WorldWideScience

Sample records for air particulate matter

  1. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  2. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  3. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal.

  4. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demographic variability affect PM health response. We look forward to the continued growth of research in ERL contributing to air pollution emissions, distribution, and impacts. As the integrated study of air quality connects to economics, energy, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, and public health—among other subjects—its advancement is well-suited to an interdisciplinary, open-access journal like ERL. Thanks to our authors for contributing to ERL's growth in global air pollution research with such excellent work. Focus on Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions Qiang Zhang, David G Streets, Kebin He and Zbigniew Klimont Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya E D S van Vliet and P L Kinney Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality Junfeng Liu and Denise L Mauzerall Can warming particles enter global climate discussions? Tami C Bond

  5. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  6. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  7. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    Consistent evidences from both epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM), in particular to the finest particles (i.e. airborne PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5), is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PM concentration has been linked with several clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. Noteworthy, some groups of subjects, like elderly, diabetics, or those with known coronary artery disease, appear specifically susceptible to the harmful effects triggered by PM exposure. Although the PM-related risk for a single individual appears relatively low, the PM-related population attributable risk is impressive. Recent studies indicate that the PM-CVD relationship is likely more complex than a mere quantitative association between overall PM concentration and disease risk. Indeed, the biological effects of PM may vary in function of both the aerodynamic diameter and the chemical composition. Moreover, it has been shown that the influence of air pollution on health is not limited to PM. Indeed, other gaseous pollutants may play an independent role in CVD, suggesting the need to develop multi-pollutant preventive approaches. Causality has been recently strongly supported by observations showing reduced CVD mortality after coordinated community policies resulting in lowering PM exposure at population level. An in-depth knowledge on the heterogeneous sources, chemical compounds, and biological effects of PM may help to propose more accurate and clinically effective recommendations for this important and modifiable factor contributing to CVD burden.

  8. 78 FR 19128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... particulate matter (PM) rules on February 23, 2012. The PM rule revisions being approved establish work... disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be...

  9. Characteristics of air particulate matter and their sources inurban and rural area of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    During October 1993 and March 1996, the samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter have been collected at representative urban and rural site of Beijing with the Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method were used to determine the elemental composition of the particulate matter. Average elemental concentrations and enrichment factors were calculated for the fine and coarse size fractions. Based on the particulate matter data obtained at urban and rural site together with the chemical constituents of the aerosol from the different sources are discussed. The results show that the relative particulate mass and elemental concentrations of crustal and pollutant elements in the air particulate matter collected over the urban are higher than rural and winter heating period are higher than in ordinary season. Beijing atmosphere is polluted by aerosols from regional and faraway sources. It was noticed that the toxic or harmful elements such as As, Sb, Ph, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were mainly enriched in fine particles with diameter less than 2μm. A receptor model was used to assess the relative contribution of major air pollution sources at receptor sites in Beijing. Trace elements were used as the markers for the above assessment. Factor analysis method was used to identify possible emission sources of air particles. The major sources of dust-soil, coal burning, motor vehicle emission, industry emission and refuse incineration were identified.Key words: atmospheric particulate matter; urban; rural; source; aerosol

  10. Phytoremediation of particulate matter from indoor air by Chlorophytum comosum L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gawrońska, H.; Bakera, B.

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants, including spider plants, are able to take up and degrade/detoxify various pollutants in the air. Although nearly 120 plant species have been tested for indoor air phytoremediation, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, data on particulate matter (PM) phytoremediation from indoor air are not yet available in literature. This work determined the ability of spider plants to take up PM, one of the most harmful pollutants to man, in the indoor air of five rooms housing different ac...

  11. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  12. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects. December 1, 2016 - EPA proposes air quality determinations for eleven areas designated "nonattainment" for the 24-hour fine particle standards. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  13. Particulate matter in ambient air - Assessment of health risks. Partiklar i omgivningsluften - en bedoemning av haelsorisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.

    1986-07-01

    An investigation, based on literature data and research at SML, was made on deposition of particulate matter in lungs. The importance of mouth and nose breathing respectively is illustrated. By nose breathing only substances <10 micrometers reach the lung as compared to mouth breathing where substances >10 micrometers may deposit in the lung. Swedish limit values of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) of 50 micrograms/cubic meter are recommended as a 6 month mean value and 150 micrograms/cubic meter as a day mean value. For the PM/sub 10/ fraction, which is a measure of the mass fraction of particulate matter in the air that is deposited in the lung by mouth breathing, it is not possible to give a corresponding recommendation. Epidemiological data are lacking and the proposed method of measuring the PM/sub 10/ fraction would underestimate the importance of particles larger than 10 micrometers. (O.S.).

  14. Impact of Long-term Exposure to Air Particulate Matter on Life Expectancy and Survival Rate of Shanghai Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of long-term air particulate matter exposure on the life expectancy and survival rate of Shanghai residents. Methods Epidemiology - based exposureresponse function was used for the calculation of attributable deaths to air particulate matter in Shanghai, and the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter on life expectancy and survival rate was estimated using the life table of Shanghai residents in 1999. Results It was shown that in 1999, the long-term air particulate matter exposure caused 1.34-1.69 years reduction of life expectancy and a decrease of survival rate for each age group of Shanghai residents. Conclusion The effect of long-term exposure to air particulate matter on life expectancy is substantial in Shanghai.

  15. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  16. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  17. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release...

  18. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, many studies show that the relationship is deeper and far more complicated than originally thought. PM is a portion of air pollution that is made up of extremely small particles and liquid droplets containing acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. PM is categorized by size and continues to be the fraction of air pollution that is most reliably associated with human disease. PM is thought to contribute to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease by the mechanisms of systemic inflammation, direct and indirect coagulation activation, and direct translocation into systemic circulation. The data demonstrating PM's effect on the cardiovascular system are strong. Populations subjected to long-term exposure to PM have a significantly higher cardiovascular incident and mortality rate. Short-term acute exposures subtly increase the rate of cardiovascular events within days of a pollution spike. The data are not as strong for PM's effects on cerebrovascular disease, though some data and similar mechanisms suggest a lesser result with smaller amplitude. Respiratory diseases are also exacerbated by exposure to PM. PM causes respiratory morbidity and mortality by creating oxidative stress and inflammation that leads to pulmonary anatomic and physiologic remodeling. The literature shows PM causes worsening respiratory symptoms, more frequent medication use, decreased lung function, recurrent health care utilization, and increased mortality. PM exposure has been shown to have a small but significant adverse effect on cardiovascular, respiratory, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular disease. These consistent results are shown by multiple studies with varying populations, protocols, and regions. The data demonstrate a dose

  19. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality...

  1. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  2. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  3. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  4. 75 FR 65567 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... requirements. The particulate matter (PM) standards contain the particulate emission control requirements that.... OAC 3745-17-11--Restrictions on Particulate Emissions From Industrial Processes The most significant... instead to a set of rules requiring a specific set of work practices that will control these...

  5. An update on mortality in Denmark caused by fine particulate matter air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Brandt, Jørgen

    .5 concentration and distribution in Denmark (and elsewhere) has increased tremendously and new calculations of its’ health effects have been reported. Since 2002 not only the air pollution data and the models have changed, so has the demography of the population and the baseline mortality rates. It is not clear...... at the Copenhagen street level (http://envs.au.dk/en/knowledge/air/monitoring/). Results from the different methods of calculation of effects on mortality will be presented and discussed. Conclusions Estimation of health effects from long term PM exposure has developed tremendously over the past decade. Rigouros...... comparisons of how these different methods perform has rarely been done. This study compare methods using Denmark as an example, and gives an update on mortality caused by fine particulate matter air pollution. This work was funded by the DCE – National Centre for Environment and Energy project ”Health...

  6. ARE CARS OR TREES MORE IMPORTANT TO PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLUTION? WHAT RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS HAVE TO SAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) originates from both human activities and "natural" phenomena. Setting and achieving National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM has to take into account the latter since they are in general less controllable than th...

  7. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  8. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  9. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  10. Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter in a Broiler House Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodrigues Amador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter (PM is an important constituent of ambient air. The determination of its concentration and size distribution in different environments is essential because of its ability to penetrate deeply into animal and human respiratory tract. In this study, air sampling was performed in a broiler house to estimate the concentration and size distribution of PM emitted along with its activities. Low-vol impactor (< 10 mm, cyclones (< 2.5 e < 1.0 mm, and Sioutas cascade impactor (> 2.5; 1.0 – 2.5; 0.50 – 1.0; 0.25 – 0.50; < 0.25 mm connected with membrane pumps were used. PM10 showed high concentration (209 - 533 mg m-3. PM2.5 and PM1.0 initially showed relatively low concentration (20.8 and 16.0 mg m-3 respectively with significantly increasing levels (412.9 and 344.8 mg m-3 respectively during the samplings. It was also possible to observe the contribution of fine particles. This was evidenced by the high correlation between PM2.5 and PM1.0 and by the profile of particle distribution in the Sioutas sampler. PM concentration levels are considered excessively high, with great potential to affect animal and human health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.847 

  11. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  12. Particulate Matter Assessment in the Air Based on the Heavy Metals Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandačka Dušan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matters are the result of various processes in the atmosphere that are part of everyday life. The chemical composition of these particles is mainly influenced by their origin. Their behavior is also dependent on meteorological conditions and other factors as well. The aim of this paper was to identify sources of particulate matters by means of statistical methods due to the presence of 17 heavy metals. The problem solving assumes the knowledge of multivariate statistical data analysis methods as principal components analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multivariate regression and vector algebra. For the application of methodology suitable software may prove appropriate.

  13. [Particulate matter air pollution effects on the incidence of heart diseases among the urban population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakaev, M V; Artamonova, G V

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases induces an urgent need to identify and clear delineation of the most important risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Unlike the second part of XXth century, today the World Health Organization considers particulate matter ambient pollution one of the most important predictors of cardiovascular events. However, results of similar studies conducted in the last decades, is highly fragmented. The authors' objective was to try to understand and organize this massive of accumulated information and analyze it to draw conclusions about the impact of particulate matter on the functioning of human cardiovascular system.

  14. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  15. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  16. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  17. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  19. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  20. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  1. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  2. Separation of 26 toxaphene congeners and measurement in air particulate matter SRMs compared to technical toxaphene SRM 3067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

    2010-05-01

    Toxaphene is a complex technical mixture that has been found ubiquitously in the environment but has caused issues for analysis, especially of individual congeners. This paper reports the elution order of 26 major toxaphene congeners on three gas chromatographic columns. The three different stationary phases generally had similar elution orders for the toxaphene congeners, but fewer co-elutions occurred on a low-bleed, low-polarity column. These congeners (except for two that co-eluted and were not added to the calibration mixture) were examined in air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs), 1648a, 1649a, and 1649b as well as SRM 3067 toxaphene in methanol for assignment of reference values. SRM 3067 had mass fractions an order of magnitude greater than the air particulate SRMs, which ranged from 0.568 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-2006 in SRM 1648a) to 12.9 +/- 0.20 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-715 (P 58) in SRM 1649a). The three air particulate SRMs all had different mass fractions and proportions of congeners relative to the sum of the toxaphene congeners. SRM 3067 may be useful as a technical mixture toxaphene congener calibrant. SRMs 1648a and 1649b will serve as reference materials for the analysis of 21 (three congeners were not included due to values below the detection limit or a potential polychlorinated biphenyl co-elution) toxaphene congeners in atmospheric particulate samples.

  3. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); is not a..., Environmental Engineer, at (312) 886-0258 before visiting the Region 5 office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andy Chang, Environmental Engineer, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs...

  4. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  5. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Kindbom, Karin;

    In this study the Nordic particulate matter (PM) emission inventories are compared and for the most important sources - residential wood burning and road transport - a quality analysis is carried out based on PM measurements conducted and models used in the Nordic countries. All the institutions...... in charge of the work on emission inventories in the Nordic countries have participated in this project together with researchers performing PM measurements in the residential and transport sectors in the Nordic countries in order to increase the quality of the PM national inventories. The ratio between...... the reported emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM2.5 compared to PM10 (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed...

  6. Monitoring of tobacco smoke particulate matter air pollution in the universities of Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyev, V.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM measurements were conducted in the premises of eight universities in Kazan city. Where smoking is allowed, PM concentrations reach dangerous levels. Smoking mostly takes place in rest-rooms, hallways, corridors, and kitchens of student dormitories. In premises where nobody smokes of the buildings where smoking is not fully forbidden, PM concentrations may be dangerous even for healthy people. Smoke-free policies in university buildings do not cause compensatory smoking at the entrances. PM concentrations at the upper floors of the buildings are generally higher, which needs to be taken in to account while interpreting the results of PM measurements. Smoke-free policies must cover both university buildings and student dormitories. (Full text is in Russian

  7. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  8. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  9. Capture of air particulate matter and gaseous Hg{sup 0} by ionic liquids analyzed by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mondragon, M. A. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla No. 3001, 76230 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Murillo, G.; Mendez, B. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been extensively employed to study the elements associated to air particulate matter (Pm). However, the atmosphere is a very complex system and inorganic pollutants may be also in gaseous phases. Aerosol monitoring does not allow the determination of all the volatile inorganic compounds, since they are not retained in the filters, or if they are trapped, the analysis under vacuum results in a partial or total loss of them. In order to extend the applications of PIXE there is a need to develop new methods to simultaneously capture particulate matter and volatile substances. Ionic liquids (Il) result from combinations of organic cations and anions that may be liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical characteristics of Il s allow them to absorb atmospheric trace metals present in solid and gaseous phases, a task normally performed with independent sampling methods. In this work we explored this capability of Il s as monitors of chemical species which can be found in the gas phase and as particulate matter. The tested Il s included 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate (BMIM) (PF{sub 6}) for Pm and Hg capture; and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMIM) (Scn) only for Hg capture. Elemental analysis of both experiments was performed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the molecular structure on BMIM PF{sub 6} due to the Hg binding were followed by infrared spectroscopy. (BMIM((PF{sub 6}) proved to be successful as passive collector of Pm. However when both were used for Hg capture, (BMIM) (Scn) showed better selectivity. These preliminary results showed the potential of Il s for simultaneous uptake of Pm and volatile inorganic compounds. (Author)

  10. Design and laboratory testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler for ambient particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-03-01

    A new type of directional passive air sampler (DPAS) is described for collecting particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The prototype sampler has a non-rotating circular sampling tray that is divided into covered angular channels, whose ends are open to winds from sectors covering the surrounding 360°. Wind-blown PM from different directions enters relevant wind-facing channels, and is retained there in collecting pools containing various sampling media. Information on source direction and type can be obtained by examining the distribution of PM between channels. Wind tunnel tests show that external wind velocities are at least halved over an extended area of the collecting pools, encouraging PM to settle from the air stream. Internal and external wind velocities are well-correlated over an external velocity range of 2.0-10.0 m s⁻¹, which suggests it may be possible to relate collected amounts of PM simply to ambient concentrations and wind velocities. Measurements of internal wind velocities in different channels show that velocities decrease from the upwind channel round to the downwind channel, so that the sampler effectively resolves wind directions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on a computer-generated model of the sampler for a range of external wind velocities; the results of these analyses were consistent with those from the wind tunnel. Further wind tunnel tests were undertaken using different artificial particulates in order to assess the collection performance of the sampler in practice. These tests confirmed that the sampler can resolve the directions of sources, by collecting particulates preferentially in source-facing channels.

  11. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Boll Illerup, J. (Aarhus Univ. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) (Denmark)); Kindbom, K.; Sjodin, AA. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) (Sweden)); Saarinen, K.; Mikkola-Pusa, J. (Finlands Miljoecentral (SYKE) (Finland)); Aasestad, K. (Statistisk Sentralbyraa (SSB) (Norway)); Hallsdottir, B. (Environmental and Food Agency Iceland (IS)); Makela, K. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    In this study the Nordic particulate matter (PM) emission inventories are compared and for the most important sources - residential wood burning and road transport - a quality analysis is carried out based on PM measurements conducted and models used in the Nordic countries. All the institutions in charge of the work on emission inventories in the Nordic countries have participated in this project together with researchers performing PM measurements in the residential and transport sectors in the Nordic countries in order to increase the quality of the PM national inventories. The ratio between the reported emissions of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM{sub 2.5} compared to PM{sub 10} (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed with particular emphasis on the categories where emissions were reported by one or more countries, while the other categories reported notation keys. It is found that the PM emission inventories generally are complete and that the sources reported as not estimated only are expected to have minor contributions to the total PM emissions. The variability of emission factors for residential wood combustion is discussed and it is illustrated that the emission factors can vary by several orders of magnitude. (Author)

  12. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance.

  13. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  14. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  15. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment.

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2 levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children and of localization (urban or rural. To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  17. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  18. Particulate matter air pollution exposure promotes recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Hsieh, Joanne; Hogg, James C; Tranfield, Erin; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shih, Chih-Horng; Behzad, Ali R; Vincent, Renaud; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2008-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between exposure to ambient particulate air pollution <10 microm in diameter (PM(10)) and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that PM(10) exposure causes progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. We postulate that the recruitment of monocytes from the circulation into atherosclerotic lesions is a key step in this PM(10)-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis. The study objective was to quantify the recruitment of circulating monocytes into vessel walls and the progression of atherosclerotic plaques induced by exposure to PM(10). Female Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, which naturally develop systemic atherosclerosis, were exposed to PM(10) (EHC-93) or vehicle by intratracheal instillation twice a week for 4 wk. Monocytes, labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in donors, were transfused to recipient rabbits as whole blood, and the recruitment of BrdU-labeled cells into vessel walls and plaques in recipients was measured by quantitative histological methodology. Exposure to PM(10) caused progression of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic and abdominal aorta. It also decreased circulating monocyte counts, decreased circulating monocytes expressing high levels of CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) and CD49d (very late antigen-4 alpha-chain), and increased expression of CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) in plaques. Exposure to PM(10) increased the number of BrdU-labeled monocytes adherent to endothelium over plaques and increased the migration of BrdU-labeled monocytes into plaques and smooth muscle underneath plaques. We conclude that exposure to ambient air pollution particles promotes the recruitment of circulating monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques and speculate that this is a critically important step in the PM(10)-induced progression of atherosclerosis.

  19. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  20. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H., E-mail: Ian.Jarvis@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergvall, Christoffer, E-mail: Christoffer.Bergvall@anchem.su.se [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bottai, Matteo, E-mail: Matteo.Bottai@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Westerholm, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Westerholm@anchem.su.se [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla, E-mail: Ulla.Stenius@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Dreij, Kristian, E-mail: Kristian.Dreij@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  1. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  2. Correlation between plasmid DNA damage induced by PM10 and trace metals in inhalable particulate matters in Beijing air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü; Senlin

    2006-01-01

    [1]Wei F S,Chapman R S.Study on Effect of Air Pollution on Respiratory Health Effect (in Chinese).Beijing:China Environmental Science Press,2001.1-16[2]Chapman R S,Watkinson W P,Dreher K L,et al.Ambient particulate matter and respiratory and cardiovascular illness in adults:particle-borne transition metals and the heart-lung axis.Environ Toxicol and Pharmacol,1997,4:331-338[3]Donaldson K,Beswick P H,Gilmour P S.Free radical activity associated with the surface of particles:a unifying factor in determining biological activity? Toxicol Lett,1996,293-298[4]Donaldson K,Brown D M,Mitchell C,et al.Free radical activity of PM10:iron-mediated generation of hydroxyl radicals.Environ Health Perspect,1997,105(S5):1285-1289[5]Donaldson K,Li X,MacNee W.Ultrafine (Nanometer) particle mediated lung injury.J Aero Sci,1998,29:553-560[6]Li X,Gilmour P S,Donaldson K,et al.In vivo and in vitro proinflammatory effects of particulate air pollution (PM10).Environ Health Perspect,1997,105(S5):1279-1283[7]Greenwell L L,Moreno T,Jones T P,et al.Particle-induced oxidative damage is ameliorated by pulmonary antioxidants.Free Radical Biol Medi,2002,32,898-905[8]Greenwell L L,Moreno T,Richard R J.Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against urban and industrial particulate matter.J Biosci,2003,28(1):101-107[9]Poli G,Parola M.Oxidative damage and fibrogenesis.Free Radical Biol Medi,1996,22:287-305[10]Costa D L,Dreher K L.Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.Environ Health Perspect,1997,105(Supp.5):1053-1060[11]Richards R J,Atkins J,Marrs T C,et al.The biochemical and pathological changes produced by the intraacheal instillation of certain components of zinc hexachloroethane smoke.Toxicol Lett,1989,54:79-88[12]Adamson I Y R,Prieditis H,Hedgecock C,et al.Zinc is the toxic factor in the lung response to an atmospheric particulate sample.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol,2000,166:111-119[13]Wang Y Q

  3. Particulate matter air pollution in Europe in a +2 °C warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Watson, Laura; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Beekmann, Matthias; Colette, Augustin; Foret, Gilles; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Siour, Guillaume; Sobolowski, Stefan; Vautard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the IMPACT2C project, we have evaluated the future European particulate matter concentrations under the influence of climate change and anthropogenic emission reductions. To do so, 30-year simulations for present and future scenarios were performed with an ensemble of four regional Chemical Transport Models. +2 °C scenarios were issued from different regional climate simulations belonging to the CORDEX experiment (RCP4.5 scenario). Comparing present day simulations to observations shows that these simulations meet the requested quality criteria even if some biases do exist. Also, we showed that using regional climate models instead of meteorological reanalysis was not critical for the quality of our simulations. Present day as well as future scenarios show the large variability between models associated with different meteorology and process parameterizations. Future projections of PM concentrations show a large reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in a +2 °C climate over the European continent (especially over Benelux), which can be mostly attributed to emission reduction policies. Under a current legislation scenario, annual PM10 could be reduced by between 1.8 and 2.9 μg m-3 (14.1-20.4%). If maximum technologically feasible emission reductions were implemented, further reductions of 1.4-1.9 μg m-3 (18.6-20.9%) are highlighted. Changes due to a +2 °C warming, in isolation from emission changes, are in general much weaker (-1.1 to +0.4 μg m-3,-0.3 to +5.1% for annual PM10 averaged over the European domain). Even if large differences exist between models, we have determined that the decrease of PM over Europe associated with emission reduction is a robust result. The patterns of PM changes resulting from climate change (for example the increase of PM over Spain and southern France and the decrease of PM10 over eastern Europe) are also robustly predicted even if its amplitude remains weak compared to changes associated with emission

  4. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  5. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  6. Agreement of land use regression models with personal exposure measurements of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto; Portella, Meritxell; Meliefste, Kees; Eeftens, Marloes; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cirach, Marta; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-08-06

    Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict long-term average concentrations of air pollutants. Little is known how well LUR models predict personal exposure. In this study, the agreement of LUR models with measured personal exposure was assessed. The measured components were particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), soot (reflectance of PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona, 15 volunteers (from semiurban, urban background, and traffic sites) followed prescribed time activity patterns. Per participant, six 96 h outdoor, indoor, and personal measurements spread over three seasons were conducted. Soot LUR models were significantly correlated with measured average outdoor and personal soot concentrations. Soot LUR models explained 39%, 44%, and 20% of personal exposure variability (R(2)) in Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona. NO2 LUR models significantly predicted outdoor concentrations and personal exposure in Utrecht and Helsinki, whereas NOx and PM2.5 LUR models did not predict personal exposure. PM2.5, NO2, and NOx models were correlated with personal soot, the component least affected by indoor sources. LUR modeled and measured outdoor, indoor, and personal concentrations were highly correlated for all pollutants when data from the three cities were combined. This study supports the use of intraurban LUR models for especially soot in air pollution epidemiology.

  7. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  8. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical environmental

  9. A rapid method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate and galaxolide in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontal, Marta; van Drooge, Barend L; Grimalt, Joan O

    2016-05-20

    A method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate (MHDJ) in air particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) is described for the first time. This fragrance is determined together galaxolide (HHCB). Airborne particles were collected by filtration of air volumes between 100 and 1000m(3). Recovery efficiencies of filter extraction with Soxhlet and pressurized liquids were evaluated. The method included reaction with BSTFA:TMCS for generation of trimethylsilyloxy derivatives which prevented deleterious effects in the gas capillary column by interaction of hydroxyl groups from air constituents other than these fragrances. This step avoided the use of additional clean up methods such as liquid column chromatography affording direct quantification by GC-EI-MS. The proposed method had enough sensitivity for quantification of these fragrances in indoor and outdoor environmental samples using small aliquots of the PM extracts, e.g. 2.5%, and therefore saving sample material for eventual determination of other compounds. The detection limits were 0.03ng and 0.01ng for MHDJ and HHCB, respectively. Both MHDJ and HHCB were predominantly found in the smallest PM fraction analyzed (<0.5μm). The outdoor concentrations were highest in busy urban streets. However, indoor levels in school classrooms and subway stations were one order of magnitude higher than those observed outdoor. This difference was consistent with the use of these compounds as additives in cleaning and personal care products and the small dispersion of these fragrances in indoor environments. Information on the occurrence of this and other fragrances is needed to increase the understanding on the influence of anthropogenic activities in the formation of organic aerosols and source apportionment.

  10. Culture, nature and particulate matter - Hybrid reframings in air pollution scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Julie

    Air pollution is a thoroughly hybrid phenomenon. It is composed of inseparable physical, scientific, cultural, social, economic and political dimensions. It is both an object of environmental science and embedded in our everyday social and cultural worlds. Nevertheless, much air pollution scholarship focuses solely on the physical dimensions of air pollution which are expressed quantitatively and pays little or no regard to the identities, discourses, bodies and emotions which constitute and are constituted by air pollution as a physical reality. This article argues for a more reflexive and hybrid approach to air pollution research which bridges intellectually confining binaries. Drawing on the work of Bruno Latour and other actor-network theorists, it argues that if we can let go of a foundational nature, disrupt our humanism and take non-scientific knowledges seriously, we might develop a new respect for the atmospheric environment and begin the task of building a better common world.

  11. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  12. [Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for preliminary assessment of cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to air pollution with particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Grella, Rodolfo; Lamberti, Monica; Bergamasco, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have linked elevated concentrations of particulate matter to adverse health effects. In particular, has been demonstrated an association between UFPs exposure and occurrence of acute respiratory infections, lung cancer, chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to cognitive decline. In this work, we used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a preliminary assessment of cognitive function in individuals who have lived and carried out work in heavily urbanized areas, where ambient levels of particulate air pollution were frequently above the standard of the law. The results showed the presence of mild-moderate cognitive impairment in 39.4% of the subjects examined compared to the control group.

  13. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyelim [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byeong-Wook [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Bae [Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Soo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Hui-Nam [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ji Hyung, E-mail: jhchung@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  14. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  15. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  16. Impact of particulate matter in air pollution on cardiovascular diseases%大气污染颗粒物质与心血管疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晗; 李子健; 韩启德; 张幼怡

    2005-01-01

    Impact of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases has been established. As the main source of city air pollution, particulate matter has been demonstrated an independent correlation with incidence and mortality of cardiovascular .The mechanisms are not clear. Several plausible mechanistic pathways have been described, including inflammation induced by oxidative stress, the followed enhanced coagulation/thrombosis resulted in instability of atherosclerosis, the promotion of ischemic heart diseases and imbalance of autonomic nerve tone resulted in the occurrence of arrhythmia. The article provides a review of the mechanisms on air pollution and cardiovascular diseases and suggestions for further research.

  17. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided.

  18. Studi Kualitas Udara Melalui Pengamatan Tingkat Kandungan Suspended Particulate Matter(SPM) Dan Kimia Air Hujan (Kation Dan Anion) Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Novika, Sutri

    2011-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis terhadap kualitas udara di Kota Medan. Analisis didasarkan pada tingkat kandungan konsentrasi Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) tahun 2001-2009 dan kandungan kimia air hujan antara rentang tahun 2009. Data diperoleh dari Badan Metereologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) Stasiun Sampali Medan. Analisis terhadap konsentrasi SPM meliputi analisis perbandingan tingkat kandungan konsentrasi SPM tiap tahunnya dengan acuan baku mutu (230 μgram/Nm3 ). Pengolahan data dilaku...

  19. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  20. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  1. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  2. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs.

  3. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  4. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of Mexico City air pollution particulate matter in vitro are dependent on particle size and composition.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to urban airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. We previously reported that the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 (less than or equal to 10 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) are determined by transition metals and endotoxins associated with these particles. However, PM2.5 (less than or equal to 2.5 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) could be more important as a human health risk because this smaller PM has the potential to...

  5. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  6. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck app

  7. A new fast and standardless method for direct determination of metals associated with particulate matter in air: avoiding errors in the determination of Pb in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsi, G; Reschiglian, P; Locatelli, C; Melucci, D

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new method and the relevant instrumentation necessary for its implementation in the analysis of metals associated with particulate matter in air. The procedure can be divided into two steps: in the first step the sample is accumulated in a device through electrostatic precipitation whose center is a graphite tube; in the second step the graphite tube itself is used as an atomization device for the determination of the metals present in the sample through the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and inexpensive. Moreover, if the experimental conditions are well chosen, there is no need for calibration, which is very convenient in the case of samples such as particulate matter in the air. The elements that can be determined with the present apparatus are Hg, Cd, Tl, Ag, Mg, and Mn. These are highly or medium volatile because the materials used cannot reach very high temperatures for long periods. The experiments are confined to air, but other gases, in which a corona discharge is possible, would give the same results. With the method proposed, it was possible to show that the official method for Pb determination in the urban environment of Bologna presents a negative systematic error of about 25%.

  8. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality Model For Austria with Satellite based Particulate Matter Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Triebnig, Gerhard; Flandorfer, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using regression- and assimilation techniques. For the model simulations WRF/Chem is used with a resolution of 3 km over the alpine region. Interfaces have been developed to account for the different measurements as input data. The available local emission inventories provided by the different Austrian regional governments were harmonized and used for the model simulations. An episode in February 2010 is chosen for the model evaluation. During that month exceedances of PM10-thresholds occurred at many measurement stations of the Austrian network. Different model runs (only model/only ground stations assimilated/satellite and ground stations assimilated) are compared to the respective measurements. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  9. CFD Modeling of Particulate Matter Dispersion from Kerman Cement Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panahandeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: The dispersion of particulate matter has been known as the most serious environmental pollution of cement plants. In the present work, dispersion of the particulate matter from stack of Kerman Cement Plant was investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling."nMaterials and Methods: In order to study the dispersion of particulate matter from the stack, a calculation domain with dimensions of 8000m × 800m × 400m was considered. The domain was divided to 936781 tetrahedral control volumes. The mixture two-phase model was employed to model the interaction of the particulate matter (dispersed phase and air (continuous phase. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES method was used for turbulence modeling."nResults: The concentration of particulate matter in the whole calculation domain was computed. The predicted concentrations were compared to the measured values from the literature and a good agreement was observed. The predicted concentration profiles at different cross sections were analyzed."nConclusion:The results of the present work showed that CFD is a useful tool for understanding the dispersion of particulate matter in air. Although the obtained results were promising, more investigations on the properties of the dispersed phase, turbulent parameters and the boundary layer effect is needed to obtain more accurate results.

  10. Induction of c-Jun by air particulate matter (PM₁₀) of Mexico city: Participation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido-Neyoy, Martha Estela; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Román; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Meléndez-Zajgla, Jorge; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Petrosyan, Pavel; Molina-Servin, Edith Danny; Vega, Elizabeth; Manzano-León, Natalia; García-Cuellar, Claudia M

    2015-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential of urban particulate matter (PM) has been partly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content, which activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here we report the effect of PM with an aerodynamic size of 10 μm (PM10) on the induction of AhR pathway in A549 cells, evaluating its downstream targets CYP1B1, IL-6, IL-8 and c-Jun. Significant increases in CYP1B1 protein and enzyme activity; IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and c-Jun protein were found in response to PM10. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts was also detected. The involvement of AhR pathway was confirmed with Resveratrol as AhR antagonist, which reversed CYP1B1 and c-Jun induction. Nevertheless, in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, the Resveratrol was ineffective, suggesting an effect independent of this pathway. Considering the role of c-Jun in oncogenesis, its induction by PM may be contributing to its carcinogenic potential through induction of AhR pathway by PAHs present in PM10.

  11. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  12. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of Mexico City air pollution particulate matter in vitro are dependent on particle size and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Bonner, James C; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Martínez, Leticia; García-Cuellar, Claudia; Ponce-de-León Rosales, Sergio; Miranda, Javier; Rosas, Irma

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to urban airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. We previously reported that the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 (less than or equal to 10 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) are determined by transition metals and endotoxins associated with these particles. However, PM2.5 (less than or equal to 2.5 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) could be more important as a human health risk because this smaller PM has the potential to reach the distal lung after inhalation. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 with those of PM2.5 using the murine monocytic J774A.1 cell line in vitro. PMs were collected from the northern zone or the southeastern zone of Mexico City. Elemental composition and bacterial endotoxin on PMs were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by J774A.1 cells was measured in the presence or absence of recombinant endotoxin-neutralizing protein (rENP). Both northern and southeastern PMs contained endotoxin and a variety of transition metals. Southeastern PM10 contained the highest endotoxin levels, 2-fold higher than that in northern PM10. Northern and southeastern PM2.5 contained the lowest endotoxin levels. Accordingly, southeastern PM10 was the most potent in causing secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. All PM2.5 and PM10 samples caused cytotoxicity, but northern PMs were the most toxic. Cytokine secretion induced by southeastern PM10 was reduced 50-75% by rENP. These results indicate major differences in PM10 and PM2.5. PM2.5 induces cytotoxicity in vitro through an endotoxin-independent mechanism that is likely mediated by transition metals. In contrast, PM10 with relatively high levels of endotoxin induces proinflammatory cytokine release via an endotoxin-dependent mechanism.

  13. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  14. Nonlinear relationships between particulate matter and its gaseous precursors Analysis of long-term air quality monitoring data by means of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, I B

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear features of the relationships between particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are derived directly from data of long-term routine measurements of NOx, VOC, and total suspended PM. The main idea of the method used for the analysis is creation of special empirical models based on artificial neural networks of the perceptron type. These models which are in essence the nonlinear extension of commonly used linear regression models are believed to provide the best fit for the real nonlinear PM-NOx-VOC relationships under different observed levels of air pollution and various meteorological conditions. It is believed that such models may be useful in context of various scientific and practical problems concerning PM. The method is demonstrated by the example of two empirical models created with independent data-sets collected at two air quality monitoring stations at South Coast Air Basin, California. It is shown that in spite of considerable distance b...

  15. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  16. [Chemical Characteristics of Particulate Matters and Trajectory Influence on Air Quality in Shanghai During the Heavy Haze Episode in December, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Qiao, Li-ping; Zhu, Shu-hui; Li, Li; Lou, Sheng-rong; Wang, Hong-li; Tao, Shi-kang; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-hong

    2016-04-15

    Intensive haze shrouded central and eastern parts of China in Dec. 2013. In this study, the mass concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and also the chemical compositions of fine particulate matters were obtained based on in-situ measurement in Shanghai urban area. The characteristics of PM2.5 were investigated during different pollution episodes, including dust, haze, fog-haze and long-rang transport episodes. The results showed that pollution was most serious during the fog-haze episode, during which the maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 reached 536 microg x m(-3) and 411 microg x m(-3), respectively. During the fog-haze episode, the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was over 76.7%, suggesting that high humidity enhanced the secondary formation of NO3-, SO4(2-) and NH4+ in PM2.5. Highest concentration of Ca2+ in PM2.5 occurred during the dust episode and the proportion of primary components in PM2.5 increased obviously. Highest concentration of SO2- was observed in PM25 during the long-range transport episode, with a fast growth rate. Meanwhile, the trajectories reaching Shanghai urban area and cluster analysis during different pollution episodes were simulated by HYSPLIT model. Combined with observation data of PM2.5 in Shanghai urban area, chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in different clusters and potential source apportionment of various pollution episodes were also studied in this study. The result revealed that the air trajectories could be grouped into six clusters based on their spatial similarities. Among these clusters, cluster6 which moved fast was associated with clean air. Cluster2 and cluster3 originating from Mongolia region had strong correlations to dust pollution, along with low PM2.5/PM10 ratio and high concentration of Ca2+ in PM2.5. Compared with other clusters, cluster5 and cluster4 with slow moving speed were more favorable for reactions between particulate species and formation of secondary pollutants during transport

  17. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck applications the soot filters are cleaned by burning the particulate matter off of the filter. However, ash will not be burned off and accumulates in the filter. In the case of high-ash loads, like se...

  18. Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter from automatic air sampler stations in Latium (Italy): Toward a definition of magnetic fingerprints for natural and anthropogenic PM10 sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrı, Patrizia; Egli, Ramon; Mondino, Manlio

    2006-12-01

    Environmental problems linked to the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter with dimensions less than 10 μm (PM10) in urban settings have stimulated a variety of scientific researches. This study reports a systematic analysis of the magnetic properties of PM10 samples collected by six automatic stations installed for air quality monitoring through the Latium Region (Italy). We measured the low-field magnetic susceptibility of daily air filters collected during the period July 2004 to July 2005. For each station, we derived an empirical linear correlation linking magnetic susceptibility to the concentration of PM10 produced by local sources (i.e., in absence of significant inputs of exogenous dust). An experimental approach is suggested for estimating the percentage of nonmagnetic PM10 transported from natural far-sided sources (i.e., dust from North Africa and marine aerosols). Moreover, we carried out a variety of additional magnetic measurements to investigate the magnetic mineralogy of selected air filters spanning representative periods. The results indicate that the magnetic fraction of PM10 is composed by a mixture of low-coercivity, magnetite-like, ferrimagnetic particles with a wide spectrum of grain sizes, related to a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural component of PM10 has a characteristic magnetic signature that is indistinguishable from that of eolian dust. The anthropogenic PM10 fraction is mostly originated from circulating vehicles and is a mixture of prevailing fine superparamagnetic particles and subordinate large multidomain grains; the former are more directly related to exhaust, whereas the latter may be associated to abrasion of metallic parts.

  19. The Social Construction of the Dutch Air Quality Clash : How Road Expansions Bit the Dust Against Particulate Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Arnoldussen (Tobias)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractFrom a small policy issue in the 1990s, air quality became a hotly debated public problem in Dutch law and politics in 2004. During the political and legal clash over air quality in the years 2004 - 2010, Dutch infrastructure development and road expansion grinded to all but a halt o

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from animal operations have been identified as a major air pollutant source with health and environmental impacts. Nearly 600 million broilers are produced annually on the Delmarva Peninsula, making it a hot spot for particulate matter emissions from poultry houses....

  1. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2010-01-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric or in...... indicate that WSPM and CB exert the strongest effect in terms of oxidative stress-induced response, inflammation, and genotoxicity in the organ closest to the port of entry.......Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...... or intratracheal exposure in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, and DNA repair after 24 h in liver and lung tissue of rats. Rats were exposed to WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in areas with and without many operating wood stoves or carbon black (CB) at the dose...

  2. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ sensitivities simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates poorly understood nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species. Adding second-order sensitivity terms to the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx or SO2 emissions rates improves the prediction with statistical significance.

  3. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air...

  4. Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakatsani Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. The fraction of ambient particles that are mainly responsible for the observed health effects is still a matter of controversy. Better characterization of the health relevant particle fraction will have major implications for air quality policy since it will determine which sources should be controlled. The RUPIOH study, an EU-funded multicentre study, was designed to examine the distribution of various ambient particle metrics in four European cities (Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham, Helsinki and assess their health effects in participants with asthma or COPD, based on a detailed exposure assessment. In this paper the association of central site measurements with respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities is examined. Methods At each centre a panel of participants with either asthma or COPD recorded respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities in a diary for six months. Exposure assessment included simultaneous measurements of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles at a central site. Data on gaseous pollutants were also collected. The associations of the 24-hour average concentrations of air pollution indices with the health outcomes were assessed in a hierarchical modelling approach. A city specific analysis controlling for potential confounders was followed by a meta-analysis to provide overall effect estimates. Results A 10 μg/m3 increase in previous day coarse particles concentrations was positively associated with most symptoms (an increase of 0.6 to 0.7% in average and limitation in walking (OR= 1.076, 95% CI: 1.026-1.128. Same day, previous day and previous two days ozone concentrations were positively associated with cough (OR= 1.061, 95% CI: 1.013-1.111; OR= 1.049, 95% CI: 1.016-1.083 and OR= 1.059, 95% CI: 1.027-1.091, respectively. No consistent associations were observed between fine particle concentrations, nitrogen

  5. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... slide presentations unless we receive special requests in advance. Commenters should notify Mr. Rush if... data handling conventions for PM and ambient air monitoring, reporting, and network design requirements... questions during the oral presentations, but will not respond to the presentations at that time....

  6. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.12 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.23 lb/ton... beneficiated rock any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.055 kilogram per megagram...

  7. Air Particulate Matter PM2.5 in Beijing and Its Harm%大气颗粒物 PM2.5及其危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新兴; 冯丽华; 尉鹏

    2012-01-01

    Air particulate matter PM2.5 is a important pollutant that is the most harmful to human health and that in-fluences seriously the air visibility, and which is characterized mainly by the lighter weigh, the smaller volume, and which may be staying in the sky for the longer time, and may be easily transported to a remote place, and pollute the air in the large range. Thus, the scale of influence on the air and harmful degree to human health of the PM2.5 would be much larger than that of both PM10 and PM100. The PM2.5 has been introduced to the state standard pollutant system in China in the 2012. All the monitoring work of the PM2.5 would be started in the 2016 all over the country, and then information of the PM2.5 would be issued regularly to the public in China.%PM2.5代表空气动力学等效直径等于和小于2.5微米的大气颗粒物.PM2.5是造成雾霾天气、降低能见度,影响交通安全的主要因素.PM2.5通过呼吸道进入肺泡,危害人体健康.PM2.5的基本特征是体积小、重量轻,在大气中滞留时间长,可以被大气环流输送到很远的地方,造成大范围的空气污染.PM2.5对环境的影响范围和对人体健康的危害程度,比 PM10和 PM100更大、更严重.美国、日本、欧盟等发达国家早已把 PM2.5列为国家标准污染物.2012年我国政府已经颁布 PM2.5国家标准(0.035毫克/立方米·年和0.075毫克/立方米·日),将于2016年开始在全国范围内进行常规监测,并向公众报告监测数据

  8. Root-cause analysis of particulate matter loading. Ion chromatography in employment; Ursachenanalyse der Feinstaubbelastung. Ionenenchromatographie im Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Atmosphaerenforschung

    2012-01-15

    Particulate matter is a component of the atmosphere and repeatedly has made infamous headlines in recent years. Essentially this is attributable to the fact that particulate matter air hygienically is a problem. In numerous major cities and metropolitan areas the limiting values often are exceeded. In recent years, measures to reduce particulate concentrations achieved some successes. Any further reduction in exceeding situations is essential.

  9. Selective TNF-α targeting with infliximab attenuates impaired oxygen metabolism and contractile function induced by an acute exposure to air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Timoteo; D'Annunzio, Verónica; Paz, Mariela L; Cáceres, Lourdes; Garcés, Mariana; Perez, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah; Vanasco, Virginia; Magnani, Natalia; Gonzalez Maglio, Daniel; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to air pollution particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to analyze the cardioprotective effect of selective TNF-α targeting with a blocking anti-TNF-α antibody (infliximab) in an in vivo mice model of acute exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice received an intraperitoneal injection of infliximab (10 mg/kg body wt) or saline solution, and were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1 mg/kg body wt). Control animals were instilled with saline solution and handled in parallel. After 3 h, heart O2 consumption was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in left ventricle tissue cubes and isolated mitochondria, and ventricular contractile reserve and lusitropic reserve were evaluated according to the Langendorff technique. ROFA instillation induced a significant decrease in tissue O2 consumption and active mitochondrial respiration by 32 and 31%, respectively, compared with the control group. While ventricular contractile state and isovolumic relaxation were not altered in ROFA-exposed mice, impaired contractile reserve and lusitropic reserve were observed in this group. Infliximab pretreatment significantly attenuated the decrease in heart O2 consumption and prevented the decrease in ventricular contractile and lusitropic reserve in ROFA-exposed mice. Moreover, infliximab-pretreated ROFA-exposed mice showed conserved left ventricular developed pressure and cardiac O2 consumption in response to a β-adrenergic stimulus with isoproterenol. These results provides direct evidence linking systemic inflammation and altered cardiac function following an acute exposure to PM and contribute to the understanding of PM-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  11. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  12. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  13. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  14. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for the Perth Metropolitan area in order to estimate air pollutant concentrations across Perth. The most important predictor for PM10 was green spaces. Heavy vehicle traffic load was found to be the strongest predictor for PM2.5Abs. Traffic variables were observed to be the important contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 elements in Perth, except for PM2.5 V which had distance to coast as the predominant predictor. Open green spaces explained more of the variability in the PM10 elements than for PM2.5 elements, and population density was more important for PM2.5 elements than for PM10 elements. The PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs LUR models explained 67% and 82% of the variance, respectively, but the PM10 model only explained 35% of the variance. The PM2.5 models for Mn, V, and Zn explained between 70% and 90% of the variability in concentrations. PM10 V, Si, K, S and Fe models explained between 53% and 71% of the variability in respective concentrations. Testing the models using leave one-out cross validation, hold out validation and cross-hold out validation supported the validity of LUR models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs and their corresponding elements in Metropolitan Perth despite the relatively low concentrations.

  15. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation.

  16. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    atmosphere1. In addition to acute respiratory problems, long-term effects include lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases , as studied by Pope at al...problems such as ischemic heart disease , fatal arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure4,5. Strategies to reduce fine particulate matter (PM...acetylene reaction have been made by Fahr and Stein15, who deduced an Arrhenius expression in a 4 temperature range between 1000 and 1330 K in

  17. Determination of arsenic in air particulates and diesel exhaust particulates by spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. Talebi; M. Abedi

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace arsenic by spectrophotometry. The proposed method is rapid, simple,and inexpensive. This method can be used for sensitive determination of trace arsenic in environmental samples and especially in air particulates. The results obtained by this method as a proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry as a popular reported method for the determination of arsenic and an excellent agreement was found between them. The method was also used for determination of arsenic associated with airborne particulate matter and diesel exhaust particulates.The results showed that considerable amount of arsenic are associated with diesel engine particulates. The variation in concentration of arsenic was also investigated. The atmospheric concentration of arsenic was different in different sampling stations was dependent to the traffic density.

  18. Impacts of historical climate and land cover changes on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Tai, Amos P. K.; Liao, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of changes in climate, land cover and land use (LCLU), and anthropogenic emissions on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia, we perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data. Our results indicate that climate change alone could lead to a decrease in wintertime PM2.5 concentration by 4.0-12.0 µg m-3 in northern China, but to an increase in summertime PM2.5 by 6.0-8.0 µg m-3 in those regions. These changes are attributable to the changing chemistry and transport of all PM2.5 components driven by long-term trends in temperature, wind speed and mixing depth. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated to increase by 0.2-0.8 µg m-3 in both summer and winter in most regions of East Asia due to climate change alone, mostly reflecting higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions under warming. The impacts of LCLU change alone on PM2.5 (-2.1 to +1.3 µg m-3) are smaller than that of climate change, but among the various components the sensitivity of SOA and thus organic carbon to LCLU change (-0.4 to +1.2 µg m-3) is quite significant especially in summer, which is driven mostly by changes in biogenic VOC emissions following cropland expansion and changing vegetation density. The combined impacts show that while the effect of climate change on PM2.5 air quality is more pronounced, LCLU change could offset part of the climate effect in some regions but exacerbate it in others. As a result of both climate and LCLU changes combined, PM2.5 levels are estimated to change by -12.0 to +12.0 µg m-3 across East Asia between the two periods. Changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating PM2.5 air quality in East Asia during the study period, but climate and LCLU changes could lead to a substantial

  19. Resuspension of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuzevicius, D.; Kliucininkas, L.; Prasauskas, T.; Krugly, E.; Kauneliene, V.; Strandberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Winter street sanding activities in northern countries are often associated with elevated pollution by particulate matter. There are indications that street dust may act as a source of particle-bound PAHs. However, very few studies have addressed the resuspension potential of PAHs from street dust. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess emissions of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust by laboratory-scale simulation of particle resuspension. Increases in air velocity caused proportional increases in air-borne PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM total concentrations, while the concentrations of PAHs associated with resuspended particles did not show clear statistically significant dependence on air velocity. A substantial difference in particle and PAH resuspension was observed between dust from the city center street and dust from the connecting street. The data obtained in the present study indicate that street dust may be a significant source not only of PMs but also of particle-bound PAHs in ambient air.

  20. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles.

  1. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  2. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  3. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  4. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  5. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  6. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Wheeler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  7. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  8. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene′s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

  9. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  10. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  11. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  12. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  13. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  14. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India. Received 25/0 I/90, in revised form 16/02/90, accepted 22/03/90. Particulate material settled on aluminium and glass panels during their immersion in estuarine water was analysed... of the particulate material recovered from these two surfaces. Highly significant correlations were observed between the bacterial numbers and the measured parameters. This probably suggests that bacteria were the major source of the particulate matter settled...

  15. Inferring Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Chinese Social Media Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhu; Kokas, Aynne; Zhang, Rui; Cohan, Daniel S.; Wallach, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have increasingly linked air pollution to specific health outcomes, less well understood is how public perceptions of air quality respond to changing pollutant levels. The growing availability of air pollution measurements and the proliferation of social media provide an opportunity to gauge public discussion of air quality conditions. In this paper, we consider particulate matter (PM) measurements from four Chinese megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu) together with 112 million posts on Weibo (a popular Chinese microblogging system) from corresponding days in 2011–2013 to identify terms whose frequency was most correlated with PM levels. These correlations are used to construct an Air Discussion Index (ADI) for estimating daily PM based on the content of Weibo posts. In Beijing, the Chinese city with the most PM as measured by U.S. Embassy monitor stations, we found a strong correlation (R = 0.88) between the ADI and measured PM. In other Chinese cities with lower pollution levels, the correlation was weaker. Nonetheless, our results show that social media may be a useful proxy measurement for pollution, particularly when traditional measurement stations are unavailable, censored or misreported. PMID:27649530

  16. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  17. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  18. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  19. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may...

  20. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  1. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM) component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles could be more pathogenic, as a result of their gre...

  2. Simulation of Height of Stack Pile using SCREEN3 module for Particulate Matter Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Musalaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is regarding the air pollution in selected areas near to port (beside stack yards of port interested in particulate matter pollution. In this study, the amount of air pollution due to particulates is analyzed. The amount of air pollution is estimated using SCREEN 3 Methodology. In this study, SCREEN 3 methodology is a predefined software tool which can be used to estimate particulate matter pollution levels at different source release heights, terrain heights and at particular receptor height. The results obtained are reported and finally concluded that to avoid the pollution in the selected area, it is better to construct a periphery along the sides of stack yard (source of pollution

  3. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were...

  4. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ge Li; Xiang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer.

  5. Characterization of fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-yan; HU Min; WANG Li; HUANG Xiao-feng; ZHANG Yuan-hang

    2004-01-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected by a three-stage cascade impactor at two kinds of Chinese restaurants to characterize fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking sources. Major individual organic compounds have been quantified by GC/MS, including series of alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanals, alkan-2-ones and PAHs.Alkanes and ketones make up a significant fraction of particle-phase organic compounds, ranging from C11 to C26,and C9 to C19, respectively. In addition, other organic compound classes have been identified, such as alkanols,esters, furans, lactones, amides, and nitriles. The mass concentrations of fine particles, alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and PAHs in air emitted from the Uigur style cooking are hundreds times higher than ambient PM2.5 in Beijing.

  6. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

    2012-06-15

    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  7. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  8. Characterisation of particulate matter in different types of archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašková, Ludmila; Smolík, Jiří; Vodička, Petr

    2015-04-01

    To determine the composition of particulate matter (PM) in the indoor environments of four different types of archives (three naturally ventilated and one filtered), intensive size-resolved sampling was performed for four seasons of the year. For reconstituting indoor PM, nine aerosol components were considered. Organic matter was the dominant component of both fine and coarse fractions and represented approximately 50-80% of the PM. In the fine fraction, the next most abundant components were elemental carbon and sulphate, and in the coarse fraction the next most abundant were crustal matter, sulphate and nitrate. The resulting mass closure explained 95(±13)% and 115(±38)% of the gravimetric indoor PM in the fine and coarse size fractions, respectively. The results revealed that all the particles found indoors can be considered to be potentially threatening to the stored materials. The results also showed that the most important source of indoor PM in the naturally ventilated archives was penetration from the outdoor air, whereas in the filtered archive, the concentrations of particles were strongly reduced. In naturally ventilated archives the influence of domestic heating, road traffic and local sources (industrial pollution, camp fires) was observed. Furthermore, activities of the staff were identified as an indoor source of coarse particles in all archives.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Electrostatic Spray Wet Scrubber to Control Particulate Matter Emissions from Poultry Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant emitted from animal production and has significant impacts on health and the environment. Abatement of PM emissions is imperative and effective PM control technologies are strongly needed. In this work, an electrostatic spray wet scrubber (ESWS) techn...

  10. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  11. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  12. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  13. Development of the high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particulate matter: enabling advanced sensitivity analysis in air quality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity analysis of ISORROPIA, the inorganic aerosol module of CMAQ. A case-specific approach has been applied, and the sensitivities of activity coefficients and water content are explicitly computed. Stand-alone tests are performed for ISORROPIA by comparing the sensitivities (first- and second-order computed by HDDM and the brute force (BF approximations. Similar comparison has also been carried out for CMAQ results simulated using a week-long winter episode for a continental US domain. Second-order sensitivities of aerosol species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with respect to domain-wide SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions show agreement with BF results, yet exhibit less noise in locations where BF results are demonstrably inaccurate. Second-order sensitivity analysis elucidates nonlinear responses of secondary inorganic aerosols to their precursors and competing species that have not yet been well-understood with other approaches. Including second-order sensitivity coefficients in the Taylor series projection of the nitrate concentrations with a 50% reduction in domain-wide NOx emission shows a statistically significant improvement compared to the first-order Taylor series projection.

  14. Current state of particulate matter research and management in Serbia (Introductory paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jovašević-Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is the air pollutant that currently receives most attention from the atmospheric research community, the legislative authorities and the general public. Limiting particulate matter in the atmosphere which will result in significant benefits for human health, with associated positive economic consequences. Successful management of particulate matter requires scientific knowledge about particulate matter “from cradle to grave”, covering sources of particles, processes that govern their formation, composition, dispersion and fate in the atmosphere, as well as knowledge about human exposure and associated health and well being. Such knowledge allows to design and perform effective and efficient abatement measures and monitoring. This paper provides an introduction to the research and monitoring regarding particulate matter in Serbia. The contributions were first partly presented at the 2nd international workshop of the WeBIOPATR “Outdoor concentration, size distribution and composition of respirable particles in WB urban area” project in September 2009. This information provides context to the contributions in this number, and was part of the rationale of the project WeBIOPATR.

  15. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  16. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  17. Spatial distribution of respirable and inhalable particulate matter concentration in sawmills of South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ediagbonya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles in the air that can be respired into the nose or mouth during normal breathing are known as inhalable particle. Inhalation decreases gradually with increasing particle diameter. The respirable and inhalable sawdust were collected from nine different sawmills in Benin City from November 2009 to February 2010 using portable programmable SKC Air Check XR5000 High Volume Gravimetric Sampler Model 210-5000 Serial No. 20537 and I.O.M (Institute Occupational Medicine Edinburg Multi dust sampler, Batch No. 221442/1. The objective of this study is to know the concentration of inhalable suspended particulate matter fraction and the respirable suspended particulate matter fraction in sawmill particulate. The mean concentration range of the respirable suspended particulate matter was 173.61-520.83 g/m3 and the inhalable suspended particulate matter was in a range of 555.56-2,013.98 g/m3. A strong positive correlation existed for inhalable suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter. And the spatial variation was significant and remarkable.

  18. A cost-effective weighing chamber for particulate matter filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R; Box, M; Liu, L J; Larson, T V

    2001-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that has been receiving increasing attention in recent years due in part to the association between PM and a number of adverse health outcomes, including mortality and increases in emergency room visits and respiratory symptoms, as well as exacerbation of asthma and decrements in lung function. As a result, the ability to accurately sample ambient PM has become important, both to researchers and to regulatory agencies. The federal reference method for the determination of fine PM as PM2.5 in the atmosphere recommends that particle-sampling filters be conditioned and weighed in an environment with constant temperature and relative humidity (RH). It is also recommended that vibration, electrostatic charges, and contamination of the filters from laboratory air be minimized to reduce variability in filter weight measurements. These controls have typically been maintained in small, environmentally controlled "cleanrooms." As an alternative to constructing an elaborate cleanroom, we have designed, and presented in this paper, an inexpensive weighing chamber to maintain the necessary level of humidity control.

  19. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  20. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  1. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  2. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL and uranium in particulate matter (PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M, and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV, as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms.

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  4. Development of Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separater for Particulate Air Toxics Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eason, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.; Altman, R.F.; Harrison, W.A.; Hardman, R.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have identified 189 chemical elements and compounds as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the task of evaluating the health risks of these so-called air toxics and determining their acceptable emission rates. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with private industry, is sponsoring research into developing new air toxic emission control technologies. Coal typically contains trace amounts of HAPS, the species and amounts vary with coal type and source. Combustion of coal in Fossil Energy Power Systems releases these HAPs into the combustion gas where they flow to the stack by passing through the gas cleanup system. Except for mercury and selenium, the HAPs exist primarily in the solid phase temperatures typical of flue gases so they can be removed by particulate cleanup systems. In fact, these solid phase HAPs are removed with approximately the same efficiency as the other particulate matter. Table 1 shows the removal efficiency of 15 HAPs by an electrostatic precipitator having an efficiency of approximately 99 percent. These results suggest that very high removal efficiencies of particulate HAPs can be achieved by using a very high efficiency particulate collector. Epidemiological studies` suggest that there may be health benefits from reducing concentrations of particulate matter in the ambient air. This paper will discuss the development of a very high efficiency particulate collector called the Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator (EECS) system that may have the potential to significantly reduce the emission rates of both particulates and particulate air toxics from Fossil Energy Power Systems.

  5. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  6. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE USE OF GENERALIZED ADDITIVE MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER; CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FOR 9TH INT'L. INHALATION SYMPOSIUM ON EFFECTS OF AIR CONTAMINANTS ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT - INTERPRETATIONS FROM MOLECULES TO META ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open cohort ("time-series") studies of the adverse health effects of short-term exposures to ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants have been essential in the standard setting process. Last year, a number of serious issues were raised concerning the fitting of Gener...

  7. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  8. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  9. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  10. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  11. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  12. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  13. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator. (2) Gases exhibiting greater than 30 percent opacity, except for one six-minute average opacity reading in any one hour period. (b) Where the gases discharged by the fluid catalytic cracking...

  14. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  15. Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars sand bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid(Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter(SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter...

  16. Foam cell formation by particulate matter (PM) exposure: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Long, Jimin; Ji, Yuejia; Chen, Gui; Shen, Yuexin; Gong, Yu; Li, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects. We reviewed current studies about particle exposure-induced lipid laden foam cell formation. In vivo studies using animal models have shown that exposure of air pollution by PM promoted lipid accumulation in alveolar macrophages or foam cells in plaques, which was likely associated with pulmonary inflammation or systemic oxidative stress, but not blood lipid profile. In support of these findings, in vitro studies showed that direct exposure of cultured macrophages to DEP or NP exposure, with or without further exposure to external lipids, promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. The mechanisms remained unknown. Although a number studies found increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) or an adaptive response to oxidative stress, the exact role of oxidative stress in mediating particle-induced foam cell formation requires future research. There is currently lack of reports concerning VSMC as a source for foam cells induced by particle exposure. In the future, it is necessary to explore the role of foam cell formation in particle exposure-induced atherosclerosis development. In addition, the formation of VSMC derived foam cells by particle exposure may also need extensive studies.

  17. Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-GANG LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Warthin-Starry(WS)silver method could detect the air particulate matter(PM)/dust particles(Ps)located within the macrophages in situ. Methods There were 26 antopsy cases that resulted from cerebral hemorrhage(group A),silicosis(group B),and fetal death during pregnancy(group C).Samples were collected separately and serial sections were prepared from the lungs and lymph nodes and stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE),WS silver,immunohistochemistry of CD68.Furthermore,ultrathin sections were taken from the WS positive serial sections of groups A and B.Ps were observed under a transmission electron microscope(TEM)and the elements of Ps were measured by X-ray spectrum analysis(X-RSA).Results In both groups A and B,WS staining was positive for the larger and fine Ps,the so called"dust cells",but HE staining Was almost negative for fine Ps.In group C,no larger or fine Ps were found.Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 certified that the"dust cells"containing Ps were macrophages.The results of TEM and X-RSA proved that the structure and elements of Ps belonged to PM indeed.Conclusion WS staining is a better than HE staining in showing the location of PM within macrophages.

  18. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  19. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  20. Controlled exposure to particulate matter from urban street air is associated with decreased vasodilation and heart rate variability in overweight and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Rissler, Jenny; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    ) and PM2.5 levels of 24 versus 3μg/m(3), respectively. The PM contained similar fractions of elemental and black carbon (~20-25%) in both exposure scenarios. Reactive hyperemia and nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation in finger arteries and heart rate variability (HRV) measured within 1 h after exposure......, age 55 to 83 years, body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)) were included in a cross-over study with 5 hours of exposure to particle- or sham-filtered air from a busy street using an exposure-chamber. The sham- versus particle-filtered air had average particle number concentrations of ~23.000 versus ~1800/cm(3...

  1. Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

  2. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  3. In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter: contribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Schmid, Peter; Hueglin, Christoph; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM1) was collected at an urban and a rural site in Switzerland during a hibernal high air pollution episode and was investigated for estrogenicity using an estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay (ER-CALUX). All samples that were tested induced estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Observed estrogenic activities corresponded to 17beta-estradiol (E2) CALUX equivalent concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ng E2-CEQ per gram of PM1 (particulate matter of 2-hydroxyphenanthrene > 1-hydroxypyrene > 2-hydroxynaphthalene > 1-hydroxynaphthalene. Three of these hydroxy-PAHs, namely 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxynaphthalene, were detected in all PM1 extracts. However, they contributed only 0.01-0.2% to the overall estrogenic activity. Hence, mainly other estrogenic compounds not yet identified by chemical analysis must be responsible for the observed activity. The temporal trend of PM1 estrogenicity at the urban and rural site, respectively, was compared with the time course of several air pollutants (NO2, NO, SO2, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar irradiation, wind velocity). However, specific emission sources and formation processes of atmospheric xenoestrogens could not be elucidated. This study showed that ambient particulate matter contains compounds that are able to interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and potentially also interfere with estrogen-regulated pathways in vivo.

  4. Establishment and Revision of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matters in Europe and US and the Practical Usefulness to China%欧美制订颗粒污染物环境空气质量标准的历程及对我国的借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立新

    2015-01-01

    The principles and methodology of formulating ambient air quality objectives and establishing ambient air quality criteria and standards for particulate matters in Euorpe and USA were reviewed.The experience of controlling fine particulates pollution as well as the theories, mothods and progresses of establishing and revising ambient air quality standards for fine particulates in the developed countries were analyzed.Combining with the the charaterisitics of fine particulate pollution and the current status of research and development, it is suggested that multi-disciplines research organizations could be organized and supported by administration agency to carry out joint key research projects, provide scientific research conclussions and then publish China′s own national ambient air quality criteria documents for particulate matters reflecting the latest scientific knowledge.%通过回顾欧美制订空气质量目标、建立颗粒物环境空气质量基准和标准的原则和方法,借鉴发达国家治理大气细颗粒污染物的成功经验和制(修)订大气细颗粒物环境质量标准的理论、方法和历程,结合我国空气颗粒污染物的特征和科学研究的现状,提出应由国家主管部门通过顶层设计,组织相关研究机构开展联合攻关研究,提供科学研究结论,在此基础上出版我国颗粒物环境空气质量基准文件。

  5. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  6. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  7. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  8. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  9. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prikhodko, Vitaly Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies, Malden, MA (United States); Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies, Malden, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Filter Sensing Technologies, Malden, MA (United States)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  10. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  11. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  12. Integrated assessment and management of ambient particulate matter: International perspective and current research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution mitigation is a necessity in Serbia, due to its high levels of criteria pollutants in ambient environment. Successful implementation of mitigation measures requires access to sufficient information from national research, and well running and efficient local participatory processes. To support air pollution mitigation in the West Balkan region, the WeBIOPATR project started a series of bi-annual conferences in 2007. They bring together an inter-disciplinary research community and local and national administrations from Serbia and its neighborhood, to present research results from Serbia and countries all over the world, and to share knowledge and best practices of mitigation. The conferences promote research that may support integrated assessment of particulate matter, and further refinement of the “Pressures-State-Impact“ (PSI part of the “Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response“ (DPSIR framework. Integrated approach needs to be underpinned by solid disciplinary research covering e.g. air quality monitoring technologies, atmospheric and further ambient composition, atmospheric modeling, biological effects and human health. WeBIOPATR conferences report on recently performed studies of particulate matter in Serbia and abroad. Through the breadth of subjects and audience, they bring together a wide inter-disciplinary and cross-sectoral expertise in support of translation of research to practice. They also allow to present examples of successful mitigation achieved with the help of strong local participatory environmental governance, demonstrating the increasing recognition of the need to involve both public and private actors. This paper gives the main features of a full chain approach and elements of integrated approach to particulate matter research, summarizes the proceedings of the 3rd WeBIOPATR conference, and in addition, reviews the results of particulate matter monitoring and source identification studies in Serbia

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Spectra of Particulate Matter and Smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osite, A; Katkevich, J; Viksna, A; Vaivars, G, E-mail: agnese.osite@lu.lv [Department of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Riga, Valdemara Street 48, Latvia, LV-1013 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Particularly aerosol particles of fine dimensions are recognized to have a strong impact on the climate change, on the atmospheric energy budget, on the environment and on human health. In this study coarse aerosol particles with different black carbon mass concentrations were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Present work describes preparation of particulate matter samples for impedance measurements, the principles of the structure of electrochemical cell and the relationship between parameters obtained from impedance spectra and black carbon mass concentration. Using complex electrode it is possible to obtain qualitative impedance spectra of particulate matter which were sampled on glass fibre filters. The values of equivalent circuit's elements (R, Q and n) are depending on sampled mass of black carbon and mass of other carbonaceous components which are not black as well as they depend on filter pore packing with solid particles.

  14. ElectroCore separator for particulate air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.; Altman, R.F.; Olen, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Coal combustion in fossil energy power systems releases trace amounts of chemical elements identified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Most HAPs exist as solid phase particulate matter and are emitted to the atmosphere in this form. To reduce the emissions of these HAPs, a novel, high efficiency particle collection system known as the ElectroCore is being developed. The concept involves placing a high efficiency particle separator downstream of an underperforming electrostatic precipitator (ESP) that strips the particles from the incoming flow and returns them, along with a small amount of recirculation flow, back to the inlet of the ESP. The main component of the system is the ElectroCore separator. Its design is based on the mechanical Core Separator developed by LSR as a high efficiency centrifugal separator. Enhancing the Core Separator by adding an electrical field improves the separation efficiency of particles in the sub-micron range which is the range where centrifugal separation is ineffective. In the combined system, the centrifugal forces operating on the particles augmented by electrostatic forces so that the ElectroCore has high separation efficiency for particles of all sizes. Field tests have shown that the ElectroCore operating downstream of an underperforming ESP can reduce the particulate emission rate to below 4.3 ng/J (0.01 lb{sub m}/million Btu) even for ESPs with emission rates as high as 260 ng/J (0.6 lb{sub m}/million Btu). The ElectroCore system can perform with most all coal ranks or residual fuel oils (RFO) and has a potentially low capital cost.

  15. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  16. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  17. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  18. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as

  19. Discrimination of particulate matter emission sources using stochastic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the criteria pollutants which has been determined as harmful to public health and the environment. For this reason the ability to recognize its emission sources is very important. There are a number of measurement methods which allow to characterize PM in terms of concentration, particles size distribution, and chemical composition. All these information are useful to establish a link between the dust found in the air, its emission sources and influence on human as well as the environment. However, the methods are typically quite sophisticated and not applicable outside laboratories. In this work, we considered PM emission source discrimination method which is based on continuous measurements of PM concentration with a relatively cheap instrument and stochastic analysis of the obtained data. The stochastic analysis is focused on the temporal variation of PM concentration and it involves two steps: (1) recognition of the category of distribution for the data i.e. stable or the domain of attraction of stable distribution and (2) finding best matching distribution out of Gaussian, stable and normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG). We examined six PM emission sources. They were associated with material processing in industrial environment, namely machining and welding aluminum, forged carbon steel and plastic with various tools. As shown by the obtained results, PM emission sources may be distinguished based on statistical distribution of PM concentration variations. Major factor responsible for the differences detectable with our method was the type of material processing and the tool applied. In case different materials were processed by the same tool the distinction of emission sources was difficult. For successful discrimination it was crucial to consider size-segregated mass fraction concentrations. In our opinion the presented approach is very promising. It deserves further study and development.

  20. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  1. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J; Morgan, Todd E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E; Mack, William J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

  2. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, E. D.; Clayton, C. A.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.; Fort, B.; Pfeifer, G.; Lynam, D.

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (˜1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average personal exposures to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and Mn. A stratified, three-stage, two-phase probability, longitudinal sample design of the metropolitan population was employed. Residential indoor and outdoor, and ambient levels (at a fixed site and on a roof) of PM 2.5, PM 10, and Mn were also measured. Supplementary data on traffic counts, meteorology, MMT levels in gasoline, personal occupations, and activities (e.g. amount of vehicular usage) were collected. Overall precision (%RSD) for analysis of duplicate co-located samples ranged from 2.5 to 5.0% for particulate matter and 3.1 to 5.5% for Mn. The detection limits were 1.47 and 3.45 μg m -3 for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions, respectively, and 5.50 and 1.83 ng m -3 for Mn in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. These low detection limits permitted the reporting of concentrations for >98% of the samples. For PM 10, the personal particulate matter levels (median 48.5 μg m -3) were much higher than either indoor (23.1 μg m -3) or outdoor levels (23.6 μg m -3). The median levels for PM 2.5 for personal, indoor, and outdoor were 28.4, 15.4 and 13.2 μg m -3, respectively. The correlation between PM 2.5 personal exposures and indoor concentrations was high (0.79), while correlations between personal and the outdoor, fixed site and roof site were low (0.16-0.27). Indoor Mn concentration distributions (in PM 2.5 and PM 10), unlike particulate matter, exhibited much lower and less variable levels that the corresponding outdoor data. The median personal exposure

  3. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  4. Industrial Responsibility in the Emission of Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo A.; Rodrigues, O. D.; Morimoto, T.; Garg, Vijayendra K.

    1998-12-01

    The present investigation consists of the application of several techniques such as Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), and thermo-gravimetric analysis, to the identification of the particulate matter in atmospheric aerosols in the metropolitan region of Vitória (MRV), ES, Brazil. The main sources of particulate matter and its emission characteristics within the steel industry have been studied to identify its contribution to air particles in Vitória region. The analysis reveals the total amount of industrial emission of the iron containing components in the atmosphere. The presence of goethite, hematite, magnetite, pyrite, silicates, marine chloride and total absence of heavy metals could be confirmed.

  5. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (Particulate Matter (particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

  6. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  7. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    measured CO2 mixing ratios with (44/29)ρair, where ρair is the air density and 44/29 is the molar mass ratio of CO2 and air. Strictly speaking, in Eq...panel (b). The observed effect on EIn-total for 0.67 NFF but not for the 0.11 NFF condition seems to contradict the expectation that new particle...air density and 44/29 is the molar mass ratio of CO2 and air. Strictly speaking, the values of both N0 and M(CO2) in Eq. C-3.6 must be above

  8. Health effects and time course of particulate matter on the cardiopulmonary system in rats with lung inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, M.M.W.; Alink, G.M.; Kumarathasan, P.; Vincent, R.; Boere, A.J.F.; Cassee, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies associate health effects and particulate matter in ambient air. Exacerbation of the particle-induced inflammation can be a mechanism responsible for increased hospitalization and death due to cardiopulmonary events in high-risk groups of the population. Systems regulat

  9. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  10. Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Age on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Murine Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure. Advanced age is one ...

  11. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  12. Analysis of concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10, total suspended particulates and black smoke in the city of Zrenjanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Bogdana B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring on the territory of AP Vojvodina was initiated in mid 90s. During the last decade of the 20th century the development of the air quality monitoring in Serbia didn’t keep up with the pace of the other countries in the region due to political isolation and severe economic crisis. Monitoring of the particular pollutants was conducted unsystematically and sporadically. Data presented in this paper were obtained on the territory of the city of Zrenjanin, which represents typical agglomeration in the region in regard to its geographical location, population, level of industry development and the presence of natural gas as energy product in the remote and domestic heating system of residential objects. Available data on the concentration levels of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, TSP (total suspended particulates and BS (black smoke during the period of 2005-2007 (three cold and three warm seasons have been used in this work in order to carry out analysis and comparison of the daily concentration levels of PM10, TSP and BS and their seasonal variation.

  13. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  14. Seasonal variations in the concentration and solubility of elements in atmospheric particulate matter: a case study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepari S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is characterized by a variety of chemical components, generally produced by different sources. Chemical fractionation of elements, namely the determination of their extractable and residual fractions, may reliably increase the selectivity of some elements as tracers of specific PM sources. Seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of elemental concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of the extractable and residual fraction of elements in different size fractions in the range 0.18 – 18 μm are reported in this paper. The effect of the ageing of the air masses is discussed.

  15. 用于可吸入颗粒物采样器校准的标准微粒研制和定值%Development and certified value of standard particulate matters for calibrating inhalable particulate matter sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓春凤; 李绍海; 曹放; 黄玉虎; 杨书义

    2013-01-01

    An inhalable particulate matter (PM10) sampler is the necessary device for monitoring PM10 in air. The accuracy of the device is a primary character in evaluation of the apparatus' metro-logical performance. Spherical standard particulate matter is ideal for the calibration of samplers. Five kinds of monodisperse microsphere size particulate matters which are made from polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene were developed and certified. The technical specifications of the developed standard particulate matters meet the requirements for cutting test of inhalable particulate matter PM10 sampler.%可吸入颗粒物PM10采样器(切割器)适用于大气中PM10可吸入颗粒物监测,采样器的准确性是评价其计量性能的主要指标.校准采样器需使用球形标准微粒,介绍5种微米级单分散交联聚苯乙烯球形微粒的研制和定值.所研制的5种微粒粒度标准物质,其技术指标满足我国对可吸入颗粒物PM10采样器的切割测试要求.

  16. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria.

  17. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  18. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  19. Correlation Study Between Suspended Particulate Matter and DOAS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Fuqi; LIU Jianguo; XIE Pinghua; ZHANG Yujun; LIU Wenqing; Hiroaki KUZE; Nofel LAGROSAS; Nobuo TAKEUCHI

    2006-01-01

    Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM).A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6-13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

  20. Fe, Ni and Zn speciation, in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiodjio Sendja, Bridinette; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Vassura, Ivano; Giorgetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The study of elemental speciation in atmospheric particulate matter is important for the assessment of the source of the particle as well for the evaluation of its toxicity. XANES data at Fe, Ni, and Zn K-edges are recorded on a sample of urban dust (from the Rimini area of Emilia Romagna region, Italy) deposited on a filter and on the NIST standard reference material 1648. Using linear combination fitting we give an indication of the chemical species of the three metals present in the samples.

  1. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  2. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  3. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  4. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  5. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  6. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  7. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  8. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  9. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sugimoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10 by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  10. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10) by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  11. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  12. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  13. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel Andre E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles could be more pathogenic, as a result of their greater propensity to induce systemic prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. Much is still unknown about the toxicology of ambient particulates as well as the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the induction of adverse cardiovascular health effects. It is expected that better understanding of these effects will have large implications and may lead to the formulation and implementation of new regulatory policies. Indeed, we have found that ultrafine particles ( Extensive epidemiological evidence supports the association of air pollution with adverse health effects 123. It is increasingly being recognized that such effects lead to enhanced morbidity and mortality, mostly due to exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases and predominantly those of ischemic character 4. Indeed, in addition to the classical risk factors such as serum lipids, smoking, hypertension, aging, gender, family history, physical inactivity and diet, recent data have implicated air pollution as an important additional risk factor for atherosclerosis. This has been the subject of extensive reviews 56 and a consensus statement from the American Heart Association 7. This article reviews the supporting epidemiological and animal data, possible pathogenic mechanisms and future perspectives.

  14. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed.

  15. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  16. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  17. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  18. 42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification. (a) The respirator manufacturer, as part of...

  19. Performance testing and classification of air filters and particulate air filters. Leistungspruefung und Klassifikation von Luft- und Schwebstoffiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, W.

    1991-09-01

    Standarized rest methods are available for evaluation of the performance of air filters and particulate air filters. While air filters are tested applying the internationally accepted ASHRAE method, standard particulate air filters, or HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air), may be tested and classified based on different standards. The methods applied, however, are insufficiently accurate with ragard to high-performance particulate air filters, or ULPA filters (ultralow penetration air). Improved, European-standard test methods are currently being developed. The CEN/TC 195 committee is responsible for the European standardization of air filters and particulate air filters. Details are given about the present situation of air and particulate air filter performance testing and classification. (orig.).

  20. Spatially resolved intake fraction estimates for primary and secondary particulate matter in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, Carmen; Parvez, Fatema; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled from a given source, to quantify how emissions from different regions proportionally contribute to human exposure to both primary and secondary particulate matter species. The intake fraction for secondary species is defined using the common atomic constituents between precursor species and products, allowing estimates to include both primary and secondary species. The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) regional air quality model is used to calculate the intake fraction for twenty-five source regions throughout the contiguous United States over four seasons. The calculations use spatially explicit emissions and population density to more accurately capture the variation in intake fraction between regions. The spatially explicit emissions allow for the calculation of spatial trends and variations within the intake fraction. More specifically it allows for the calculation of the amount of intake that occurs within a given distance of the emissions source or source region. Based on the results sulfate inhalation occurs over larger distances than other particulate matter species. For most regions, a substantial fraction (>75%) of the inhalation occurs within 50 km for all seasons, demonstrating that efforts to reduce emissions will have the largest health impact on the local community. Furthermore the distance over which 75% of the inhalation occurs increases by 20% for all species during the winter and a larger percentage of pollutants emitted during the winter are inhaled relative to pollutants emitted during other seasons. This demonstrates that emission reductions during the winter will have a greater impact on health than reductions during other seasons.

  1. Particulate matter pollution and population exposure assessment over mainland China in 2010 with remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-05-14

    The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation.

  2. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  3. Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10 and fine particles (PM2.5. In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5 over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region. Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation.

  4. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    samplers on two locations in Copenhagen. Furthermore the deposited particulate matter has been measured in soil near highways and at remote sites, and finally the ad- and absorbed particulate matter has been measured on plant leaves sampled in Copenhagen and at remote sites. Tire and bitumen particles....... Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. This implies a presence of larger particles, typically larger than...... is approximately constant to a depth of 10 cm. The leaf samples indicate a slightly higher tire particle concentration on the adaxial side compared to the abaxial side and an increased surface retention for pubescent leaves. About 0.5 m g tire pr. cm2 leaf is found near a highway, and about 65...

  5. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  6. 77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2... other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as...

  7. Atmospheric Input of Particulate Matter In The Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Kriews, M.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Nothig, E.-M.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stein, R.; Vinogradova, A. A.

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols in the Arctic are of importance for atmo- spheric chemistry and climate. But up to now atmospheric input of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean is studied insufficiently. We began aerosol research in the Arctic marine boundary layer in 1991. In this presentation we summarized data on parti- cle size and composition of aerosols and on particulate material in snow cover col- lected during 10 years (1991-2000) onboard of Russian research vessels and German icebreaker "Polarstern". Concentrations of most chemical elements are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. A catastrophic increase of ele- ment content due to anthropogenic factor in the summer-autumn has not been found. The balance calculations based on our and literature data show that the contribution of aerosols to formation of the sedimentary material in the Arctic is close to the con- tribution of the river sediments beyond the marginal filters of rivers. For some chem- ical elements (Pb, Sb, Se, V) the aeolian source is very important. Our studies were financially supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (grants RFBR 96- 05-00043 and 98-05-64279), DFG (grant STE-412/10-2) and by German and Russian Ministries for Science and Technology in the frame of Otto Schmidt Laboratory fel- lowship and "Laptev Sea 2000" project.

  8. Simulations of dispersion and deposition of coarse particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dispersion and deposition of coarse anthropogenic particulate matter (PMc, aerodynamic diameters> 10 mm), a FORTRAN simulator based on the numerical integrator of Bulirsch and Stoer has been developed. It calculates trajectories of particles of several shapes released into the atmosphere under very general conditions. This first version, fully three-dimensional, models the meteorology under neutral stability conditions. The simulations of such pollutants are also important because the standard software (usually originating in the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA-) describe only the behavior of PM10 (diameter less than 10 mm). Bulirsch and Stoer integrator of widespread use in astrophysics, is also very fast and accurate for this type of simulations. We present 2D and 3D trajectories in physical space and discuss the final deposition in function of various parameters. PMc simulations results in the range of 50-100 mm and densities of 5.5 g cm-3 emitted from chimneys, indi...

  9. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  10. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  11. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  12. Composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in a mechanically ventilated University building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Yasreen Mohamed; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-11-01

    This study analyses the composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in the Biology department building, in UKM. PM10 were collected using SENSIDYNE Gillian GilAir-5 Personal Air Sampling System, a low-volume sampler, whereas the concentration of heavy metals was determined using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of PM10 recorded in the mechanically ventilated building ranges from 89 µgm-3 to 910 µgm-3. The composition of the selected heavy metals in PM10 were dominated by zinc, followed by copper, lead and cadmium. It was found that the present of indoor-related particulate matter were originated from the poorly maintained ventilation system, the activity of occupants and typical office equipments such as printers and photocopy machines. The haze event occured during sampling periods was also affected the PM10 concentration in the building. This results can serve as a starting point to assess the potential human health damage using the life cycle impact assessment, expressed in term of disability adjusted life year (DALY).

  13. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  14. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  15. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  16. Collaboration in air particulate analysis through sharing of regional resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flora L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-03-01

    The air pollution research program of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute is being pursued in support of the 1999 Clean Air Act. This is being undertaken as part of the RCA/IAEA subproject, 'Air Pollution and Its Trends'. Since the PNRI research reactor (PRR-I) has been on extended shut down for the past 18 years, the PNRI depends solely on X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for elemental characterization of air particulate samples. NAA is a powerful and efficient tool in air particulate characterization and is used in many national programs in the region. Collaboration in air pollution studies through exchange of samples between XRF and NAA groups will widen the range of elements that could be detected by one group. In the RCA/IAEA RAS/4/020, 'Improvement of Research Reactor Operation and Utilization' sharing of research reactor facilities is encouraged. Working out of mechanisms for such sharing will be advantageous to research groups without operational research reactors. This could take the form of exchange of samples or fellowship at a regional host institution. This will allow training of technical staff from countries without research reactors, thus ensuring continuing expertise in NAA even after long periods of reactor shutdown. (author)

  17. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Li; Travis Losser; Charles Yorke; Reinhard Piltner

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse dista...

  18. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  19. Characterization of Particulate Matter Transport across the Lung-Surfactant Barrier using Langmuir Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeremy; Dennin, Michael; Levine, Alex; George, Steven

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the transport of particulate matter acros the lung using a monolayer of bovine lung surfactant tagged with NBD in conjunction with alveolar lung cells below the air-water interface. The monolaye dynamically compressed and expanded to induce phase transitions as well as buckling and folding. Polystyrene spheres ranging from 20 to 500 nm in diameter were tagged with fluorescent molecules and deposited on the monolayer. We will present results of preliminary studies of the transport of beads from the air-water surface to the lung cells through the monolayer. Characterization of the transfer will focus on differential fluorescence microscopy to distinguish uncoated beads from beads from beads coated with surfactant monolayers. The presence or absence of surfactant associated with the beads provides insight into potential transfer mechanisms and will serve as an input into models of the bead transfer. We gladly acknowledge the support of NSF grant DMR-1309402.

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  1. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  2. Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Brent Loren

    The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will

  3. Characterization of particulate matter originating from gas compression stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrat, A.M.; Feng, X.; Skinner, F. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada); Fu, L. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada); Venugopal, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to obtain an inventory of source emission data for characterization of particulate matter (PM) originating from two gas compression stations at TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. located in Oakland and Princess, Alberta. The objective was to determine source apportionment and to evaluate source emission management on the ambient PM2.5 and PM10 levels. A URG dilution sampler was used for isokinetic sampling of stacks operating at high temperatures. The dilution made it possible to lower the temperature to normal values before collecting particulates. This resulted in condensation of volatile constituents of PM. In this study, a total of 65 elements and 10 water-soluble ions, organics, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and inorganics were characterized and quantified. Fine and coarse fractions were collected on filters, quartz and Teflon for analysis using Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Water-soluble ions were identified using ion chromatography, while the organics were measured using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The study provided information on methods of analysis for heavy metals, water-soluble ions, elemental and organic carbon and extractable organic compounds. The chemical characterization results of the study were also included. Small amounts of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc were detected in fine and coarse PM. Most of the element/metal concentrations were found to be below ICP-MS detection limits. The emission of heavy metals from the stacks of TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. was found to be relatively low because of the use of natural gas fueled turbine engines instead of coal-fired boilers. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Effects of particulate air pollution on human health. Statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution; Partikulaere Luftverunreinigung und ihre Folgen fuer die menschliche Gesundheit. Stellungnahme der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie (DGP) zur aktuellen Feinstaub-Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)

  5. SAFETY HEALTH IMPACTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM EXCAVATION WORK SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pizzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a linear relationship between airborne particulates and effects on human health. This study examines the risk that can be run by populations which are exposed to significant pollutant sources such as excavation in urban areas for renovation work. The health risk assessment methodology defined by the WHO air quality guidelines for Europe was applied to assess the possible health effects from exposure to PM10 for daily average concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 and greater than 100 µg m-3 for three consecutive days and for increments of 10 µg m-3. The methodology adopted was based on daily average concentrations detected in a monitoring period of 8 months in different areas in and around the excavation work site with concentrations of PM10 below or above the legal limits. The exposure estimates calculated show that urban areas with excavation work sites are damaging to human health, due to the large number of people exposed and the already high concentrations of PM10 within cities. It was found that even when in parts of a work site legal limits of PM10 are not exceeded, adverse effects on health still occur. The application, in the present study, of the WHO methodology of exposure assessment indicates the risk ratio for effects on human health. Epidemiological data do not suggest exposition threshold values below which there are no adverse health effects. It is not possible to identify a PM10 concentration value, attributable to an additional source, such as an excavation work site, below which there is no damage. The purpose of this research is therefore to stimulate debate and decisions by public authorities, in order to deepen knowledge and to address issues related to airborne particulates.

  6. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects.

  7. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  8. Indoor and outdoor measurements of vertical concentration profiles of airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, A; Deuchar, C N; Colls, J J

    1998-05-04

    Vertical concentration profiles of various particle size ranges of airborne particulate matter were measured from ground level up to 3 m, in outdoor and indoor environments. Indoor measurements were carried out in an electronics workshop, while two outdoor environments were chosen: a street canyon cutting across a town and an open field situated in a semi-rural environment. The novel measurement technique employed in this experimental work, which can also be used to determine vertical concentration gradients of pollutants other than airborne particles in different environments, is given particular attention. Analyses of the collected data for the environments considered are presented and some conclusions and plausible explanations of the profiles are discussed. The workshop and street canyon environments exhibited larger concentrations and vertical concentration gradients as compared to the sports field. This indicates that people breathing at different heights are subjected to different concentrations of airborne particulate matter, which has implications for sitting air pollution monitors intended for protection of public health and estimation of human exposure.

  9. Coarse particulate matter in the atmosphere: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Li, R.; Hannigan, M.; Baker, K.; Hallar, A. G.; Clements, N.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter in the coarse mode (PMc) is defined as particles with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 microns. These particles have been associated with detrimental health impacts, air quality issues, and can play a role in atmospheric processes that contribute to climate forcings. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 and 2.5 microns are regulated in the United States; yet the knowledge about PMc is very uncertain and few studies have characterized the nature, chemistry, and sources of these particles. This presentation will review the current understanding of the characteristics of PMc in the atmosphere, including an overview of a recent study to understand the temporal and spatial patterns of PMc mass concentrations across the western U.S. Routinely measured concentrations of PMc are compared to modeled values to identify the current gaps in our ability to simulate PMc. Current models that simulate PMc not only underestimate the magnitude of the emissions of particles in the coarse size range, but also misrepresent the spatial heterogeneity and the temporal variations in the atmospheric concentrations of PMc in both rural and urban atmospheres. Recent measurements show that organic compounds contribute significantly to PMc mass concentrations in the western U.S. The results from chemical and biological measurements suggest some sources of PMc are currently not included in the emission inventories and chemical transport models. Suggested improvements to existing models of PMc include new emission factors, temporal allocations, and chemical speciation.

  10. The Effect of Fine and Coarse Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality: A National Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM2.5 and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD),...

  11. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  12. In vitro effects of pollutants from particulate and volatile fractions of air samples-day and night variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jiří; Giesy, John P; Klánová, Jana; Hilscherová, Klára

    2013-09-01

    Chemicals in air were characterized for potential interference with signaling of estrogen, androgen, and arylhydrocarbon (AhR) receptors, which are known to play an important role in endocrine-disruptive changes in vivo. Previously, effects of this type have been studied mainly in particulate matter in the ambient air from various localities. In this study, both volatile and particulate fractions of air from three sites in Banja Luka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina) were investigated to describe the distribution of endocrine-disrupting contaminants on a small spatial scale. Circadian variability of air pollution was investigated by collecting samples during both day and night. Air samples collected from urban localities at night were more potent in producing the AhR-mediated effects than those collected during daytime. This trend was not observed at the reference rural location. None of the samples showed significant estrogenic or androgenic activity. On the other hand, anti-androgenicity was detected in both particulate and vapor phases, while anti-estrogenicity was detected only in the particulate fraction of air from all localities. The AhR-mediated potencies of samples were associated primarily with non-persistent compounds. Based on the concentrations of 28 individual compounds, PAHs accounted for approximately 30 % of the AhR-mediated potency determined by the bioassay. The results show that there can be a significant difference between levels of bioactive compounds in air between daytime and nighttime.

  13. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  14. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  15. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  16. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays; Campionamenti di particolato atmosferico in area urbana per valutazioni di potenziale mutageno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory.

  17. 77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate... disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed...

  18. 78 FR 78315 - Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate Matter Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area (Logan UT-ID). The EPA is proposing a limited approval of PM 2..., the disclosure of which is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted...

  19. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE.PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Environmental particles (PM...

  20. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  1. Relationship between the suspended particulate matter and microorganisms in the White Sea waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Mitzkevich, I. N.; Veslopolova, E. F.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    During the summer periods of 2003-2005, the spatial and vertical distributions of the suspended particulate matter and bacteria in stratified and homogeneous waters of the White Sea was studied. The results of the study of various quantitative characteristics of the suspended particulate matter (first of all, the area of the surface and the volumetric and mass concentrations) and the abundance of microorganisms in the water are discussed. A direct correlation between the value of the surface area of the suspended particulate matter and the total number of bacteria in the water is revealed. However, it was manifested only during the early summer period of the observations and was not expressed at the end of the summer. The enhanced surface area of the suspended particulate matter can indicate the higher biochemical activity of its particles. The influence of the pelitic fraction on the bacteria abundance in different parts of the sea during the summer is estimated.

  2. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

  3. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  4. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  5. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  6. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  7. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Scenna, N.J. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); INGAR - Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (Fundacion ARCIEN - CONICET), Avellaneda 3657, S3002 GJC Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: nscenna@santafe-conicet.gov.ar

    2009-10-15

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM{sub 2.5}-PM{sub 10})

  8. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  9. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  10. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Lotte [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Buczynska, Anna [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Walgraeve, Christophe [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); Delcloo, Andy [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Van Grieken, Rene [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); De Backer, Hugo [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Nemery, Benoit, E-mail: ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  11. Satellite-based retrieval of particulate matter concentrations over the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Hareb, Fahad; Eibedingil, Iyasu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an empirical algorithm was established to retrieve particulate matter (PM) concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Validation of the proposed algorithm using ground truth data demonstrates its good accuracy. Time series of in situ measured PM concentrations between 2014 and 2015 showed high values in summer and low values in winter. Estimated and in situ measured PM concentrations were higher in 2015 than 2014. Remote sensing is an essential tool to reveal and back track the seasonality and inter-annual variations of PM concentrations and provide valuable information on the protection of human health and the response of air quality to anthropogenic activities and climate change.

  12. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, T.E.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has been estimated to contribute more than 7% to the total global human disease burden from 1990 to 2013 (http://healthdata.org/gbd). Ambient (outdoor) and household indoor PM2.5 exposures are reported to account for 41% and 58% of this impact, respectively....... Model and parameters are tested in a case study on the production and rocessing of rice in three distinct scenarios covering urban China, rural India and U.S.-Europe. Recommendations are to use this coupled, generic framework whenever emission locations are unknown and to apply spatial models henever...... emission locations are known. Our study constitutes a first step towards providing guidance on how to include health effects from PM2.5 indoor air exposures in product-oriented impact assessments....

  13. Simulation of the transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausstein, H.

    2008-11-06

    Numerical simulations of the transport of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Rio de la Plata estuary were performed with a three dimensional model for coastal waters driven by wave sand currents. Aturbulence based flocculation approach is implemented to the model. The model is for the first time applied under heavy conditions, since the Rio de la Plata has discharges up to 25000 m{sup 3}/s and SPM concentrations up to 300-400 mg/l. Such concentrations are also difficult to compute from satellite measurements. SeaWiFs satellite images served for the validation of the model results. The model is able to reproduce the shape and the position of the front as well as the zone of the turbidity maximum. It also identifies the zones of erosion and deposition which is of significant importance because of the dense ship traffic along the navigational channels towards Buenos Aires and the cities upstream the rivers. (orig.)

  14. Physicochemical factors and sources of particulate matter at residential urban environment in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Amil, Norhaniza; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Syedul Hoque, Hossain Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Long-term measurements (2004-2011) of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Kuala Lumpur urban environment. An advanced principal component analysis (PCA) technique coupled with absolute principal component scores (APCS) and multiple linear regression (MLR) has been applied. The average annual concentration of PM10 for 8 yr is 51.3 ± 25.8 μg m⁻³, which exceeds the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG) and international guideline values. Detail analysis shows the dependency of PM10 on the linear changes of the motor vehicles in use and the amount of biomass burning, particularly from Sumatra, Indonesia, during southwesterly monsoon. The main sources of PM10 identified by PCA-APCS-MLR are traffic combustion (28%), ozone coupled with meteorological factors (20%), and wind-blown particles (1%). However, the apportionment procedure left 28.0 μg m⁻³, that is, 51% of PM10 undetermined.

  15. On-line analysis of urban particulate matter focusing on elevated wintertime aerosol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Phillip V; Evans, Greg J; Tsai, Julia; Owega, Sandy; Fila, Michael S; Malpica, Oscar; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2002-08-15

    A 10-day winter sampling campaign was conducted in downtown Toronto for particulate matter (PM) air pollution in the fine (z peaks 58(C3HeN)+, 86(C5H2N)+, and nitrates, increased in number concentration while Ca and hydrocarbon particle classes concurrently decreased. On another day, sulfates were found to have increased significantly. The third event was only 4 h in duration and exhibited an increase in the number of submicron-sized K/hydrocarbons and sulfate-containing particles. In this last event, the hydrocarbons and a K to Fe ratio enrichment indicated there was likely a contribution from a combustion source. This work offers some of the first insights into single particle size and chemistry in a cold winter climate.

  16. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  17. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  18. Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hales, Nick; Burnett, Richard T.; Jerrett, Michael; Mix, Carter; Dockery, Douglas W.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution—a well-recognized environmental risk factor—and exceptional aging have not been investigated. Objectives: We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging. Citation: Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744–1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197 PMID:27138440

  19. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  20. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Viana, M.M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra del CSIC, C/Luis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artinano, B.; Salvador, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, CEAM. Parque tecnologico, C-4, sector oeste, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Santos, S. Garcia do; Patier, R. Fernandez [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km n. 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); De La Rosa, J.; De la Campa, A. Sanchez [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario de la Rabida, La Rabida, 21819 Huelva (Spain); Menendez, M.; Gil, J.J. [Departamento Mineralogia y Petrologia. Universidad del Pais Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, <10 {mu}m) in six regions of Spain in the period 1996-2000. In addition to the local pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present.

  1. Exposure to particulate matter in India: A synthesis of findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution poses a critical threat to human health with ambient and household air pollution identified as key health risks in India. While there are many studies investigating concentration, composition, and health effects of air pollution, investigators are only beginning to focus on estimating or measuring personal exposure. Further, the relevance of exposures studies from the developed countries in developing countries is uncertain. This review summarizes existing research on exposure to particulate matter (PM) in India, identifies gaps and offers recommendations for future research. There are a limited number of studies focused on exposure to PM and/or associated health effects in India, but it is evident that levels of exposure are much higher than those reported in developed countries. Most studies have focused on coarse aerosols, with a few studies on fine aerosols. Additionally, most studies have focused on a handful of cities, and there are many unknowns in terms of ambient levels of PM as well as personal exposure. Given the high mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure in India, a deeper understanding of ambient pollutant levels as well as source strengths is crucial, both in urban and rural areas. Further, the attention needs to expand beyond the handful large cities that have been studied in detail.

  2. Particulate matter assessment of a wetland in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dongdong; Liu, Jiakai; Zhu, Lijuan; Mo, Lichun; Zhang, Zhenming

    2015-10-01

    To increase the knowledge on the particulate matter of a wetland in Beijing, an experimental study on the concentration and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was implemented in Beijing Olympic Forest Park from 2013 to 2014. This study analyzed the meteorological factors and deposition fluxes at different heights and in different periods in the wetlands. The results showed that the mean mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were the highest at 06:00-09:00 and the lowest at 15:00-18:00. And the annual concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetland followed the order of dry period (winter)>normal water period (spring and autumn)>wet period (summer), with the concentration in the dry period significantly higher than that in the normal water and wet periods. The chemical composition of PM2.5 in the wetlands included NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-), which respectively accounted for 12.7%, 1.0%, 0.8%, 0.7%, 46.6%, 33.2%, and 5.1% of the average annual composition. The concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetlands had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity, a negative correlation with wind speed, and an insignificant negative correlation with temperature and radiation. The daily average dry deposition amount of PM10 in the different periods followed the order of dry period>normal water period>wet period, and the daily average dry deposition amount of PM2.5 in the different periods was dry period>wet period>normal water period.

  3. Particulate Matter Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso During 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, N.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-05-01

    Time-series sediment trap data were collected between 2002 and 2005 from Cuenca Alfonso, a 400m-deep basin in Bahía de La Paz, a large embayment on the southwestern coast of the Gulf of California. Despite the lack of significant land drainage in this semi-dessert environment, terrigenous material, probably wind-born, dominates the sinking particulate matter. Peak lithogenic fluxes appear to be associated with higher frequencies of wind gusts stronger than 5 ms-1. Total mass flux fluctuated from week to week, and between years, averaging 277 gm-2y-1, essentially the same as radiometrically-determined accumulation rates of about 0.4 mmy-1 in cores of the underlying sediment. In 2003, the passage of 2 hurricanes induced high winds and flash flooding and the total mass flux offshore remained very high for two weeks following each event. This unusual sedimentation was equivalent to that of a full year without hurricanes and such events may account for some of the laminations found in cores. During most of 2005, on the other hand, sedimentation rates were lower than average. Although fluxes of all components tended to be highest during late fall and early winter, biogenic fluxes displayed peaks during all seasons of the year in Cuenca Alfonso. This is in contrast to the strong seasonal alternation between terrigenous sedimentation and diatom blooms observed in Guaymas Basin in the central Gulf. Furthermore, calcium carbonate dominated over biogenic silica within the marine component. Average annual fluxes of CaCO3, biogenic silica and POC were 52.5, 32.5 and 13.9 gm-2y-1, respectively.

  4. Satellite-based monitoring of particulate matter pollution at very high resolution: the HOTBAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; Milton, Edward; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a major health risk, and is responsible for millions of premature deaths each year. Concentrations tend to be highest in urban areas - particularly in the mega-cities of rapidly industrialising countries, where there are limited ground monitoring networks. Satellite-based monitoring has been used for many years to assess regional-scale trends in air quality, but currently available satellite products produce data at 1-10km resolution: too coarse to discern the small-scale patterns of sources and sinks seen in urban areas. Higher-resolution satellite products are required to provide accurate assessments of particulate matter concentrations in these areas, and to allow analysis of localised air quality effects on health. The Haze Optimized Transform-based Aerosol Retrieval (HOTBAR) method is a novel method which provides estimates of PM2.5 concentrations from high-resolution (approximately 30m) satellite imagery. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers and performs well over the complex land-cover mosaic found in urban areas. It requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, SPOT and Sentinel-2. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT), which was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery. This was done by calculating a 'haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a 'Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to estimate Aerosol Optical Thickness (a measure of the column-integrated haziness of the atmosphere) instead, from which PM2.5 concentrations can then be estimated. Significant extensions to the original HOT method include Monte Carlo estimation of the 'Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and estimation of AOT from the haziness values

  5. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physi...

  6. Associations between three specific a-cellular measures of the oxidative potential of particulate matter and markers of acute airway and nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Yang, Aileen; Hellack, Bryan; Kelly, Frank J; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Harrison, Roy M; Brunekreef, Bert; Cassee, Flemming R; Steenhof, Maaike; Hoek, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated associations between three a-cellular measures of the oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) and acute health effects. METHODS: We exposed 31 volunteers for 5 h to ambient air pollution at five locations: an underground train station, two traffic sites, a farm

  7. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  8. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  9. Quantitative exposure matrix for asphalt fume, total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica among roofing and asphalt manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerweather, William E; Trumbore, David C; Johnson, Kathleen A; Niebo, Ronald W; Maxim, L Daniel

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes available data on worker exposures to asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica (quartz) [hereinafter RCS] over a 30-year period in Owens Corning's asphalt production and roofing manufacturing plants. For the period 1977 through 2006, the air-monitoring database contains more than 1,400 personal samples for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), 2,400 personal samples for total particulate, and 1,300 personal samples for RCS. Unique process-job categories were identified for the asphalt production and roofing shingle manufacturing plants. Quantitative exposures were tabulated by agent, process-job, and calendar period to form an exposure matrix for use in subsequent epidemiologic studies of the respiratory health of these workers. Analysis of time trends in exposure data shows substantial and statistically significant exposure reductions for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica at Owens Corning plants. Cumulative distribution plots for the most recent sampling period (2001-2006) show that 95% of the asphalt fume (soluble fraction) measurements were less than 0.25 mg/m3; 95% of the total particulate measurements were less than 2.2 mg/m3; and 95% of the RCS measurements were less than 0.05 mg/m3. Several recommendations are offered to improve the design of future monitoring efforts.

  10. Influence of different weather events on concentrations of particulate matter with different sizes in Lanzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyuan Feng; Shigong Wang

    2012-01-01

    The formation and development of weather events has a great impact on the diffusion,accumulation and transport of air pollutants,and causes great changes in the particulate pollution level.It is very important to study their influence on particulate pollution.Lanzhou is one of the most particulate-polluted cities in China and even in the world.Particulate matter (PM) including TSP,PM>10,PM2.5-10,PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations were simultaneously measured during 2005-2007 in Lanzhou to evaluate the influence of three kinds of weather events - dust,precipitation and cold front - on the concentrations of PM with different sizes and detect the temporal evolution.The main results are as follows:(1) the PM pollution in Lanzhou during dust events was very heavy and the rate of increase in the concentration of PM2.5-10 was the highest of the five kinds of particles.During dust-storm events,the highest peaks of the concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 and PM1.0) occurred 3 hr later than those of coarse particles (PM>10 and PM2.5-10).(2) The major effect of precipitation events on PM is wet scavenging.The scavenging rates of particles were closely associated with the kinds of precipitation events.The scavenging rates of TSP,PM>10 and PM2.5-10 by convective precipitation were several times as high as those caused by frontal precipitation for the same precipitation amount,the reason being the different formation mechanism and precipitation characteristics of the two kinds of precipitation.Moreover,there exists a limiting value for the scavenging rates of particles by precipitation.(3) The major effect of cold-front events on particles is clearance.However,during cold-front passages,the PM concentrations could sometimes rise first and decrease afterwards,which is the critical difference in the influence of cold fronts on the concentrations of particulate pollutants vs.gaseous pollutants.

  11. Investigation of Fungal Bioaerosols and Particulate Matter in the Teaching-Medical Hospitals of Khorramabad City, Iran During 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepahvand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The presence of fungal bioaerosols in hospitals indoor environments have affected the health of patients with the defect in immunity system. Therefore, determination of the rate and species of these agents is essential. This study aimed to investigate association between fungi contamination and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in the main indoor wards and outdoor environment and to determine I/O ratio in two educational-medical hospitals of Khorramabad City. Materials and Methods: In this description-analytical study, the concentration of fungal bioaerosols and particulate matter was measured in 10 indoor parts and 2 outdoor stations over 6 mounts. The sampling was conducted using Quick Take-30 at an airflow rate of 28.3 L/min and sampling period of 2.5 min onto Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. The particulate matters were measured using Monitor Dust-Trak 8520. Moreover, the relative humidity and temperature were recorded using digital TES-1360. Results: Analysis of 288 fungi samples and 864 particulate matter samples showed that the average of fungi accumulation was 59.75 CFU/m3 and the mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the indoor environment was  27.3, 23, and 20.2 µg/m3 respectively. In addition, in ambient air the mean concentration was 135.3 CFU/m3 for fungal bioaerosols and 40.2, 35.7, and 29.8 µg/m3 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 respectively. At the total of fungi samples, 12.5% were negative and 87.5% were positive. Having 101.7%, Infection ward was the most contaminated ward. The operation ward in both hospitals showed the minimum fungal contamination. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that at all of the samplings the ratio of I/O was lower than one. It was noticed the dominancy of fungal bioaerosols and particulate matter of outdoor source on the indoor environment. In addition, a significant correlation (P < 0.001( was found between

  12. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties.

  13. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  14. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-19

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  15. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development.

  16. Investigation into the oxidative potential generated by the formation of particulate matter from incense combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; BéruBé, Kelly; Lung, Shih-Chun C; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-15

    The formation of aerosols during combustion plays an important role in allowing released products to interreact, leading to an increase in particulate matter oxidative potential. This study investigated the physicochemistry of incense combustion-derived pollutants, which were emitted into the ambient air as solid and gas phases, followed by the determination of their oxidative potential. Upon combustion of a joss stick, approximately 60% of the mass of incense raw ingredients was released into the ambient air as combustion products including 349.51 mg/g PM(10), 145.48 mg/g CO and 0.16 mg/g NOx. Furthermore, incense combustion produced significant number of primary particles (incense combustion was able to react with CaCO(3) to produce the final product of Ca(NO(3))(2) in the ambient air. Moreover, coagulation could be a vital process for the growth of primary incense combustion particles through the intermixing with volatile organics. The incense particle's reactions with other combustion-derived products could be responsible for their significant oxidative capacity of 33.1-43.4% oxidative DNA damage. This study demonstrated that the oxidative potential of incense particles appeared to be related to the process of particle formation, and also provided novel data for the respiratory exposure assessment.

  17. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  18. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Shah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049. PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  19. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiologic impact of PM2.5 exposure in the animal model and in cultured primary pulmonary macrophages. We demonstrated that PM2.5 exposure increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood vessels in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro PM2.5 exposure experiment suggested that PM2.5 could trigger oxidative stress response, reflected by an increased expression of the anti-oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), in mouse primary macrophages. Together, the results obtained through our “real-world” PM exposure approach demonstrated the pathophysiologic effect of ambient PM2.5 exposure on triggering oxidative stress in the specialized organ and cell type of an animal model. Our results and approach will be informative for the research in air pollution-associated physiology and pathology. PMID:21383899

  20. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  1. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  2. Chemical characterisation of total suspended particulate matter from a remote area in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Figueiredo, Bernardino R.; Alves, Célia A.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; da Silva, Rodrigo; Kanzawa, Simone H.; Vicente, Ana Margarida

    2016-12-01

    This research had as study object the total suspended particulate matter collected in the Alenquer region, a remote area in the Pará state. The main objectives were the characterisation of the inorganic and organic chemical composition of the aerosol, looking for seasonal patterns and the identification of probable emission sources and formation processes. A set of 30 samples were collected in the rainy (April-May) and dry season (August-September) of 2014. The analytical methods included gravimetric analysis, water-soluble ions analysis by ion chromatography (IC), elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with collision cell technology, carbonaceous content determination with a thermal-optical system and organic speciation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentrations of particulate matter ranged from 14 ± 1.3 μg·m- 3 to 31 ± 7.8 μg·m- 3, in the rainy and dry season, respectively. The carbonaceous content represented, on average, approximately 27% and 21% of the particulate matter in the rainy and dry season, respectively. Na+, Cl-, SO₄2 -, and NO₃- yield the highest concentrations in both seasons. Na was the dominant element, reflecting the transport of air masses from the Atlantic. An increase in concentrations between the rainy and dry seasons was especially noted for the terrigenous elements such Mn, Fe and Al. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, resin acids and some phenolic compounds. The primary inputs of organic constituents to the aerosols of Alenquer based on the homologous compound series and biomarkers were: (i) natural emissions from terrestrial higher plants waxes, particularly in dry season; (ii) anthropogenic emissions from diesel fuel combustion and biomass combustion, predominating during the dry season. The chemical characterisation along with the backward trajectory cluster analysis

  3. Contribution of forest fires to concentrations of particulate matter in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.; Yoshioka, M.; Arnold, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is regularly exposed to substantial levels of transboundary air pollution arising from uncontrolled forest and peat fires from specific regions within Southeast Asia. This air pollution has detrimental impacts on the lives of Singapore residents and on sensitive ecosystems. In June 2013, forest fires resulted in concentrations of particulate matter greatly exceeding levels recommended for human health, causing substantial public concern. We apply two different methods to quantify the impact of forest fires on the concentrations of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) in Singapore. Firstly, we use a global aerosol model (GLOMAP) in combination with fire emissions from GFED3 to simulate PM2.5 concentrations over the period 1998-2009. We evaluate simulated PM2.5 concentrations against long-term observations from Singapore. To identify the contributions of fires from different source regions to PM2.5 concentrations we run multiple simulations with and without fire emissions from specific regions across Southeast Asia. Secondly, we apply an atmospheric back trajectory model in combination with the GFED3 fire emissions to calculate exposure of air masses arriving in Singapore to fire emissions. Both methods use meteorology from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and are consistent with the large-scale atmospheric flow from the assimilated observations. We find that both methods give consistent results, with forest fires increasing PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore predominately during April to October. Forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan cause the greatest degradation of air quality in Singapore. The contribution of fires to PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore exhibits strong interannual variability. During years with a strong contribution from fires, our simulations show that the prevention of fires in southern Sumatra would reduce regional PM2.5 concentrations around Singapore by more than a factor

  4. Characterization of chemical composition and concentration of fine particulate matter during a transit strike in Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Luyi; Chan, Tak Wai; Ke, Fu; Wang, Daniel K. W.

    2014-06-01

    From December 10, 2008 to February 9, 2009, a strike stopped the public transit services in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. To understand the changes in air quality associated with the transit strike, the chemical composition and concentration of the fine particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), collected before, during, and after the transit strike period, were evaluated. The collected PM2.5 samples were analyzed to determine the particulate matter mass, the levels of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as the particulate non-polar semi-volatiles, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes. Particle number size distributions measured during and after the transit strike period were also compared. Results indicated that during transit strike months, particle number size distributions were entirely dominated by nucleation mode particles leading to an increase in total particle number concentration by about 79%. In addition, particulate matter, organic carbon, and elemental carbon mass concentrations also increased by over 100%. The average total PAH levels during the strike months were higher by a factor of about 7. Elevated concentrations of high molecular weight PAHs (i.e., PAH with 5 and 6 rings) observed during the strike months suggested that there were more gasoline-powered vehicles on the roads over that period. The level of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was higher by a factor of 5. Mass concentrations of hopanes and steranes were 30-98% higher during the strike months than non-strike months and exhibited strong correlations with EC suggesting the primary origin of these compounds. These results indicated that the increased traffic volume due to the passenger vehicles and the change in driving pattern during the transit strike period reduced the local air quality.

  5. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  6. Sources of organic pollution in particulate matter and soil of Silesian Agglomeration (Poland): evidence from geochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiańska, Monika J; Kozielska, Barbara; Konieczyński, Jan; Kowalski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The exact input of particular sources to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in urban and industrial agglomerations is still not well recognized. The major breakthrough is possible using geochemical markers. In the air aerosol and soil samples from areas located in the direct influence of industry/traffic in Silesian Agglomeration (Poland), PAHs and other organic compounds were analyzed, including geochemical markers (biomarkers) and polar compounds from fossil fuels and biomass. Gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were applied to investigate the composition of particulate matter and soil extracts. The results suggest that the predominant source of PAHs is fossil fuel. The presence and distribution of steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids (i.e., hopanes and moretanes) and alkyl PAHs point to traffic emissions and fossil fuel combustion, mainly bituminous coal for power and heat purposes, as the main source of PAHs in the region. Moreover, the presence of fossil fuel biomarker in particulate matter and soil extracts from a rural site, previously considered to be free of organic pollution, requires a cautious interpretation for PAHs results. Apart from the fossil fuel, also other sources of contamination were identified in particulate matter extracts by their markers: phenols and levoglucosan for biomass and diisopropylnaphthalenes for printing materials combustion. The absence of polar biomass combustion indicators in soil extracts might be related to their higher reactivity.

  7. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cong; FENG Liu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air. It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate the potential risk of organic compounds.

  8. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. METHODS: Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93 for 7-14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/- mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. RESULTS: Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10(-/- mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10(-/- mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine.

  9. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5 and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088; lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113; lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092; lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088 and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106. The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes.

  10. Assessment of particulate matter variation during 2011-2015 over a tropical station Agra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogikar, Priyanjali; Tyagi, Bhishma

    2016-12-01

    Air quality over Agra is deteriorating and causing a serious threat to people residing in the city as well as to World heritage site- Tajmahal. In the present study, daily average concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) were analysed over a period of 2011-2015 at four stations in Agra city, namely: Taj, Itmad-Ud-Daula, Rambagh and Nunhai. The concentrations are above threshold values when compared to specify standards for a healthy environment (by India, US, WHO, EU and China - Class I and Class II) for all the seasons except monsoon and the values are highest in the month of November and lowest in the month of August and September. Variation of RSPM and SPM were found to be positively correlated with each other with values of 0.76 (Taj), 0.72 (Itmad-Ud-Daula), 0.69 (Rambagh), 0.77 (Nunhai). The study illustrates that the levels of SPM and RSPM are not showing any decreasing trend over Agra even after closing of industries and taking other precautions inside the city by Government of India. The study clearly identifies that local control of pollution sources are not enough and pollution is being transported from nearby regions to keep the daily pollution value higher than threshold. Source regions of transported pollutants over Agra have been analysed by using Weighted Potential Source Contribution Function (WPSCF) for both SPM and RSPM. Wavelet analysis of monthly averaged values of RSPM and SPM data sets has shown the existence of semi-annual and annual periodicity over the study region.

  11. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  12. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among Jinan children: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2016-12-14

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explored confoundings factos of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations two days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 and PM10 were correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02-1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  13. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Dhaval P; Puig, Kendra L; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E; Combs, Colin K

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE), oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1), pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95), cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1-40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

  14. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval P Bhatt

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (<2.5 μm diameter, PM2.5 exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE, oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1, pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95, cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2 levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1-40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

  15. A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of Beijing in 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minsi; Song, Yu; Cai, Xuhui

    2007-04-15

    Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.

  16. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  17. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  18. 质谱直接测量法解析盐城市大气细颗粒物来源%Analysis of Particulate matter (PM2.5)Sources for Ambient Air in Yancheng by Direct Measurement Using Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉祝美; 咸月; 赵友政

    2015-01-01

    为全面了解盐城市大气颗粒物的组成,摸清以 PM2.5为首要污染物的来源,说清其化学组分和源贡献率,于2014年12月16日00:00—2014年12月21日09:00,利用在线单颗粒气溶胶质谱仪,对盐城市细颗粒物进行实时在线源解析。结果表明,盐城首要污染物为燃煤,占比为23.7%,其次是机动车尾气,占比为18.3%,第三位是扬尘,占总颗粒数的15.7%,生物质燃烧占比为14.8%位列第四,工业工艺源、二次无机源和其他源贡献率相对较小。%To get a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric particulates in Yancheng,PM2.5 as the primary pollutant was investi-gated in respects of its sources,chemical composition and source apportionment.The online single particle aerosol mass spectrometer was used for the real-time analysis of the sources of particulate matter in Yancheng from 12 am,December 16th to 9 am,December 21 st,2014.The results showed that the main source of particulate matter (PM2.5 )for ambient air in Yancheng was coal combustion (23.7%),followed by motor vehicle exhaust (18.3%),dust (15.7%)and biomass burning (14.8%).Industrial pollution sources,secondary inorganic sources and other sources provided relatively small contributions.

  19. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, E D; Clayton, C A; Rodes, C E; Mason, R E; Piper, L L; Fort, B; Pfeifer, G; Lynam, D

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter (PM) and elemental 3-day monitoring, 240 participants completed a TAQ on a daily basis during the actual monitoring period. Also, a subset of participants had 3-day outdoor and indoor stationary monitoring at their home (approximately 58 observations), and sampling was conducted at a fixed site (approximately thirty-three 3-day observations). The quality of data was assessed and compared to the Toronto study in terms of linearity of measurement, instrument and method sensitivity, measurement biases, and measurement reproducibility. Twenty-six of the sample filters were subjected to two analyses to characterize the within-laboratory component of precision in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs). The median RSD for Mn was 8.7%, as compared to 2.2% for Toronto. The quality assurance (QA) laboratory exhibited a clear positive bias relative to the primary laboratory for Al and Ca, but no systematic difference was evident for Mn. A high interlaboratory correlation (>0

  20. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  1. Distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean: Direct measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Burenkov, V. I.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkina, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the real distribution and spatial-temporal variations of suspended particulate matter and its main components in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the basis of direct and satellite measurements for development of new and perfection of available algorithms for converting satellite data. The distribution fields of suspended particulate matter were calculated and plotted for the entire Atlantic Ocean. It is established that its distribution in the open ocean is subordinate to the latitudinal climatic zonality. The areas with maximum concentrations form latitudinal belts corresponding to high-productivity eutrophic and mesotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate humid belts and with the equatorial humid zone. Phytoplankton, the productivity of which depends primarily on the climatic zonality, is the main producer of suspended particulate matter in the surface water layer.

  2. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hussein; Guerrina, Necola; Iu, Matthew; Maysinger, Dusica; Ariya, Parisa; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood), fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks), incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM). PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP)), those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP)) are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA) may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease. PMID:28125025

  4. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  5. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  6. Effect of microclimate on particulate matter, airborne bacteria, and odorous compounds in swine nursery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H Q; Choi, H L; Lee, J H; Suresh, A; Zhu, K

    2010-11-01

    Nursery pigs are vulnerable to environmental risks associated with the microclimate and aerial contaminants. This study was carried out to assess the effect of microclimate (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air speed) on the quantity of particulate matter (PM), airborne bacteria, and odorants in nursery houses. Data were collected from 15 farms in different locations throughout South Korea during 4 seasons; daily sampling times were from 1000 to 1100 h in the morning. A nonparametric correlation analysis revealed correlations between microclimate variables and airborne contaminants in different seasons. Over the entire year, negative correlations were observed between temperature, air speed, and some odorous compounds (P houses. On the other hand, because of the sensitivity of coliform bacteria to temperature, positive correlations were observed between temperature and total coliform and Escherichia coli counts (P houses, the relationships between the microclimate and airborne contaminants established in this study could be used to reduce those contaminants by controlling microclimate variables. The correlations established in the current study could also be helpful in establishing guidelines for good management practices in nursery houses.

  7. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide and particulate matter from cage-free layer houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingjun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; El-Mashad, Hamed; Xin, Hongwei

    2017-03-01

    Cage-free housing systems have attracted considerable attention in the United States recently as they provide more space and other resources (such as litter area, perches, and nest boxes) for hens and are considered to be more favorable from the standpoint of hen welfare. This study was carried out to quantify emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from cage-free layer houses in California and compare the values with those for other types of layer houses. Two commercial cage-free houses with 38,000 hens each were monitored from March 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. Results show that NH3 and CO2 concentrations in the houses were affected by ventilation rate, which was largely influenced by ambient air temperature. The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the houses depended on the activity of birds, ventilation rate and relative humidity of the ambient air. The average emission rates of NH3, CO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.29, 89.9, 0.163 and 0.020 g d-1 hen-1, respectively. The NH3 emission rate determined in this study was higher than those of aviary houses. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates were higher than those reported for high-rise layer houses.

  8. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  9. Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2003-12-01

    The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

  10. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  11. Outdoor particulate matter (PM and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Nasser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000–2013 was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m3, PM10 = 20 μg/m3. We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  12. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  13. The fine and coarse particulate matter at four major Mediterranean cities: local and regional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2013-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with adverse health effects to the population exposed. The aim of this paper is the identification of local and regional sources, affecting PM10 and PM2.5 levels in four large cities of southern Europe, namely: Lisbon, Madrid, Marseille, and Rome. Air pollution data from seven sampling sites of the European Union network were used. These stations were selected due to their ability of monitoring PM2.5 concentrations and providing reliable series of data. Each station's background was also taken into account. Pearson correlation coefficients and primal component analysis components were extracted separately for cold and warm periods in order to define the relationships among particle matters (PMs) and gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and evaluate the contributions of local sources. Possible seasonal variations of PM2.5/PM10 ratio daily values were also used as markers of PM sources, influencing particulate size distribution. Particle emissions were primarily attributed to traffic and secondarily to natural sources. Minimum daily values of PM2.5/PM10 ratio were observed during warm periods, particularly at suburban stations with rural background, due to dust resuspension and also due to the increase of biogenic coarse PM (pollen, dust, etc.). Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model trajectory model was used in order to compute the 4-day backward trajectories of the air masses that affected the four cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances, within a 5-year period (2003-2007), at 300, 750, and 1,500 m above ground level (AGL). The trajectories were then divided to clusters with a K-means analysis. In all four cities, the influence of slow-moving air masses was associated with a large fraction of PM10 exceedances and with high average and maximum daily mean PM10 concentrations, principally at the 300 m AGL analysis. As far the issue of the increased PM10 concentrations

  14. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  15. Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter (PM10 In an Integrated Coal Mining Complex of Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India, A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debananda Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal based thermal power generation accounts for 44.7% of the world's electricity and coal alone provides about 80% of the total energy demand in India. Energy-intensive industries deteriorate the air quality of the residential areas due to release of different pollutants, especially a range of deleterious heavy metals like Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr. Near about 53.3 percent of the coal produced every year in India has been used for thermal generation. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is major contributor of coking coal in India. JCF receives particulate matter from various sources such as, opencast coal mining and its associated activities, thermal power stations, automobiles, generator sets fuel burning, construction activities, domestic coal, cooking gas burning, etc. and even the background contribution of natural dust (crustal origin can not be ruled out, particularly, in the zones having loose topsoil. Concentration of particulate matter causes harmful impacts to the society. These multiple sources are contributing to particulates pollution in the study area.

  16. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  17. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in the western United States: a comparison between observation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide a regional characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5 spanning the western United States based on the analysis of measurements from 50 sites reported in the US EPA Air Quality System (AQS and two state agencies. We found that the observed PM10–2.5 concentrations show significant spatial variability and distinct spatial patterns, associated with the distributions of land use/land cover and soil moisture. The highest concentrations were observed in the southwestern US, where sparse vegetation, shrublands or barren lands dominate with lower soil moistures, whereas the lowest concentrations were observed in areas dominated by grasslands, forest, or croplands with higher surface soil moistures. The observed PM10–2.5 concentrations also show variable seasonal, weekly, and diurnal patterns, indicating a variety of sources and their relative importance at different locations. The observed results were compared to modeled PM10–2.5 concentrations from an annual simulation using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ that has been designed for regulatory or policy assessments of a variety of pollutants including PM10, which consists of PM10–2.5 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5. The model under-predicts PM10–2.5 observations at 49 of 50 sites, among which 14 sites have annual observation means that are at least five times greater than model means. Model results also fail to reproduce their spatial patterns. Important sources (e.g. pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, and geogenic dust were not included in the emission inventory used and/or the applied emissions were greatly under-estimated. Unlike the observed patterns that are more complex, modeled PM10–2.5 concentrations show the similar seasonal, weekly, and diurnal pattern; the temporal allocations in the modeling system need improvement. CMAQ does

  18. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in the western United States: a comparison between observation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Baker, K. R.; Hannigan, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    We provide a regional characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) spanning the western United States based on the analysis of measurements from 50 sites reported in the US EPA Air Quality System (AQS) and two state agencies. We found that the observed PM10-2.5 concentrations show significant spatial variability and distinct spatial patterns, associated with the distributions of land use/land cover and soil moisture. The highest concentrations were observed in the southwestern US, where sparse vegetation, shrublands or barren lands dominate with lower soil moistures, whereas the lowest concentrations were observed in areas dominated by grasslands, forest, or croplands with higher surface soil moistures. The observed PM10-2.5 concentrations also show variable seasonal, weekly, and diurnal patterns, indicating a variety of sources and their relative importance at different locations. The observed results were compared to modeled PM10-2.5 concentrations from an annual simulation using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) that has been designed for regulatory or policy assessments of a variety of pollutants including PM10, which consists of PM10-2.5 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The model under-predicts PM10-2.5 observations at 49 of 50 sites, among which 14 sites have annual observation means that are at least five times greater than model means. Model results also fail to reproduce their spatial patterns. Important sources (e.g. pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, and geogenic dust) were not included in the emission inventory used and/or the applied emissions were greatly under-estimated. Unlike the observed patterns that are more complex, modeled PM10-2.5 concentrations show the similar seasonal, weekly, and diurnal pattern; the temporal allocations in the modeling system need improvement. CMAQ does not include organic materials in PM10-2.5; however, speciation measurements show that organics constitute a significant component

  19. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  20. Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng

    2004-04-25

    Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.

  1. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies.

  2. Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalizations in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anyang; Mu, Zhe; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wei; Yu, Han; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases worldwide. This study examines the relationship between the exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and patient hospitalizations as a result of ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. Methods: Daily IHD hospitalization data were acquired from the Shanghai Health Insurance Bureau (SHIB) from 1 January 2013 to 21 December 2014. Daily average concentrations of air pollution as well as meteorological data were obtained from the database of Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center (SEMC) during the same time period, and all data were analyzed using standard epidemiological methodology. Generalized linear model (GLM) adjusted for time trends, weather conditions, and medical insurance policy was used to estimate the immediate and delayed effects of PMs on IHD hospitalizations, and the effects of PMs were also examined based on gender, age group and seasonal variation. Results: A total of 188,198 IHD hospitalizations were recorded during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. During this period, the average concentrations of the fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 (PM2.5) were 76 µg/m3 and 56.3 µg/m3, respectively. The effect of PMs was strongest on days when a 10 μg/m3 increment increase of PM2.5 and PM10, which coincided with an increase in IHD hospitalizations by 0.25% (95% CI: 0.10%, 0.39%) and 0.57% (95% CI: 0.46%, 0.68%), respectively. Furthermore, the effect of PMs was significantly greater in males and people between 41 and 65 years old. Conclusions: Hospitalizations of IHD was strongly associated with short-term exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. PMID:28208759

  3. Particulate organic matter in the sea: the composition conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart; Arnosti, Carol

    2004-12-01

    As organic matter produced in the euphotic zone of the ocean sinks through the mesopelagic zone, its composition changes from one that is easily characterized by standard chromatographic techniques to one that is not. The material not identified at the molecular level is called "uncharacterized". Several processes account for this transformation of organic matter: aggregation/disaggregation of particles resulting in incorporation of older and more degraded material; recombination of organic compounds into geomacromolecules; and selective preservation of specific biomacromolecules. Furthermore, microbial activities may introduce new cell wall or other biomass material that is not easily characterized, or they may produce such material as a metabolic product. In addition, black carbon produced by combustion processes may compose a fraction of the uncharacterized organic matter, as it is not analyzed in standard biochemical techniques. Despite these poorly-defined compositional changes that hinder chemical identification, the vast majority of organic matter in sinking particles remains accessible to and is ultimately remineralized by marine microbes.

  4. Diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in fine particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Kai-Ling; Li, Hong-Yu; Sun, Li-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing ammonia emissions could exacerbate air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. This study investigated the diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox) in PM2.5 collected in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megalopolis, China. Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2 was the most dominant AOA. Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas aestuarii were the most dominant AOB. Comammox were present in the atmosphere, as revealed by the occurrence of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata in PM2.5. The average cell numbers of AOA, AOB and Ca. N. inopinata were 2.82 × 104, 4.65 × 103 and 1.15 × 103 cell m‑3 air, respectively. The average maximum nitrification rate of PM2.5 was 0.14 μg (NH4+-N) [m3 air·h]‑1. AOA might account for most of the ammonia oxidation, followed by Comammox, while AOB were responsible for a small part of ammonia oxidation. Statistical analyses showed that Nitrososphaera subcluster 4.1 was positively correlated with organic carbon concentration, and Nitrosomonas eutropha showed positive correlation with ammonia concentration. Overall, this study expanded our knowledge concerning AOA, AOB and Comammox in PM2.5 and pointed towards an important role of AOA and Comammox in ammonia oxidation in PM2.5.

  5. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.

    2016-12-01

    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  6. Particulate Matter Contributions from Agricultural Tilling Operations in an Irrigated Desert Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Qi

    Full Text Available Sources of regional particulate matter (PM, particularly agricultural operations, must be understood in order to manage the air quality in irrigated dry climates. Direct monitoring measurements alone are useful, but not sufficient, to estimate regional PM source concentrations. This paper combines modeling with ground (point and airplane (spatial measurement methods to estimate regional PM10 (PM diameter≤10 μm contributions from agricultural operations. Hourly data from three air quality monitoring stations positioned at a 2-m height located on the west and east mesas of New Mexico's Mesilla Valley and in the valley at Anthony, NM were acquired from the New Mexico Air Quality Bureau. The study spanned the agricultural tilling season, March 1 to April 30, for the years 2008 to 2012. One- second spatial PM10 concentrations at 200 m above the valley floor were measured during a two-hour controlled field tilling operation on April 1, 2008. The HYSPLIT 4.0 (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory version 4 model was run at the corresponding times and heights, outputting PM10 concentrations from all potential agricultural tilling operations. The calculated percentage contribution (modeled PM10 concentration/measured PM10 concentration indicated that the near-surface (2-m height proportion from the agricultural operations for five seasonal averages ranged from 0.7% to 1.5% on the west and east mesas and 1.3% for the valley site at Anthony. There were 71 hourly high values of contribution ratios ranging from 30 to 100% at the three sites, depending on the wind speed and direction.

  7. Case study. Health hazards of automotive repair mechanics: thermal and lighting comfort, particulate matter and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, G

    2013-01-01

    An indoor environmental quality survey was conducted in a small private automotive repair shop during May 2009 (hot season) and February 2010 (cold season). It was established that the detached building, which is naturally ventilated and lit, had all the advantages of the temperate local climate. It provided a satisfactory microclimatic working environment, concerning the thermal and the lighting comfort, without excessive energy consumption for air-conditioning or lighting. Indoor number concentrations of particulate matter (PM) were monitored during both seasons. Their size distributions were strongly affected by the indoor activities and the air exchange rate of the building. During working hours, the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) number concentration ratio was 31 for PM0.3-1 in the hot season and 69 for the cold season. However I/O PM1-10 number concentration ratios were similar, 33 and 32 respectively, between the two seasons. The estimated indoor mass concentration of PM10 for the two seasons was on average 0.68 mg m(-3) and 1.19 mg m(-3), i.e., 22 and 36 times higher than outdoors, during the hot and the cold seasons, respectively. This is indicative that indoor air pollution may adversely affect mechanics' health. Noise levels were highly variable and the average LEX, 8 h of 69.3 dB(A) was below the European Union exposure limit value 87db (A). Noise originated from the use of manual hammers, the revving up of engines, and the closing of car doors or hoods. Octave band analysis indicated that the prevailing noise frequencies were in the area of the maximum ear sensitivity.

  8. Measures to reduce particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide; Massnahmen zur Reduzierung von Feinstaub und Stickstoffdioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegmann, Volker; Pfaefflin, Florian; Wiegand, Goetz; Wursthorn, Heike [IVU Umwelt GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    1. Clean Air Plans and Action Plans published in Germany up to October 2005 are comparatively analysed. In the synopsis, these plans outline an extensive representation of the current air pollution situation, the different methods of forecast and the measures discussed. A thematic map representing the data of the clean air plans is used as an important means to the comparative reporting. The comparison shows among other things the regional (specific to Federal States) distinctions in the methods used and described. 2. A scheme of measures is being developed and filled with data, in order to research and evaluate the measures for PM{sub 10} and NO{sub 2} reduction as described in the plans. Source groups, fields of action, types and target values serve to classify the measures. The PM{sub 10} reducing measures analysed within the framework of the project are focussing with 79 % on the source group of motor vehicle traffic. Analyses of publications in other European countries show a focus on motor vehicle traffic as well. 3. The reduction potential of measures concerning PM10 emissions of motor vehicle traffic is determined. Selected measures are being analysed in regard to their impact limit and the administrative executive level. The emission and concentration reduction potential is being calculated for different configurations. If procurable, a concluding estimation of the cost efficiency is carried out und implementation conditions and barriers are discussed. 4. The most important results in section 3 are summarized in the separate abridged report 'Traffic measures to reduce particulate matter - possibilities and reduction potentials'. (orig.)

  9. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  10. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  11. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THE ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING FREQUENCY. (R828678C010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) concentrations has an impact on human health effects and the setting of PM regulations. Since PM is commonly sampled on less than daily schedules, the magnitude of sampling errors needs to be determined. Daily PM data from Spokane, W...

  12. Oxidative potential of particulate matter collected at sites with different source characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Yang, Aileen; Strak, Maciej; Steenhof, Maaike; Hellack, Bryan; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Kelly, Frank; Harrison, Roy M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Cassee, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) has been proposed as a more health relevant metric than PM mass. Different assays exist for measuring OP and little is known about how the different assays compare. Aim: To assess the OP of PM collected at different site types and t

  13. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...

  14. Source analysis of fine and coarse particulate matter from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Torres, A.G.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The analyses of the different sources which can contribute to particulate matter (PM) emissions from livestock houses are essential to develop adequate reduction techniques. The aim of this study was to morphologically and chemically characterize several sources of PM from livestock houses. We colle

  15. The nature and distribution of particulate matter in the Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Mehra, P.; Viegas, B.E.

    Systematic seasonal variations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) along a 44-km transect of the Mandovi estuary reveal that the concentrations of SPM are low at river-end stations, increase generally seaward, and are highest at sea-end stations...

  16. Trends and the effect of management on macronutrients in fractionated particulate matter in rooster house

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  17. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  18. Comparison of continuous monitor (TEOM) and gravimetric sampler particulate matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) sampler is an EPA designated equivalent method sampler for measuring PM10 concentrations. PM10 refers to the mass fraction of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere having a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers ...

  19. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  20. Variation of reactivity of particulate and sedimentary organic matter along the Zhujiang River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianfang; Jin Haiyan; Yin Kedong; Li Yan

    2003-01-01

    To investigate organic matter source and reactivity in the Zhujiang River (Pearl River)Estuary and its adjacent areas, particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate hydrolysable amino acids (PHAA), and Chl a during two cruises in July 1999 and July 2000 were measured. The highest POC and PHAA concentration was observed in the waters with maximum Chl a. The spectra distribution,relative content (dry weight in milligram per gram), PHAA-C% POC and other indicators such as the ratios of amino acids vs. amino sugars (AA/AS) and glucosamine vs. galactosamine (Glum/Gal) suggested that particulate amino acids in the water column and sediments in the Zhujiang River Estuary were mainly derived from biogenic processes rather than transported from terrestrial erosion. In inner estuary where high turbidity was often observable, organic matter was mainly contributed by re-suspension of bottom sediments with revealed zooplankton, microbial reworked characteristics, which suggest that these organic matters were relatively "old". In the estuarine brackish region, organic matter in water column is mainly contributed by relatively fresh, easily degradable phytoplankton derived organic matter.During physical - biological processes within the eastuary, organic matter derived from phytoplankton was subjected to alteration by zooplankton grazing and bacterial reworking.

  1. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  2. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hardge, Kristin; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed at 4 depths in the eastern Fram Strait from July 2007 to June 2008 to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of the sinking particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor. Sediment traps were deployed at 196 m in the Atlantic Water layer, at 1296 and 2364 m in the intermediate and deep waters, and at 2430 m on a benthic lander in the near-bottom layer. Fluxes of total particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic matter, lithogenic matter, biogenic particulate silica, calcium carbonate, dominant phytoplankton cells, and zooplankton fecal pellets increased with depth, indicating the importance of lateral advection on fluxes in the deep Fram Strait. The lateral supply of particulate matter was further supported by the constant fluxes of biomarkers such as brassicasterol, alkenones, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and IP25 at all depths sampled. However, enhanced fluxes of diatoms and appendicularian fecal pellets from the upper waters to the seafloor in the presence of ice during spring indicated the rapid export (15-35 days) of locally-produced large particles that likely contributed most of the food supply to the benthic communities. These results show that lateral supply and downward fluxes are both important processes influencing the transport of particulate matter to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait, and that particulate matter size dictates the prevailing sinking process.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalable particulate matter (PM10 is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144 from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones.

  4. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  5. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  6. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in ambient particulate matter in an industrial area of northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates concentrations of various heavy metals in ambient particulate matter(PM)and provide evidence for prevention from air pollution.The concentrations of heavy metal components in the PM were determined by inductively coupled plasma/Mass spectrometry(ICP/MS)from September 2000 to August 2002 in a northeast industrial city in China.Concentrations of Cd,Mn,Pb,Ni,Cr and As in the PM were 9.3,461.9,588.7,69.5,205.7 and 57.4 ng/m3 in the industrial area,and 5.7,245.5,305.0,31.4,58.8 and 32.5 ng/m3 in the main road,respectively.Concentrations of these heavy metals except Cd were significantly higher in the industrial area and main road than those in the suburban area(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The change curves of the six heavy metal concentrations show their concentrations increased in the winter and spring,but decreased in the summer and autumn.The results indicate that concentrations of the metals in the PM are relatively high in the indu.strial area and main road.

  7. New chemical tracers for diesel source emission apportionment in ambient fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charland, J.P.; Caravaggio, G.; MacDonald, P.; MacPhee, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Graham, L.A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Hopanes and steranes are petroleum biomarkers that are commonly used in chemical mass balance (CMB)studies to determine the source of organic carbon from motor vehicle exhaust. Hopanes and steranes are found in engine lubricating oil and trace amounts are released during engine combustion. Since lubricating oils are used in both gasoline and diesel engines, the distribution and abundance of these biomarkers relative to organic carbon (OC) in exhaust particulate matter (PM) cannot be used to distinguish between these sources. The purpose of this study was to find molecular markers specific to diesel fuel that can be used to assess the contribution of diesel vehicles exhaust to ambient PM. PM filter samples were collected from gasoline and diesel vehicles. At the same time, samples of fresh and used engine specific lubricating oils were also collected along with gasoline and diesel fuel for organic speciation. Thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze all samples. Ambient air PM samples were also collected and analyzed for the presence of these newly proposed tracers. It was concluded that the detection of bicycloparaffins in PM can provide new insight into diesel emissions and help determine pollution sources.

  8. Analysis of the Ambient Particulate Matter-induced Chromosomal Aberrations Using an In Vitro System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Koturbash, Igor; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Kavouras, Ilias; Pathak, Rupak

    2016-12-21

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Different concentrations of particle suspension are added onto an in vitro culture of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages for a total exposure time of 72 hr, along with untreated control cells. At the end of exposure, the culture is treated with colcemid to arrest cells in metaphase. Cells are then harvested, treated with hypotonic solution, fixed in acetomethanol, dropped onto glass slides and finally stained with Giemsa solution. Slides are examined to assess the structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in metaphase spreads at 1,000X magnification using a bright-field microscope. 50 to 100 metaphase spread are scored for each treatment group. This technique is adapted for the detection of structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs), such as chromatid-type breaks, chromatid-type exchanges, acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes, double minutes, endoreduplication, and Robertsonian translocations in vitro after exposure to PM. It is a powerful method to associate a well-established cytogenetic endpoint to epigenetic alterations.

  9. Hidden cost of U.S. agricultural exports: particulate matter from ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel J

    2014-01-21

    We use a model of agricultural sources of ammonia (NH3) coupled to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). We find that food export accounts for 11% of total U.S. NH3 emissions (13% of agricultural emissions) and that it increases the population-weighted exposure of the U.S. population to PM2.5 by 0.36 μg m(-3) on average. Our estimate is sensitive to the proper representation of the impact of NH3 on ammonium nitrate, which reflects the interplay between agricultural (NH3) and combustion emissions (NO, SO2). Eliminating NH3 emissions from food export would achieve greater health benefits than the reduction of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 from 15 to 12 μg m(-3). Valuation of the increased premature mortality associated with PM2.5 from food export (36 billion US$ (2006) per year) amounts to 50% of the gross food export value. Livestock operations in densely populated areas have particularly large health costs. Decreasing SO2 and NOx emissions will indirectly reduce health impact of food export as an ancillary benefit.

  10. Development of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metal Emission Factors for Kerman Copper Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mansouri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An emission factor is a tool that is used to estimate air pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It relates the quantity of pollutants released from a source to some activities associated with those emissions. To determine the quantity of pollutant released from copper and its alloys smelting furnaces, 63 samples from emission gases were collected on cellulose ester membrane filters in three 8-hour-shifts within 24 hours during a week at three locations. Samples were weighed and analyzed to measure the heavy metal content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The emission factors for location 1, without control equipment, for total particulate matter (TPM, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd were 87.689, 2.076, 37.071, 0.917, 0.023, 0.074, and 0.021 g/Mg of products respectively. Emission factors for location 3, with dedusting unit as control equipment, were 8.139, 0.152, 3.921, 0.055, 0.003, 0.008, and 0.007 g/Mg for the above-mentioned parameters respectively. Finally those were 95.828, 2.228, 40.992, 0.972, 0.026, 0.082, and 0.028 g/Mg as a whole set respectively. Samples of location 2 were collected from inlet of dedusting unit and their results were used only for dedusting unit efficiency calculation.

  11. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  12. Evaluation of regional background particulate matter concentration based on vertical distribution characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Han

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy regional particulate matter (PM pollution in China has resulted in an important and urgent need for joint control actions among cities. It's advisable to improve the understanding of regional background concentration of PM for the development of efficient and effective joint control policies. With the increase of vertical height the influence of source emission on local air quality is weakening, but the characteristics of regional pollution gradually become obvious. A method to estimate regional background PM concentration is proposed in this paper, based on the vertical variation periodic characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer structure and particle mass concentration, as well as the vertical distribution of particle size, chemical composition and pollution source apportionment. According to the method, the averaged regional background PM2.5 concentration, being extracted from the original time series in Tianjin, was 40.0 ± 20.2, 63.6 ± 16.9 and 53.2 ± 11.1 μg m−3, respectively, in July, August and September.

  13. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  14. Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-xun; SHAO Min; ZHANG Yuan-hang; ZENG Li-min; HE Ling-yan; ZHU Bin; WEI Yong-jie; ZHU Xian-lei

    2007-01-01

    Cereal straw is one of the most abundant biomass burned in China but its contribution to fine particulates is not adequately understood.In this study, three main kinds of cereal straws were collected from five grain producing areas in China. Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) from the cereal straws subjected to control burnings, both under smoldering and flaming status, were sampled by using a custom made dilution chamber and sampling system in the laboratory. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) was analyzed.141 compounds of organic matters were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings were obtained. The results indicated that organic matters contribute a large fraction in fine particulate matters. Levoglucosan had the highest contributions with averagely 4.5% in mass of fine particulates and can be considered as the tracer of biomass burnings. Methyloxylated phenols from lignin degradation also had high concentrations in PM2.5,and contained approximately equal amounts of guaiacyl and syringyl compounds. β-Sitostrol also made up relatively a large fraction of PM2.5 compared with the other sterols (0.18%-0.63% of the total fine particle mass). Normal aikanes, PAHs, fatty acids, as well as normal alkanols had relatively lower concentrations compared with the compounds mentioned above. Carbon preference index (CPI) of normal alkanes and alkanoic acids showed characteristics of biogenic fuel burnings. Burning status significantly influenced the formations of EC and PAHs. The differences between the emission profiles of straw and wood combustions were displayed by the fingerprint compounds, which may be used to identify the contributions between wood and straw burnings in source apportionment researches.

  15. Particulate Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Issues and Research Needs Related to the Development of Air Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of particulate air pollution were highlighted at the Eighth Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, held in Edmonton, Alberta in August 1996. Despite consistent evidence for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects related to particulate air pollution, there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby particulate air pollution affects human health. Questions regarding the appropriate measure of dose for assessing exposures relevant to health outcomes and the methods used to analyze dose-response data remain unanswered. Health effects have been demonstrated across the range of exposures that have been examined, and further research in low exposure settings is necessary to explore the lower end of the dose-response curve. Although a significant body of literature has been generated, comprehensive risk assessments have not been undertaken. Examination of the chronic effects of particulate air pollution and identification of high risk populations are necessary. Although there are significant unanswered questions regarding the health effects of particulate air pollution, the available information suggests that particulate air pollution at levels consistent with current standards is associated with measurable health effects.

  16. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

  17. Trace elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the Upper Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhana, Biswas Karabi [Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endcrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Research Division, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bridgman, Howard [University of Newcastle, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science (Australia); McOrist, Gordon [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division, Menai (Australia)

    2002-05-01

    Airbone particulate matter, both total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM{sub 10}, and soil samples from four sampling sites were collected in the Upper Hunter Valley in NSW, Australia in early 1999. This study aimed to measure relative amounts of particulates during this period, and identify associated trace elements and their potential sources. Particulates were analyzed for trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Total concentrations ({mu}g m{sup -3}) of TSP and PM{sub 10} varied within 7-135 and 4-19, respectively, among sampling sites. Mean concentrations (ng m{sup -3}) of iron, barium, zinc, lanthanum, bromine, chromium, rubidium, neodymium, cobalt, hafnium, cerium, thorium, uranium, scandium and cesium varied within 2042-2867, 529-1500, 28-40, 5.45-11.44, 5.3-20.6, 10.4-12.7, 4.14-11.56, 5.4-8.1, 1.16-1.98, 1.76-2.17, 0.71-3.9, 0.21-0.50, 0.29-0.84, 0.28-1.23, and 0.18-0.30, respectively. Significant correlation between sites for many elements suggested some common source(s) of some elements. The enrichment levels of the trace elements identified some crustal materials as a predominant source of particulate matter. (author)

  18. Nanoscale Particulate Matter from Urban Traffic Rapidly Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Olfactory Epithelium with Concomitant Effects on Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hank; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Forman, Henry J.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodent models for urban air pollution show consistent induction of inflammatory responses in major brain regions. However, the initial impact of air pollution particulate material on olfactory gateways has not been reported. Objective: We evaluated the olfactory neuroepithelium (OE) and brain regional responses to a nanosized subfraction of urban traffic ultrafine particulate matter (nPM, < 200 nm) in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Methods: Adult mice were exposed to reaerosolized nPM for 5, 20, and 45 cumulative hours over 3 weeks. The OE, the olfactory bulb (OB), the cerebral cortex, and the cerebellum were analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Acute responses of the OE to liquid nPM suspensions were studied with ex vivo and primary OE cultures. Results: After exposure to nPM, the OE and OB had rapid increases of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein adducts, whereas the cerebral cortex and cerebellum did not respond at any time. All brain regions showed increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) protein by 45 hr, with earlier induction of TNFα mRNA in OE and OB. These responses corresponded to in vitro OE and mixed glial responses, with rapid induction of nitrite and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), followed by induction of TNFα. Conclusions: These findings show the differential time course of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to nPM between the OE and the brain. Slow cumulative transport of inhaled nPM into the brain may contribute to delayed responses of proximal and distal brain regions, with potential input from systemic factors. Citation: Cheng H, Saffari A, Sioutas C, Forman HJ, Morgan TE, Finch CE. 2016. Nanoscale particulate matter from urban traffic rapidly induces oxidative stress and inflammation in olfactory epithelium with concomitant effects on brain. Environ Health Perspect 124:1537–1546; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP134 PMID:27187980

  19. Predictors of coarse particulate matter and associated endotoxin concentrations in residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; MacNeill, Morgan; Kindzierski, Warren B.; Wallace, Lance; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants' activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median = 6.7 μg/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 3.4-12 μg/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4 μg/m3, IQR = 1.6-5.7 μg/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor concentrations were similar (median 4.5 μg/m3, IQR = 2.3-6.8 μg/m3, and median 4.7 μg/m3, IQR = 2.1-7.9 μg/m3, respectively). Similar predictors were identified for indoor coarse PM in both seasons and included corresponding outdoor coarse PM concentrations, whether vacuuming, sweeping or dusting was performed during the sampling period, and number of occupants in the home. Winter indoor coarse PM predictors also included the number of dogs and indoor endotoxin concentrations. Summer median endotoxin concentrations (indoor: 0.41 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.64 EU/m3) were 4-fold higher than winter concentrations (indoor: 0.12 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.16 EU/m3). Other than outdoor endotoxin concentrations, indoor endotoxin concentration predictors for both seasons were different. Winter endotoxin predictors also included presence of furry pets and whether the vacuum had a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Summer endotoxin predictors were problems with mice in the

  20. The effect of climate and meteorological changes on particulate matter in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suman; Praveen, O Divya; Satsangi, P Gursumeeran

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the distinctiveness of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5, and PM10-2.5) and meteorological effect in Pune city during 2011-2012. The PM samples were collected using Mini-Vol TAS air sampler (Airmetrics Co. Inc., 5 l min(-1) flow rate). The meteorological parameters were also measured during the study period. The analysis of 24-h average PM10, PM2.5, and PM10-2.5 concentrations showed the maximum during winter (267.2-67.2, 180.6-55.6, 138.9-11.7 μg m(-3)) followed by summer (236.1-55.5, 138.8-27.7, 125-13.8 μg m(-3)) and post-monsoon (153.3-82.3, 138.9-41.7, 41.7-14.4 μg m(-3)) and showed the lowest concentration during monsoon (98.9-27.8, 83.3-13.9, 40.0-6.0 μg m(-3)) seasons in the entire study. PM10 comprised a vast fraction of PM2.5 (61% of PM2.5), while the estimated PM2.5/PM10 ratios for monsoon, post-monsoon, winter, and summer seasons were ranged between 0.5 and 0.9, 0.51 and 0.91, 0.3 and 0.9, and 0.3 and 0.8, respectively. The 7-day back trajectories analysis for whole year shows that the air masses transported to Pune were mixed mainland-maritime such as from southwesterly, north, northwest. Chemometric analysis was applied as a tool to evaluate and predict the particulate mass concentration from available meteorological data. To achieve this, a calibration model was developed by partial least squares regression (PLSR) method and was further used to predict the PM concentrations based on meteorological data. On predicting the PM concentration from local meteorological data, the model performance and quality was found very good in case of PM10 compared to PM2.5.

  1. Personal Exposure to Particulate Matter and Endotoxin in California Dairy Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Johnny

    The average number of cows per dairy has increased over the last thirty years, with little known about how this increase may impact occupational exposure. Thirteen California dairies and 226 workers participated in this study throughout the 2008 summer months. Particulate Matter (PM) and endotoxin concentrations were quantified using ambient area based and personal air samplers. Two size fractions were collected, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and PM 2.5. Differences across dairies were evaluated by placing area based integrated air samplers in established locations on the dairies, e.g. milking parlor, drylot corral, and freestall barns. The workers occupational exposure was quantified using personal air samplers. We analyzed concentrations along with the time workers spent conducting specific job tasks during their shift to identify high exposure job tasks. Biological and chemical analytical methods were employed to ascertain endotoxin concentrations in personal and area based air samples. Recombinant factor C assays (rFC) were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) was used to quantify total endotoxin. The PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 2-116 mug/m3 for ambient area concentration and 7-495 mug/m3 for personal concentrations while TSP concentrations ranged from 74-1690 mug/m3 for area ambient concentrations and 191-4950 mug/m3 for personal concentrations. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the TSP size fraction from ambient area based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the TSP size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m3 for area based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Drylot corrals were found to have higher sample mean concentrations when compared to other locations on the dairies for PM and endotoxin. Re-bedding, of the freestalls, was found to consistently lead to higher personal

  2. Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: Results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuertes, E.; MacIntyre, E.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Bucci, S.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; Cyrys, J.; Forastiere, F.; Gehring, U.; Gruzieva, O.; Hoffmann, B.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Korek, M.; Krämer, U.; Mölter, A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Pershagen, G.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.S.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Sugiri, D.; Sunyer, J.; Wang, M.; Heinrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birt

  3. Hydrodynamic Selection of Particulate Matter Using Pinched-flow Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, John F.

    Microfluidic devices have significant potential for use in the separation and isolation of particulates, based on their chemical or physical properties. Implementation of microfluidic devices in the separation of biological components has dramatic potential advantages; however, those advantages are accompanied by equally difficult challenges relating to fabrication, consistency, robustness, and reliability of the device. One technique used to achieve particulate separations employing a microfluidic device based on the size of the particles is pinched-flow fractionation (PFF). PFF provides a simple, efficient methodology for size-based particle separation using fluid mechanics principles. We developed techniques for constructing microfluidic devices having highaspect- ratio features, quality and fidelity. In this work, a modified, confocalmicroscopy technique was developed to quantitatively determine feature quality. Microfluidic devices and independent, photolithographically-defined features were constructed using thiol-ene resins by means of a soft-lithography technique; contact liquid photolithographic polymerization (CLiPP). Resin cure times and initiator-toinhibitor ratio were found to have a strong impact on feature quality. A correlation between aspect ratio and feature thickness for thiol-enes was established, as well. Combining the optimization technique with thiol-ene materials led to the formulation of a photopolymerizable resin capable of fabricating high quality, highaspect- ratio microfluidic channels that were used to fabricate a PFF device. The final aim of this dissertation was to utilize moving-frame boundary-Integral method (MFBIM) developed in this work to assist in the design of a microfluidic iv device with enhanced separation efficiency. Previous studies of PFF devices have shown that channel geometry, flow rate and particle size all affect particle trajectories, and hence, separation efficiency. To study the effects of channel geometry

  4. Instillation of coarse ash particulate matter and lipopolysaccharide produces a systemic inflammatory response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, K.; Choi, J.E.; Lau, A.; Davis-Gorman, G.; Diven, C.; Seaver, N.; Linak, W.P.; Witten, M.; McDonagh, P.F. [Arizona Health Science Center, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Coronary ischemic events increase significantly following a 'bad air' day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 produces inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, whether pulmonary inflammation translates to a systemic response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a proinflammatory molecule often associated with the coarse fraction of PM. It was hypothesized that PM > 2.5 from coal plus LPS induce pulmonary inflammation leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Mice were intratracheally instilled with saline, PM (200 {mu} g), PM+ LPS10 (PM+ 10 {mu} g LPS), or PM+ LPS100 (PM+ 100 {mu} g LPS). Eighteen hours later, histologic analysis was performed on lungs from each group. Pulmonary and systemic inflammation were assessed by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6 in the pulmonary supernatant and plasma. In a follow-up study, the effects of LPS alone were assessed. Histologic analysis revealed a dose-dependent elevation in pulmonary inflammation with all treatments. Pulmonary TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 both increased significantly with PM+ LPS100 treatment. Regarding plasma, TNF-{alpha} significantly increased in both PM+ LPS10 and PM+ LPS100 treatments. For plasma IL-6, all groups tended to rise with a significant increase in the PM+ LPS100 group. The results of the follow-up study indicate that the responses to PM+ LPS were not due to LPS alone. These results suggest that coarse coal fly ash PM > 2.5 combined with LPS produced pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses. The resulting low-level systemic inflammation may contribute to the increased severity of ischemic heart disease observed immediately following a bad air day.

  5. Personal particulate matter exposures and locations of students in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Raphael E; Dionisio, Kathie L; Hughes, Allison F; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D; Castro, Marcia C; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure and places where the exposures occur may differ in cities in the developing world compared with high-income countries. Our aim was to measure personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure of students in neighborhoods of varying socioeconomic status in Accra, Ghana, and to quantify the main predictors of exposure. We measured 24-hour PM2.5 exposure of 56 students from eight schools in four neighborhoods. PM2.5 was measured both gravimetrically and continuously, with time-matched global positioning system coordinates. We collected data on determinants of exposure, such as distances of homes and schools from main roads and fuel used for cooking at their home or in the area of residence/school. The association of PM2.5 exposure with sources was estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Personal PM2.5 exposures ranged from less than 10 μg/m(3) to more than 150 μg/m(3) (mean 56 μg/m(3)). Girls had higher exposure than boys (67 vs 44 μg/m(3); P-value=0.001). Exposure was inversely associated with distance of home or school to main roads, but the associations were not statistically significant in the multivariate model. Use of biomass fuels in the area where the school was located was also associated with higher exposure, as was household's own biomass use. Paved schoolyard surface was associated with lower exposure. School locations in relation to major roads, materials of school ground surfaces, and biomass use in the area around schools may be important determinants of air pollution exposure.

  6. Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dunea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5. We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015 and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01 compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01 in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children.

  7. Mapping acute systemic effects of inhaled particulate matter and ozone: multiorgan gene expression and glucocorticoid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced.

  8. Molecular composition of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2015-04-01

    Sugars can account for 0.5-8% of carbon in atmospheric particulate matter, affecting the earth climate, air quality and public health. Total of 33 total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009 using a low volume air sampler. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), primary saccharides (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, arabitol, mannitol and inositol). The average contribution of sugars to the organic carbon (OC) was also determined to be 0.92%. Sugar compounds were measured using solvent extraction/TMS-derivatization technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The concentrations of total quantified sugar compounds ranged from 2.3 to 453 ng m-3 (average 145 ng m-3). The highest concentration was recorded for levoglucosan in summer, with a maximum concentration of 790 ng m-3 (average 108 ng m-3). Levoglucosan, which is specifically formed by a pyrolysis of cellulose, has been used as an excellent tracer of biomass burning. The highest level of levoglucosan indicates a significant contribution of biomass burning in ambient aerosols. Galactosan (average 20 ng m-3) and mannosan (average 27 ng m-3), which are also formed through the pyrolysis of cellulose/hemicelluloses, were identified in all samples. The average concentrations of arabitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose were also found 14.7, 14.6, 14.1 and 16.8 ng m-3, respectively. They have been proposed as tracers for resuspension of surface soil and unpaved road dust, which contain biological materials including fungi and bacteria. These results suggest that there is some impact of bioaerosols on climate over Interior Alaska. We will also measure water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic ions for all samples.

  9. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM and household activities. METHODS: We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN intervals (SDNN and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD. Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25-4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12-3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense.

  10. Anthropogenic influences on the physical state of submicron particulate matter over a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Harder, Tristan H.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Wang, Bingbing; Castillo, Paulo; China, Swarup; Liu, Yingjun; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Palm, Brett B.; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Cirino, Glauber G.; Thalman, Ryan; Adachi, Kouji; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Buseck, Peter R.; Gilles, Mary K.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Laskin, Alexander; Manzi, Antonio O.; Sedlacek, Arthur; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Wang, Jian; Zaveri, Rahul; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Measurements were conducted during two intensive operating periods (IOP1 and IOP2) that took place during the wet and dry seasons of the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Air masses representing variable influences of background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass burning passed over the research site. As the air masses varied, particle rebound fraction, an indicator of physical state, was measured in real time at ground level using an impactor apparatus. Micrographs collected by transmission electron microscopy confirmed that liquid particles adhered, while nonliquid particles rebounded. Relative humidity (RH) was scanned to collect rebound curves. When the apparatus RH matched ambient RH, 95 % of the particles adhered as a campaign average. Secondary organic material, produced for the most part by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from the forest, produces liquid PM over this tropical forest. During periods of anthropogenic influence, by comparison, the rebound fraction dropped to as low as 60 % at 95 % RH. Analyses of the mass spectra of the atmospheric PM by positive-matrix factorization (PMF) and of concentrations of carbon monoxide, total particle number, and oxides of nitrogen were used to identify time periods affected by anthropogenic influences, including both urban pollution and biomass burning. The occurrence of nonliquid PM at high RH correlated with these indicators of anthropogenic influence. A linear model having as output the rebound fraction and as input the PMF factor loadings explained up to 70 % of the variance in the observed rebound fractions. Anthropogenic influences can contribute to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population through the combined effects of molecular species that increase viscosity when

  11. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; Hess, Peter; Marmer, Elina; Montanaro, Veronica; Park, Rokjin; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  12. Anthropogenic influences on the physical state of submicron particulate matter over a tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Harder, Tristan H.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Wang, Bingbing; Castillo, Paulo; China, Swarup; Liu, Yingjun; O& amp; apos; Brien, Rachel E.; Palm, Brett B.; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Cirino, Glauber G.; Thalman, Ryan; Adachi, Kouji; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Buseck, Peter R.; Gilles, Mary K.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Laskin, Alexander; Manzi, Antonio O.; Sedlacek, Arthur; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Wang, Jian; Zaveri, Rahul; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-06

    The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Measurements were conducted during two intensive operating periods (IOP1 and IOP2) that took place during the wet and dry seasons of the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Air masses representing variable influences of background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass burning passed over the research site. As the air masses varied, particle rebound fraction, an indicator of physical state, was measured in real time at ground level using an impactor apparatus. Micrographs collected by transmission electron microscopy confirmed that liquid particles adhered, while nonliquid particles rebounded. Relative humidity (RH) was scanned to collect rebound curves. When the apparatus RH matched ambient RH, 95 % of the particles adhered as a campaign average. Secondary organic material, produced for the most part by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from the forest, produces liquid PM over this tropical forest. During periods of anthropogenic influence, by comparison, the rebound fraction dropped to as low as 60 % at 95 % RH. Analyses of the mass spectra of the atmospheric PM by positive-matrix factorization (PMF) and of concentrations of carbon monoxide, total particle number, and oxides of nitrogen were used to identify time periods affected by anthropogenic influences, including both urban pollution and biomass burning. The occurrence of nonliquid PM at high RH correlated with these indicators of anthropogenic influence. A linear model having as output the rebound fraction and as input the PMF factor loadings explained up to 70 % of the variance in the observed rebound fractions. Anthropogenic influences can contribute to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population through the combined effects of molecular species that increase viscosity

  13. Ambient particulate matter induces an exacerbation of airway inflammation in experimental asthma: role of interleukin-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadie, A M; Herbert, C; Kumar, R K

    2014-08-01

    High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. interleukin (IL)-33 in airway tissues and an increased concentration of IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Administration of a monoclonal neutralizing anti-mouse IL-33 antibody prior to delivery of particulates significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by Sydney PM10, as well as the levels of associated proinflammatory cytokines in lavage fluid. We conclude that IL-33 plays a key role in driving airway inflammation in this novel experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma induced by exposure to PM10.

  14. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Corporation's Coke Battery No. 2 in Porter County is approved as an EVEL to determine compliance with the 325... at § 52.21(j)(2) and section 173 of the Clean Air Act. See § 52.770(c)(60). (l) The revised Porter... demonstrate that it assures the attainment and maintenance of the primary TSP NAAQS in Porter County,...

  15. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  16. [Analyzer Design of Atmospheric Particulate Matter's Concentration and Elemental Composition Based on β and X-Ray's Analysis Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang-quan; Liu, He-fan; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ren, Mao-qiang; Li, Dan; Gu, Yi; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter requires real-time analysis, such as particulate matter's concentrations, their element types and contents. An analyzer which is based on β and X rays analysis techniques is designed to meet those demands. Applying β-ray attenuation law and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis principle, the paper introduces the analyzer's overall design scheme, structure, FPGA circuit hardware and software for the analyzer. And the analyzer can measure atmospheric particulate matters' concentration, elements and their contents by on-line analysis. Pure elemental particle standard samples were prepared by deposition, and those standard samples were used to set the calibration for the analyzer in this paper. The analyzer can monitor atmospheric particulate matters concentration, 30 kinds of elements and content, such as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. Comparing the measurement results from the analyzer to Chengdu Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring results for monitoring particulate matters, a high consistency is obtained by the application in eastern suburbs of Chengdu. Meanwhile, the analyzer are highly sensitive in monitoring particulate matters which contained heavy metal elements (such as As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb and so on). The analyzer has lots of characteristics through technical performance testing, such as continuous measurement, low detection limit, quick analysis, easy to use and so on. In conclusion, the analyzer can meet the demands for analyzing atmospheric particulate matter's concentration, elements and their contents in urban environmental monitoring.

  17. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  18. Analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fine particulates (PM(2.5); particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM(2.5) and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007-2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM(2.5) concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM(2.5) concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM(2.5) were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM(2.5) emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM(2.5) concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM(2.5) vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM(2.5) vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM(2.5) concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR AIR AND AIR-PM FLOW IN WALL FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Binjuan; Yuan Shouqi; Seizo Kato; Akira Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed both for the single airflow and air-PM two-phase flow in wall flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) for the first time. The calculation domain is divided into two regions. In the inlet and outlet flow channels, the simulations are performed for the steady and laminar flow; In the porous filtration walls, the calculation model for flow in porous media is used. The Lagrange two-phase flow model is used to calculate the air-PM flow in DPF, for the dispersed phase (PM), its flow tracks are obtained by the integrating of the Lagrange kinetic equation. The calculated velocity, pressure distribution and PM flow tracks in DPF are obtained, which exhibits the main flow characteristics in wall flow DPF and will be help for the optimal design and performance prediction of wall flow DPF.

  20. Conference particulate matter and indoor environment, I.N.E.R.I.S.; Particulate matter and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Comprehensive characterisation of indoor and outdoor air as well as pollution emission sources Integrated health and environmental risk assessment Scientific and technical basis for airborne pollution management and control Fine and coarse particles. The sources of indoor air pollution are originate separately, are transported separately, are removed from atmosphere by different mechanisms, have different optical properties, have different chemical properties, require different control techniques. for the health effects due to particles, they decrease the lung function, increase respiratory symptoms, increase chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, increased cardiovascular disease, increased mortality. The different sources contributing to the highest concentrations are: concentrations: tobacco smoking, cooking, vacuuming, dusting and sweeping, heaters, stoves, fireplaces and some other non identified sources. In the future we want more focus on fine and ultra fine particles, investigate source apportionment of particles, better understanding and quantification of exposure, to implement guidelines for particle concentration in indoor air and find better cleaning technologies. (N.C.)

  1. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate – air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate and 2047–2053 (future climate. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate – air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35–40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. These changes resulted in a ~0.6–1.9 μg m−3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the

  2. Human brain derived cells respond in a type-specific manner after exposure to urban particulate matter (PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Arezoo; Daher, Nancy; Solaimani, Parrisa; Mendoza, Kriscelle; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a component of urban air pollution, may cause adverse effects in the brain. Although the exact mechanisms involved are unknown, both oxidative and inflammatory responses have been reported. Since the main route of exposure to particulate matter is through inhalation, there is a potential for compounds to directly enter the brain and alter normal cellular function. Enhancement in both oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers has been observed in neurodegenerative disorders and PM-induced potentiation of these events may accelerate the disease process. The objective of this pilot study was to use normal human brain cells, a model system which has not been previously used, to assess cell-type-specific responses after exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP). Human microglia, neurons, and astrocytes were grown separately or as co-cultures and then exposed to aqueous UFP suspensions. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured as markers of oxidative stress or inflammation respectively. Our results revealed that after exposure to 2 μg/ml of particles, normal human neurons exhibit a decrease in ROS formation and an increase in TNF-α. The observed decrease in ROS formation persisted in the presence of glial cells, which contrasts previous studies done in rodent cells reporting that PM-induced microglial activation modulates neuronal responses. Our study indicates that human CNS cells may respond differently compared to rodent cells and that their use may be more predictive in risk assessment.

  3. Quark Matter Induced Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    If the dark matter of our galaxy is composed of nuggets of quarks or antiquarks in a colour superconducting phase there will be a small but non-zero flux of these objects through the Earth's atmosphere. A nugget of quark matter will deposit only a small fraction of it's kinetic energy in the atmosphere and is likely to be undetectable. If however the impacting object is composed of antiquarks the energy deposited can be quite large. In this case nuclear annihilations within the nugget will trigger an extensive air shower similar to that produced by a high energy cosmic ray. This paper gives a qualitative description of the basic properties of such a shower. Several distinctions from the air shower induced by a single ultra high energy nucleus will be described allowing these events to be distinguished from the cosmic ray background. The subtlety of these features may mean that some fraction of the high energy cosmic ray spectrum may in fact be due to this type of dark matter interaction. The estimated flux of...

  4. The Modeling of Pulmonary Particulate Matter Transport Using Langmuir Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeremy M.

    The effects of a barrier in proximity to the air-water interface on the dynamics of a Langmuir monolayer system are observed. A monolayer of Survanta, bovine lung surfactant, is deposited onto the interface of an aqueous buffer solution. Polystyrene particles one micron in diameter and tagged with fluorescent carboxylate groups are distributed evenly throughout the monolayer surface. The bead-monolayer system is compressed and expanded to induce folding. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate is placed below the monolayer in the buffer solution to study interactions between the folding monolayer and a barrier. The presence of the substrate is shown to shift surface pressure-area isotherms toward regions of lower area by an average of 8.9 mN/m. The surface of the PDMS substrate can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy to detect the presence of particles or surfactant that may have been transported there from the air-water interface during folding. Images show the transferral of particles and monolayer together suggesting the pinch-off of a fold or the direct interaction of a fold with the barrier.

  5. Daily concentrations trend and change point of particulate matter (PM10) in Pahang, Malaysia - A case study at Balok Baru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Ujang, Suriyati

    2015-02-01

    Daily concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) could be very harmful to human health such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this paper is to describe on the experiences of air pollutants in the state of Pahang, Malaysia during the first quarter of year 2014. Data were gathered from available automatic air quality monitoring stations at Balok Baru, Pahang through the assistance from the Department of Environment. Cumulative sum technique shows that a change occurred at March, 8th with 88 μg/ m3, moderate air quality level. This change point indicated that the PM10 level started to have a potential in moderate or worse level. In addition, time series regression analysis shows that the trend of daily concentrations of Balok Baru station was an upward trend and for additional day, the PM10 level was increased by 0.1117 μg/ m3. It is hoped that this study will give a significant contribution for future researcher in the area of the study on the risk of PM10 or other types of air pollutant to air quality and also human health.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution and short-term trends of particulate matter concentration over China, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Air quality problems caused by atmospheric particulate have drawn broad public concern in the global scope. In the paper, the spatiotemporal distributions of fine particle (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations estimated with the artificial neural network (ANN) over China during 2006 to 2010 have been discussed. Most high PM10 concentration appears in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hubei, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The distribution of PM2.5 concentration is consistent with China's three gradient terrains. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations both indicate that they are higher in north China in spring and winter, lowest in summer. In autumn, most provinces in south China appear high value. In particular, high PM2.5 concentration appears in the southeast coastal cities while high PM10 concentration prefers the central regions in south China. On this basis, seasonal Mann-Kendall test method is utilized to analyze the short-term trends. The results also show significant changes of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations of China in the past 5 years, and most provinces present the tendency of reduction (3-5 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 10-20 μg/m(3) for PM10 per year) while a fraction of provinces appear the increasing trend of 8-16 μg/m(3) (PM2.5) and 16-30 μg/m(3) (PM10). Simultaneously, PM2.5 population exposure is discussed with the combination of population density-gridded data. Municipalities get much higher exposure level than other provinces. Shanghai suffers the highest population exposure to PM2.5, followed by Beijing and then Tianjin, Jiangsu province. Most provincial capitals, such as Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Wuhan, face much higher exposure level than other regions of their province. Moreover, the PM2.5 exposure situation is more serious in southeast than northwest regions for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Also, per capita PM2.5 concentration and population-weighted PM2.5 concentration are calculated. The former shows that

  7. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sillanpää

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn, Prague (winter, Amsterdam (winter, Helsinki (spring, Barcelona (spring and Athens (summer. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM2.5-10 size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA; total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF; As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS; Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC; and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9% than to PM2.5-10 (1-6% in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3, that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  8. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  9. Biomass burning as the main source of organic aerosol particulate matter in Malaysia during haze episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi bin Abas, M; Oros, Daniel R; Simoneit, B R T

    2004-05-01

    The haze episodes that occurred in Malaysia in September-October 1991, August-October 1994 and September-October 1997 have been attributed to suspended smoke particulate matter from biomass burning in southern Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the present study, polar organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Malaysia are converted to their trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to better assess the contribution of the biomass burning component during the haze episodes. On the basis of this analysis, levoglucosan was found to be the most abundant organic compound detected in almost all samples. The monosaccharides, alpha- and beta-mannose, the lignin breakdown products, vanillic and syringic acids and the minor steroids, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were also present in some samples. The presence of the tracers from smoke overwhelmed the typical signatures of emissions from traffic and other anthropogenic activities in the urban areas.

  10. Biomass burning as the main source of organic aerosol particulate matter in Malaysia during haze episodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, M. Radzi bin [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Oros, Daniel R.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The haze episodes that occurred in Malaysia in September-October 1991, August-October 1994 and September-October 1997 have been attributed to suspended smoke particulate matter from biomass burning in southern Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the present study, polar organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Malaysia are converted to their trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to better assess the contribution of the biomass burning component during the haze episodes. On the basis of this analysis, levoglucosan was found to be the most abundant organic compound detected in almost all samples. The monosaccharides, {alpha}- and {beta}-mannose, the lignin breakdown products, vanillic and syringic acids and the minor steroids, cholesterol and {beta}-sitosterol were also present in some samples. The presence of the tracers from smoke overwhelmed the typical signatures of emissions from traffic and other anthropogenic activities in the urban areas. (Author)

  11. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F., E-mail: ferufv@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  12. One-year simulation of ozone and particulate matter in China using WRF/CMAQ modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Jianjun; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2016-08-01

    China has been experiencing severe air pollution in recent decades. Although an ambient air quality monitoring network for criteria pollutants has been constructed in over 100 cities since 2013 in China, the temporal and spatial characteristics of some important pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM) components, remain unknown, limiting further studies investigating potential air pollution control strategies to improve air quality and associating human health outcomes with air pollution exposure. In this study, a yearlong (2013) air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was conducted to provide detailed temporal and spatial information of ozone (O3), total PM2.5, and chemical components. Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) was used for anthropogenic emissions and observation data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network were collected to validate model performance. The model successfully reproduces the O3 and PM2.5 concentrations at most cities for most months, with model performance statistics meeting the performance criteria. However, overprediction of O3 generally occurs at low concentration range while underprediction of PM2.5 happens at low concentration range in summer. Spatially, the model has better performance in southern China than in northern China, central China, and Sichuan Basin. Strong seasonal variations of PM2.5 exist and wind speed and direction play important roles in high PM2.5 events. Secondary components have more boarder distribution than primary components. Sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and primary organic aerosol (POA) are the most important PM2.5 components. All components have the highest concentrations in winter except secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This study proves the ability of the CMAQ model to reproduce severe air pollution in China, identifies the directions where improvements are

  13. Long term performance of particulate air-filter in an office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Iqbal, Ahsan; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present article is based on initial findings of an ongoing study. The objective of present study is to analyse the long term performance of an air particulate filter with and without ionizer. To study the performance of the air filters, a test rig was built in the Danish Building Research Ins...

  14. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  15. Particulate matter in exhaled breath condensate: A promising indicator of environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Teresa, E-mail: murmur@itn.pt [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFN-UL, Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alexandra Barreiros, M. [LNEG, Estrada Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, Luis C. [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFN-UL, Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felix, Pedro M.; Franco, Cristiana; Sousa, Joana; Almeida, S.M. [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Assessing the retention of aerosol particles in the human lung, one of the most important pathways of absorption, is a demanding issue. At present, there is no direct biomarker of exposure for the respiratory system. The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) constitutes a new non-invasive method for sampling from the lung. However, the heterogeneity of the sample due to particulate matter suspended in the condensed phase may influence the quality of analytical results in occupational assessments. The main objective of the study was to confirm the presence of particulate matter in the condensate, to investigate how large the particles in suspension could be and to determine their elemental contents relative to those of EBC matrix. This paper reports on preliminary nuclear microprobe data of particulate matter in EBC. The sizes and the elemental contents of particles suspended in EBC of workers of a lead processing industry and in EBC of non-exposed individuals were inspected. Results demonstrated that EBC of workers contain large aerosol particles, isolated and in agglomerates, contrasting with non-exposed individuals. The particles contained high concentrations of Cl, Ca, Zn and Pb that are elements associated to the production process. These elements were also present in the EBC matrix although in much lower levels, suggesting that a fraction of the inhaled particulate matter was solubilised or their size-ranges were below the nuclear microprobe resolution. Therefore, the morphological characterization of individual particles achieved with nuclear microprobe techniques helped describing EBC constituents in detail, to comprehend their origin and enabled to delineate methodological procedures that can be recommended in occupational assessments. These aspects are critical to the validation of EBC as a biomarker of exposure to metals for the respiratory system.

  16. Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at

  17. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  18. Carbon-Centered Free Radicals in Particulate Matter Emissions from Wood and Coal Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contra...

  19. Evaluation of a Portable Photometer for Estimating Diesel Particulate Matter Concentrations in an Underground Limestone Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Winthrop F.; Gladis, David D.; Schumacher, Matthew F.; Ragatz, Adam C.; David B. Kittelson

    2010-01-01

    A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-μm impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated wit...

  20. Heavy metal composition of particulate matter in rural and urban residential built environments in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, ZA; Colbeck, I.; Ali, Z; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in outdoor and indoor airborne particulate matter (PM) and dust in different residential built environmentsat two rural and one urban site in Pakistan were analysed. An eight stage non-viable impactor (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) loaded with EMP 2000 glass microfiber filter papers (Whatman, England) was used to collect airborne PM.The indoordust samples (settled dust) were collected from different indoor surfaces (floor, cupboards) in living rooms and kitchens...

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone Protects Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Events Induced by Urban Particulate Matter and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Huerta-García; Angélica Montiél-Dávalos; Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno; Gisela Gutiérrez-Iglesias; Rebeca López-Marure

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and nanoparticles (NPs) induce activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells characterized by inhibition of proliferation, increase of adhesion and adhesion molecules expression, increase of ROS production, and death. DHEA has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in HUVEC activated with proinflammatory agents. We evaluated if DHEA could protect against some inflammatory events produced by PM10 and TiO2 NPs in HUVEC. Adhesion was evaluated by a coculture...

  2. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of...

  3. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  4. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005–2016: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mike Z.; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m3 for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m3 for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates. PMID:28216601

  5. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauk Carole L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802 and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 μg did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%, endothelin-1 (20–40%, and metallothionein-II (20–40% mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

  6. Does the composition of streamwater colloidal and particulate matter change during monsoon storms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-Smith, J.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Perdrial, J. N.; Perdrial, N.; Troch, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2012-12-01

    Streams draining mountain catchments are an important pathway for carbon and weathering products to leave the critical zone (CZ). During intense events such as North American monsoon related storms, shallow flow paths may dominate and introduce soil-derived particulate organic matter (POM), mineral particles and organo-mineral heteroaggregates, into the streams. However, it is not yet well understood how the composition of colloidal and particulate matter (PM) changes during the storm-fed hydrograph. We hypothesized that during small, low intensity storms (small hydrograph response) both organic and organo-mineral aggregates will dominate the suspended particulate load, and that during larger high intensity storms (distinct rise of stream water levels) there will be a significant increase in organic polysaccharide particulates during the rising limb and peak of the storm, with higher levels of minerals being re-introduced during the falling limb of the hydrograph. A headwater stream draining a small (1.3km2) watershed in the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory (SCM-CZO) was sampled at high resolution (5 minute) intervals during monsoon storms, and solutions were cascade-filtered through polycarbonate filters of 8, 1.2, 0.4 and 0.025 μm pore size. The PM mass was determined and particles >8um were further analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microscopy. These qualitative spectral results were supplemented by the ultra-violet/visible and fluorescence spectra of the colloidal and dissolved (minerals and iii) OM-mineral aggregates. POM was most abundant and chemical functional group composition resembled that of the minerals were present in the particulate load (>8um) but not in the 8μm) mass per liter did not show a consistent trend of change over the course of the hydrograph. This suggests that the low intensity storm may not have moved enough particulate material into the stream to detect a shift in flow path using this method. Additional

  7. Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤10 μm or ≤2.5 μm, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 μg/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 μg/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

  8. Source apportionment of particulate matter in the US and associations with lung inflammatory markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, R.M.; Norris, G.A.; Dailey, L.A.; Burke, J.M.; McGee, J.K.; Gilmour, M.I.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Exposure Research Laboratory

    2008-07-01

    Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured to explore the association between the health effect markers and PM. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse PM samples were collected between December 2003 and May 2004 over a 4-wk period in each city. Filters were pooled for each city and the PM samples were extracted then analyzed for trace metals, ions, and elemental carbon. Particle extracts were applied to cultured human primary airway epithelial cells, and the secreted levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were measured 1 and 24 h following exposure. Fine PM sources were quantified by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The relationship between toxicological measures, PM sources, and individual species were evaluated using linear regression. Ultrafine and fine PM mass were associated with increases in IL-8 (r{sup 2} = .80 for ultrafine and r{sup 2} = .52 for fine). Sources of fine PM and their relative contributions varied across the sampling sites and a strong linear association was observed between IL-8 and secondary sulfate from coal combustion (r{sup 2} = .79). Ultrafine vanadium, lead, copper, and sulfate were also associated with increases in IL-8. Increases in inflammatory markers were not observed for coarse PM mass and source markers. These findings suggest that certain PM size fractions and sources are associated with markers of lung injury or inflammation.

  9. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5.

  10. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  11. Outdoor particulate matter and childhood asthma admissions in Athens, Greece: a time-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Eleftheria S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter with diameter less than 10 micrometers (PM10 that originates from anthropogenic activities and natural sources may settle in the bronchi and cause adverse effects possibly via oxidative stress in susceptible individuals, such as asthmatic children. This study aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor PM10 concentrations on childhood asthma admissions (CAA in Athens, Greece. Methods Daily counts of CAA from the three Children's Hospitals within the greater Athens' area were obtained from the hospital records during a four-year period (2001-2004, n = 3602 children. Mean daily PM10 concentrations recorded by the air pollution-monitoring network of the greater Athens area were also collected. The relationship between CAA and PM10 concentrations was investigated using the Generalized Linear Models with Poisson distribution and logistic analysis. Results There was a statistically significant (95% CL relationship between CAA and mean daily PM10 concentrations on the day of exposure (+3.8% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations, while a 1-day lag (+3.4% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations and a 4-day lag (+4.3% for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations were observed for older asthmatic children (5-14 year-old. High mean daily PM10 concentration (the highest 10%; >65.69 μg/m3 doubled the risk of asthma exacerbations even in younger asthmatic children (0-4 year-old. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of the adverse effect of PM10 on the rates of paediatric asthma exacerbations and hospital admissions. A four-day lag effect between PM10 peak exposure and asthma admissions was also observed in the older age group.

  12. A comparison of model performance between ENVI-met and Austal2000 for particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paas, Bastian; Schneider, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the performance of the German dispersion model Austal2000 according to the technical instructions on air quality control (TA Luft), a Lagrangian model, in four real-world particulate matter test cases against ENVI-met, a microclimate model featuring a pollutant dispersion module that bases on the Eularian approach. The four test cases include different traffic induced area sources of PM10, complex terrain with varying ground surfaces and different urban obstacles i.e. buildings. A comparison is made between the calculated concentrations of both models. Furthermore, predictions are compared with field data. Particle measurements are conducted with an optical particle counter. For evaluation, quantile-quantile plots as well as further performance measures i.e. the fractional bias and the robust highest concentration that focuses on the important high-end concentrations are applied. Both models underpredicted observed PM(0.25;10) concentrations for all test cases. All datasets show that predictions of both simulation tools were closer to field observations in the high-end concentration range. Model calculation results show mostly better agreement to observations under neutral stability classes of the atmosphere. With the exception of ENVI-met in one test case predictions of simulation runs of both models lead to results closer to observations when initiated with local meteorological measurement data, where wind speed as one of the key drivers of dispersion models was lower. In almost all of the test cases, Austal2000's predictions were closer to the field observations than those of ENVI-met. The latter model undercut predicted PM10 concentrations of Austal2000 by the factor of around two. This evaluation indicates that Austal2000 is the stronger model compared with ENVI-met considering the distribution of PM10 in complex and urban terrain.

  13. Characteristics and health impacts of particulate matter pollution in China (2001-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Fajardo, Oscar; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2013-02-01

    In this study, a systematic overview of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) pollution in China was conducted based on the dataset from national monitoring network from 2001 to 2011. The long-term trend, spatial and temporal distributions, and health impacts of PM10 pollution were evaluated. It was found that the annual PM10 concentration decreased from 116.0 μg m-3 in 2001 to 85.3 μg m-3 in 2011. The days with PM10 concentration above the new Chinese ambient air quality standard dropped from 66 (18%) in 2001 to 28 (7.8%) in 2011, while the days exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline decreased from 294 (80.5%) in 2001 to 250 (68.5%) in 2011. PM10 pollution in northern China is much worse than that in southern China. Six of nine most polluted cities (>110 μg m-3) are in the north, while six cleanest cities (premature mortality between 2001 and 2011 as an example, the ratio of deaths due to PM10 pollution to all causes of deaths dropped from 13.5% to 11.6% and 511,000 deaths are avoided due to the concentration reduction, though the absolute damage number due to PM10 pollution increased from 418,000 to 514,000 because of increasing urban population. These results indicate that PM10 pollution in China has been eased significantly over the last decade, mainly due to the application of emission control measures. However, the PM10 concentration remains at a high level comparing with the WHO guideline and its health impacts are still significant.

  14. Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter enhances Th17 polarization through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael van Voorhis

    Full Text Available Lung diseases, including asthma, COPD, and other autoimmune lung pathologies are aggravated by exposure to particulate matter (PM found in air pollution. IL-17 has been shown to exacerbate airway disease in animal models. As PM is known to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR ligands and the AHR has recently been shown to play a role in differentiation of Th17 T cells, the aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to PM could impact Th17 polarization in an AHR-dependent manner. This study used both cell culture techniques and in vivo exposure in mice to examine the response of T cells to PM. Initially experiments were conducted with urban dust particles from a standard reference material, and ultimately repeated with freshly collected samples of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke. The readout for the assays was increased T cell differentiation as indicated by increased generation of IL-17A in culture, and increased populations of IL-17 producing cells by intracellular flow cytometry. The data illustrate that Th17 polarization was significantly enhanced by addition of urban dust in a dose dependent fashion in cultures of wild-type but not AHR(-/- mice. The data further suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons played a primary role in this enhancement. There was both an increase of Th17 cell differentiation, and also an increase in the amount of IL-17 secreted by the cells. In summary, this paper identifies a novel mechanism whereby PM can directly act on the AHR in T cells, leading to enhanced Th17 differentiation. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathologic Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity seen after exposure to pollution will allow direct targeting of proteins involved in AHR activation and function for treatment of PM exposures.

  15. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  16. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  17. The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseasesa case-crossover study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular

  18. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    . This makes the investigated POM fractions less suitable as indicators for changes in soil C stocks. However, the C/N ratio of Fraction B showed a distinct signature of the history of organic matter input to the soil, which was absent in the C/N ratio of the total fine earth. © Soil Science Society of America......This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including....... Although organic matter in Fraction B had a higher intrinsic sensitivity to soil management, which was partly able to overcome the larger errors, we concluded that an observer would be more likely to detect changes by measuring total organic C and N, when monitoring decadal changes in C and N pools...

  19. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: The Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Study subjects relocated between areas with different air pollution contents. • PM{sub 2.5} showed the most consistent inverse associations with pulmonary function. • Cu, Cd, As and Sn were consistently associated with reduced pulmonary function. • Carbonaceous fractions, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Sb were also associated with pulmonary function. • Sources may include traffic, industry, coal burning, and long range transported dust. -- Abstract: The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV{sub 1} associated with various air pollutants and PM{sub 2.5} constituents. Four PM{sub 2.5} constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  20. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duplissy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44. m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF or "κorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by κorg=2.2×f44−0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. The use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  1. Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, M.; Mahmud, A.

    2008-12-01

    California has one of the worst particulate air pollution problems in the nation with some estimates predicting more than 5000 premature deaths each year attributed to air pollution. Climate change will modify weather patterns in California with unknown consequences for PM2.5. Previous down-scaling exercises carried out for the entire United States have typically not resolved the details associated with California's mountain-valley topography and mixture of urban-rural emissions characteristics. Detailed studies carried out for California have identified strong effects acting in opposite directions on PM2.5 concentrations making the net prediction for climate effects on PM2.5 somewhat uncertain. More research is needed to reduce this uncertainty so that we can truly understand climate impacts on PM2.5 and public health. The objective of this research is to predict climate change effects on annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) in California with sufficient resolution to capture the details of California's air basins. Business-as-usual scenarios generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) will be down-scaled to 4km meteorology using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. The CIT/UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to predict PM2.5 concentrations throughout the entire state of California. The modeled annual average total and speciated PM2.5 concentrations for the future (2047-2049) and the present-day (2004-2006) periods will be compared to determine climate change effects. The results from this study will improve our understanding of global climate change effects on PM2.5 concentrations in California.

  2. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Colin E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Sorom, Rich D.; Van Etten, Don M.

    2016-05-01

    Air sampling systems were deployed to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device experiments. The air samplers were positioned 100-600 meters downwind of the release point. The filters were collected immediately and analyzed in the field. Quantities for total activity collected on the air filters are reported along with additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations.

  3. Composición química y reconstrucción másica del material particulado suspendido en el aire de Bogotá Chemical composition and mass closure for airborne particulate matter in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Néstor Y.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El material particulado, medido como PM10, es el contaminante que más afecta la calidad del aire en Bogotá. Conocer la composición del material particulado es crucial para en- tender cuáles son las fracciones químicas que más aportan a ese contaminante e identificar posibles fuentes generadoras de él. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de la caracterización de especies iónicas, fracciones carbonáceas, meta- les y elementos minerales del material particulado en dos puntos de Bogotá. Con base en los resultados de caracterización se realiza un análisis de neutralidad iónica y reconstrucción másica para comparar la consistencia de los resulta- dos obtenidos. La composición es diferente para cada sector, pero en general las fracciones que más aportan al material particulado son la geológica (asociada a polvo fugitivo y re- suspendido, entre el 37 y 42%; las fracciones carbonáceas, que son las que más aportan, entre un 12 y 11% para el car- bono elemental y un 43 y 34% para materia orgánica; la fracción iónica se encontró entre un 5 y 8%.Particulate matter, measured as PM10, is the most concerning airborne pollutant in Bogotá. Determining its chemical com- position is important for understanding its potential effects and to estimate various sources’ contribution to such pollution. This paper gives the results of characterizing the ionic species, carbonaceous material, metals and crustal elements present in airborne PM10 in Bogotá. An ion charge balance and mass reconstruction were done for determining consistency between chemical characterization and gravimetric PM10. The composition was different in each area; however, the fractions contributing most to PM10 were crustal, 37% to 42% was related to fugitive and suspended dust, 12% to 11% was related to carbonaceus fractions, 43% to elemental carbon, 34% for organic matter and 5% to 8% for ionic fractions.

  4. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulate matter of an urban area with iron and steel mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Helvécio C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2012-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from ambient air particulate matter iron and steel mills. The carcinogenic potency of priority PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene was estimated for a period of six months. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were 7.52 ng/m(3) for the study period. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 6.5 × 10(-4) . A model based on the diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis was applied for source apportionment. Considering the entire study period, the burning of biomass and fuel oil accounted for about 70% of the PAH profile. An inventory was performed during the monitoring period, with 37 companies representing major industries located in the urban area. The observations were consistent with the distribution of sources and indicated that the iron and steel sector was the largest contributor.

  5. Modeling nucleation and coagulation modes in the formation of particulate matter inside a turbulent exhaust plume of a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Gautam, Mridul; Gera, Dinesh

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that is aimed at predicting the nucleation, coagulation, and dynamics of particulate matter (PM) emissions from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The PM concentration is predicted from the composition of fuel, and operating and ambient conditions. A numerical algorithm for simultaneously solving the coagulation, condensation, and nucleation equations is developed. The effect of relative humidity on the nucleation rate and the nucleus size is also discussed. In addition, the effect of the ambient air dilution on PM size distribution is numerically predicted for a diesel-powered truck operating in a controlled environment at NASA Langley wind-tunnel facility. The particle size distribution and concentration are measured at four different locations in a turbulent plume from the diesel exhaust in the tunnel, and an excellent agreement between the measured and predicted PM concentration values at these locations inside the tunnel is observed.

  6. 78 FR 69361 - Development of Inward Leakage Standards for Half-Mask Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Particulate Respirators AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS. ACTION: Reopening of comment... class of NIOSH-certified non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators approved as half-facepiece respirators for protection from particulate-only hazards. The purpose of this meeting was to share...

  7. From Source to City: Particulate Matter Concentration and Size Distribution Data from an Icelandic Dust Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, T.; Mockford, T.; Bullard, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Dust storms are the source of particulate matter in 20%-25% of the cases in which the PM10health limit is exceeded in Reykjavik; which occurred approximately 20 times a year in 2005-2010. Some of the most active source areas for dust storms in Iceland, contributing to the particulate matter load in Reykjavik, are on the south coast of Iceland, with more than 20 dust storm days per year (in 2002-2011). Measurements of particle matter concentration and size distribution were recorded at Mar