the other hand, the availability of biological organisms that can be used in trace element air pollution biodetection study. Tree-barks, lichens and mosses were used in this study to evaluate trace elements bioavailability in different regions of Morocco. Those organisms were analyzed using the multi-elemental k0-INAA technique. The quality control of the results was performed by the analysis of reference materials. The analysis results were interpreted in the form of enrichment factors reflecting the atmospheric availability of anthropogenic pollutant elements such as Cl, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se and Sr.

  16. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution

  17. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  18. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  19. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  20. Air pollution threatens the health of children in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millman, A.; Tang, D.L.; Perera, F.P. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    China's rapid economic development has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation, most notably from coal combustion. Outdoor air pollution is associated with >300 000 deaths, 20 million cases of respiratory illness, and a health cost of >500 billion renminbi (>3% of gross domestic product) annually. The young are particularly susceptible to air pollution, yet there has been only limited recognition of its effects on children's health and development. To fill this gap, we reviewed relevant published environmental studies, biomedical and molecular/epidemiologic research, and economic and policy analyses. China relies on coal for about 70% to 75% of its energy needs, consuming 1.9 billion tons of coal each year. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the major greenhouse gas, coal burning in China emits vast quantities of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, arsenic, and mercury. Seventy percent of Chinese households burn coal or biomass for cooking and heating, which contaminates indoor air. Adverse effects of combustion-related air pollution include reduced fetal and child growth, pulmonary disease including asthma, developmental impairment, and increased risk of cancer. A prospective molecular epidemiologic study of newborns in Chongqing has demonstrated direct benefits to children's health and development from the elimination of a coal-burning plant. Recognition of the full health and economic cost of air pollution to Chinese children and the benefits of pollution reduction should spur increased use of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean-fuel vehicles. This is a necessary investment for China's future.

  1. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  2. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  3. Effect of Air Pollutant Markers on Multiple Sclerosis Relapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mehrpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is one of the autoimmune diseases with an unknown cause. The aim of this study was to explore the link between air quality and MS relapses in patients who suffer from MS.This time-series study was conducted on patients registered at the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2011-2012. They were randomly selected from patients lived in Tehran in the last five years, and had at least one relapse in the last three years. The link between monthly mean air pollutant levels and the relapses of MS in the participants was studied.Among the registered 160 participants, at least 150 had one attack during 2009 and 2012. Most air pollutants such as NO2, NO and CO are in high levels in the rainy season. Others like Pm10 and Nox are in high levels in the dry season. The correlation between NO2 levels of all markers of air quality and MS relapses (P=0.03, r=0.27 is weak. Best ARIMA model (p,d,q; 1,0,1 was determined between number of monthly relapses and living place, although this model was not significant (P=0.3 (AR; P=0.000, MA;P=0.4.Air pollutants might be regarded as a risk factor for MS relapse.

  4. Air pollution:a smoking gun for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especial y in highly populated countries such as China, air pol ution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon wil it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Final y, the approaches for air pol ution control are also discussed.

  5. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  6. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  7. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  8. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  9. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.

  10. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  11. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  12. Air pollution in perspective : Health risks of air pollution expressed in equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the health effects of long term exposure to air pollution are well established, it is difficult to effectively communicate the health risks of this (largely invisible) risk factor to the public and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that expresses th

  13. Survey of air pollutants emitted from rendering plant of poultry slaughterhouse and design of local ventilation system and suitable collector for control and treatment of air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Hesam

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in rendering plant can remove large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Control of these pollutants can cause loss of smell nuisance and environmental pollution and improving the health and welfare of workers and neighboring residents of such industries.

  14. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  15. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  16. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results.

  17. Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule....

  19. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  20. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  1. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  2. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  3. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  4. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,...

  5. Global aspects of photochemical air pollution: A kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, S.S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting, Ventura, CA (United States); Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One of the most serious effects of increasing photochemical air pollution on a global basis is the production of high concentration of submicron aerosol in the atmosphere, resulting in unfavorable changes in weather patterns and world climate. The probability that these changes may occur with an unchecked increase in photochemical air pollution justifies a comprehensive control of pollutant emission as well as a detailed study into their atmospheric chemistry. Structure-reactivity relationships (SRR) and linear free energy relationships (LFER) are presented for environmentally important chemical reactions of unsaturated aliphatic contaminants in air and water. SRR of the form log k (k = rate constant for reaction with O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3}) vs ionization potential, and tortional frequency as well as LFER of the form log k (A) vs. log k (B) where A and B = O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3} are presented and can be used to estimate reaction rate constants and environmental persistence (in air and water) for many unsaturated compounds for which no data exist. As examples of application, rate constants for reactions of OH (gas phase), OH (water) and NO{sub 3} (gas phase) are estimated for many unsaturated compounds.

  6. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  7. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Ghorani-Azam; Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxic...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  9. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  10. Abatement of diesel-exhaust pollutants. NO{sub x} storage and soot combustion on K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milt, V.G.; Pissarello, M.L.; Miro, E.E.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, INCAPE, CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina)

    2003-03-31

    Potassium-loaded lanthana is a promising catalyst to be used for the simultaneous abatement of soot and NO{sub x}, which are the main diesel-exhaust pollutants. With potassium loadings between 4.5 and 10wt.% and calcination temperatures between 400 and 700C, this catalyst mixed with soot gave maximum combustion rates between 350 and 400C in TPO experiments, showing a good hydrothermal stability. There was no difference in activity when it was either mixed by grinding in an agate mortar or mixed by shaking in a sample bottle (tight and loose conditions, respectively). Moreover, when the K-loaded La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is used as washcoat for a cordierite monolith, there were found no significant differences in the catalytic behaviour of the system, which implies its potentiality for practical purposes. The influence of poisons as water and SO{sub 2} was investigated. While water does not affect the soot combustion activity, SO{sub 2} slightly shift the TPO peak to higher temperature. Surface basicity, which is a key factor, was analysed by measuring the interactions of the catalytic surface with CO{sub 2} using the high frequency CO{sub 2} pulses technique, which proved to be very sensitive, detecting minor changes by modifications in the dynamics of the CO{sub 2} adsorption-desorption process. Water diminishes the interaction with CO{sub 2}, probably as a consequence of an adsorption competition. The SO{sub 2} treated catalyst is equilibrated with the CO{sub 2} atmosphere more rapidly if compared with the untreated one, also showing a lower interaction. The lower the interaction with the CO{sub 2}, the lower the activity. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) results indicate that the soot combustion reaction coexists with the thermal decomposition of hydroxide and carbonate species, occurring in the same temperature range (350-460C). The presence of potassium increases surface basicity shifting the endothermic decomposition signal to higher temperatures. We also

  11. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  12. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  13. A review of air exchange rate models for air pollution exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther

    2014-11-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically based AER models for residential and commercial buildings; the models highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. Models are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER model based on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER model uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER models in support of air pollution exposure assessments.

  14. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement...... of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF....... At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness....

  15. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  16. 76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District....0 for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board, Environmental Protection Agency.... New Section 6.3 requires the SJVUAPCD Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) to prepare and present...

  17. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 4104, ``Reduction of Animal Matter,''...

  18. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Rulemaking For the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

  19. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Association of Home Builders v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No. 08-17309...

  20. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this action, EPA is finalizing approval of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... plans that are specifically tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

  1. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling...

  2. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  3. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole Lundsgaard; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air...... pollutants....

  4. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) there is no VOC concentration limit for reinjection...

  5. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  6. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  7. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  8. 77 FR 5709 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  9. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  10. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  11. 77 FR 58312 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. This action was published on June 13, 2012 and concerns...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  12. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  13. 75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation... authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA section 185 acts as an...

  14. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this action, we are proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an...

  15. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... preempt Tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  16. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation... Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended November 8, 1994)....

  17. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  18. An empirical bayes method for comparing air pollution data to air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jack C.; Curran, Thomas C.

    Air pollution concentrations are often characterized by skewed distributions. For example, 24-h suspended particulate mass concentrations have historically been characterized by a 2-parameter lognormal distribution (Larsen, 1969, J. Air. Pollut. Control. Ass.19, 24-30). The error in making measurements of these concentrations also conforms to a distribution that is more symmetric and can usually be approximated by the normal distribution, often with the added feature that the error variation is a function of concentration level. Air pollution measurements are often used to determine status with respect to legal standards such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (Fed. Reg. 36, 8186, 1971; 44, 8202, 1979). In general, these standards do not explicitly account for measurement error. Using Bayesian mathematics, a model is developed which deals with the probability of the "true" concentration exceeding the NAAQS given a measurement above the NAAQS. Several hypothetical examples are used to demonstrate that Bayesian techniques can combine both pollution history and instrument precision into a probablistic model for comparing air pollution data to NAAQS.

  19. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  20. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...