WorldWideScience

Sample records for air movement impact

  1. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  2. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  3. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  4. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...

  5. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhong Zhou

    1999-08-01

    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  6. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  7. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  8. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  9. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  10. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.

  11. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  12. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  13. Analysis of in-air movement in handwriting: A novel marker for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotár, Peter; Mekyska, Jiří; Rektorová, Irena; Masarová, Lucia; Smékal, Zdenek; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting significant portion of elderly population. One of the most frequent hallmarks and usually also the first manifestation of PD is deterioration of handwriting characterized by micrographia and changes in kinematics of handwriting. There is no objective quantitative method of clinical diagnosis of PD. It is thought that PD can only be definitively diagnosed at postmortem, which further highlights the complexities of diagnosis. We exploit the fact that movement during handwriting of a text consists not only from the on-surface movements of the hand, but also from the in-air trajectories performed when the hand moves in the air from one stroke to the next. We used a digitizing tablet to assess both in-air and on-surface kinematic variables during handwriting of a sentence in 37 PD patients on medication and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. By applying feature selection algorithms and support vector machine learning methods to separate PD patients from healthy controls, we demonstrated that assessing the in-air/on-surface hand movements led to accurate classifications in 84% and 78% of subjects, respectively. Combining both modalities improved the accuracy by another 1% over the evaluation of in-air features alone and provided medically relevant diagnosis with 85.61% prediction accuracy. Assessment of in-air movements during handwriting has a major impact on disease classification accuracy. This study confirms that handwriting can be used as a marker for PD and can be with advance used in decision support systems for differential diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Open-Air School Movement in English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Marjorie

    1977-01-01

    Begun in the early 1900s, the open-air school movement marked a new chapter in preventive medicine. The schools took undernourished slum students and provided them with food and a hygienic environment. Within half a century the open-air schools had outlived their usefulness because of a social revolution. (Author/IRT)

  15. Numerical simulation of ventilation air movement in partitioned offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, E.G.; Soultogiannis, A.A.; Jouini, D.B. (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    Good air quality can only be assured throughout an office complex if each workspace receives an adequate supply of ventilation air. The likelihood of achieving this situation would be increased if the building engineer had a means of easily predicting the air movement in each office configuration. A simple computer-based solution to this need is proposed. To this end, the development and validation testing of a numerical solution technique to simulate the ventilation air movement in a room or office is described. The predictions of the two-dimensional, isothermal, inviscid formulation are seen to be in good agreement with experimentally measured airflows in configurations of interest. The computer code is then used to illustrate the airflow in offices served by a single row of supply air diffusers, when partitions are used to divide the space into smaller workspaces. It is observed that the partitions distort the airflow patterns to the extent that it would be difficult to provide desirable ventilation airflows to all the workspaces formed by the partitions. (au) (26 refs.)

  16. Human Response to Air Movement - Evaluation of ASHRAE´s Draft Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2003-01-01

    cooler than neutral or occupants who are occupied mostly with sedentary work. To accommodate all occupants in a given indoor environment, it is therefore recommended that air movement generated by the HVAC system be designed according to the criteria in the current Standard 55 to minimize complaints......The aim of this study was to evaluate the present ASHRAE Standard 55-92 draft criteria and to describe how air movement is perceived at thermal sensations slightly cooler and slightly warmer than neutral. At temperatures 18oC, 20oC, 23oC, 26oC, and 28oC (64.4oF, 68oF, 73.4oF, 78.8oF, and 82.4o......F), 40 subjects at slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm overall thermal sensation were exposed to air velocities that were increased step-by-step from less than 0.1 m/s to 0.8 m/s (19.7 fpm to 157.5 fpm). Subjects who felt cool or slightly cool perceived air movement as being uncomfortable at lower...

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2004-01-01

    on the mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem...

  18. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  19. Near-road air pollution impacts of goods movement in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A mobile platform was outfitted with real-time instruments to spatially characterize pollution concentrations in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, communities heavily impacted by emissions related to dieselized goods movement, with the highest localized air pollution impacts due to heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). Measurements were conducted in the winter and summer of 2007 on fixed routes driven both morning and afternoon. Diesel-related pollutant concentrations such as black carbon, nitric oxide, ultrafine particles, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were frequently elevated two to five times within 150 m downwind of freeways (compared to more than 150 m) and up to two times within 150 m downwind of arterial roads with significant amounts of diesel traffic. While wind direction was the dominant factor associated with downwind impacts, steady and consistent wind direction was not required to produce; high impacts were observed when a given area was downwind of a major roadway for any significant fraction of time. This suggests elevated pollution impacts downwind of freeways and of busy arterials are continuously occurring on one side of the road or the other, depending on wind direction. The diesel truck traffic in the area studied was high, with more than 2000 trucks per peak hour on the freeway and two- to six-hundred trucks per hour on the arterial roads studied. These results suggest that similarly-frequent impacts occur throughout urban areas in rough proportion to diesel truck traffic fractions. Thus, persons living or working near and downwind of busy roadways can have several-fold higher exposures to diesel vehicle-related pollution than would be predicted by ambient measurements in non-impacted locations.

  20. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys

    2013-01-01

    The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV...... with air filter and 29 °C with DPV without filter. During the experiments the subjects simulated office work and answered on computerized questionnaires. At warm environment PAQ and air freshness significantly improved when DPV was used. Eye dryness increased significantly with time but was not influenced...... by air temperature and filtering. At 29 °C the facially applied air movement from DPV increased the eye dryness. The SBS symptoms increased with time and were higher (not significantly) at the warm conditions. Air movement did not have profound impact on the SBS symptoms, while filtering had only at 23...

  1. Air movement, gender and risk of sick building headache among employees in a Jakarta office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Winarti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though office buildings are usually equipped with ventilation system or air conditioning to create a comfortable working environment, yet there is still found a number of sick building syndrome (SBS symptoms. One of the symptoms of SBS is SBS headache. Therefore, it is crucial to identify risk factors related to SBS headache. Cases were subjects who have suffered SBS headache, and controls were subjects who did not suffered headache for the last one month. Cases and controls were selected through a survey on all of employees in the said office during the period of May to August 2002. Total respondents were 240 employees including 36 people suffered SBS headache (15%. Compared to the normal air movement, faster air movement decreased the risk of SBS headache by 57% [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.43; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.19-0.95]. Female employees, compared to the males ones, had a higher risk of getting SBS headache by almost three times (adjusted OR = 2.96: 95% CI: 1.29-6.75. Employees who had breakfast irregularly, had a lower risk to SBS headache than those who have breakfast regularly (adjusted OR=0.31; 95% CI: 0.09-0.84. Temperature, humidity and smoking habits were not noted correlated to SBS headache. Female workers had greater risk of suffering SBS headache. In addition slower air movement increased the risk of SBS headache. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the progress of air in order to reduce the risk of SBS headache, especially for female workplace. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 171-7Keywords: sick building syndrome headache, gender, air movement

  2. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and cognitive performance when personally controlled air movement is used by tropically acclimatized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, S; Yang, B; Donner, Y; Chang, V W-C; Nazaroff, W W

    2017-05-01

    In a warm and humid climate, increasing the temperature set point offers considerable energy benefits with low first costs. Elevated air movement generated by a personally controlled fan can compensate for the negative effects caused by an increased temperature set point. Fifty-six tropically acclimatized persons in common Singaporean office attire (0.7 clo) were exposed for 90 minutes to each of five conditions: 23, 26, and 29°C and in the latter two cases with and without occupant-controlled air movement. Relative humidity was maintained at 60%. We tested thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms, and cognitive performance. We found that thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and sick building syndrome symptoms are equal or better at 26°C and 29°C than at the common set point of 23°C if a personally controlled fan is available for use. The best cognitive performance (as indicated by task speed) was obtained at 26°C; at 29°C, the availability of an occupant-controlled fan partially mitigated the negative effect of the elevated temperature. The typical Singaporean indoor air temperature set point of 23°C yielded the lowest cognitive performance. An elevated set point in air-conditioned buildings augmented with personally controlled fans might yield benefits for reduced energy use and improved indoor environmental quality in tropical climates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Air-cushioning in impact problems

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.; Ockendon, J. R.; Oliver, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the displacement potential formulation of the post-impact influence of an air-cushioning layer on the 2D impact of a liquid half-space by a rigid body. The liquid and air are both ideal and incompressible and attention

  5. Air-cushioning in impact problems

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2013-05-12

    This paper concerns the displacement potential formulation of the post-impact influence of an air-cushioning layer on the 2D impact of a liquid half-space by a rigid body. The liquid and air are both ideal and incompressible and attention is focussed on cases when the density ratio between the air and liquid is small. In particular, the correction to classical Wagner theory is analysed in detail for the impact of circular cylinders and wedges. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  6. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  7. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.

    2011-01-01

    implemented in practice. In this study the impact of locally applied airflow on the thermal plume generated by a sitting human body was investigated. The experiment was performed in a climate chamber with upward piston flow. A thermal manikin was sitting on a computer chair behind a table. The air speed...

  9. Dynamic of arm’s micro movements of elite athlete in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol and Air Pistol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Pyatkov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements in Olympic exercises with pistol. Material: in the research we used the data of 37 elite athletes in exercise Air Pistol (n=32 and in exercise Rapid Fire Pistol (n=5. Registration of pistol projection’s quickness of movement in target area was realized with the help of computer system Scatt. In total we analyzed 3100 space-time parameters of athletes’ technical-tactic actions in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. Results: we tested innovative method of contactless measuring of athlete’s hand’s micro movements in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. We found uncontrolled deviations from optimal pistol pointing position in vertical, horizontal and sagittal planes. Quickness of athlete hand’s movements in shooting process was determined. Conclusions: we scientifically substantiated the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements at a distance in Olympic exercises with pistol. Besides, we determined the dynamic of athlete’s hand micro movements in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol та Air Pistol.

  10. CFD model of air movement in ventilated facade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of ventilated facade. Ventilated facades are normal facade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin) facade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin facades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated facade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated facades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated facade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  11. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e) When...

  12. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of such...

  13. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  14. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todde, V

    1998-09-01

    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  15. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2013-03-01

    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  16. Evaluating of air flow movements and thermal comfort in a model room with Euler equation: Two dimensional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafi, Fatima Zohra; Halle, Stephane [Mechanical engineering department, Ecole de technologie superieure, Quebec university, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study that consists of estimating the temperature distribution and air flow movement in a model room with a numerical model based on the Euler equations. Numerical results obtained for two scenarios of ventilation and heating are compared with the predictions of a Navier-Stokes model, as well as with experimental results. A comparison of the local thermal comfort indices PMV and PPD obtained experimentally and numerically is also presented. Results show that the Euler model is capable of properly estimating the temperature distribution, the air movement and the comfort indices in the room. Furthermore, the use of Euler equations allows a reduction of computational time in the order of 30% compared to the Navier-Stokes modeling. (author)

  17. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NO x emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  18. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D; Furness, Robert W; Haydon, Daniel T

    2012-09-07

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measures to reduce, impacts. Flight trajectory data that were collected post-construction of the Danish Nysted offshore wind farm were used to parameterize competing models of bird movements around turbines. The model most closely fitting the observed data incorporated individual variation in the minimum distance at which birds responded to the turbines. We show how such models can contribute to the spatial planning of wind farms by assessing their extent, turbine spacing and configurations on the probability of birds passing between the turbines. Avian movement models can make new contributions to environmental assessments of wind farm developments, and provide insights into how to reduce impacts that can be identified at the planning stage.

  19. Droplet Impacting on Liquid Film: Evolution of Entrapped Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we experimentally studied the dynamics of droplet impacting films of various thicknesses within a range of h / R <= 1 (h: film thickness; R: droplet radius). High speed imaging and color interferometry enabled the investigation of the evolution of the air layer trapped between two surfaces, which plays a critical role in determining the collision outcome. Globally, two distinct regimes of impaction outcome, namely bouncing and merging, are observed at low and high impact inertia, respectively. Impaction with high inertia depletes the air layer before the droplet significantly deforms, resulting in permanent merging. At low impact inertia, however, color interferometry shows the existence of three phases prior to bouncing. Upon impaction, droplet endures significant deformation trapping the air layer between the interfaces, hence increasing the resistance force. This phase is characterized by fast deformation of the air film, followed by a period of pseudo equilibrium, with minimal changes in the interfacial air-film profile. The droplet also lacks kinetic energy to penetrate further into the film, resulting in a temporary balance between the droplet weight and air-film pressure. The deformed droplet eventually relaxes towards spherical shape to destroy the equilibrium. Fast change occurs in air-layer and pressure distribution favoring the droplet bouncing.

  20. Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2015-01-01

    The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

  1. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  2. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.; Towers, T.; Johnson, H.; Overbey, W.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental cleanup task facing the United States Department of Energy (DOE) presents enormous technical, planning and institutional challenges, including the need to develop new technologies that are faster, better, safer, and cheaper, in order to expedite site cleanup. Characterization of contaminated sediments resulting from past tank leaks, continued safe operations of the tanks, total confinement of leaking materials, secondary waste minimization, and final closure of the single shell tanks are five of the many facets of the storage tank issue at Hanford and elsewhere in the nation. Each of these issues are considered in the development of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB). The Circulating Air Barrier system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the movement of liquid contaminants toward the groundwater by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the water saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow. Vertical or horizontal wells can be installed to create a matrix of air injection and production so that air flows across the target barrier zone to the production wells. In the event of a tank leak, the system serves as a tool for early detection and provides a means to withdraw volatile contaminants to the surface for treatment. Demonstration and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site. This includes chemical and geological characterization; model development, sensitivity analysis and performance optimization; subsurface configuration and surface processing equipment design; and development of a test program with associated cost estimates

  3. Air Turbulence and sensation of draught

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Hanzawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    the sedentary subjects were exposed to six mean air velocities ranging from 0.05 m/s to 0.40 m/s. The air temperature was kept constant at 23°C. They were asked whether and where they could feel air movement and whether or not it felt uncomfortable. The turbulence intensity had a significant impact...... on the occurence of draught sensation. A model is presented which predicts the percentage of people dissatisfied because of draught as a function of air temperature, mean velocity and turbulence intensity. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying the draught risk in spaces and for developing air distribution...... systems with a low draught risk....

  4. Remote monitoring of air movement through a high-rise, brick veneer and steel-stud wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeyer, T.A.; Genge, G.R. [GRG Building Consultants Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Since the early 20th century, research on building enclosures has been going on in the form of field investigations and laboratory testing, but real-time monitoring of buildings is relatively new. Compact sensors and programmable data logging equipment have allowed thorough, real-time trend analysis of occupied buildings. This paper discusses the remote monitoring of air movement using a high-rise brick veneer and steel-stud wall system. This equipment was installed across the exterior wall assembly. Temperature and air moisture content within the stud cavity and outdoor to indoor air pressure difference was measured across the entire assembly and in series across the various components of the wall. For outdoor conditions, local airport weather records were used. Comparing collected temperature data and the theoretical thermal model, it was concluded that there was air leakage. From the overall project, lessons learned included that is was important to minimize discomfort, both in aesthetics and in the number of requests for access to homes for analyses.

  5. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  6. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  7. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  8. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  9. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  10. Immediate impact of smoke-free laws on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J; Riker, Carol; Head, Sara; Seithers, Peggy

    2007-09-01

    Smoke-free laws significantly impact indoor air quality. However, the temporal effects of these laws on indoor air pollution have not been determined. This paper assesses the temporal impact of one smoke-free law on indoor air quality. This quasi-experimental study compared the indoor air quality of nine hospitality venues and one bingo hall in Georgetown, Kentucky, before and after implementation of a 100% smoke-free workplace law. We made real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5). Among the nine Georgetown hospitality venues, the average indoor PM2.5 concentration was 84 microg/m3 before the law took effect. The average indoor PM2.5 concentrations in nine compliant venues significantly decreased to 18 microg/m3 one week after the law took effect. Three venues having 82 microg/m3 before the law had significantly lower levels from the first day the law was implemented, and the low level was maintained. Compliance with the law is critical to achieving clean indoor air. Indoor air pollution in the bingo hall was not reduced until the establishment decided to comply with the law. The smoke-free law showed immediate impact on indoor air quality.

  11. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium. As we consider the potential health impacts of a warming planet, the relationships between climate change and air pollutants become increasingly important to understand. These relationships are complex and highly variable, causing a variety of environmental impacts at local, regional and global scales. Human exposures and health impacts for air pollutants have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures to these pollutants. Research on this topic will provide both state and local governments with the tools and scientific knowledge base to undertake any necessary adaptation of the air pollution regulations and/or public health management systems in the face of climate change.

  12. Air Pollution and Climate Change Health Impact Assessment. The ACHIA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change may affect human health via interactions with air pollutants such as ozone and PM 2.5 . These air pollutants are linked to climate because they can be both affected by and have effects on climate. In coming decades, substantial, cost-effective improvements in public health may be achieved with well-planned strategies to mitigate climate impacts while also reducing health effects of ozone and PM 2.5 . Climate mitigation actions affect greenhouse pollutant emissions, including methane and black carbon, but also may affect other key air pollution precursors such as NOx, CO, and SOx. To better understand the potential of such strategies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. The overall objective of this project is to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of ozone and PM 2.5 under different IPCCs scenario of climate change, focusing specifically on pollution-related health co-benefits which could be achieved under alternative climate mitigation pathways in the period 2030-2050. This question will be explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (Paris). ACHIA is comprised of an integrated set of four work packages: WP1. Global Climate and Air Pollution Impacts of Alternative Emissions Pathways; WP2. Climate and Air Quality at Regional and Urban Scales: Results for Europe and Paris; WP3. Health Impact Assessment; WP4. Dissemination, Evaluation, Management. ACHIA is designed to create an interdisciplinary approach to the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to start longer-term collaborations between communities. We expect the project to advance state of art across all WPs, with important implications for research groups around the world. A particular innovation of the project is the multi-scale aspect, i.e., the

  13. Instrument air system - Aging impact on system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to understand and manage the effects of aging in nuclear power plants, an aging assessment was performed for the Instrument Air (IA) system, a system that has been the subject of much scrutiny in recent years. Despite its non-safety classification, instrument air has been a factor in a number of potentially serious events. This report presents the results of the assessment and discusses the impact of instrument air system aging on system availability and plant safety. This work was performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. To perform the complex task of analyzing an entire system, the Aging and Life Extension Assessment Program (ALEAP) System Level Plan was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and applied successfully in previous system aging studies. The work presented herein was performed using two parallel work paths, as described in the ALEAP plant. One path used deterministic techniques to assess the impact of aging on compressed air system performance, while the second path used probabilistic methods. Results from both paths then were used to characterize aging in the instrument air system. Some conclusions from this work are: compressors, air system valves, and air dryers were found to make up the majority of failures; the effectiveness and quantity of preventive maintenance devoted to a component significantly affected the amount of failures experienced; review of compressed air system designs and studies using a PRA-based system model revealed that the redundancy of key components (compressors, dryers, IA/SA crossconnect valve) was an important factor in system availability; total loss of air events are uncommon

  14. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  15. Skating on a Film of Air: Drops Impacting on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, John M.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.; Mandre, Shreyas; Brenner, Michael P.; Weitz, David A.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    The commonly accepted description of drops impacting on a surface typically ignores the essential role of the air that is trapped between the impacting drop and the surface. Here we describe a new imaging modality that is sensitive to the behavior right at the surface. We show that a very thin film of air, only a few tens of nanometers thick, remains trapped between the falling drop and the surface as the drop spreads. The thin film of air serves to lubricate the drop enabling the fluid to skate on the air film laterally outward at surprisingly high velocities, consistent with theoretical predictions. Eventually this thin film of air breaks down as the fluid wets the surface via a spinodal-like mechanism. Our results show that the dynamics of impacting drops are much more complex than previously thought, with a rich array of unexpected phenomena that require rethinking classic paradigms.

  16. An aggregated indicator of air-pollution impacts involved by transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goger, Th.

    2006-11-01

    We intend to build a global environmental impact indicator of air pollution to assess transport infrastructures, technologies or flows. This indicator tries to be simple and transparent to facilitate its use in decision-making. The intention is for the indicator to be like the Global Warming Potential (GWP), which establishes a relationship between the emission of six greenhouse gases and the average temperature increase of the Earth. The indicator therefore allows estimating the global environmental impact of transport-generated air pollution, while simultaneously conserving the value of the environmental impact of each type of air pollution and the emission assessment. This work is based on an environmental impact typology, a set of indicators, and aggregation architecture of atmospheric pollution. The typology is established as a function of the specific and homogenous characteristics of each type of pollution in terms of pollutants, impact mechanisms, targets and environmental impacts. To ensure exhaustiveness and non-redundancy, 10 types of air pollution impact are proposed: greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, direct eco-toxicity (this type of pollution excludes greenhouse effects on nature, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification and photochemical pollution), eutrophication, acidification, photochemical pollution, restricted direct health effects (not taking into account welfare, and excluding the effects on health of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification and photochemical pollution), sensitive pollution (annoyance caused by odours and fumes), and degradation of common and historical man-made heritage. Indicators similar to GWP can be identified in the literature for each type of atmospheric pollution, except for the degradation of common and historical man-made heritage, for which none indicator have been suggested. However, these indicators do not seem to have achieved wide scientific consensus, except for GWP, which may make it

  17. Impact of AIRS radiance in the NCUM 4D-VAR assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Desamsetti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Sharma, Priti

    2016-04-01

    The hyperspectral radiances from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), on board NASA-AQUA satellite, have been processed through the Observation Processing System (OPS) and assimilated in the Variational Assimilation (VAR) System of NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). Numerical experiments are conducted in order to study the impact of the AIRS radiance in the NCUM analysis and forecast system. NCMRWF receives AIRS radiance from EUMETCAST through MOSDAC. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 channels covering the thermal infrared spectrum between 3 and 15 μm. Out of 2378 channels, 324 channels are selected for assimilation according to the peaking of weighting function and meteorological importance. According to the surface type and day-night conditions, some of the channels are not assimilated in the VAR. Observation Simulation Experiments (OSEs) are conducted for a period of 15 days to see the impact of AIRS radiances in NCUM. Statistical parameters like bias and RMSE are calculated to see the real impact of AIRS radiances in the assimilation system. Assimilation of AIRS in the NCUM system reduced the bias and RMSE in the radiances from instruments onboard other satellites. The impact of AIRS is clearly seen in the hyperspectral radiances like IASI and CrIS and also in infrared (HIRS) and microwave (AMSU, ATMS, etc.) sensors.

  18. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  19. Dosimetric impact of gastrointestinal air column in radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Neil C; Corn, Jonathan B; Ewing, Marvene M; Cardenes, Higinia R; Das, Indra J

    2018-02-01

    Dosimetric evaluation of air column in gastrointestinal (GI) structures in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of pancreatic cancer. Nine sequential patients were retrospectively chosen for dosimetric analysis of air column in the GI apparatus in pancreatic cancer using cone beam CT (CBCT). The four-dimensional CT (4DCT) was used for target and organs at risk (OARs) and non-coplanar IMRT was used for treatment. Once a week, these patients underwent CBCT for air filling, isocentre verification and dose calculations retrospectively. Abdominal air column variation was as great as ±80% between weekly CBCT and 4DCT. Even with such a large air column in the treatment path for pancreatic cancer, changes in anteroposterior dimension were minimal (2.8%). Using IMRT, variations in air column did not correlate dosimetrically with large changes in target volume. An average dosimetric deviation of mere -3.3% and a maximum of -5.5% was observed. CBCT revealed large air column in GI structures; however, its impact is minimal for target coverage. Because of the inherent advantage of segmentation in IMRT, where only a small fraction of a given beam passes through the air column, this technique might have an advantage over 3DCRT in treating upper GI malignancies where the daily air column can have significant impact. Advances in knowledge: Radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer has significant challenges due to positioning, imaging of soft tissues and variability of air column in bowels. The dosimetric impact of variable air column is retrospectively studied using CBCT. Even though, the volume of air column changes by ± 80%, its dosimetric impact in IMRT is minimum.

  20. Preferred Air Velocity and Local Cooling Effect of desk fans in warm environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    to compensate for higher environmental temperatures at the expense of no or relatively low energy consumption. When using desk fans, local air movement is generated around the occupant and a certain cooling effect is perceived. The impact of the local air movement generated by different air flow patterns......Common experiences, standards, and laboratory studies show that increased air velocity helps to offset warm sensation due to high environmental temperatures. In warm climate regions the opening of windows and the use of desk or ceiling fans are the most common systems to generate increased airflows......, and the possibility to keep comfortable conditions for the occupants in warm environments were evaluated in studies with human subjects. In an office-like climatic chamber, the effect of higher air velocity was investigated at room temperatures between 26°C to 34°C and at constant absolute humidity of 12.2 g...

  1. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dália R.A. Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85% during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA] enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61% or high (92% RH combined with a negligible MOV or with a continuous MOV of 0.92 m s-1. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].

  2. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  3. Impact of Air Pollution to Genome of Newborns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Dostál, Miroslav; Milcová, Alena; Švecová, Vlasta; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajšlová, J.; Velemínský Jr., M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, dec (2016), S40-S44 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * diet * genetic damage * molecular epidemiology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016

  4. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent; Riviere, Philippe; Adnot, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO 2-eq in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: → A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. → Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. → There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  5. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.C.; Sandii Win, M.; Hall, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  6. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  8. Air impacts of increased natural gas acquisition, processing, and use: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher W; Zielinska, Barbara; Pétron, Gabrielle; Jackson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, technological advancements in the United States and Canada have led to rapid and intensive development of many unconventional natural gas plays (e.g., shale gas, tight sand gas, coal-bed methane), raising concerns about environmental impacts. Here, we summarize the current understanding of local and regional air quality impacts of natural gas extraction, production, and use. Air emissions from the natural gas life cycle include greenhouse gases, ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), air toxics, and particulates. National and state regulators primarily use generic emission inventories to assess the climate, air quality, and health impacts of natural gas systems. These inventories rely on limited, incomplete, and sometimes outdated emission factors and activity data, based on few measurements. We discuss case studies for specific air impacts grouped by natural gas life cycle segment, summarize the potential benefits of using natural gas over other fossil fuels, and examine national and state emission regulations pertaining to natural gas systems. Finally, we highlight specific gaps in scientific knowledge and suggest that substantial additional measurements of air emissions from the natural gas life cycle are essential to understanding the impacts and benefits of this resource.

  9. Upper cervical spine movement during intubation: fluoroscopic comparison of the AirWay Scope, McCoy laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, K; Yamada, T; Kawakami, R; Kamata, T; Yokochi, M; Hara, K

    2008-01-01

    The AirWay Scope (AWS) is a new fibreoptic intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic structures without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, and thus may be useful in patients with limited cervical spine (C-spine) movement. We fluoroscopically evaluated upper C-spine movement during intubation with the AWS or Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope. Forty-five patients, with normal C-spine, scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned to one of the three intubation devices. Movement of the upper C-spine was examined by measuring angles formed by adjacent vertebrae during intubation. Time to intubation was also recorded. Median cumulative upper C-spine movement was 22.3 degrees, 32.3 degrees, and 36.5 degrees with the AWS, Macintosh laryngoscope, and McCoy laryngoscope, respectively (Pmovement of the C-spine at C1/C2 in comparison with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.012), and at C3/C4 in comparison with the McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.019). Intubation time was significantly longer in the AWS group than in the Macintosh group (P=0.03). Compared with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope, the AWS produced less movement of upper C-spine for intubation in patients with a normal C-spine.

  10. Air conditioner with three stages of indirect regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    An air conditioner is described comprising: a cabinet defining an internal evaporation chamber and having an air inlet and an air outlet; a heat exchanger mounted in the cabinet and defining an air movement path between the air inlet and the air outlet; means for supplying air to be cooled to the air inlet of the cabinet of movement through the air movement path of the heat exchanger in a heat exchanger relationship; air diversion means for continuously diverting some of the air emerging from the air outlet of the cabinet; and means in the evaporation chamber of the cabinet for recirculating spraying water into the chiller tube of the heat exchanger for interacting with the diverted air moving therethrough to evaporatively cool the heat exchanger

  11. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the

  12. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  13. Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

    2003-12-01

    Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to

  14. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Deaf Smith County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise impact assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impacts sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 13 tabs

  15. Multiscale model for pedestrian and infection dynamics during air travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, Sirish; Derjany, Pierrot; Mubayi, Anuj; Scotch, Mathew; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we develop a multiscale model combining social-force-based pedestrian movement with a population level stochastic infection transmission dynamics framework. The model is then applied to study the infection transmission within airplanes and the transmission of the Ebola virus through casual contacts. Drastic limitations on air-travel during epidemics, such as during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, carry considerable economic and human costs. We use the computational model to evaluate the effects of passenger movement within airplanes and air-travel policies on the geospatial spread of infectious diseases. We find that boarding policy by an airline is more critical for infection propagation compared to deplaning policy. Enplaning in two sections resulted in fewer infections than the currently followed strategy with multiple zones. In addition, we found that small commercial airplanes are better than larger ones at reducing the number of new infections in a flight. Aggregated results indicate that passenger movement strategies and airplane size predicted through these network models can have significant impact on an event like the 2014 Ebola epidemic. The methodology developed here is generic and can be readily modified to incorporate the impact from the outbreak of other directly transmitted infectious diseases.

  16. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  17. Variability in impact of air pollution on subjective well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guodong; Shin, Kong Joo; Managi, Shunsuke

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of variability in impact of air pollution on life satisfaction (LS). Previous studies have shown robust negative impact of air pollution on subjective well-being (SWB). However, empirical studies that consider variability in air pollution effects through comparative city study are limited. This study provides comparative evaluation of two major Chinese cities: Beijing and Shanghai. We apply a geo-statistical spatial interpolation technique on pollution data from monitoring sites to estimate the Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), coarse particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10) and fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) pollution exposure of respondents of a survey conducted in 2016. The results show that all pollutants have robust negative impacts on LS for Beijing residents, whereas only SO2 and NO2 have significant negative impacts on LS for Shanghai residents; Per unit impact of SO2 is greater in Shanghai, and that of NO2 is greater in Beijing. Beijing and Shanghai residents have almost same monetary valuation for SO2 reduction but Beijing residents place approximately 1.5 times valuation on NO2 reduction compared to Shanghai residents. Moreover, the LS of Beijing residents is sensitive to temporal changes in the pollution level, whereas Shanghai residents are unaffected by such changes.

  18. Double Contact During Drop Impact on a Solid Under Reduced Air Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2017-11-20

    Drops impacting on solid surfaces entrap small bubbles under their centers, owing to the lubrication pressure which builds up in the thin intervening air layer. We use ultrahigh-speed interference imaging, at 5 Mfps, to investigate how this air layer changes when the ambient air pressure is reduced below atmospheric. Both the radius and the thickness of the air disc become smaller with reduced air pressure. Furthermore, we find the radial extent of the air disc bifurcates, when the compressibility parameter exceeds similar to 25. This bifurcation is also imprinted onto some of the impacts, as a double contact. In addition to the central air disc inside the first ring contact, this is immediately followed by a second ring contact, which entraps an outer toroidal strip of air, which contracts into a ring of bubbles. We find this occurs in a regime where Navier slip, due to rarefied gas effects, enhances the rate gas can escape from the path of the droplet.

  19. The Influence of Office Furniture on the Air Movement in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, June Richther

    Isothermal and thermal experiments and simulations form the basis of the investigations in this thesis. It is mainly the isothermal case that is studied. The examinations concern how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Especially, the jet under...... whereas the two last-mentioned inlets are simulated 3-dimensional. In the isothermal simulations a furniture volume is used to represent the physical furniture and in the thermal case a furniture volume together with a volume source is used. The investigations of the isothermal experiments and simulations...... by the thermal forces in the room. The thermal case needs more investigation because only two experiments and the corresponding simulations are the base of the investigations....

  20. Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0008 Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance Dina...July 2014 – November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance 5a...During Critical Care Air Transport Team Advanced Course validation, three-member teams consisting of a physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist

  1. Y2K's Impact on the U.S. Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Propat, William

    1999-01-01

    .... The expected impact of the Y2K problem on the US Air Force is determined by examining the areas projected to be most severely impacted, reviewing Y2K correction efforts, and reading the opinions...

  2. Impact forces cannot explain the one-target advantage in rapid aimed hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegstraaten, Marianne; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli

    A pointing movement is executed faster when a subject is allowed to stop at the first target than when the subject has to proceed to a second target ("one-target advantage"). Our hypothesis was that this is because the impact at the target helps to stop the finger when the finger does not have to

  3. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on self-paced oscillatory movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckel, Mathieu; Pozzo, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping) while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20 s before a 2 s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced) while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with the task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e., motor/perceptual resonance). In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a motoric

  4. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on oscillatory self-paced movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu ePeckel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20s before a 2s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e. motor/perceptual resonance. In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a

  5. Impact of power generation on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the impact of the electric power industry on air quality. Much of the data are presented in chronological order starting with the London smogs in the late nineteenth century and the Clean Air Act of 1956. With the building of bigger and bigger coal-fired power stations, apparatus to restrict emissions of dust became common and a Royal Commission reported on the progress of smoke control in 1974 and 1976. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) role of Local Authorities; (ii) weather and smog; (iii) trends in emissions; (iv) dispersal and dilution; (v) smoke and sulfur dioxide exported; (vi) atmospheric lifetime of sulfur dioxide; (vii) proportionality between emissions and deposition; (viii) critical loads; (ix) international agreements on transboundary pollution; (x) road transport pollution; (xi) local air quality management and (xii) climate change

  6. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  7. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary, and three-component (ternary combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although

  8. The Eugenics Movement and Its Impact on Art Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Doniger, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the eugenics movement has had three major influences on education in the United States, and reveals how these influences have had an impact on visual arts education in particular. The first influence began with a debate between John Dewey and David Snedden that resulted in a two-tiered tracking system that separated…

  9. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  10. Air quality impact analysis in support of the new production reactor environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this air quality impact analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this work was to provide Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the required estimates of ground-level concentrations of five criteria air pollutants at the Hanford Site boundary from each of the stationary sources associated with the new production reactor (NPR) and its supporting facilities. The DOE proposes to provide new production capacity for the primary production of tritium and secondary production of plutonium to support the US nuclear weapons program. Three alternative reactor technologies are being considered by DOE: the light-water reactor, the low-temperature, heavy-water reactor, and the modular high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor. In this study, PNL provided estimates of the impacts of the proposed action on the ground-level concentration of the criteria air pollutants for each of the alternative technologies. The criteria pollutants were sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, and particulates with a diameter of less than 10 microns. Ground-level concentrations were estimated for the peak construction phase activities expected to occur in 1997 and for the operational phase activities beginning in the year 2000. Ground-level concentrations of the primary air pollutants were estimated to be well below any of the applicable national or state ambient air quality standards. 12 refs., 19 tabs

  11. Evaluation of urban air pollution impact. Brest and Nantes impact at long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Brest et Nantes impact a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment for Brest and Nantes of the health impact in 1999 of chronic exposure to air pollution relies on four stages: health outcome identification, the selection of exposure-response functions, exposure assessment and risk characterization. The study characterizes: - the health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels; - the expected health impact of a 15% rise in air pollution levels. The results give the number of deaths attributable to air pollution. As for the health gain, the gain in days of life expectancy is also calculated. The study for Brest relies on one single exposure-response function. Concerning Nantes, the air control network is more complete and allows to use four exposure-response functions. The health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels is interpreted as a prudent evaluation of the health impact of air pollution. The estimated number of deaths due to the impact is around 38 (23 - 53) for Brest and around 40 (14 - 65) for Nantes. It means a decrease in the lifespan of 48 (29 - 68) days for Brest and 51 (17 - 84) days for Nantes. The uncertainty about exposure evaluation, the use of American exposure-response functions and of strong hypotheses to calculate the lifespan reduction generate more errors and uncertainty than for short term health impact assessment. (author)

  12. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  13. Impact of Asian Dust on Climate and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Tan, Qian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Dust generated from Asian permanent desert and desertification areas can be efficiently transported around the globe, making significant radiative impact through their absorbing and scattering solar radiation and through their deposition on snow and ice to modify the surface albedo. Asian dust is also a major concern of surface air quality not only in the source and immediate downwind regions but also areas thousands of miles away across the Pacific. We present here a global model, GOCART, analysis of data from satellite remote sensing instrument (MODIS, MISR, CALIPSO, OMI) and other observations on Asian dust sources, transport, and deposition, and use the model to assess the Asian dust impact on global climate and air quality.

  14. Impact of ambient air pollution on obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Yan, Hai; Guan, Chenghua

    2018-05-24

    Over 80% of the global populations living in urban areas are exposed to air quality levels that exceed the World Health Organization limits. Air pollution may lead to unhealthy body weight through metabolic dysfunction, chronic disease onset, and disruption of regular physical activity. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles published until September 2017 that assessed the relationship between air pollution and body weight status. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect methodological and outcome variables from each eligible study. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria and were included in the review. They were conducted in seven countries, including the US (n = 9), China (n = 2), Canada (n = 1), Italy (n = 1), The Netherlands (n = 1), Serbia (n = 1), and South Korea (n = 1). Half of them adopted a longitudinal study design, and the rest adopted a cross-sectional study design. Commonly examined air pollutants included PM, NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , and overall air quality index. Among a total of 66 reported associations between air pollution and body weight status, 29 (44%) found air pollution to be positively associated with body weight, 29 (44%) reported a null finding, and the remaining eight (12%) found air pollution to be negatively associated with body weight. The reported associations between air pollution and body weight status varied by sex, age group, and type of air pollutant. Three pathways hypothesized in the selected studies were through increased oxidative stress and adipose tissue inflammation, elevated risk for chronic comorbidities, and insufficient physical activity. Concurrent evidence regarding the impact of air pollution on body weight status remains mixed. Future studies should assess the impact of severe air pollution on obesity in developing countries, focus on a homogenous population subgroup, and elucidate the biomedical and psychosocial

  15. Quantifying regional consumption-based health impacts attributable to ambient air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Qu, Shen; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Ge; Zhang, Yanxu; Lu, Xi; Sabel, Clive E; Wang, Haikun

    2018-03-01

    Serious air pollution has caused about one million premature deaths per year in China recently. Besides cross-border atmospheric transport of air pollution, trade also relocates pollution and related health impacts across China as a result of the spatial separation between consumption and production. This study proposes an approach for calculating the health impacts of emissions due to a region's consumption based on a multidisciplinary methodology coupling economic, atmospheric, and epidemiological models. These analyses were performed for China's Beijing and Hebei provinces. It was found that these provinces' consumption-based premature deaths attributable to ambient PM 2.5 were respectively 22,500 and 49,700, which were 23% higher and 37% lower than the numbers solely within their boundaries in 2007. The difference between the effects of trade and trade-related emissions on premature deaths attributable to air pollution in a region has also been clarified. The results illustrate the large and broad impact of domestic trade on regional air quality and the need for comprehensive consideration of supply chains in designing policy to mitigate the negative health impacts of air pollution across China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Researchers at the National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, recently studied a segment of I-95 between Ft. Lauderdale and Miami to investigate the impacts of high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes on air quality. The project simula...

  17. Managing air pollution impacted forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Proctor; Annie Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O

  18. Assessing the impact of marine wind farms on birds through movement modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Richard; Desholm, Mark; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology and engineering, along with European Union renewable energy targets, have stimulated a rapid growth of the wind power sector. Wind farms contribute to carbon emission reductions, but there is a need to ensure that these structures do not adversely impact the populations that interact with them, particularly birds. We developed movement models based on observed avoidance responses of common eider Somateria mollissima to wind farms to predict, and identify potential measu...

  19. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... polluted by materials, and on the emission of pollutants from the materials. At all tested pollution levels of the five materials, the air was perceived significantly less acceptable with increasing temperature and humidity, and the impact of temperature and humidity on perception decreased with increasing...... pollution level. A significant linear correlation between acceptability and enthalpy of the air was found to describe the influence of temperature and humidity on perception. The impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emission was less significant than the impact on perception; however, the sensory...

  20. Impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost: A crucial way to communicate the health risks of air pollution to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Guoxing

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies have explored the impacts of exposure to sustained high levels of air pollution (air pollution wave) on mortality. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of air pollution wave has been increasing in highly polluted regions recently, understanding the impacts of air pollution wave is crucial. In this study, air pollution wave was defined as 2 or more consecutive days with air pollution index (API) > 100. The impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost (YLL) due to non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory deaths were evaluated by considering both consecutive days with high levels of air pollution and daily air pollution levels in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. The results showed the durational effect of consecutive days with high levels of air pollution was substantial in addition to the effect of daily air pollution. For instance, the durational effect was related to an increase in YLL of 116.6 (95% CI: 4.8, 228.5) years from non-accidental deaths when the air pollution wave was sustained for 4 days, while the corresponding daily air pollution's effect was 121.2 (95% CI: 55.2, 187.1) years. A better interpretation of the health risks of air pollution wave is crucial for air pollution control policy making and public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  2. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, M.N.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ), Ozone (O 3 ), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O x , SO 2 , and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  3. [The investigation of control mechanisms of stepping rhythm in human in the air-stepping conditions during passive and voluntary leg movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionon, V A; Grishin, A A

    2010-01-01

    influences from moving leg in the most degree then on central commands. It seems that afferent inputs from pressure receptors of foot in the condition of "air-stepping" actively interact with central program of stepping and, irrespective of type of the performing movements (voluntary or passive), form the final pattern activity.

  4. Time-resolved imaging of a compressible air disc under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2015-09-07

    When a drop impacts on a solid surface, its rapid deceleration is cushioned by a thin layer of air, which leads to the entrapment of a bubble under its centre. For large impact velocities the lubrication pressure in this air layer becomes large enough to compress the air. Herein we use high-speed interferometry, with 200 ns time-resolution, to directly observe the thickness evolution of the air layer during the entire bubble entrapment process. The initial disc radius and thickness shows excellent agreement with available theoretical models, based on adiabatic compression. For the largest impact velocities the air is compressed by as much as a factor of 14. Immediately following the contact, the air disc shows rapid vertical expansion. The radial speed of the surface minima just before contact, can reach 50 times the impact velocity of the drop.

  5. Air quality impacts of projections of natural gas-fired distributed generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jeremy R.; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Lemar, Paul; Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Shah, Tejas; Yarwood, Greg; Young, David; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts on emissions and air quality from the increased adoption of natural gas-fired distributed generation of electricity (DG), including displacement of power from central power generation, in the contiguous United States. The study includes four major tasks: (1) modeling of distributed generation market penetration; (2) modeling of central power generation systems; (3) modeling of spatially and temporally resolved emissions; and (4) photochemical grid modeling to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of increased DG penetration, which includes both power-only DG and combined heat and power (CHP) units, for 2030. Low and high DG penetration scenarios estimate the largest penetration of future DG units in three regions - New England, New York, and California. Projections of DG penetration in the contiguous United States estimate 6.3 GW and 24 GW of market adoption in 2030 for the low DG penetration and high DG penetration scenarios, respectively. High DG penetration (all of which is natural gas-fired) serves to offset 8 GW of new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) units, and 19 GW of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations by 2030. In all scenarios, air quality in the central United States and the northwest remains unaffected as there is little to no DG penetration in those states. California and several states in the northeast are the most impacted by emissions from DG units. Peak increases in maximum daily 8-h average ozone concentrations exceed 5 ppb, which may impede attainment of ambient air quality standards. Overall, air quality impacts from DG vary greatly based on meteorological conditions, proximity to emissions sources, the number and type of DG installations, and the emissions factors used for DG units.

  6. Air quality impacts of distributed power generation in the South Coast Air Basin of California 1: Scenario development and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. A.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Medrano, M.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Dabdub, D.

    Distributed generation (DG) is generally defined as the operation of many small stationary power generators throughout an urban air basin. Although DG has the potential to supply a significant portion of the increased power demands in California and the rest of the United States, it may lead to increased levels of in-basin pollutants and adversely impact urban air quality. This study focuses on two main objectives: (1) the systematic characterization of DG installation in urban air basins, and (2) the simulation of potential air quality impacts using a state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational model. A general and systematic approach is devised to construct five realistic and 21 spanning scenarios of DG implementation in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California. Realistic scenarios reflect an anticipated level of DG deployment in the SoCAB by the year 2010. Spanning scenarios are developed to determine the potential impacts of unexpected outcomes. Realistic implementations of DG in the SoCAB result in small differences in ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the basin compared to the baseline simulations. The baseline accounts for population increase, but does not consider any future emissions control measures. Model results for spanning implementations with extra high DG market penetration show that domain-wide ozone peak concentrations increase significantly. Also, air quality impacts of spanning implementations when DG operate during a 6-h period are larger than when the same amount of emissions are introduced during a 24-h period.

  7. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  8. Air Pollution Effects on Aircrafts Movement in and Around Airport: Solutions and Recommendations (Case Study: Djalaluddin Airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Adisaamita, Sakti Adji

    2014-01-01

    - The study was conducted by collecting information/data from Djalaluddin airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia in order to measure, prevent or minimize the air pollution impacts on airports and its surrounding, such that air pollution impacts can be managed and monitored effectively and efficiently not only in the current situation but also in the future conditions. The data used were primary and secondary data. The primary data were based on field survey, interview and discussion with official g...

  9. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  10. The air quality impact of the port of Amsterdam on its environment: Development of an air quality tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, L.; Breemen, T. van; Hulskotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the expansion of the Port of Amsterdam, Urban development and the construction of new highways, air pollution levels are about to exceed European guidelines in and around the port region of Amsterdam. To assess the air quality in this region and the impact of theport emissions on its

  11. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  12. The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Yamasaki, Sakura

    2009-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the data of a previous study on the policy impact of antinuclear, ecology, and peace movements in three countries with the aim of replicating its findings. Our goal is to see whether using a different analytical technique will yield similar results. The previous study used a regression approach to time-series analysis. Here, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to analyze the previous study’s data. Specifically, we test the two main hypotheses based on the joi...

  13. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  14. Modeling prescribed burning experiments and assessing the fire impacts on local to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Elleman, R. A.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning, including wildfires and prescribed burns, strongly impact the global carbon cycle and are of increasing concern due to the potential impacts on ambient air quality. This modelling study focuses on the evolution of carbonaceous compounds during a prescribed burning experiment and assesses the impacts of burning on local to regional air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to conduct 4 and 2 km grid resolution simulations of prescribed burning experiments in southeast Washington state and western Idaho state in summer 2013. The ground and airborne measurements from the field experiment are used to evaluate the model performance in capturing surface and aloft impacts from the burning events. Phase partitioning of organic compounds in the plume are studied as it is a crucial step towards understanding the fate of carbonaceous compounds. The sensitivities of ambient concentrations and deposition to emissions are conducted for organic carbon, elemental carbon and ozone to estimate the impacts of fire on air quality.

  15. Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Jerry L. Michael; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil...

  16. Impacts of Residential Biofuel Emissions on Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Storelvmo, T.

    2016-12-01

    The residential biofuel sector is defined as fuelwood, agricultural residues and dung used for household cooking and heating. Aerosol emissions from this human activity play an important role affecting local, regional and global air quality, climate and public health. However, there are only few studies available that evaluate the net impacts and large uncertainties persist. Here we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM v5.3) within the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.2, to quantify the impacts of cook-stove biofuel emissions on air quality and climate. The model incorporates a novel advanced treatment of black carbon (BC) effects on mixed-phase/ice clouds. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in CAM v5.3 to a state-of-the-art emission inventory from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies integrated assessment model. Global in-situ and aircraft campaign observations for BC and organic carbon are used to evaluate and validate the model performance. Sensitivity simulations are employed to assess the impacts of residential biofuel emissions on regional and global direct and indirect radiative forcings in the contemporary world. We focus the analyses on several key regions including India, China and Sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  18. Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Emberson, LD

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. A review of air pollution and its impact...

  19. Repair of a defect following the removal of an impacted maxillary canine by orthodontic tooth movement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wai Yip; Rabie, A Bakr M; Wong, Ricky Wk

    2010-02-15

    This case report describes a 13-year-old boy with alveolar bony defect resulted from surgical removal of impacted upper canine transposed in the anterior region. The boy had a normal occlusion with malposition of upper central and lateral incisors. The treatment objectives were to align teeth, close spaces by mesial movement of the buccal segments in the upper jaw to repair bone loss. Fixed appliance with palatal root torque was used for the mesial movements, levelling, and alignment of teeth.Orthodontic tooth movement consisted of a sequence of root movement in a direction to increase the thickness of the labial cortical plate of bone, could ensure healthier periodontium. A healthier periodontium prior to space closure ensured repair of alveolar bony defect after surgical intervention. Orthodontic tooth movement should be added to our armamentarium for the repair of alveolar bony defect.

  20. The air bubble entrapped under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.; Ootsuka, N.; Hatsuki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We present experimental observations of the disk of air caught under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. By imaging the impact through an acrylic plate with an ultra-high-speed video camera, we can follow the evolution of the air disk as it contracts into a bubble under the centre of the drop. The initial size and contraction speed of the disk were measured for a range of impact Weber and Reynolds numbers. The size of the initial disk is related to the bottom curvature of the drop at the initial contact, as measured in free-fall. The initial contact often leaves behind a ring of micro-bubbles, marking its location. The air disk contracts at a speed comparable to the corresponding air disks caught under a drop impacting onto a liquid surface. This speed also seems independent of the wettability of the liquid, which only affects the azimuthal shape of the contact line. For some impact conditions, the dynamics of the contraction leaves a small droplet at the centre of the bubble. This arises from a capillary wave propagating from the edges of the contracting disk towards the centre. As the wave converges its amplitude grows until it touches the solid substrate, thereby pinching off the micro-droplet at the plate, in the centre of the bubble. The effect of increasing liquid viscosity is to slow down the contraction speed and to produce a more irregular contact line leaving more micro-bubbles along the initial ring.

  1. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Sbihi, Hind; Davies, Hugh W; Brauer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Motorized traffic is an important source of both air pollution and community noise. While there is growing evidence for an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on reproductive health, little is known about the association between traffic noise and pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated the impact of residential noise exposure on small size for gestational age, preterm birth, term birth weight, and low birth weight at term in a population-based cohort study, for which we previously reported associations between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes. We also evaluated potential confounding of air pollution effects by noise and vice versa. Linked administrative health data sets were used to identify 68,238 singleton births (1999-2002) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, and education) and maternal residential history. We estimated exposure to noise with a deterministic model (CadnaA) and exposure to air pollution using temporally adjusted land-use regression models and inverse distance weighting of stationary monitors for the entire pregnancy. Noise exposure was negatively associated with term birth weight (mean difference = -19 [95% confidence interval = -23 to -15] g per 6 dB(A)). In joint air pollution-noise models, associations between noise and term birth weight remained largely unchanged, whereas associations decreased for all air pollutants. Traffic may affect birth weight through exposure to both air pollution and noise.

  2. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  3. Study on the impact of air quality in agricultural and health sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairani, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study focused on the impact of air quality in agricultural and health sectors. The impact of CO2 on the agricultural crops was conducted by using literature review and the impact of air quality was conducted using secondary data to calculate the Air Quality Index (AQI), derived from some monitoring stations available in Indonesia. Numerous studies showed that the elevated CO2 decreased the agricultural productivity. Maize yields decreased by 15 % in areas which used irrigation system and 8 % in areas which used rainfed. Maize yields had already experienced severe losses without increasing CO2 concentrations. It decreased by 21 % for irrigated maize and 26 % by rainfed maize. In addition, it turned out that other elevated pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, SPM, O3, CH4, PM2.5, PM10 and TSP also occurred in the atmosphere. These pollutants’ effects might harm human being in term of health concern. The USEPA had developed a tool, called the Air Quality Index (AQI) calculator to calculate the pollutants’ concentrations in a daily basis. This tool’s function to inform how clean or polluted the air that we breathed was with the health effects based on the concentrations of each pollutant. The AQI also provided the information on sensitive groups, health effects and cautionary statements. Based on the air daily data which derived from Board of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) of Indonesia, the AQI in Indonesia varied from good, moderate to unhealthy categories; with level of health concern was respiratory diseases, such as asthma.

  4. Perspective for Future Research Direction About Health Impact of Ambient Air Pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the major risks to human health because of the progressive increase in the use of vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Although lots of works on the health impact of ambient air pollution have been done in China, the following recommendations for future research were identified in this chapter: (1) the synergistic effect of indoor air pollution with climate change; (2) develop new technologies to improve accurate assessment of air pollution exposure; (3) well-designed cohort study of sensitive populations including children, older people, and people with chronic health problems; (4) multi-omics technologies in the underlying mechanisms study; and (5) benefits evaluation of improvement of air quality. In conclusion, China is becoming a suitable study site, providing an ideal opportunity to evaluate the effects of environmental pollution, including air pollution, on human health, which might serve as an example for developing countries where health impacts of air pollution are as serious as in China.

  5. Trade-driven relocation of air pollution and health impacts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Yanxu; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Xi; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhu, Weimo; Nielsen, Chris P; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Bi, Jun; McElroy, Michael B

    2017-09-29

    Recent studies show that international trade affects global distributions of air pollution and public health. Domestic interprovincial trade has similar effects within countries, but has not been comprehensively investigated previously. Here we link four models to evaluate the effects of both international exports and interprovincial trade on PM 2.5 pollution and public health across China. We show that 50-60% of China's air pollutant emissions in 2007 were associated with goods and services consumed outside of the provinces where they were produced. Of an estimated 1.10 million premature deaths caused by PM 2.5 pollution throughout China, nearly 19% (208,500 deaths) are attributable to international exports. In contrast, interprovincial trade leads to improved air quality in developed coastal provinces with a net effect of 78,500 avoided deaths nationwide. However, both international export and interprovincial trade exacerbate the health burdens of air pollution in China's less developed interior provinces. Our results reveal trade to be a critical but largely overlooked consideration in effective regional air quality planning for China.International and domestic interprovincial trade of China are entangled, but their health impacts have been treated separately in earlier studies. Here Wang. quantify the complex impacts of trade on public health across China within an integrative framework.

  6. Assessment of the emissions and air quality impacts of biomass and biogas use in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Williams, Robert; Dabdub, Donald

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that there is sufficient in-state "technically" recoverable biomass to support nearly 4000 MW of bioelectricity generation capacity. This study assesses the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants and resulting air quality impacts of new and existing bioenergy capacity throughout the state of California, focusing on feedstocks and advanced technologies utilizing biomass resources predominant in each region. The options for bioresources include the production of bioelectricity and renewable natural gas (NG). Emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases are quantified for a set of scenarios that span the emission factors for power generation and the use of renewable natural gas for vehicle fueling. Emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict regional and statewide temporal air quality impacts from the biopower scenarios. With current technology and at the emission levels of current installations, maximum bioelectricity production could increase nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 10% in 2020, which would cause increases in ozone and particulate matter concentrations in large areas of California. Technology upgrades would achieve the lowest criteria pollutant emissions. Conversion of biomass to compressed NG (CNG) for vehicles would achieve comparable emission reductions of criteria pollutants and minimize emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Air quality modeling of biomass scenarios suggest that applying technological changes and emission controls would minimize the air quality impacts of bioelectricity generation. And a shift from bioelectricity production to CNG production for vehicles would reduce air quality impacts further. From a co-benefits standpoint, CNG production for vehicles appears to provide the best benefits in terms of GHG emissions and air quality. This investigation provides a consistent analysis of air quality impacts and greenhouse gas emissions for scenarios examining

  7. Potential Impacts of Future Climate Change on Regional Air Quality and Public Health over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change would affect public health through changing air quality. Climate extremes and poor weather conditions are likely to occur at a higher frequency in China under a changing climate, but the air pollution-related health impacts due to future climate change remain unclear. Here the potential impacts of future climate change on regional air quality and public health over China is projected using a coupling of climate, air quality and epidemiological models. We present the first assessment of China's future air quality in a changing climate under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario using the dynamical downscaling technique. In RCP4.5 scenario, we estimate that climate change from 2006-2010 to 2046-2050 is likely to adversely affect air quality covering more than 86% of population and 55% of land area in China, causing an average increase of 3% in O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, which are found to be associated with the warmer climate and the more stable atmosphere. Our estimate of air pollution-related mortality due to climate change in 2050 is 26,000 people per year in China. Of which, the PM2.5-related mortality is 18,700 people per year, and the O3-related mortality is 7,300 people per year. The climate-induced air pollution and health impacts vary spatially. The climate impacts are even more pronounced on the urban areas where is densely populated and polluted. 90% of the health loss is concentrated in 20% of land areas in China. We use a simple statistical analysis method to quantify the contributions of climate extremes and find more intense climate extremes play an important role in climate-induced air pollution-related health impacts. Our results indicate that global climate change will likely alter the level of pollutant management required to meet future air quality targets as well as the efforts to protect public health in China.

  8. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Nicholas, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the potential air quality impacts of hydrogen transportation fuel from a lifecycle analysis perspective, including impacts from fuel production, delivery, and vehicle use. We assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are introduced in a specific region, Sacramento County, California. We consider two levels of market penetration where 9% or 20% of the light duty fleet are hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The following three natural gas to hydrogen supply pathways are assessed in detail and compared in terms of emissions and the resulting changes in ambient air quality: (1) onsite hydrogen production; (2) centralized hydrogen production with gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery systems; and (3) centralized hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery systems. All the pathways examined use steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas to produce hydrogen. The source contributions to incremental air pollution are estimated and compared among hydrogen pathways. All of the hydrogen pathways result in extremely low contributions to ambient air concentrations of NO x , CO, particulates, and SO x , typically less than 0.1% of the current ambient pollution for both levels of market penetration. Among the hydrogen supply options, it is found that the central SMR with pipeline delivery systems is the lowest pollution option available provided the plant is located to avoid transport of pollutants into the city via prevailing winds. The onsite hydrogen pathway is comparable to the central hydrogen pathway with pipeline systems in terms of the resulting air pollution. The pathway with liquid hydrogen trucks has a greater impact on air quality relative to the other pathways due to emissions associated with diesel trucks and electricity consumption to liquefy hydrogen. However, all three hydrogen pathways result in negligible air pollution in the region. (author)

  9. Impact of operating wood-burning stoves on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Jensen, Ole Michael; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    A field study on the impact of operating and reloading wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality was carried out during two consecutive winters. In contrast to the majority of recent studies, which focussed on the ambient air quality and the penetration of particles to the indoor air......, this study aims to understand to what extent the operation of a stove contributes to the generation of concentration of ultrafine particles in the indoor air. Therefore, different stoves were ignited in one session by the owner of the stove and in a subsequent session by an expert on wood-burning stoves....... The study was conducted in seven typical Danish detached houses without other indoor activities taking place. In each house the average air change rate during one week was measured (using passive tracer gas technique) and the indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded continuously...

  10. Future health impact assessment of air pollution at the global, European and Ile-de-France scales: the Air Pollution Climate Health Impact Assessment (A-C HIA) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhvar, Victoria; Hauglustaine, Didier; Kinney, Patrick; Colette, Augustin; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstandinos; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone and fine particles are current risk factors for premature death all over the globe. In coming decades, substantial improvements in public health may be achieved by reducing air pollution. The overall objective of the A-C HIA project (2011-2014) was to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of O 3 and PM2.5 under different scenarios of emissions for the period 2030-2050. A-C HIA created an interdisciplinary team to study the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to establish longer-term collaborations between communities. This question has been explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (ile-de-France). We f ind that 1.5 millions of cardio-vascular deaths could be delayed each year in 2030 compared to 2010. In Europe, air-pollution-related mortality should decrease in 2030 compared to 2010. At the finer scale (ile-de-France) we found that the respiratory mortality should increase over the highly populated area of Paris. In the coming years, substantial benefits to public health could be achieved through coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and improving air quality. (authors)

  11. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  12. Air quality impacts of increased use of ethanol under the United States’ Energy Independence and Security Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rich; Phillips, Sharon; Houyoux, Marc; Dolwick, Pat; Mason, Rich; Yanca, Catherine; Zawacki, Margaret; Davidson, Ken; Michaels, Harvey; Harvey, Craig; Somers, Joseph; Luecken, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, "criteria" pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of increased ethanol use on ozone and air toxics under a potential implementation scenario resulting from mandates in the U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The assessment of impacts was done for calendar year 2022, when 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be used. Impacts were assessed relative to a baseline which assumed ethanol volumes mandated by the first renewable fuels standard promulgated by U. S. EPA in early 2007. This assessment addresses both impacts of increased ethanol use on vehicle and other engine emissions, referred to as "downstream" emissions, and "upstream" impacts, i.e., those connected with fuel production and distribution. Air quality modeling was performed for the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), version 4.7. Pollutants included in the assessment were ozone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Results suggest that increased ethanol use due to EISA in 2022 will adversely increase ozone concentrations over much of the U.S., by as much as 1 ppb. However, EISA is projected to improve ozone air quality in a few highly-populated areas that currently have poor air quality. Most of the ozone improvements are due to our assumption of increases in nitrogen oxides (NO x) in volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited areas. While there are some localized impacts, the EISA renewable fuel standards have relatively little impact on national average ambient concentrations of most air toxics, although ethanol concentrations increase substantially. Significant uncertainties are associated with all results, due to limitations in available data. These uncertainties are

  13. Quantifying the co-impacts of energy sector decarbonisation on outdoor air pollution in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, Melissa C.; Pye, Steve; Dodds, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    The energy sector is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other types of air pollution that negatively impact human health and the environment. Policy targets to achieve decarbonisation goals for national energy systems will therefore impact levels of air pollution. Advantages can be gained from considering these co-impacts when analysing technology transition scenarios in order to avoid tension between climate change and air quality policies. We incorporated non-GHG air pollution into a bottom-up, technoeconomic energy systems model that is at the core of UK decarbonisation policy development. We then used this model to assess the co-impacts of decarbonisation on other types of air pollution and evaluated the extent to which transition pathways would be altered if these other pollutants were considered. In a scenario where the UK meets its existing decarbonisation targets to 2050, including the costs of non-GHG air pollution led to a 40% and 45% decrease in PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 pollution (respectively) between 2010 and 2050 due to changes in technology choice in residential heating. Conversely, limited change in the pollution profile for transportation were observed, suggesting that other policy strategies will be necessary to reduce pollution from transport. - Highlights: • Strategies to decarbonise energy systems should consider other air pollutants. • Energy systems models can show decarbonisation pathway co-impacts on PM, NO_x and SO_x. • Considering non-GHG pollution eliminates carbon & air quality policy tensions. • Transport particulate pollution challenges will only be addressed by modal shifting.

  14. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  15. Large eddy simulation of air pollution produced by aircraft engine emissions inside the airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synylo, Kateryna [National Aviation University (Ukraine)], email: synylo@nau.edu.ua

    2011-07-01

    With the increase of air traffic movement, air pollution from airport emissions has become an important concern. In the past, various research has been undertaken on the impact of aircraft engines on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, however the impact that emissions have on airports themselves is not taken into account by the most frequently used monitoring software programs. The aim of this paper is to present the use of a CFD simulation to determine the dynamic and fluid mechanics characteristics of aircraft emissions near the ground. The CFD simulation was carried out using Fluent 6.3 software and the effects of counter-rotating vortices and wind conditions on fulfilled gases jet. It was found that numerical simulation is able to resolve difficult equations and provide realistic results. This study demonstrated that the use of CFD computation could be used to improve local air quality modeling and assessment of the impact of aircraft emissions at airports.

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-01-01

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO 2 and O 3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO 2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: ► Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. ► This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. ► Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. ► Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. ► At municipal level larger differences were found, influenced by gender and age.

  17. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  18. Air-conditioning Australian households: The impact of dynamic peak pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, Yolande

    2010-01-01

    International mandates for smart metering are enabling variable and real-time pricing regimes such as dynamic peak pricing (DPP), which charges 10-40 times the off-peak rate for electricity during short periods. This regime aims to reduce peak electricity demand (predominantly due to increase in residential air-conditioning usage) and curb greenhouse gas emissions. Although trials indicate that DPP can achieve significant demand reductions, particularly in summer, little is known about how or why households change their cooling practices in response to this strategy. This paper discusses the outcomes of a small qualitative study assessing the impact of a DPP trial on household cooling practices in the Australian state of New South Wales. The study challenges common assumptions about the necessity of air-conditioning and impact of price signals. It finds that DPP engages households as co-managers of their cooling practices through a series of notification signals (SMS, phone, in-home display, email, etc.). Further, by linking the price signal to air-conditioning, some householders consider this practice discretionary for short periods of time. The paper concludes by warning that policy makers and utilities may serve to legitimise air-conditioning usage and/or negate demand reductions by failing to acknowledge the non-rational dynamics of DPP and household cooling practices. - Research highlights: →Most householders consider air-conditioning discretionary during DPP events →DPP engages householders as co-managers of their demand →Notification of an upcoming DPP event is significant to the response →Householders feel obligated to respond to DPP for a range of non-financial reasons

  19. Air quality mapping using GIS and economic evaluation of health impact for Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awkash; Gupta, Indrani; Brandt, Jørgen; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Patil, Rashmi S

    2016-05-01

    Mumbai, a highly populated city in India, has been selected for air quality mapping and assessment of health impact using monitored air quality data. Air quality monitoring networks in Mumbai are operated by National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), and Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). A monitoring station represents air quality at a particular location, while we need spatial variation for air quality management. Here, air quality monitored data of NEERI and BMC were spatially interpolated using various inbuilt interpolation techniques of ArcGIS. Inverse distance weighting (IDW), Kriging (spherical and Gaussian), and spline techniques have been applied for spatial interpolation for this study. The interpolated results of air pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were compared with air quality data of MPCB in the same region. Comparison of results showed good agreement for predicted values using IDW and Kriging with observed data. Subsequently, health impact assessment of a ward was carried out based on total population of the ward and air quality monitored data within the ward. Finally, health cost within a ward was estimated on the basis of exposed population. This study helps to estimate the valuation of health damage due to air pollution. Operating more air quality monitoring stations for measurement of air quality is highly resource intensive in terms of time and cost. The appropriate spatial interpolation techniques can be used to estimate concentration where air quality monitoring stations are not available. Further, health impact assessment for the population of the city and estimation of economic cost of health damage due to ambient air quality can help to make rational control strategies for environmental management. The total health cost for Mumbai city for the year 2012, with a population of 12.4 million, was estimated as USD

  20. Health and cost impact of air pollution from biomass burning over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Sadeghi, B.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Effective assessment of health and cost effects of air pollution associated with wildfire events is critical for supporting sustainable management and policy analysis to reduce environmental damages. Since biomass burning events result in higher ozone, PM2.5, and NOx concentration values in urban regions due to long-range transport, preliminary results indicated that wildfire events cause a considerable increase in incident estimates and costs. This study aims to evaluate the health and cost impact of biomass burning events over the continental United States using combined air quality and health impact modeling. To meet this goal, a comprehensive air quality modeling scenarios containing biomass burning emissions were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system from 2011 to 2014 with a spatial resolution of 12 km. The modeling period includes fire seasons between April and October over the course of four years. By using modeled pollutants concentrations, the USEPA's GIS-based computer program Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) provides an inclusive figure of health and cost impact caused by changing gaseous and particulate air pollution due to fire events. The basis of BenMAP-CE is the use of a damage-function approach to estimate the health impact of an applied change in air quality by comparing a biomass burning scenario (the one that includes wildfire events) with a baseline scenario (without biomass emissions). This approach considers several factors containing population, exposure to the pollutants, adverse health effects of a particular pollutant, and economic costs. Hence, this study made it capable of showing how biomass burning across U.S. influences people's health in different months, seasons, and regions. Besides, the cost impact of the wildfire events during study periods has also been estimated at both national and regional levels. The results of this study demonstrate the

  1. Factors influencing time-location patterns and their impact on estimates of exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Williams, Kayleen; Hirsch, Jana A; Adar, Sara D; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed time-location patterns and the role of individual- and residential-level characteristics on these patterns within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) cohort and also investigated the impact of individual-level time-location patterns on individual-level estimates of exposure to outdoor air pollution. Reported time-location patterns varied significantly by demographic factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education, and employment status. On average, Chinese participants reported spending significantly more time indoors and less time outdoors and in transit than White, Black, or Hispanic participants. Using a tiered linear regression approach, we predicted time indoors at home and total time indoors. Our model, developed using forward-selection procedures, explained 43% of the variability in time spent indoors at home, and incorporated demographic, health, lifestyle, and built environment factors. Time-weighted air pollution predictions calculated using recommended time indoors from USEPA overestimated exposures as compared with predictions made with MESA Air participant-specific information. These data fill an important gap in the literature by describing the impact of individual and residential characteristics on time-location patterns and by demonstrating the impact of population-specific data on exposure estimates.

  2. Time-resolved imaging of a compressible air disc under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    When a drop impacts on a solid surface, its rapid deceleration is cushioned by a thin layer of air, which leads to the entrapment of a bubble under its centre. For large impact velocities the lubrication pressure in this air layer becomes large

  3. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student ‘t’ test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated ‘p’ value (p-value S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and olsteoclastic count: An Animal Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):1-8. PMID:24876695

  4. Measuring the impact of air pollution on respiratory infection risk in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Sanyi; Yan, Qinling; Shi, Wei; Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodan; Yu, Pengbo; Wu, Jianhong; Xiao, Yanni

    2018-01-01

    China is now experiencing major public health challenges caused by air pollution. Few studies have quantified the dynamics of air pollution and its impact on the risk of respiratory infection. We conducted an integrated data analysis to quantify the association among air quality index (AQI), meteorological variables and respiratory infection risk in Shaanxi province of China in the period of November 15th, 2010 to November 14th, 2016. Our analysis illustrated a statistically significantly positive correlation between the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and AQI, and the respiratory infection risk has increased progressively with increased AQI with a time lag of 0–3 days. We also developed mathematical models for the AQI trend and respiratory infection dynamics, incorporating AQI-dependent incidence and AQI-based behaviour change interventions. Our combined data and modelling analysis estimated the basic reproduction number for the respiratory infection during the studying period to be 2.4076, higher than the basic reproduction number of the 2009 pandemic influenza in the same province. Our modelling-based simulations concluded that, in terms of respiratory infection risk reduction, the persistent control of emission in the China's blue-sky programme is much more effective than substantial social-economic interventions implemented only during the smog days. - Highlights: • Quantify the dynamics of air pollution, evaluate impact on respiratory infection. • Present a novel methodology through integrating statistic and dynamic models. • The respiratory infection risk has increased with increased air quality index. • Persistent control of emission in China's blue-sky program is much more effective. - This study presented a novel methodology to quantify the dynamics of air pollution and evaluate its impact of on the risk of respiratory infection, and hence to suggest interventions for China's blue-sky programme.

  5. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Youcheng Liu,1,* Shuang Yan,2,* Karen Poh,1 Suyang Liu,3 Emanehi Iyioriobhe,1 David A Sterling1 1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Epidemiology, Human Genetics & Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective: This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results: Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD

  6. Impact of heat load location and strength on air flow pattern with a passive chilled beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, Risto [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland); Saarinen, Pekka; Koskela, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Hole, Alex [Arup, Rob Leslie-Carter, Level 10, 201 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    A passive chilled beam is a source of natural convection, creating a flow of cold air directly into the occupied zone. Experiments were conducted in a mock-up of an office room to study the air velocities in the occupied spaces. In addition, velocity profiles are registered when underneath heat loads exist and the cool and warm air flows interact. Experimental laboratory study revealed that in the case of the underneath heat gains, even no upward plume was generated and the dummy only acted as a flow obstacle, having a significant effect on the velocity profile. Furthermore, in an actual occupied office environment, the thermal plumes and the supply air diffuser mixed effectively the whole air volume. The maximum air velocity measured was still below 0.25 m/s with the extremely high heat gain of 164 W/m{sup 2}. The results demonstrate that analysis methods were the interaction of convection flow and jet are not taken into account could not accurately describe air movement and draught risk in the occupied room space. (author)

  7. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  8. Multi-model assessment of health impacts of air pollution in Europe and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Solazzo, Efisio; Hogrefe, Christian; Galmarini, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is now the world's largest single environmental health risk. Assessments of health impacts and the associated external costs related to air pollution are estimated based on observed and/or modelled air pollutant levels. Chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are useful tools to calculate the concentrations of health-related pollutants taking into account the non-linearities in the chemistry and the complex interactions between meteorology and chemistry. However, the CTMs include different chemical and aerosol schemes that introduce differences in the representation of the processes. Likewise, will differences in the emissions and boundary conditions used in the models add to the overall uncertainties. These uncertainties are introduced also into the health impact estimates using output from the CTMs. Multi-model (MM) ensembles can be useful to minimize these uncertainties introduced by the individual CTMs. In the present study, the simulated surface concentrations of health related air pollutants for the year 2010 from fifteen modelling groups participating in the AQMEII exercise, serve as input to the Economic Valuation of Air Pollution model (EVA), in order to calculate the impacts of these pollutants on human health and the associated external costs in Europe and U.S. In addition, the impacts of a 20% global emission reduction scenario on the human health and associated costs have been calculated. Preliminary results show that in Europe and U.S., the MM mean number of premature deaths due to air pollution is calculated to be 400 000 and 160 000, respectively. Estimated health impacts among different models can vary up to a factor of 3 and 1.2 in Europe and U.S., respectively. PM is calculated to be the major pollutant affecting the health impacts and the differences in models regarding the treatment of aerosol composition, physics and dynamics is a key factor. The total MM mean costs due to health

  9. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  10. Source apportionment and air quality impact assessment studies in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Schrader, S.; Shen, R.; Ling, H.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Wang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2005 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. Further experimental studies include the operation of remote sensing systems to determine continuously the MLH (by a ceilometer) and gaseous air pollutants near the ground (by DOAS systems) as well as at the 320 m measurement tower (adhesive plates at different heights for passive particle collection) in cooperation with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The influence of the MLH on

  11. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  12. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  13. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  14. On the validity of the incremental approach to estimate the impact of cities on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The question of how much cities are the sources of their own air pollution is not only theoretical as it is critical to the design of effective strategies for urban air quality planning. In this work, we assess the validity of the commonly used incremental approach to estimate the likely impact of cities on their air pollution. With the incremental approach, the city impact (i.e. the concentration change generated by the city emissions) is estimated as the concentration difference between a rural background and an urban background location, also known as the urban increment. We show that the city impact is in reality made up of the urban increment and two additional components and consequently two assumptions need to be fulfilled for the urban increment to be representative of the urban impact. The first assumption is that the rural background location is not influenced by emissions from within the city whereas the second requires that background concentration levels, obtained with zero city emissions, are equal at both locations. Because the urban impact is not measurable, the SHERPA modelling approach, based on a full air quality modelling system, is used in this work to assess the validity of these assumptions for some European cities. Results indicate that for PM2.5, these two assumptions are far from being fulfilled for many large or medium city sizes. For this type of cities, urban increments are largely underestimating city impacts. Although results are in better agreement for NO2, similar issues are met. In many situations the incremental approach is therefore not an adequate estimate of the urban impact on air pollution. This poses issues in terms of interpretation when these increments are used to define strategic options in terms of air quality planning. We finally illustrate the interest of comparing modelled and measured increments to improve our confidence in the model results.

  15. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    1999-10-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  16. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  17. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.dhondt@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Beckx, Carolien, E-mail: Carolien.Beckx@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Degraeuwe, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Degraeuwe@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lefebvre, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Lefebvre@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kochan, Bruno, E-mail: Bruno.Kochan@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Bellemans@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc, E-mail: Luc.intpanis@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Macharis, Cathy, E-mail: cjmachar@vub.ac.be [Department MOSI-Transport and Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium); Putman, Koen, E-mail: kputman@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  18. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  19. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1996-01-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs

  20. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  1. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake......The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...

  2. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  3. Modeling the impact of air transport on the economy - practices, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of measuring the contribution of air transport to the regional economy is very important nowadays since many airport infrastructure projects are being implemented, using available European Union funds. As a result of growing transport needs and increasing incomes among the population, the air transport market is strongly developing.  This development results to many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits to locations in close proximity of an airport but also in the whole economy. The measurement of these benefits is important because the decisions made with respect to air transport influence local and regional economic performance. The most commonly used tool for measuring the positive effects associated with the operation of an airport is the input-output analysis. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the input-output method, to indicate its applications in Poland - the country with the most dynamic growth of air transport, to present the possible limitations of this method and propose improvements. Methods: The method used in this research is one that measures the effects of changes in the economy as a result of air transport activity. Particular input-output analysis is used. Results: On the background of the results of modeling the impact of polish airport on regional economy in 2009 the updated analysis in 2012 is provided. The economic impacts of Krakow, Katowice, Wroclaw and Szczecin airports are estimated. Then the limitations of input-output method are presented and suggestions of possible improvements are made. Comments: Proper measurement of the impact of airport's operation and investment on the economy, leads to more effective air transport policy development. For future research, the advanced input-output method to assess the positive impact of airports on regional development is recommended. However, a comprehensive assessment of the operation and expansion of airport

  4. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  5. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  6. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  7. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  8. Air quality impacts due to construction of LWR waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Air quality impacts of construction activities and induced housing growth as a result of construction activities were evaluated for four possible facilities in the LWR fuel cycle: a fuel reprocessing facility, fuel storage facility, fuel fabrication plant, and a nuclear power plant. Since the fuel reprocessing facility would require the largest labor force, the impacts of construction of that facility were evaluated in detail

  9. Impact of indoor surface material on perceived air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senitkova, I

    2014-03-01

    The material combination impact on perceived indoor air quality for various surface interior materials is presented in this paper. The chemical analysis and sensory assessments identifies health adverse of indoor air pollutants (TVOCs). In this study, emissions and odors from different common indoor surface materials were investigated in glass test chamber under standardized conditions. Chemical measurements (TVOC concentration) and sensory assessments (odor intensity, air acceptability) were done after building materials exposure to standardized conditions. The results of the chemical and sensory assessment of individual materials and their combinations are compared and discussed within the paper. The using possibility of individual material surface sorption ability was investigated. The knowledge of targeted sorption effects can be used in the interior design phase. The results demonstrate the various sorption abilities of various indoor materials as well as the various sorption abilities of the same indoor material in various combinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth

    2017-01-23

    A drop impacting on a solid surface must push away the intervening gas layer before making contact. This entails a large lubricating air pressure which can deform the bottom of the drop, thus entrapping a bubble under its centre. For a millimetric water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a central dimple, but its outer edge is surrounded by an extended thin air film, without contacting the solid. This is in sharp contrast with impacts of lower-viscosity drops where a kink in the drop surface forms at the edge of the central disc and makes a circular contact with the solid. Larger drop viscosities make the central air dimple thinner. The thin outer air film subsequently ruptures at numerous random locations around the periphery, when it reaches below 150 nm thickness. This thickness we measure using high-speed two-colour interferometry. The wetted circular contacts expand rapidly, at orders of magnitude larger velocities than would be predicted by a capillary-viscous balance. The spreading velocity of the wetting spots is independent of the liquid viscosity. This may suggest enhanced slip of the contact line, assisted by rarefied-gas effects, or van der Waals forces in what we call extreme wetting. Myriads of micro-bubbles are captured between the local wetting spots.

  11. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  12. Energy impact of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Air-conditioned office buildings are one of the biggest energy consumers of electricity in developed cities in the subtropical climate regions. A good energy policy for the indoor environment should respond to both the needs of energy conservation and the needs for a desirable indoor healthy environment with a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation. This study evaluates energy implications and the corresponding CO 2 generation of some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned office buildings in the subtropical climate. In particular, the thermal energy consumption in an air-conditioned office building was evaluated by the heat gains through the building fabric, the transport of outdoor fresh air for ventilation, and the heat generated by the occupant and equipment in the space. With the Monte-Carlo sampling technique and the parameters from the existing office building stocks of Hong Kong, the energy consumption profiles of air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong were evaluated. Energy consumption profiles were simulated for certain indoor environmental quality (IEQ) policies on indoor air temperature and CO 2 concentration settings in the offices, with other building parameters remaining unchanged. The impact assessment and the regression models described in this study may be useful for evaluation of energy performances of IEQ policies. They will also be useful for the promotion of energy-saving measures in air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong. This study presented a useful source of references for policymakers, building professionals and end users to quantify the energy and environmental impacts due to an IEQ policy for air-conditioned office buildings

  13. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan6, Santhana

    2014-04-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student 't' test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated 'p' value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.0110 level. Parameter : 2 osteoclastic count has shown a significant difference between the control (13.335000 ± 0.735856 per square mm.) and the experimental group (11.426900 ± 1.49369 per square mm) calculated 'p' value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.003 level. Conclusion : The molar tooth movement and the osteoclastic count were significantly reduced in BP - Pamidronate administered animals than non-drug recipients. How to cite the article: Venkataramana V, Chidambaram S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth

  14. Impact of particulate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Douglas; Stieb, Dave; Burnett, Richard T; DeCivita, Paul; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Thun, Michael J

    Air pollution and premature death are important public health concerns. Analyses have repeatedly demonstrated that airborne particles are associated with increased mortality and estimates have been used to forecast the impact on life expectancy. In this analysis, we draw upon data from the American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort and literature on utility-based measures of quality of life in relation to health status to more fully quantify the effects of air pollution on mortality in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy. The analysis was conducted within a decision analytic model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Outcomes were estimated based on projections of the Canadian population. A one-unit reduction in sulfate air pollution would yield a mean annual increase in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) of 20,960, with gains being greater for individuals with lower educational status and for males compared to females. This suggests that the impact of reductions in sulfate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy is substantial. Interpretation of the results is unclear. However, the potential gains in QALYs from reduced air pollutants can be contrasted to the costs of policies to bring about such reductions. Based on a tentative threshold for the value of health benefits, analysis suggests that an investment in Canada of over 1 billion dollars per annum would be an efficient use of resources if it could be demonstrated that this would reduce sulfate concentrations in ambient air by 1 microg/m(3). Further analysis can assess the efficiency of targeting such initiatives to communities that are most likely to benefit.

  15. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  16. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  17. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  18. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  19. The impact of air pollution to central nervous system in children and adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Veleminský Jr., M.; Velemínský, M.; Stejskalová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2017), s. 389-396 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * benzo[a] pyrene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  20. Air quality impact of the Nanticoke industrial development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, H.; Kiely, P.; Lusis, M.

    1985-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of the air quality monitoring activities, especially for three of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's criteria pollutants (SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, and total suspended particulates). In the early 1960's Nanticoke Hamlet, located on the northern shore of Lake Erie, was selected for a large industrial development program. The first phase saw the commissioning of a 4000 MW Ontario Hydro thermal generating station, a 100,000 bbl day/sup -1/ Texaco refinery and a Stelco steel plant with an initial annual capacity of 1.7 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes. Favorable climatological data was one of the criteria used for selecting this site. Extensive monitoring of ambient air and water quality was carried out prior to the construction phase of the program. Post operation monitoring has also been done on a continuous basis. The data collected to date indicate that the impact of the industrial activity on air quality in the Haldimand-Norfolk region has been very small, with less than 20 exceedances per year of the hourly air quality criterion for SO/sub 2/ (250 ppb) being observed across the network, and total suspended particulates being similar to other rural locations in Ontario. Only O/sub 3/ has a substantial number of exceedances of the criterion (80 ppb hourly average) during the summer months, primarily due to long-range transport into the area from across Lake Erie. 11 references, 3 tables.

  1. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  2. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is shown in

  3. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  4. Design and Experimental Investigation of Pneumatic Movement Mechanism Supported by Mechanic Cam and Crank Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih KORUCU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pressurized air is applied to many sectors required purity and velocity. One of these sectors is to use of air as impulsive force in the moving mechanisms. In this study, the movement mechanism prototype worked with compressed air was designed and produced forlight vehicle engine as motorbike and ATV (All-Terrain Vehicle. In developed mechanisms, pneumatic artificial muscles were used for a given movement of crankshaft. A cam system was also designed for synchronization pneumatic muscles. In this way, these muscles transmit the synchronous movement to crankshaft. At the end of the study, the developed mechanism was mounted on an ATV vehicle(110 cc/ Cubic Centimeter, engine displacement capacityand its performance was tested using the four different weights (50, 75, 100 and 150 kg, three different pressures (4, 5 and 6 bar and two different hoses (Ø 6 and Ø 8 mm. By considering experimental results and design criteria, power of the movement mechanism was obtained as 886 Watt. With this study, minimization of energy consumption for movement of passenger cars, and using clean and cheap energy as ATV which can be alternative for single or two passenger vehicles.

  5. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for F-35 Beddown at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    IFR instrument flight rules IJTS Initial Joint Training Site ILLUM Illuminating ILS Instrument Landing System IMPLAN an economic impact modeling...Final Supplemental ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR F-35 BEDDOWN AT EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA JANUARY 2014 Report Documentation Page Form...Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Supplemental Environmental Impact

  6. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  7. The relative impacts of distributed and centralized generation of electricity on local air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Qiguo; Venkatram, Akula

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the air quality impact of using distributed generation (DG) to satisfy future growth in power demand in the South Coast Air Basin of Los Angeles, relative to the impact when the demand is met by expanding current central generation (CG) capacity. The impact of decreasing boiler emissions by capturing the waste heat from DGs is not examined. The air quality impacts of these two alternate scenarios are quantified in terms of hourly maximum ground-level and annually averaged primary NO x concentrations, which are estimated using AERMOD. This study focuses on the impact of primary emissions at source-receptor distances of tens of kilometers. We find that the shift to DGs has the potential for decreasing maximum hourly impacts of power generation in the vicinity of the DGs. The maximum hourly concentration is reduced from 25 to 6 ppb if DGs rather than CGs are used to generate power. However, the annually averaged concentrations are likely to be higher than for the scenario in which existing CGs are used to satisfy power demand growth. Future DG penetration will add an annual average of 0.1 ppb to the current basin average, 20 ppb, while expanding existing CGs will add 0.05 ppb. - Highlights: → NO x levels in the LA basin will change by shifting to distributed generation (DG). → Shifting to DG will reduce the maximum hourly concentration from 25 to 6 ppb. → DG will add 0.1 ppb versus 0.05 ppb for CG to the annual average of 20 ppb.

  8. MACROECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AN EEC POLICY TO CONTROL AIR-POLLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NENTJES, A

    1991-01-01

    The OECD INTERLINK model was used to assess the macroeconomic impacts of a European Community directive to control air pollution. For this purpose the model was adapted. To meet the directive the EC would have to invest some 15 billion ECU. The annual costs would be 3.4 billion ECU in 1993. The

  9. Movement and touch make plants shorter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2017-01-01

    Plants in the greenhouse are increasingly on the move. More attention is being paid to air circulation and mobile cultivation is on the rise. Research shows that movement and touch (also as plants rub against each other) slow down growth. That can be frustrating but you can also use it to your

  10. Air quality and particles: impact on the environment and health. What to prescribe for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiss, Pierre; POISSON, Nathalie; Poulleau, Jean; Gondcaille, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    After having recalled that particles in the air are present under the form of liquid or solid matters and are characterized by their size, and that the term aerosol is generally used for a mix of air and particles in suspension, this publication proposes an overview of tools used to characterize particle pollutions, of the different impacts of particles on health, on the way ecosystems react with particle pollutions, on impacts of particles on building environment (outside and inside)

  11. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y J; Noh, Y M; Song, C H; Yoon, S C; Han, J S

    2009-01-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  12. Aircraft impact risk assessment data base for assessment of fixed wing air carrier impact risk in the vicinity of airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, F.; Read, J.

    1979-06-01

    The FIXED WING AIRCRAFT accidents occurring to US air carriers during the years 1956 through 1977 are listed, with those resulting in impact within five miles of airports in the contiguous US being considered in detail as to location of impact relative to the airport runways

  13. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different selection of dose-response functions. This kind of assessments

  14. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. Objective: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. Methods: A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. Conclusion: A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different

  15. Impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Zhang, Sheng; Ji, Mengmeng; Guan, Chenghua

    2018-03-01

    This study systematically reviewed literature regarding the impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among children and adults. Keyword and reference search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to systematically identify articles meeting all of the following criteria - study designs: interventions or experiments, retrospective or prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies; subjects: adults; exposures: specific air pollutants and overall air quality; outcomes: physical activity and sedentary behaviour; article types: peer-reviewed publications; and language: articles written in English. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size of ambient PM 2.5 air pollution on physical inactivity. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them, six were conducted in the United States, and one was conducted in the United Kingdom. Six adopted a cross-sectional study design, and one used a prospective cohort design. Six had a sample size larger than 10,000. Specific air pollutants assessed included PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O 3 , and NO x , whereas two studies focused on overall air quality. All studies found air pollution level to be negatively associated with physical activity and positively associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Study participants, and particularly those with respiratory disease, self-reported a reduction in outdoor activities to mitigate the detrimental impact of air pollution. Meta-analysis revealed a one unit (μg/m 3 ) increase in ambient PM 2.5 concentration to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 1.1% (odds ratio = 1.011; 95% confidence interval = 1.001, 1.021; p-value air pollution discouraged physical activity. Current literature predominantly adopted a cross-sectional design and focused on the United States. Future studies are warranted to implement a longitudinal study design and evaluate the impact of air pollution on physical

  16. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  17. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth S; Kim, Patrick S; Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Gaveau, David L A; Mickley, Loretta J; Margono, Belinda A; Myers, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  18. Head and pelvic movement asymmetry during lungeing in horses with symmetrical movement on the straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, M; Roepstorff, L; French, A; Keegan, K G; Pfau, T; Egenvall, A

    2016-05-01

    Lungeing is commonly used as part of standard lameness examinations in horses. Knowledge of how lungeing influences motion symmetry in sound horses is needed. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the symmetry of vertical head and pelvic motion during lungeing in a large number of horses with symmetric motion during straight line evaluation. Cross-sectional prospective study. A pool of 201 riding horses, all functioning well and considered sound by their owners, were evaluated in trot on a straight line and during lungeing to the left and right. From this pool, horses with symmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during the straight line trot (n = 94) were retained for analysis. Vertical head and pelvic movements were measured with body mounted uniaxial accelerometers. Differences between vertical maximum and minimum head (HDmax, HDmin) and pelvic (PDmax, PDmin) heights between left and right forelimb and hindlimb stances were compared between straight line trot and lungeing in either direction. Vertical head and pelvic movements during lungeing were more asymmetric than during trot on a straight line. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the head were more upward movement during push-off of the outside forelimb and less downward movement during impact of the inside limb. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the pelvis were less upward movement during push-off of the outside hindlimb and less downward movement of the pelvis during impact of the inside hindlimb. Asymmetric patterns in one lunge direction were frequently not the same as in the opposite direction. Lungeing induces systematic asymmetries in vertical head and pelvic motion patterns in horses that may not be the same in both directions. These asymmetries may mask or mimic fore- or hindlimb lameness. © 2015 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  19. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  1. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, David

    2018-05-01

    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  3. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning

  4. Uncertainties in emission estimates of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in China and India and their impacts on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, E.; Trail, M.; Young, C. L.; Zhong, M.; Avramov, A.; Kim, H.; Wu, Q.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Klimont, Z.; Wagner, F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Nagpure, A.; Gurjar, B.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas and air pollutant precursor emissions have been increasing rapidly in both China and India, resulting in local to regional scale effects on air quality. Modelers use emission inventories to represent the temporal and spatial distribution of impacts of air pollutant emissions on regional and global air quality. However, large uncertainties exist in emission inventories. Quantification of uncertainties in emission estimates is essential to better understand the linkages among emissions, air quality, climate, and health. We use Monte Carlo methods to assess the uncertainties of the existing carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emission estimates for both China and India. We focus on the period between 2000 and 2008. In addition to national totals, we also analyze emissions from four source sectors, including industry, transport, power, and residential. We also assess differences in the existing emission estimates within each of the subnational regions. We find large disagreements among the existing inventories at disaggregated levels. We further assess the impact of these differences in emissions on air quality using a chemical transport model. More efforts are needed to constrain emissions, especially in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and in the East and Central regions of China, where large differences across emission inventories result in concomitant large differences in the simulated concentrations of PM and ozone. Our study also highlights the importance of constraining SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions for secondary PM concentrations over China and India.

  5. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  6. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  7. The impact of ambient air pollution on the human blood metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaanderen, J J; Janssen, N A; Hoek, G; Keski-Rahkonen, P; Barupal, D K; Cassee, F R; Gosens, I; Strak, M; Steenhof, M; Lan, Q; Brunekreef, B; Scalbert, A; Vermeulen, R C H

    2017-07-01

    Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution. We exposed 31 healthy volunteers to ambient air pollution for 5h. We measured exposure to particulate matter, particle number concentrations, absorbance, elemental/organic carbon, trace metals, secondary inorganic components, endotoxin content, gaseous pollutants, and particulate matter oxidative potential. We collected blood from the participants 2h before and 2 and 18h after exposure. We employed untargeted metabolite profiling to monitor 3873 metabolic features in 493 blood samples from these volunteers. We assessed lung function using spirometry and six acute phase proteins in peripheral blood. We assessed the association of the metabolic features with the measured air pollutants and with health markers that we previously observed to be associated with air pollution in this study. We observed 89 robust associations between air pollutants and metabolic features two hours after exposure and 118 robust associations 18h after exposure. Some of the metabolic features that were associated with air pollutants were also associated with acute health effects, especially changes in forced expiratory volume in 1s. We successfully identified tyrosine, guanosine, and hypoxanthine among the associated features. Bioinformatics approach Mummichog predicted enriched pathway activity in eight pathways, among which tyrosine metabolism. This study demonstrates for the first time the application of untargeted metabolite profiling to assess the impact of air pollution on the blood metabolome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of U.S. Smoke-free Air Laws on Restaurant and Bar Employment, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul

    2017-12-23

    Secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for an estimated 50,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers in the U.S. Smoke-free air laws reduce secondhand smoke exposure but often encounter opposition over concerns about their economic impact. Expansion of these laws has stagnated and efforts to weaken existing laws may exacerbate existing disparities in exposure. Studies at the state and local levels have found that smoke-free air laws do not generally have an adverse effect, but there are no recent estimates of the impact of these laws nationally. Employment and sales are two measures commonly used to estimate the economic impact of smoke-free air laws. Sales data are gathered by state and local taxing authorities but not uniformly across jurisdictions. Dynamic panel models are used to estimate a population-weighted national average treatment effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurant and bar employment using data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 1990 to 2015. A one-percentage point increase in population covered by a restaurant smoke-free air law is associated with a small increase (approximately 0.01%) in restaurant employment (b=0.0001, Plaw was not associated with bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are a powerful tool for protecting hospitality workers and patrons from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Using data over more than two decades, these results suggest that smoke-free air laws in the U.S. do not generally have any meaningful effect on restaurant and bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are associated with reductions in negative health outcomes and decreased smoking prevalence. Despite this clear public health argument and strong public support, passage of new laws has stagnated and exemptions are being used to weaken existing laws. The ability to make both a health and business case in support of existing laws may also bolster the case for expansion. This study provides an updated look at the economic impact of smoke-free air laws

  9. THE USE OF AIR LAYERS IN BUILDING ENVELOPES FOR ENERGY SAVING DURING AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are no large natural energy resources in Belarus, energy savings ought to be a point of the special attention. With this regard it is important to develop modern ways of savings during the process of air conditioning inside new buildings with an air layer in the enclosure, especially in translucent ones. The system of ventilation of air layers in the enclosure of a building has been introduced in which air movement is caused by the gravitational and aerodynamic forces. It makes it possible to arrange further ventilation – a natural, forced or a hybrid one. With the purpose of increasing and streamlining natural draught the partitions are used separating the different parts of air layers. For natural ventilation with the use of gravitational forces the holes in the upper and lower parts of the partitions between adjacent air layers are applied. Natural ventilation in the holes of the partitions is regulated by movable shutters, blinds or other adjusting devices. For combined or forced air exchange between adjacent zones of air layers fans are used pumping air from the air layer zones with a higher temperature to zones of air layers with lower temperature and vice versa. When air exchange is forced, in order to intensify the infiltration of air into zones of air layers jets are laid on a hard surface. In order to cool a multi-layered enclosure of a building, where the movement of air between the air layers (that have been formed by internal partitions is being fulfilled by a natural, forced or combined mode, a part of the air or the total air processed inside the building (i.e. conditioned or non-conditioned air cooler as compared with the outside one is being sent to these strata. Combined or forced flow of the air processed inside the building into the air layers is done through the ducts associated with the output channels of the air conditioners. The internal partitions are equipped with the air valve hole.

  10. Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a production location in Nigeria. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... location from the pollution source, which served as control for particulate and soil sampling.

  11. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  12. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    generated by heat sources are gaining more prominent influence in space airflow formation and on the indoor environment overall. In such spaces with low air supply velocity, air mixing is minimized and the pollution emitted from localized indoor sources is non-uniformly distributed. The large spatial......People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  13. The political construction of the nuclear energy issue and its impact on the mobilization of anti-nuclear movements in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, R.; Duyvendak, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between objective conditions and grievances on the one hand, and the construction of the nuclear energy 'problem' and the mobilization of anti-nuclear movements in Western Europe, on the other. Using data on protest reactions to the Chernobyl disaster in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, we first discuss the effects of so-called 'suddenly imposed grievances'. We then turn to the frame alignment model, which emphasizes the importance of processes of definition and interpretation for the mobilization of social movements, and confront this model with data on public attitudes towards nuclear energy and anti-nuclear movement mobilization in Western Europe. Our analysis indicates that objective conditions as such have little explanatory power, and that similar events and conditions have led to widely diverging interpretations and levels of anti-nuclear mobilization in different countries. We find that the differential success of the interpretative efforts of anti-nuclear movements does neither depend on the nature of the discursive struggle itself, nor on the evidential base for the anti-nuclear movement's claims. Our data show that the movements' political opportunities, and the resulting cross-national variations in the degree to which anti-nuclear movements have been able to block or slow down the expansion of nuclear energy, have been crucial determinants both of the movements' impacts on public opinion, and of the movements' levels of mobilization. We therefore conclude that a combination of the political opportunity and framing perspectives is most fruitful in making sense of the differential careers of the nuclear energy conflict in Western Europe. (orig.) [de

  14. A CFD Investigation on the Effect of the Air Entrainment in Breaking Wave Impacts on a Mono-Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    In impacts of breaking waves on offshore structures, it is still not well-known how the air entrainment phenomenon affects the exerted loads. In this paper, a developed CFD solver capable of simulating the air entrainment process was employed to repro-duce an experimental investigation on the imp......In impacts of breaking waves on offshore structures, it is still not well-known how the air entrainment phenomenon affects the exerted loads. In this paper, a developed CFD solver capable of simulating the air entrainment process was employed to repro-duce an experimental investigation...... on the impact of a spilling wave against a circular cylinder. The exerted in-line force was computed with and without the inclusion of dispersed bubbles. Results showed that the magnitude of the computed force was affected when the entrainment of bubbles was simulated....

  15. The diffusion and impact of clean indoor air laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P; Cerak, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, primarily as a result of scientific discovery, citizen advocacy, and legislative action, comprehensive clean indoor air laws have spread rapidly throughout the world. Laws that establish completely smoke-free indoor environments have many relative advantages including being low cost, safe, effective, and easy to implement. The diffusion of these laws has been associated with a dramatic and rapid reduction in population levels of serum cotinine among nonsmokers and has also contributed to a reduction in overall cigarette consumption among smokers, with no adverse economic impact, except to the tobacco industry. Currently, nearly half of the U.S. population lives in jurisdictions with some combination of completely smoke-free workplaces, restaurants, or bars. The diffusion of clean indoor air laws is spreading rapidly throughout the world, stimulated by the first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  16. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  18. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bordeaux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bordeaux impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bordeaux area. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed were ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in 22 cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Bordeaux agglomeration, representing a study population of 604,238 inhabitants. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 56 anticipated deaths, including half for cardiovascular reasons and 7 for respiratory reasons. Regarding morbidity, 29 hospital admissions for respiratory disease were attributable to air pollution in 2002, including two-thirds among elderly people (aged 65 years and over). Further more, 81 hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases that occurred in 2002 were attributable to air pollution, including 27 for cardiac reasons. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could have allowed avoiding about half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, about 200 annual deaths are attributable to chronic exposure to air pollution, and a decrease by 5{mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding half of these deaths. The results have to be interpreted with care because of the limits of the H.I.A. method. However, they show that air pollution has a non negligible impact even in a city like Bordeaux where target values are mostly respected. They also show that reducing air pollution can have a significant impact in term of mortality and morbidity. However, a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction

  19. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  20. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the

  1. IMPACT OF POLY-LINGUISTIC LOAD ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MONITORING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have defined the structure and basic characteristics of the poly-linguistic audio-acoustic channel within the framework of controller – pilot communication, and set limits of poly-linguistic load impact on air traffic control.

  2. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnock, S T; Butt, E W; Richardson, T B; Mann, G W; Reddington, C L; Forster, P M; Carslaw, K S; Spracklen, D V; Haywood, J; Johnson, C E; Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Bellouin, N

    2016-01-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM 2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000–116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US$232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr −1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality

  3. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Spadaro, Joseph V; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Kochubovski, Mihail; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2018-03-29

    Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. In 2012, long-term exposure to PM 2.5 (49.2 μg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM 2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM 2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM 2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  4. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...m3 micrograms per cubic meter US United States USACE United States Army Corp of Engineers USC United States Code USCB United States Census Bureau...effects and annoyance in that very few flight operations and ground engine runs occur between 2200 hours and 0700 hours. BMPs include restricting the

  6. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  7. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  8. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  9. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  10. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Perigueux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Perigueux impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Perigueux according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 5 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Perigueux agglomeration, representing a study population of 52,948 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 5 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 could allow avoiding 10 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have an impact even in a small agglomeration like Perigueux, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the every day and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  12. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bayonne impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bayonne impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bayonne according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 16 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Bayonne agglomeration, representing a study population of 148,742 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 20 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding 32 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution impact is non negligible even in a small agglomeration like Bayonne, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the everyday and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  13. Double Contact During Drop Impact on a Solid Under Reduced Air Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Langley, Kenneth R.; Tian, Yuan Si; Hicks, Peter D.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    the compressibility parameter exceeds similar to 25. This bifurcation is also imprinted onto some of the impacts, as a double contact. In addition to the central air disc inside the first ring contact, this is immediately followed by a second ring contact, which

  14. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    geologists at Newmont Ahafo Mine have realised the impact of blast movement on ore losses and dilution and have ... Movement to Reduce Ore Losses and Dilution at Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, pp. .... classification.

  15. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V; Yahel, G [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R; Wilmut, M [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  16. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V.; Yahel, G. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R.; Wilmut, M. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  17. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China.

  18. Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

  19. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Andreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively.

  20. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  1. [Design and implementation of online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yiran; Hao, Shuxin; Zhang, Guoqing; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yue; Xu, Dongqun

    2018-01-01

    To implement the online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring, and obtain the data analysis information real-time. Using the descriptive statistical method as well as time-series analysis and multivariate regression analysis, SQL language and visual tools to implement online statistical analysis based on database software. Generate basic statistical tables and summary tables of air pollution exposure and health impact data online; Generate tendency charts of each data part online and proceed interaction connecting to database; Generate butting sheets which can lead to R, SAS and SPSS directly online. The information system air pollution and health impact monitoring implements the statistical analysis function online, which can provide real-time analysis result to its users.

  2. Quantifying the health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate-a review of approaches and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujaritpong, Sarunya; Dear, Keith; Cope, Martin; Walsh, Sean; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2014-03-01

    Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to provide evidence for actions to safeguard future populations. In this paper, we review published methods for quantifying health impacts to identify optimal approaches and ways in which existing challenges facing this line of research can be addressed. Most studies have employed a simplified methodology, while only a few have reported sensitivity analyses to assess sources of uncertainty. The limited investigations that do exist suggest that examining the health risk estimates should particularly take into account the uncertainty associated with future air pollution emissions scenarios, concentration-response functions, and future population growth and age structures. Knowledge gaps identified for future research include future health impacts from extreme air pollution events, interactions between temperature and air pollution effects on public health under a changing climate, and how population adaptation and behavioural changes in a warmer climate may modify exposure to air pollution and health consequences.

  3. Origin, extent and health impacts of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Im, U.; Mezuman, K.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their origin, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research questions motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate impacts of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its origin, extend and its resulting health impacts. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health impacts that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.

  4. Origin, extend and health impacts of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Mezuman, Keren; Longo, Karla; da Silva, Arlindo

    2017-04-01

    Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their origin, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research questions motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate impacts of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its origin, extend and its resulting health impacts. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health impacts that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.

  5. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. Methods: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. Results: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m3 caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821–1519. The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104–977 from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937–1869 for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Conclusions: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  6. Impact of global climate change on regional air quality: Introduction to the thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautard, R.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the major international efforts devoted to the understanding and to the future estimate of global climate change and its impact on regional scale processes, the evolution of the atmospheric composition in a changing climate is far to be understood. In particular, the future evolution of the concentration of near-surface pollutants determining air quality at a scale affecting human health and ecosystems is a subject of intense scientific research. This thematic issue reviews the current scientific knowledge of the consequences of global climate change on regional air quality and its related impact on the biosphere and on human mortality. This article provides a presentation of the key issues, summarizes the current knowledge, and introduces the thematic issue. (authors)

  7. Estimating the Health and Economic Impacts of Changes in Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvour, Martha L.; Hughes, Amy E.; Fann, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the benefits-mapping software Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE), which integrates local air quality data with previously published concentration–response and health–economic valuation functions to estimate the health effects of changes in air pollution levels and their economic consequences. Methods. We illustrate a local health impact assessment of ozone changes in the 10-county nonattainment area of the Dallas–Fort Worth region of Texas, estimating the short-term effects on mortality predicted by 2 scenarios for 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2013): an incremental rollback of the daily 8-hour maximum ozone levels of all area monitors by 10 parts per billion and a rollback-to-a-standard ambient level of 65 parts per billion at only monitors above that level. Results. Estimates of preventable premature deaths attributable to ozone air pollution obtained by the incremental rollback method varied little by year, whereas those obtained by the rollback-to-a-standard method varied by year and were sensitive to the choice of ordinality and the use of preloaded or imported data. Conclusions. BenMAP-CE allows local and regional public health analysts to generate timely, evidence-based estimates of the health impacts and economic consequences of potential policy options in their communities. PMID:29698094

  8. Development of Air Dispersion Modeling for Future Nuclear Plant in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar Othman

    2011-01-01

    The impact development of Nuclear power plant in Malaysia, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the image of the authorities in the countries. The precise source of the pollution from the nuclear power plant must be determined, pollution emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient air to the save level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the radiological ambient standards. Upon modeling using an established package as well as site measurements, the radiological level at the perimeter fence of the plant must deduced and lower than the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a modeling study was made in vicinity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency TRIGA reactor in the area of Bangi, Selangor to evaluate the possibility of movement of air around the area and their impact. This paper will address and discuss the modeling base on the data getting from Meteorological Department such as measurement of wind speed, temperature, humidity, ambient air radiological concentration and ect. The purpose of Air Dispersion Modeling is to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as radiological modeling. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ausplume modeling to develop correlations between the radiological concentrations, chemical compositions and ambient model for emission controls. (author)

  9. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  10. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J.; Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Salonen, R.O. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  11. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J; Tolvanen, M; Anttila, P; Salonen, R O [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  12. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Agen impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Agen impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Agen according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine to assess short term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001), and long-term effects on mortality. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in 8 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Agen agglomeration, representing a study population of 60,515 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution.Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 4 anticipated deaths, including 2 for cardiovascular reason. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 2 premature deaths per year among the 4 attributable to air pollution. Concerning long-term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 would allow avoiding 11 premature deaths per year. The results of this study should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have a health impact even in a small city like Agen, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. (author)

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Air Stability on Exhaled Air Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Gong, Guangcai; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2014-01-01

    studies. As the thermal stratification under displacement ventilation blocks the vertical movement of exhaled air, the exhaled contaminant may be trapped between temperature stratifications. As the dispersion of contaminant is closely related to the health of human indoors, the temperature structure...... was used for experimental study, and a numerical person was built to simulate the manikin. The velocity, temperature and concentration of tracer gas in exhaled air are affected by air stability to different degrees. The similarity of this effect among these parameters can also be observed through numerical...

  15. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  16. The impact of air pollution in the Southern Bohemia Region on fetuses and newborns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veleminský Jr., M.; Hanzl, M.; Šrám, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2016), s. 52-57 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * benzo[a] pyrene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  17. Investigation of Prescribed Fires Impacts on Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, V.; Chung, S. H.; Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from wildland and prescribed fires cause significant aerosol loading in the atmospheric environment. Using 2011 NEI-Fire emission inventory, we investigate the impacts of prescribed fire emissions on the air quality of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for a month long period in October-November 2011. This study utilizes the AIRAPCT-4 regional air quality forecasting system, which is based on the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ framework. We simulate three different emission scenarios - 1) emissions with prescribed fires, 2) emissions without prescribed fires and 3) a scenario where prescribed fire emissions are reduced by 60%. AIRPACT-4 results are examined for impacts of prescribed fire emissions on ambient levels of PM2.5 and Ozone for entire PNW. We also look at the contribution of prescribed fire emissions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations for selected non-attainment areas in the PNW. This work supports the analysis of using woody residue as a feedstock for an aviation biofuel supply chain through the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

  18. Contributions of gas flaring to a global air pollution hotspot : spatial and temporal variations, impacts and alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Anejionu, Obinna; Whyatt, Duncan; Blackburn, George Alan; Price, Catheryn

    2015-01-01

    Studies of environmental impacts of gas flaring in the Niger Delta are hindered by limited access to official flaring emissions records and a paucity of reliable ambient monitoring data. This study uses a combination of geospatial technologies and dispersion modelling techniques to evaluate air pollution impacts of gas flaring on human health and natural ecosystems in the region. Results indicate that gas flaring is a major contributor to air pollution across the region, with concentrations e...

  19. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  20. Impact on local air quality of the planned fixed link across Oresund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jes; Vignati, Elisabetta; Berkowicz, Ruwim

    1996-01-01

    The planned combined bridge and tunnel link between Sweden and Denmark (the Oresund Link) is expected to be in operation around the turn of the century. So far the impacts of the Oresund Link on air pollution have been discussed mainly in terms of changes in emissions, taking into account...... implications of the link on traffic in the region. It appears that the influence on regional and global air pollution will be marginal. Concerning local effects however, the situation is different; the new link across the Oresund and the island Amager will result in significant changes in traffic pattern...

  1. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Avignon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in seven cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Vaucluse (Avignon, Le Pontet, Morieres les Avignon, Sorgues and Vedene) and two cities of the Gard department (les Angles and Villeneuve les Avignon) representing a study population of 153,624 inhabitants. Two period of study have been defined: period 1999-2000 for short and long term evaluations on the mortality and the year 2001 for the morbidity analysis. This study rests on methodological principles of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) of urban air pollution whom methodology is in four steps: identification of dangers, exposure estimation, choice of exposure-risk relationship and risk characterisation. The pollutions indicators are built from four pollutants nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and PM{sub 10}. The exposure-risk relationships used come from epidemiological studies realised in general population, by preferring the multi centers studies and European ones. The number of deaths by year due to air pollution is 23, whom 10 by cardiovascular diseases, 2 by respiratory diseases. The most efficient scenario are these ones corresponding to air pollution decreases of 25% in the considered pollutant. About the long term sanitary benefits, the different scenario show that the European norm forecasted for 2005 is respected. The respect of the European norm expected for 2010 should allow to avoid 10 deaths on the totality of registered

  2. A systematic review of the health impacts of mass Earth movements (landslides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-04-30

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as 'landslides') are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of 'disaster' chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides. Mental

  3. Estimation of the Impact of Traveler Information Apps on Urban Air Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled, automobile emission has become a severe issue in the metropolitan cities of China. There are policies that concentrate on the management of emission sources. However, improving the operation of the transportation system through apps on mobile devices, especially navigation apps, may have a unique role in promoting urban air quality. Real-time traveler information can not only help travelers avoid traffic congestion, but also advise them to adjust their departure time, mode, or route, or even to cancel trips. Will such changes in personal travel patterns have a significant impact in decreasing emissions? If so, to what extent will they impact urban air quality? The aim of this study is to determine how urban traffic emission is affected by the use of navigation apps. With this work, we attempt to answer the question of whether the real-time traffic information provided by navigation apps can help to improve urban air quality. Some of these findings may provide references for the formulation of urban traffic and environmental policies. Keywords: Real-time traffic information, Mobile devices, Environmental benefits, Agent-based model

  4. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  5. An airbag for drops: high speed interferometry studies of air film lubrication in drop impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, J.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of droplets on solid surfaces is of wide-spread relevance in for example pesticide spraying, fluid coating, and ink-jet printing. The impact process includes the formation and spreading of an air film between the droplet and the surface before the droplet actually touches the surface.

  6. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  7. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector...

  8. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector....

  9. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  10. A review of biomass burning: Emissions and impacts on air quality, health and climate in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Li, Chunlin; Ristovski, Zoran; Milic, Andelija; Gu, Yuantong; Islam, Mohammad S; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Zhang, Hefeng; He, Congrong; Guo, Hai; Fu, Hongbo; Miljevic, Branka; Morawska, Lidia; Thai, Phong; Lam, Yun Fat; Pereira, Gavin; Ding, Aijun; Huang, Xin; Dumka, Umesh C

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging. Therefore the aim of this work was to comprehensively review most of the studies published on this topic in China, including literature concerning field measurements, laboratory studies and the impacts of BB indoors and outdoors in China. In addition, this review provides insights into the role of wildfire and anthropogenic BB on air quality and health globally. Further, we attempted to provide a basis for formulation of policies and regulations by policy makers in China. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  12. Visualizing the Impacts of Movement Infrastructures on Social Inclusion: Graph-Based Methods for Observing Community Formations in Contrasting Geographic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe some innovative methods for observing the possible impacts of roads, junctions and pathways (movement infrastructures, on community life in terms of their affordances and hindrances for social connectivity. In seeking to observe these impacts, we combined a range of visualization research methods, based on qualitative points-data mapping, graphic representation and urban morphological analysis at local and global geographic scales. Our overall aim in this study was to develop exploratory methods for combining and visualizing various kinds of data that relate to urban community formations in contrasting urban contexts. We focused our enquiry on the perspectives of adolescents in two urban contexts: Liverpool, UK, and Medellín, Colombia. While they contrast in their geo-political and cultural characteristics, these two cities each present polarized socio-economic inequalities across distinctive spatial patterns. We found that adolescents in these cities offer generally localized, pedestrian perspectives of their local areas, and unique insights into the opportunities and challenges for place-making in their local community spaces. We gathered the communities’ local perspectives through map-making workshops, in which participants used given iconographic symbols to select and weight the social and structural assets that they deemed to be significant features of their community spaces. We then sampled and visualized these selective points data to observe ways in which local community assets relate to infrastructural affordances for movement (in terms of network integration. This analysis was based on the theory and method of Space Syntax, which provides a model of affordances for movement across the urban network over various scales of network configuration. In particular, we sought to determine how city-scale movement infrastructures interact with local-scale infrastructures, and to develop methods for observing ways

  13. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  14. Impact of the electric vehicles on the air pollution from a highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Enrico; Alessandrini, Stefano; Balanzino, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical chemical-dispersion model is applied to compute air pollution generated by traffic. • A measurements campaign is carried out collecting meteorological and chemical variables. • Measurement of traffic flows and related pollution emissions make the work original. • New fleet scenarios based on electric vehicle introduction are considered. • The benefits on air quality and human health due to electric vehicles are evaluated. - Abstract: We have quantified the impact that an introduction of electric vehicles into the car fleet has on air quality (regarding NO and NO_2) using a numerical dispersion model. An experimental campaign is conducted close to a highway in Milan, Italy. Meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations are measured along with the traffic emissions. We use a Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Model to create numerical simulations of the chemical reactions and dispersion involving pollutants from the highway. To evaluate the air pollution reductions, emission scenarios with different rates of electric vehicles introduction are simulated. We have found that only a significant replacement (50%) of non-electric vehicles with electric ones yields a remarkable reduction of the pollutant concentrations. However, even with lower electric vehicles introduction rates, the air quality improvements may be relevant during intense pollution episodes. The results provide useful information to decision makers and public administrators for planning measures to modify the car fleet composition aiming to improve the urban air quality.

  15. The impacts of CO2 capture technologies on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Van Horssen, A.; Van Gijlswijk, R.; Koornneef, J.; Ramirez Ramirez, A.

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the inventory phase 1 of the project on the title subject is two-fold: (1) to assess the impacts of different CO2 capture technologies on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands in 2020. Other possible environmental impacts such as toxic emissions and safety are considered qualitatively; and (2) to provide recommendations for further research in the in-depth phase 2 in order to address the current knowledge gaps found in this area. The inventory summarises all (public) available information that is relevant for transboundary air pollution and presents it in understandable terms for environmental experts and policymakers who are not CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) experts. The project surveys the present scientific literature and interviews key players in the carbon capture community in the Netherlands to present the current insights and state of capture technology, particularly with respect to transboundary air pollution. This has been done taking into account the angles of both research and policy needs. The information gathered is combined with scenario information for the year 2020 on carbon capture technology and transboundary air pollution in order to sketch ranges of possible impacts of carbon capture technologies in the Netherlands in this year. Chapter 2 explains the methodology and the research process taken in the project. Chapter 3 introduces the different capture technologies in the form a structured description. Chapter 4 describes the results of the assessment of capture technologies in terms of a comparative analysis and a what-if emission scenario analysis for the Netherlands. Chapter 5 closes the report with conclusions and recommendations for further research

  16. A simple approach to the prediction of waterhammer transients in a pipe line with entrapped air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The pressure histories within entrapped air bubbles in a pipe line during a waterhammer transient are treated theoretically. A convenient integral method is introduced, which takes full account of air/water interface movement and liquid compressibility. The significance of the method is that it provides a simple equation set for approximating, with good accuracy and with a small degree of conservatism, the solution to a problem that otherwise involves coupled partial differential equations on time dependent domains with non-linear boundary conditions. The accuracy of the method is defined by its comparison with available numerical-solution-predictions and measurements of the pressure within an entrapped-air-bubble at a dead end in a pipe. The method is shown to be a computationally simple and efficient way of assessing the impact of liquid compressibility on pressure rise when multiple water columns and air pockets are present in a pipe line

  17. Air quality Performance of Ductless Personalized Ventilation in Conjunction with Displacement Ventilation: Impact of Walking Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Lu, Pengfei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluates the impact of air disturbances from a walking person on inhaled air by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) with displacement ventilation (DV), when a seated occupant is the source of pollution: bio-effluents and exhaled air. The measurements took place in a full...... and the DV supply. Pollution from feet and exhaled air by one manikin was simulated with tracer gases. Room temperature of 26 °C and 90 L/s DV supply flow rate were kept constant. Measurements under numerous combinations of DPV operation modes and supply flow rates were performed. Tracer gas concentrations...

  18. Going through the motions: incorporating movement analyses into disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Seidel, Dana P; Carlson, Colin J; Spiegel, Orr; Getz, Wayne M

    2018-04-01

    Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal patterns of disease burden. Movement ecology offers a set of tools that help unpack the transmission process, letting researchers more accurately model how animals within a population interact and spread pathogens. Analytical techniques from this growing field can also help expose the reverse process: how infection impacts movement behaviours, and therefore other ecological processes like feeding, reproduction, and dispersal. Here, we synthesise the contributions of movement ecology in disease research, with a particular focus on studies that have successfully used movement-based methods to quantify individual heterogeneity in exposure and transmission risk. Throughout, we highlight the rapid growth of both disease and movement ecology and comment on promising but unexplored avenues for research at their overlap. Ultimately, we suggest, including movement empowers ecologists to pose new questions, expanding our understanding of host-pathogen dynamics and improving our predictive capacity for wildlife and even human diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chuanglin; Liu, Haimeng; Li, Guangdong; Sun, Dongqi; Miao, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variati...

  20. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...

  1. Assessing the short term impact of air pollution on mortality: a matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Michela; Mattei, Alessandra; Mealli, Fabrizia; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Carugno, Michele

    2017-02-10

    The opportunity to assess short term impact of air pollution relies on the causal interpretation of the exposure-response association. However, up to now few studies explicitly faced this issue within a causal inference framework. In this paper, we reformulated the problem of assessing the short term impact of air pollution on health using the potential outcome approach to causal inference. We considered the impact of high daily levels of particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ) on mortality within two days from the exposure in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy), during the period 2003-2006. Our research focus was the causal impact of a hypothetical intervention setting daily air pollution levels under a pre-fixed threshold. We applied a matching procedure based on propensity score to estimate the total number of attributable deaths (AD) during the study period. After defining the number of attributable deaths in terms of difference between potential outcomes, we used the estimated propensity score to match each high exposure day, namely each day with a level of exposure higher than 40 μg/m 3 , with a day with similar background characteristics but a level of exposure lower than 40 μg/m 3 . Then, we estimated the impact by comparing mortality between matched days. During the study period daily exposures larger than 40 μg/m 3 were responsible for 1079 deaths (90% CI: 116; 2042). The impact was more evident among the elderly than in the younger age classes. Exposures ≥ 40 μg/m 3 were responsible, among the elderly, for 1102 deaths (90% CI: 388, 1816), of which 797 from cardiovascular causes and 243 from respiratory causes. Clear evidence of an impact on respiratory mortality was found also in the age class 65-74, with 87 AD (90% CI: 11, 163). The propensity score matching turned out to be an appealing method to assess historical impacts in this field, which guarantees that the estimated total number of AD can be derived directly as sum

  2. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  3. A method for predicting the impact velocity of a projectile fired from a compressed air gun facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, G.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the development and use of a method for calculating the velocity at impact of a projectile fired from a compressed air gun. The method is based on a simple but effective approach which has been incorporated into a computer program. The method was developed principally for use with the Horizontal Impact Facility at AEE Winfrith but has been adapted so that it can be applied to any compressed air gun of a similar design. The method has been verified by comparison of predicted velocities with test data and the program is currently being used in a predictive manner to specify test conditions for the Horizontal Impact Facility at Winfrith. (author)

  4. Understanding social and behavioral drivers and impacts of air quality sensor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Bryan J; Kaufman, Amanda; Rivers, Louie; Schulte, Kayla; Hagler, Gayle; Clougherty, Jane; Cascio, Wayne; Costa, Dan

    2018-04-15

    Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring. To date, little social science research has been conducted to evaluate why or how sensors, and sensor data, are used by individuals and communities, or how the introduction of sensors changes the relationship between communities and air quality managers. This commentary uses a risk governance/responsible innovation framework to identify opportunities for interdisciplinary research that brings together social scientists with air quality researchers involved in developing, testing, and deploying sensors in communities. Potential areas for social science research include communities of sensor users; drivers for use of sensors and sensor data; behavioral, socio-political, and ethical implications of introducing sensors into communities; assessing methods for communicating sensor data; and harnessing crowdsourcing capabilities to analyze sensor data. Social sciences can enhance understanding of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that drive levels of engagement with and trust in different types of air quality data. New transdisciplinary research bridging social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and design fields of study, and involving citizen scientists working with professionals from a variety of backgrounds, can increase our understanding of air sensor technology use and its impacts on air quality and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Impact of Air Pollutants on Outpatient Visits for Acute Respiratory Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution in China is a severe problem. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of air pollutants on acute respiratory outcomes in outpatients. Outpatient data from 2 December 2013 to 1 December 2014 were collected, as well as air pollutant data including ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10. We screened six categories of acute respiratory outcomes and analyzed their associations with different air pollutant exposures, including upper respiratory tract infection (URTI, acute bronchitis (AB, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, acute exacerbation of asthma (AE-asthma, and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis (AEBX. A case-crossover design with a bidirectional control sampling approach was used for statistical analysis. A total of 57,144 patients were enrolled for analysis. PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO exposures were positively associated with outpatient visits for URTI, AB, CAP, and AEBX. PM10, SO2, and CO exposures were positively associated with outpatient visits for AECOPD. Exposure to O3 was positively associated with outpatient visits for AE-asthma, but negatively associated with outpatient visits for URTI, CAP, and AEBX. In conclusion, air pollutants had acute effects on outpatient visits for acute respiratory outcomes, with specific outcomes associated with specific pollutants.

  6. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  7. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  8. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  9. The role of vegetation in mitigating air quality impacts from traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Baldauf; L. Jackson; G. Hagler; I. Vlad; G. McPherson; D. Nowak; T. Cahill; M. Zhang; R. Cook; C. Bailey; P. Wood

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a multidisciplinary group of researchers and policy-makers met to discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the potential of roadside vegetation to mitigate near-road air quality impacts. Concerns over population exposures to traffic-generated pollutants near roads have grown with an increasing number of health studies reporting links between proximity...

  10. Impact of National Ambient Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Designations on Particulate Pollution and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Corwin M; Choirat, Christine; Dominici, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2005 causally affected ambient PM2.5 and health outcomes among over 10 million Medicare beneficiaries in the Eastern United States in 2009-2012. We found that, on average across all retained study locations, reductions in ambient PM2.5 and Medicare health outcomes could not be conclusively attributed to the nonattainment designations against the backdrop of other regional strategies that impacted the entire Eastern United States. A more targeted principal stratification analysis indicates substantial health impacts of the nonattainment designations among the subset of areas where the designations are estimated to have actually reduced ambient PM2.5 beyond levels achieved by regional measures, with noteworthy reductions in all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and respiratory tract infections. These findings provide targeted evidence of the effectiveness of local control measures after nonattainment designations for the 1997 PM2.5 air quality standard.

  11. Air Quality and Health Impacts of an Aviation Biofuel Supply Chain Using Forest Residue in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Gao, Allan H; Martinkus, Natalie B; Wolcott, Michael P; Lamb, Brian K

    2018-04-03

    Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second-generation biofuel; however, little knowledge exists about the environmental impacts of the development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of a forest residue based aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Using two potential supply chain regions, we find that biomass and biofuel hauling activities will add simulation. Using BenMAP, a health impact assessment tool, we show that avoiding slash pile burning results in a decrease in premature mortality as well as several other nonfatal and minor health effects. In general, we show that most air quality and health benefits result primarily from avoided slash pile burning emissions.

  12. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans. Keywords: Climate change, African lion, Panthera leo

  13. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  14. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  15. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  16. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  17. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  18. The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Nolan, David S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential negative influences of dry midlevel air on the development of tropical cyclones (specifically, its role in enhancing cold downdraft activity and suppressing storm development). The Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to construct two sets of idealized simulations of hurricane development in environments with different configurations of dry air. The first set of simulations begins with dry air located north of the vortex center by distances ranging from 0 to 270 km, whereas the second set of simulations begins with dry air completely surrounding the vortex, but with moist envelopes in the vortex core ranging in size from 0 to 150 km in radius. No impact of the dry air is seen for dry layers located more than 270 km north of the initial vortex center (approximately 3 times the initial radius of maximum wind). When the dry air is initially closer to the vortex center, it suppresses convective development where it entrains into the storm circulation, leading to increasingly asymmetric convection and slower storm development. The presence of dry air throughout the domain, including the vortex center, substantially slows storm development. However, the presence of a moist envelope around the vortex center eliminates the deleterious impact on storm intensity. Instead, storm size is significantly reduced. The simulations suggest that dry air slows intensification only when it is located very close to the vortex core at early times. When it does slow storm development, it does so primarily by inducing outward- moving convective asymmetries that temporarily shift latent heating radially outward away from the high-vorticity inner core.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of AIRS Observations on Regional Forecasts at the SPoRT Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center collaborates with operational partners of different sizes and operational goals to improve forecasts using targeted projects and data sets. Modeling and DA activities focus on demonstrating utility of NASA data sets and capabilities within operational systems. SPoRT has successfully assimilated the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance and profile data. A collaborative project is underway with the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) to use AIRS profiles to better understand the impact of AIRS radiances assimilated within Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) in hopes of engaging the operational DA community in a reassessment of assimilation methodologies to more effectively assimilate hyperspectral radiances.

  20. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  1. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  2. Can Elevated Air [CO2] Conditions Mitigate the Predicted Warming Impact on the Quality of Coffee Bean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Ramalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO2] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO2] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO2] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca. 4 months. Fruits were harvested at 25°C, and in the ranges of 30–35 or 36–40°C, and bean physical and chemical attributes with potential implications on quality were then examined. These included: color, phenolic content, soluble solids, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, caffeine, trigonelline, lipids, and minerals. Most of these parameters were mainly affected by temperature (although without a strong negative impact on bean quality, and only marginally, if at all, by elevated [CO2]. However, the [CO2] vs. temperature interaction strongly attenuated some of the negative impacts promoted by heat (e.g., total chlorogenic acids, thus maintaining the bean characteristics closer to those obtained under adequate temperature conditions (e.g., soluble solids, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, trigonelline, chroma, Hue angle, and color index, and increasing desirable features (acidity. Fatty acid and mineral pools remained quite stable, with only few modifications due to elevated air [CO2] (e.g., phosphorous and/or heat. In conclusion, exposure to high temperature in the last stages of fruit maturation did not strongly depreciate bean quality, under the conditions of unrestricted water supply and moderate irradiance. Furthermore, the superimposition of elevated air [CO2] contributed to preserve bean quality by modifying and mitigating

  3. Can Elevated Air [CO2] Conditions Mitigate the Predicted Warming Impact on the Quality of Coffee Bean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C.; Pais, Isabel P.; Leitão, António E.; Guerra, Mauro; Reboredo, Fernando H.; Máguas, Cristina M.; Carvalho, Maria L.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I.; Lidon, Fernando J. C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO2] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO2] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO2] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca. 4 months. Fruits were harvested at 25°C, and in the ranges of 30–35 or 36–40°C, and bean physical and chemical attributes with potential implications on quality were then examined. These included: color, phenolic content, soluble solids, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, caffeine, trigonelline, lipids, and minerals. Most of these parameters were mainly affected by temperature (although without a strong negative impact on bean quality), and only marginally, if at all, by elevated [CO2]. However, the [CO2] vs. temperature interaction strongly attenuated some of the negative impacts promoted by heat (e.g., total chlorogenic acids), thus maintaining the bean characteristics closer to those obtained under adequate temperature conditions (e.g., soluble solids, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, trigonelline, chroma, Hue angle, and color index), and increasing desirable features (acidity). Fatty acid and mineral pools remained quite stable, with only few modifications due to elevated air [CO2] (e.g., phosphorous) and/or heat. In conclusion, exposure to high temperature in the last stages of fruit maturation did not strongly depreciate bean quality, under the conditions of unrestricted water supply and moderate irradiance. Furthermore, the superimposition of elevated air [CO2] contributed to preserve bean quality by modifying and mitigating the heat impact

  4. Can Elevated Air [CO2] Conditions Mitigate the Predicted Warming Impact on the Quality of Coffee Bean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C; Pais, Isabel P; Leitão, António E; Guerra, Mauro; Reboredo, Fernando H; Máguas, Cristina M; Carvalho, Maria L; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Lidon, Fernando J C; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2018-01-01

    Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO 2 ] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO 2 ] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO 2 ] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO 2 L -1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca. 4 months. Fruits were harvested at 25°C, and in the ranges of 30-35 or 36-40°C, and bean physical and chemical attributes with potential implications on quality were then examined. These included: color, phenolic content, soluble solids, chlorogenic, caffeic and p -coumaric acids, caffeine, trigonelline, lipids, and minerals. Most of these parameters were mainly affected by temperature (although without a strong negative impact on bean quality), and only marginally, if at all, by elevated [CO 2 ]. However, the [CO 2 ] vs. temperature interaction strongly attenuated some of the negative impacts promoted by heat (e.g., total chlorogenic acids), thus maintaining the bean characteristics closer to those obtained under adequate temperature conditions (e.g., soluble solids, caffeic and p -coumaric acids, trigonelline, chroma, Hue angle, and color index), and increasing desirable features (acidity). Fatty acid and mineral pools remained quite stable, with only few modifications due to elevated air [CO 2 ] (e.g., phosphorous) and/or heat. In conclusion, exposure to high temperature in the last stages of fruit maturation did not strongly depreciate bean quality, under the conditions of unrestricted water supply and moderate irradiance. Furthermore, the superimposition of elevated air [CO 2 ] contributed to preserve bean quality by modifying and mitigating

  5. The Siberian High and Arctic Sea Ice: Long-term Climate Change and Impacts on Air Pollution during Wintertime in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, X.; Zhao, S.; Feng, T.; Tie, X.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    China has undergone severe air pollution during wintertime as national industrialization and urbanization have been increasingly developed in the past three decades. It has been suggested that high emission and adverse weather patterns contribute to wintertime air pollution. Recent studies propose that climate change and Arctic sea ice loss likely lead to extreme haze events in winter. Here we use two reanalysis and observational datasets to present the trends of Siberian High (SH) intensity over Eurasia, and Arctic temperature and sea ice. The results show the Arctic region of Asia is becoming warming accompanied by a rapid decline of sea ice while Eurasia is cooling and SH intensity is gradually enhancing. Wind patterns induced by these changes cause straight westerly prevailing over Eurasia at the year of weak SH while strengthened northerly winds at the year of strong SH. Therefore, we utilize regional dynamical and chemical WRF-Chem model to determine the impact of SH intensity difference on wintertime air pollution in China. As a result, enhancing northerly winds at the year of strong SH rapidly dilute and transport air pollution, causing a decline of 50 - 400 µg m-3 PM2.5 concentrations relative to that at the year of weak SH. We also assess the impact of emission reduction to half the current level on air pollution. The results show that emission reduction by 50% has an equivalent impact as the variability of SH intensity. This suggests that climate change over Eurasia has largely offset the negative impact of emission on air pollution and it is urgently needed to take measures to mitigate air pollution. In view of current high emission scenario in China, it will be a long way to effectively mitigate, or ultimately prevent wintertime air pollution.

  6. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  7. Does 'hacking' surface type affect equine forelimb foot placement, movement symmetry or hoof impact deceleration during ridden walk and trot exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, A; Bailey, J; Campbell, J; Harris, C; Weller, R; Pfau, T

    2018-04-17

    Both pleasure and competition horses regularly exercise on surfaces such as tarmac, gravel and turf during 'hacking'. Despite this, there is limited evidence relating to the effect of these surfaces upon foot-surface interaction. To investigate forelimb foot placement, hoof vibration and movement symmetry in pleasure horses on three commonly encountered hacking surfaces. Quantitative gait study in a convenience sample. Six horses regularly partaking in hacking exercise were ridden in walk and trot on all surfaces. Horses were equipped with one hoof-mounted, accelerometer and four body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) to measure foot impact and movement symmetry. High-speed (400 FPS) video footage of foot-placement was acquired (dorsal, palmar, lateral views). Foot-impact and movement symmetry were analysed with a mixed effects model and Bowker symmetry tests for foot-placement analysis. Vibration power and frequency parameters increase as perceived surface firmness increases from grass, to gravel, to tarmac (P≤0.001). Vibration power parameters were consistently greater at trot compared with walk (P≤0.001), but the same was not true for vibration frequency (P≥0.2). Greatest movement asymmetry was recorded during grass surface trotting. No significant difference in foot-placement was detected between the three surfaces. This was a field study using three commonly encountered hacking surfaces. Surface properties change easily with water content and temperature fluctuations so care must be taken when considering other similar surfaces, especially at different times of the year. Six leisure horses were used so the results may not be representative of horses of all types. Vibration parameters generally increase as perceived surface firmness increases. Increasing speed alters vibration power but not frequency. Further investigations are required to determine the role that this may play in the development of musculoskeletal disease in horses. © 2018 EVJ

  8. Advances in surgery for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Nathan C; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Movement disorder surgery has evolved throughout history as our knowledge of motor circuits and ways in which to manipulate them have expanded. Today, the positive impact on patient quality of life for a growing number of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is now well accepted and confirmed through several decades of randomized, controlled trials. Nevertheless, residual motor symptoms after movement disorder surgery such as deep brain stimulation and lack of a definitive cure for these conditions demand that advances continue to push the boundaries of the field and maximize its therapeutic potential. Similarly, advances in related fields - wireless technology, artificial intelligence, stem cell and gene therapy, neuroimaging, nanoscience, and minimally invasive surgery - mean that movement disorder surgery stands at a crossroads to benefit from unique combinations of all these developments. In this minireview, we outline some of these developments as well as evidence supporting topics of recent discussion and controversy in our field. Moving forward, expectations remain high that these improvements will come to encompass an even broader range of patients who might benefit from this therapy and decrease the burden of disease associated with these conditions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  10. Air Distribution in a Furnished Room Ventilated by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, June Richter; Nielsen, Peter V.; Svidt, Kjeld

    Using isothermal full-scale experiments and two-dimensional isothermal CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a room with mixing ventilation. Three different set-ups are made in the experiments and different sizes and locations of the furnit......Using isothermal full-scale experiments and two-dimensional isothermal CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a room with mixing ventilation. Three different set-ups are made in the experiments and different sizes and locations...

  11. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prenni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bakken formation contains billions of barrels of oil and gas trapped in rock and shale. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods have allowed for extraction of these resources, leading to exponential growth of oil production in the region over the past decade. Along with this development has come an increase in associated emissions to the atmosphere. Concern about potential impacts of these emissions on federal lands in the region prompted the National Park Service to sponsor the Bakken Air Quality Study over two winters in 2013–2014. Here we provide an overview of the study and present some initial results aimed at better understanding the impact of local oil and gas emissions on regional air quality. Data from the study, along with long-term monitoring data, suggest that while power plants are still an important emissions source in the region, emissions from oil and gas activities are impacting ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and black carbon and may dominate recent observed trends in pollutant concentrations at some of the study sites. Measurements of volatile organic compounds also definitively show that oil and gas emissions were present in almost every air mass sampled over a period of more than 4 months.

  12. Chloroplast Movement May Impact Plant Phenotyping and Photochemistry Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, J.; Pleban, J. R.; Wang, D. R.; Riley, C.; Mackay, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating phenotypic responses of crop species across environmental conditions is vital to improving agricultural productivity. Crop production is closely linked with photosynthetic activity, which can be evaluated using parameters such as relative chlorophyll, SPAD, and variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Recently, a handheld device known as the MultispeQ emerged on the market as an open-source instrument that aims to provide high-output, high-quality field data at a low cost to the plant research community. MultispeQ takes measurements of both environmental conditions (light intensity, temperature, humidity, etc.) and photosynthetic parameters (relative chlorophyll, SPAD, photosystem II quantum efficiency (FII), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)). Data are automatically backed up and shared on the PhotosynQ network, which serves as a collaborative platform for researchers and professionals. Here, we used the instrument to quantify photosynthetic time-courses of two Brassica rapa genotypes in response to two contrasting nutrient management strategies (Control; High Nitrogen). Previous research found that chloroplast movement is one strategy plants use to optimize photosynthesis across varying light conditions. We were able to detect chloroplast movement throughout the day using the MultispeQ device. Our results support the idea that chloroplast movement serves both as an intrinsic feature of the circadian clock and as a light avoidance strategy. Under low light conditions (PAR 0-300) more light at the near-infrared and red regions was absorbed than under higher light conditions (PAR 500-800). In one genotype by treatment combination, absorbance at 730nm was around 60% at low light, versus only 30% at high light conditions. In light of our results that relative chlorophyll may change throughout a day, we suggest that it is important to take note of these effects when collecting photosynthesis efficiency data in order to avoid bias in measurements. We also

  13. Landslide movement in southwest Colorado triggered by atmospheric tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.H.; Kean, J.W.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are among the most hazardous of geological processes, causing thousands of casualties and damage on the order of billions of dollars annually. The movement of most landslides occurs along a discrete shear surface, and is triggered by a reduction in the frictional strength of the surface. Infiltration of water into the landslide from rainfall and snowmelt and ground motion from earthquakes are generally implicated in lowering the frictional strength of this surface. However, solid-Earth and ocean tides have recently been shown to trigger shear sliding in other processes, such as earthquakes and glacial motion. Here we use observations and numerical modelling to show that a similar processatmospheric tidescan trigger movement in an ongoing landslide. The Slumgullion landslide, located in the SanJuan Mountains of Colorado, shows daily movement, primarily during diurnal low tides of the atmosphere. According to our model, the tidal changes in air pressure cause air and water in the sediment pores to flow vertically, altering the frictional stress of the shear surface; upward fluid flow during periods of atmospheric low pressure is most conducive to sliding. We suggest that tidally modulated changes in shear strength may also affect the stability of other landslides, and that the rapid pressure variations associated with some fast-moving storm systems could trigger a similar response. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx, we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone, and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone

  15. Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, Antonín; Vlková, Veronika; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajslová, J.; Velemínský Jr., M.; Solanský, Ivo; Šrám, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 6 (2016), s. 545-556 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2016

  16. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM 2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM 2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM 2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  17. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  18. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author).

  19. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  20. Collaborative Health Impact Assessment and Policy Development to Improve Air Quality in West Yorkshire—A Case Study and Critical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannish Naik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasingly recognised as a significant problem for cities, with wide ranging impacts on health and quality of life. Combined knowledge of the legal context and health impacts led to air pollution becoming a priority in West Yorkshire. A health impact assessment methodology was used to explore the impacts of low emissions zones, demonstrating significant gains from the implementation of such a measure. This fed in to the collaborative development of the West Yorkshire Low Emissions Strategy (WYLES, resulting in policy changes and an incorporation of health and wellbeing concerns into transport and infrastructure planning, amongst other successes. This case study describes the collaborative approach taken to tackle air pollution locally and summarises key outputs and outcomes of work to date, before providing a critical reflection on what can be learnt from the West Yorkshire experience. This paper will thus interest advocates and stakeholders who are facing similar challenges. Key lessons revolve around broad stakeholder engagement and developing shared ambition. We finally discuss air pollution as a wicked problem, applying the lens of transitions management, a multidisciplinary systems change theory and discuss the local experience in relation to the literature on collaborative public management.

  1. Detect to Avoid: Supporting Aviation Safety with Bird Movement Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Kügler, D.

    2017-01-01

    The presented research evaluates the concept of providing an airport’s Air Traffic Control with a bird strike advisory system. Such a system informs the controller about current and predicted bird movements in the arrival and departure corridors. Based on this information, the controller can decide

  2. A proposed methodology for impact assessment of air quality traffic-related measures: The case of PM2.5 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Tânia; Li, Peilin; Barros, Nelson; Zhao, Pengjun

    2018-08-01

    Air quality traffic-related measures have been implemented worldwide to control the pollution levels of urban areas. Although some of those measures are claiming environmental improvements, few studies have checked their real impact. In fact, quantitative estimates are often focused on reducing emissions, rather than on evaluating the actual measures' effect on air quality. Even when air quality studies are conducted, results are frequently unclear. In order to properly assess the real impact on air quality of traffic-related measures, a statistical method is proposed. The method compares the pollutant concentration levels observed after the implementation of a measure with the concentration values of the previous year. Short- and long-term impact is assessed considering not only their influence on the average pollutant concentration, but also on its maximum level. To control the effect of the main confounding factors, only the days with similar environmental conditions are analysed. The changeability of the key meteorological variables that affect the transport and dispersion of the pollutant studied are used to identify and group the days categorized as similar. Resemblance of the pollutants' concentration of the previous day is also taken into account. The impact of the road traffic measures on the air pollutants' concentration is then checked for those similar days using specific statistical functions. To evaluate the proposed method, the impact on PM 2.5 concentrations of two air quality traffic-related measures (M1 and M2) implemented in the city of Beijing are taken into consideration: M1 was implemented in 2009, restricting the circulation of yellow-labelled vehicles, while M2 was implemented in 2014, restricting the circulation of heavy-duty vehicles. To compare the results of each measure, a time-period when these measures were not applied is used as case-control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microscale air quality impacts of distributed power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Ravindran, Satish

    2016-08-01

    The electric system is experiencing rapid growth in the adoption of a mix of distributed renewable and fossil fuel sources, along with increasing amounts of off-grid generation. New operational regimes may have unforeseen consequences for air quality. A three-dimensional microscale chemical transport model (CTM) driven by an urban wind model was used to assess gaseous air pollutant and particulate matter (PM) impacts within ~10 km of fossil-fueled distributed power generation (DG) facilities during the early afternoon of a typical summer day in Houston, TX. Three types of DG scenarios were considered in the presence of motor vehicle emissions and a realistic urban canopy: (1) a 25-MW natural gas turbine operating at steady state in either simple cycle or combined heating and power (CHP) mode; (2) a 25-MW simple cycle gas turbine undergoing a cold startup with either moderate or enhanced formaldehyde emissions; and (3) a data center generating 10 MW of emergency power with either diesel or natural gas-fired backup generators (BUGs) without pollution controls. Simulations of criteria pollutants (NO2, CO, O3, PM) and the toxic pollutant, formaldehyde (HCHO), were conducted assuming a 2-hr operational time period. In all cases, NOx titration dominated ozone production near the source. The turbine scenarios did not result in ambient concentration enhancements significantly exceeding 1 ppbv for gaseous pollutants or over 1 µg/m(3) for PM after 2 hr of emission, assuming realistic plume rise. In the case of the datacenter with diesel BUGs, ambient NO2 concentrations were enhanced by 10-50 ppbv within 2 km downwind of the source, while maximum PM impacts in the immediate vicinity of the datacenter were less than 5 µg/m(3). Plausible scenarios of distributed fossil generation consistent with the electricity grid's transformation to a more flexible and modernized system suggest that a substantial amount of deployment would be required to significantly affect air quality on

  4. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  5. A Study of Fatigue and Performance Considerations in Air Mobility Cargo Aircrews Flying Transatlantic Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Julian

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) is responsible for movement of supplies and personnel, air refueling operations and air evacuation operations throughout the world in support of the United States' national interest...

  6. Optimal orientation in flows : Providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal)

  7. Full amenities : the jungle hums with armed guards, planned movements, air-conditioning and cultural realness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, J.

    2001-06-04

    The working situation of a Canadian consultant asked to work in Ecuador for a one-month period was described. He quickly learned that discretion is an incredibly valuable trait in this country where a number of oil and gas workers have become victims of kidnappings, because the companies that employ them are perceived as having lots of money. Accordingly, the planning for the trip began back in Canada where the worker received inoculations for yellow fever and hepatitis, among others, as well as briefing about personal security while abroad. Upon his arrival, he was met by security guards hired by the company and driven to his hotel in the capital, Quito. He found he was safe to wander inside the hotel at will, as well as just outside. If he wanted to go outside the perimeter, he had to call the company and the guards would meet and escort him, without displaying their weapons. When it came time to travel to the production site deep in the jungle, armed guards were travelling in a vehicle ahead of his, as well as in two vehicles behind him with weapons in full view. All of his movements were planned. The facilities on-site were more than adequate and resembled those found in Canada: flush toilet, air-conditioned sleeping quarters and cafeteria-style food. With air-conditioning available in buildings and in vehicles, it was not too difficult to adjust to the 40 Celsius heat, but one had to be equipped with very dark sunglasses. The high humidity and the heat made it different from conditions experienced in Canada. The people from Ecuador were very friendly and proud to be working on the rigs. Jobs are scarce and the level of poverty high. It was an enjoyable experience overall, as long as one is careful to mitigate risks and take the advice of experts. 3 figs.

  8. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  9. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...... in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser...

  10. Economic impact of a noncomprehensive smoke-free air law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Keith, Jennifer D; Brown, Deborah P; Meyer, Joy Blankley

    2014-07-01

    Many stakeholders were interested in the potential economic impact of Pennsylvania's 2008 Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA). This study focused on the examination of economic change subsequent to CIAA and, because CIAA allows certain venue exemptions among eating and drinking establishments, if the allowance of exemptions influenced that impact. Policy analysis. Prais-Winsten regressions were employed to assess effects of CIAA and law exemptions on county-level quarterly taxable sales in restaurants and drinking establishments. Regressions controlled for general economic activity, trends in eating/drinking establishment sales, seasonality, and county characteristics. Across models, CIAA had no significant negative effects on taxable sales in full-/limited-service restaurants or drinking establishments and some positive effects. CIAA exemptions for drinking establishments do not offer a clear economic benefit. Restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales were strongly related to overall economic conditions and seasonality. After controlling for confounding factors, and consistent with the weight of the evidence from literature on the economic impact of smoke-free policies, our study concludes that the Pennsylvania CIAA had no negative effects on per capita restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales. High rates of drinking establishment exemptions were not economically beneficial. This study can inform efforts to make smoke-free laws more comprehensive. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  12. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY 25 EXPANSION PROJECT ON AIR QUALITY IN MONTREAL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIABURU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the highway 25 expansion project on air quality in montreal using gis. The aim of the paper is to assess local air pollution implications of the Highway 25 expansion project from Montreal. The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model consists in calculating air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway by considering it as a line source. To fulfill this assessment, GIS software was used in order to determine pollutant distribution around the study area based on data collected by existing air monitoring stations located in the City of Montreal. GIS interpolation methods, notably Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to generate maps of pollutant concentrations across the study area. From the results, recommendations will be made in regards to the project and appropriate mitigatory alternatives suggested.

  13. Temporal associations between arousal and body/limb movement in children with suspected obstructed sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Marnie L; Bradley, Andrew P; Williams, Gordon; Terrill, Philip I

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between arousal events and body and/or limb movements during sleep may significantly impact the performance and clinical interpretation of actigraphy. As such, the objective of this study was to quantify the temporal association between arousals and body/limb movement. From this, we aim to determine whether actigraphy can predict arousal events in children, and identify the impact of arousal-related movements on estimates of sleep/wake periods. Thirty otherwise healthy children (5-16 years, median 9 years, 21 male) with suspected sleep apnoea were studied using full polysomnography and customised raw tri-axial accelerometry measured at the left fingertip, left wrist, upper thorax, left ankle and left great toe. Raw data were synchronised to within 0.1 s of the polysomnogram. Movements were then identified using a custom algorithm. On average 67.5% of arousals were associated with wrist movement. Arousals associated with movement were longer than those without movement (mean duration: 12.2 s versus 7.9 s respectively, p  <  0.01); movements during wake and arousal were longer than other sleep movements (wrist duration: 6.26 s and 9.89 s versus 2.35 s respectively, p  <  0.01); and the movement index (movements/h) did not predict apnoea-hypopnoea index (ρ  =  -0.11). Movements associated with arousals are likely to unavoidably contribute to actigraphy's poor sensitivity for wake. However, as sleep-related movements tend to be shorter than those during wake or arousal, incorporating movement duration into the actigraphy scoring algorithm may improve sleep staging performance. Although actigraphy-based measurements cannot reliably predict all arousal events, actigraphy can likely identify longer events that may have the greatest impact on sleep quality.

  14. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  15. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  16. Seismo-Acoustic Numerical Investigation of Land Impacts, Water Impacts, or Air Bursts of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Dearborn, D. S.; Miller, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The annual probability of an asteroid impact is low, but over time, such catastrophic events are inevitable. Interest in assessing the impact consequences has led us to develop a physics-based framework to seamlessly simulate the event from entry to impact, including air, water and ground shock propagation and wave generation. The non-linear effects are simulated using the hydrodynamics code GEODYN. As effects propagate outward, they become a wave source for the linear-elastic-wave propagation code and simulated using SAW or SWWP, depends on whether the asteroid impacts the land or the ocean, respectively. The GEODYN-SAW-SWWP coupling is based on the structured adaptive-mesh-refinement infrastructure, SAMRAI, and has been used in FEMA table-top exercises conducted in 2013 and 2014, and more recently, the 2015 Planetary Defense Conference exercise. Moreover, during atmospheric entry, asteroids create an acoustic trace that could be used to infer several physical characteristics of asteroid itself. Using SAW we explore the physical space parameters in order to rank the most important characteristics; Results from these simulations provide an estimate of onshore and offshore effects and can inform more sophisticated inundation and structural models. The capabilities of this methodology are illustrated by providing results for different impact locations, and an exploration of asteroid size on the waves arriving at the shoreline of area cities. We constructed the maximum and minimum envelops of water-wave heights or acceleration spectra given the size of the asteroid and the location of the impact along the risk corridor. Such profiles can inform emergency response and disaster-mitigation efforts. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Expansion of the Melrose Air Force Range, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-18

    County’s status of meeting the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). EPA indicates that ambient concentrations of particulates and sulfur...EPA ruled on the attainment status of the national ambient air quality standards. 19 rN 0 UN Nr Nr a, -4 CL CA N o4 A r- No co 0 N Ar w -4- .- t- ai...Environmental Impacto --- N C Statement (EIS), or file a Finding Of Nto Slni Icant Impact (FONSI). In either case, docu-nenrration of the environmental analysis

  18. Quasi-Experimental Approaches to Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Children’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heep, Samantha; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown a correlation between air pollution and poor children’s health. This paper focuses on recent studies that employ quasi-experimental designs in an effort to minimize the effect of confounding factors. These studies are complementary to studies using other designs and confirm that reducing air pollution reduces infant mortality, low birth weight, prematurity, congenital anomalies, asthma hospitalizations, and school absences. These results suggest that lowering the thresholds for acceptable air pollution levels may be prudent, as research has consistently found that some pollutants have negative impacts even at levels below current regulatory thresholds. Policy makers should also consider providing more information to pregnant women and families about when and where the risk of pollution exposure is highest so that they can employ avoidance behavior. PMID:22147868

  19. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Camasmie Abe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10, <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3, São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  20. The urban air; L'air de la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of conferences proposed during the meeting on the urban air, organized by the French Meteorological Society in november 2002. These conferences dealt with the air quality monitoring, the public health impacts, the air pollution in function of the meteorological effects, the pollutants, the main factors of the air quality and the models of the meteorology. (A.L.B.)

  1. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA. According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010 and near-term future (2020 projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface–atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (∼ 1990, overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m−3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m−3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  2. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  4. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  5. Modifications in pine (Pinus silvestris) under the impact of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolak, J

    1970-01-01

    Growth habit forms in pine which developed in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in places where industrial air pollution is a dominant ecological factor are described. Juvenile pine individuals, when not growing in density, soon cease to grow in height and their lateral branches grow freely while creeping on ground. In contrast to lifted up branches which are invaded by pests, those creeping one are healthy, with great increment, healthy needles, and normally developed cones. Pine shrubs acquire the habit of mountain pine. In pine shrubs there is formed the plant association Pinus silvestris-Solanum dulcamara which is not to be found elsewhere. When air pollution reaches its threshold value, when pine trees have no lower verticils, then upper branches grow downward until they reach soil surface and creep on it similarly as in the former case. The phenomenon of the formation of genuine habit forms in pine is one of the symptoms of impairment of productive capacity of habitat under the impact of the industrial air pollution.

  6. Motivation for Air-Launch: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W.; Rogers, Charles E.; Brierly, Gregory T.; Martin, J Campbell; Murphy, Marshall G.

    2017-01-01

    Air-launch is defined as two or more air-vehicles joined and working together, that eventually separate in flight, and that have a combined performance greater than the sum of the individual parts. The use of the air-launch concept has taken many forms across civil, commercial, and military contexts throughout the history of aviation. Air-launch techniques have been applied for entertainment, movement of materiel and personnel, efficient execution of aeronautical research, increasing aircraft range, and enabling flexible and efficient launch of space vehicles. For each air-launch application identified in the paper, the motivation for that application is discussed.

  7. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Angouleme, Niort et Poitiers impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Poitou- Charentes. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2001 and 2002) and mortality were estimated. Long-term effects due to air pollution on mortality were also evaluated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions due to air pollution are 19 in Angouleme, 11 in Niort and 19 in Poitiers. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 25 in Angouleme, 19 in Niort and 23 in Poitiers. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution lower than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  8. The impact of human perception of simultaneous exposure to thermal load, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Ole; Witterseh, Thomas; Clausen, Geo

    1999-01-01

    Human perception of simultaneous exposure to combinations of three different levels of operative temperature, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution (27 combinations) was studied in climate chambers. The operative temperatures studied were: 26.0 deg.C, 27.6 deg.C and 29.6 deg.......C, and the sound pressure levels were: 45 dB(A), 48 dB(A) and 51 dB(A). The air pollution corresponding to these three levels of perceived air quality (at 26 deg.C) was: 1.1 decipol (dp), 2.4 dp and 4.5 dp. A 1 deg.C change in operative temperature had the same impact on the human perception of the overall...... conditions as a change of 3.8 dB(A) in sound pressure level or a change of 7 dp in air pollution (at 26 deg.C). The percentage of dissatisfied with the perceived air quality increased with increasing temperature. An elevated temperature had a dominant impact on the human perception of the indoor environment...

  9. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  10. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  11. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S.; Lentini, Pia E.; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Burns, Emma L.; Driscoll, Don A.; Guja, Lydia K.; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  12. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Lentini, Pia E; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M; Burns, Emma L; Driscoll, Don A; Guja, Lydia K; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  13. The impact of the «Fagor crisis» in the basque cooperative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Alustiza Kapanaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative movement in the Basque Country is a recognized and studied movement all over the world, especially because of the work that Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa (MCC has made in that field during more than 55 years. However, the model of MCC has become unstable due to the crisis of Fagor Electrodomésticos S. Coop. that in October 16th, 2013, announced that it was in the previous stage of a state of insolvency, and finished announcing its insolvency in November 15th, 2013. This fact made that various sectors would call into question the system of the Basque cooperative movement and also its values and principles. This article studies the facts that caused the crisis of Fagor, to try to establish if that crisis could effectively put into risk MCC and, as a last resort, the whole Basque cooperative movement.Received: 02.06.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015

  14. Impact of air pollution on the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China: time for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-10-15

    In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases. We highlight targets for interventions and recommendations for pollution reduction through industrial upgrading, vehicle and fuel renovation, improvements in public transportation, lowering of personal exposure, mitigation of the direct effects of air pollution through healthy city development, intervention at population-based level (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, pre-emptive measures, and rehabilitation), and improvement in air quality. The implementation of a national environmental protection policy has become urgent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing population movement impacts on urban heat island of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday: effects of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2018-02-01

    Chinese New Year (CNY), or Spring Festival, is the most important of all festivals in China. We use daily observations to show that Beijing's urban heat island (UHI) effects largely depend on precipitation, cloud cover, and water vapor but are insensitive to wind speed, during the CNY holiday season. Non-precipitating, clear, and low humidity conditions favor strong UHI effects. The CNY holiday, with some 3 billion journeys made, provides a living laboratory to explore the role of population movements in the UHI phenomenon. Averaged over the period 2004-2013, with the Olympic year of 2008 excluded, Beijing's UHI effects during the CNY week decline by 0.48 °C relative to the background period (4 weeks including 2 to 3 weeks before, and 2 to 3 weeks after, the CNY week). With combined effects of precipitation, large cloud cover, and high water vapor excluded, the UHI effects during the CNY week averaged over the study period decline by 0.76 °C relative to the background period, significant at the 99% confidence level by Student's t test. These results indicate that the impacts of population movements can be more easily detected when excluding unfavorable meteorological conditions to the UHI. Population movements occur not only during the CNY holiday, but also during all the time across the globe. We suggest that better understanding the role of population movements will offer new insight into anthropogenic climate modifications.

  16. Dangerous waste incineration and its impact on air quality. Case study: the incinerator SC Mondeco SRL Suceava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous waste, such as oil residues, pesticides, lacquers, stains, glues, organic solvents, hospital and food industry residues represent a major risk for all components of the environment (water, air, earth, soil, flora, fauna, people as well. Consequently, their incineration with high-performance burning installations lessens the impact on the environment, especially on the air quality, and it gives the possibility to recuperate the warmth of the incineration. This research presents a representative technique of incineration of dangerous waste at S.C. Mondeco S.R.L. Suceava, which runs according to the European standards, located in the industrial zone of Suceava, on the Suceava river valley Suceava. Also it is analysed the impact of this unit on the quality of nearby air. Moreover, not only the concentrations of gases and powders during the action of the incineration process (paramaters that are continuously monitored by highly methods are analysed, but also here are described the dispersions of those pollutants in the air, taking into account the characteristics of the source and the meteorological parametres that are in the riverbed. 

  17. Flying through code/space: the real virtuality of air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Dodge; Rob Kitchin

    2004-01-01

    Commercial air travel is a key global industry facilitating the complex daily movements of planes, people, goods, and services across the world. In this paper we analyse contemporary air travel through the conceptualisation of a culture of real virtuality.We contend that air travel now consists of passage through 'code/space'. Such code/space includes travel websites, check-in, security check- points, flight decks, air-traffic control, immigration, and customs checkpoints, which t...

  18. Impact of ambient air temperature and heat load variation on the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers in propane cycles in LNG plants – Analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.F.M.; Nabih, H.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method regulated the air flow rate in an air-cooled heat exchanger. • Performance of an ACHE in a propane cycle in an LNG plant was evaluated. • Summer inlet air temperature had higher impact on ACHE air flow rate requirement. - Abstract: An analytical method is presented to evaluate the air flow rate required in an air-cooled heat exchanger used in a propane pre-cooling cycle operating in an LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant. With variable ambient air inlet temperature, the air flow rate is to be increased or decreased so as to assure and maintain good performance of the operating air-cooled heat exchanger at the designed parameters and specifications. This analytical approach accounts for the variations in both heat load and ambient air inlet temperature. The ambient air inlet temperature is modeled analytically by simplified periodic relations. Thus, a complete analytical method is described so as to manage the problem of determining and accordingly regulate, either manually or automatically, the flow rate of air across the finned tubes of the air-cooled heat exchanger and thus, controls the process fluid outlet temperature required for the air-cooled heat exchangers for both cases of constant and varying heat loads and ambient air inlet temperatures. Numerical results are obtained showing the performance of the air-cooled heat exchanger of a propane cycle which cools both NG (natural gas) and MR (mixed refrigerant) streams in the LNG plant located at Damietta, Egypt. The inlet air temperature variation in the summer time has a considerable effect on the required air mass flow rate, while its influence becomes relatively less pronounced in winter.

  19. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claisse, Jeremy T. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pondella, Daniel J. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Chelsea M. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zahn, Laurel A. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  20. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  1. Quantification of years of life lost attributable to chronic air pollution exposure in a health impact assessment: the case of Nantes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillois-Becel, Y.; Eilstein, D.; Glorennec, Ph.; Lefranc, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: When French regional planning for air quality first began, exposure-response functions from time-series studies were used to assess the short-term health impact of urban air pollution. The World Health Organisation also suggests that exposure-response functions from cohort studies be taken into account to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure and to quantify the prematurity of deaths related to chronic exposure to air pollution. This work characterizes the long term effects of air pollution in Nantes by considering years of life lost as well as the number of attributable deaths. methods: the study population is classified in birth cohorts. for each cohort, 2 survival curves are built based on current mortality conditions: the first is built for current exposure to air pollution and the second for exposure to a lower reference level of air pollution. The area between the 2 curves represents years of life lost attributable to urban air pollution. results: the estimated number of premature deaths due to air pollution is approximately 56, or about 2% of the deaths of those older than 30 years. The health impact on the Nantes population is estimated at 27.2 years of life lost attributable to urban air pollution in 1999 and 2388.1 years of life lost for the 1999-2008 period. This amounts to a decrease of roughly 4 months in the life expectancy of those aged 30 years. Conclusion: This study, which also identifies and discusses relevant errors and uncertainty, confirmed that air pollution in Nantes has significant health effects and that chronic exposure plays an essential role in this impact. the number of years of life lost and the reduction in life expectancy provide new reasons to reject the assumption that health effects are limited to the premature deaths of terminally-ill people. the expected health gains in Nantes associated with reduced although still moderate air pollution levels are on the same scale as, and possibly better than, those found in 9

  2. The effect of a robot-assisted surgical system on the kinematics of user movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisky, Ilana; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-01-01

    Teleoperated robot-assisted surgery (RAS) offers many advantages over traditional minimally invasive surgery. However, RAS has not yet realized its full potential, and it is not clear how to optimally train surgeons to use these systems. We hypothesize that the dynamics of the master manipulator impact the ability of users to make desired movements with the robot. We compared freehand and teleoperated movements of novices and experienced surgeons. To isolate the effects of dynamics from procedural knowledge, we chose simple movements rather than surgical tasks. We found statistically significant effects of teleoperation and user expertise in several aspects of motion, including target acquisition error, movement speed, and movement smoothness. Such quantitative assessment of human motor performance in RAS can impact the design of surgical robots, their control, and surgeon training methods, and eventually, improve patient outcomes.

  3. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  4. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; van Harmelen, T.; van Horssen, A.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be

  5. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2.

  6. Lowering the Age of Consent: Pushing Back against the Anti-Vaccine Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Allison M

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the rise of the anti-vaccination movement, the proliferation of laws allowing parental exemptions to mandatory school vaccines, and the impact of the movement on immunization rates for all vaccines. It uses the ongoing debate about the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as an example to highlight the ripple effect and consequences of the anti-vaccine movement despite robust evidence of the vaccine's safety and efficacy. The article scrutinizes how state legislatures ironically promote vaccination while simultaneously deferring to the opposition by promulgating broad opt-outs from mandatory vaccine laws. This article concludes by offering an alternative legislative approach to specifically combat the anti-vaccine movement's impact on HPV vaccination rates. Lowering the age of consent has not been widely attempted or proposed and provides an alternative statutory mechanism to push back against vaccine resistance. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  7. Variables affecting orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Justin R; McGorray, Susan P; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impacts of age, sex, root length, bone levels, and bone quality on orthodontic tooth movement. Clear aligners were programmed to move 1 central incisor 1 mm over the course of 8 weeks. Thirty subjects, ages 19 to 64, were enrolled, and measurements were made on digital models (percentage of tooth movement goal achieved). Morphometric features and bone quality were assessed with cone-beam computed tomography. Data from this study were combined with data from 2 similar studies to increase the power for some analyses. The mean percentage of tooth movement goal achieved was 57% overall. Linear regression modeling indicated a cubic relationship between age and tooth movement, with a decreasing rate of movement from ages 18 to 35 years, a slightly increasing rate from ages 35 to 50, and a decreasing rate from ages 50 to 70. The final decreasing trend was not apparent for women. As would be expected, the correlation was significant between the percentage of the goal achieved and the cone-beam computed tomography superimposed linear measures of tooth movement. A significant negative correlation was found between tooth movement and the measurement apex to the center of rotation, but bone quality, as measured by fractal dimension, was not correlated with movement. The relationship between age and tooth movement is complex and might differ for male and female patients. Limited correlations with cone-beam computed tomography morphology and rate of tooth movement were detected. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inertia system for permitting or preventing any movement between two components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelat, Patrice; Le Pierres, Gildas.

    1977-01-01

    This impact jamming device allows relative movement between two parts with respect to each other so long as the relative acceleration remains under a given preset figure. On the other hand, it locks to stop this relative movement as soon as this acceleration exceeds this figure. Such a mechanism can be used, in particular, the holding the pipes in nuclear power stations so as to permit a slow movement of the pipes with respect to the structure, for example under the effect of expansion, but to check any relative movement in the event of significant acceleration, for example during an earthquake [fr

  9. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura; M. van Beest, Floris; Blake, Stephen; Blaum, Niels; Bracis, Chloe; Brown, Danielle; Nico de Bruyn, P. J.; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calabrese, J.M.; Camilo-Alves, Constança; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Chiaradia, Andre; Davidson, Sarah C.; Dennis, Todd; DeStefano, Stephen; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Fennessy, Julian; Fichtel, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fischer, Christina; Fischhoff, Ilya; Fleming, Christen H.; Ford, Adam T.; Fritz, Susanne A.; Gehr, Benedikt; Goheen, Jacob R.; Gurarie, Eliezer; Hebblewhite, Mark; Heurich, Marco; Mark Hewison, A.J.; Hof, Christian; Hurme, Edward; Isbell, Lynne A.; Janssen, René; Jeltsch, Florian; Kaczensky, Petra; Kane, Adam; Kappeler, Peter M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Kays, Roland; Kimuyu, Duncan; Koch, Flavia; Kranstauber, Bart; LaPoint, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Linnell, John D. C.; López-López, Pascual; Markham, A. Catherine; Mattisson, Jenny; Medici, Emilia Patricia; Mellone, Ugo; Merrill, E.; de Miranda Mourão, Guilherme; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Morellet, Nicolas; Morrison, Thomas A.; Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L.; Mysterud, Atle; Nandintsetseg, Dejid; Nathan, Ran; Niamir, Aidin; Odden, John; O'Hara, Robert B.; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Olson, Kirk A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Cunha de Paula, Rogerio; Pedrotti, Luca; Reineking, Björn; Rimmler, Martin; Rogers, T.L.; Rolandsen, Christer Moe; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Safi, Kamran; Saïd, Sonia; Sapir, Nir; Sawyer, Hall; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Selva, Nuria; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Silva, João Paulo; Singh, N.; Solberg, Erling J.; Spiegel, Orr; Strand, Olav; Sundaresan, S.R.; Ullmann, Wiebke; Voigt, Ulrich; Wall, J.; Wattles, David W.; Wikelski, Martin; Wilmers, Christopher C.; Wilson, Jon W.; Wittemyer, George; Zięba, Filip; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Mueller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.

  10. Assessing the Impacts of Atmospheric Conditions under Climate Change on Air Quality Profile over Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2017-04-01

    Small particulates can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Under the projected climate change as reported by literature, atmospheric stability, which has strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants and thus air quality Hong Kong, is also varying from near to far future. In addition to domestic emission, Hong Kong receives also significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates that their natures and movements are correlated with atmospheric condition. This study aims to study the relation of atmospheric conditions with air quality over Hong Kong. Past meteorological data is based on Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. Radiosonde data provided from HKO are also adopted in testing and validating the data. Future meteorological data is simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), which dynamically downscaled the past and future climate under the A1B scenario simulated by ECHAM5/MPIOM. Air quality data is collected on one hand from the ground station data provided by Environment Protection Department, with selected stations revealing local emission and trans-boundary emission respectively. On the other hand, an Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols, has also been adopted to measure vertical aerosol profile, which has been observed tightly related to the high level meteorology. Data from scattered signals are collected, averaged or some episode selected for characteristic comparison with the atmospheric stability indices and other meteorological factors. The relation between atmospheric conditions and air quality is observed by statistical analysis, and statistical models are built based on the stability indices to project the changes in sulphur dioxide, ozone and particulate

  11. Radon-222 as an indicator of continental air masses and air mass boundaries over ocean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.E.; Bressan, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) has proven to be an excellent indicator of the continental nature of over-ocean air and air mass boundaries. Radon is almost exclusively of continental origin, and low-level real-time monitoring is possible with our improved radon measurement techniques. The transition from continental to maritime air in offshore and onshore winds is rather obvious and can easily be established near large islands or continents as an order-of-magnitude change in radon concentration from a few tens of picocuries per cubic meter or more to a few picocuries per cubic meter or less. Sharply changing radon concentrations are usually associated with frontal areas. Our data have offered insights into air movements, and hence transport of continental materials and pollutants over oceanic areas

  12. Ambient sound levels at four Department of Interior conservation units in support of Homestead Air Base reuse supplemental environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in cooperation with the United States Air Force (USAF), is developing a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) in support of the planned commercialization of Homestead Air Base in Southern Florid...

  13. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  14. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  15. The impact of draught related to air velocity, air temperature and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Gehring, U

    2001-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to test the hypotheses that the effects of draught increase with higher air velocity, with lower air temperature, and with lower workload. Thirty healthy young males were exposed to horizontal draught during 55 min while they operated an arm ergometer in a standing posture. Air velocity, air temperature, and workload were varied in 3 steps each, between 11 and 23 degrees C, 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, and 104 to 156 W/m2, respectively. The 27 combinations were distributed over subjects in a fractional factorial 3(3)-design. The participants were clothed for thermal neutrality. Workload was measured at the end of the sessions by respirometry. Draught-induced annoyance was determined every 5 min, separately for 10 body sites. Corresponding skin temperature was also recorded. The hypotheses were verified for the influence of air velocity and air temperature. Regarding workload, local heat production is probably decisive, meaning that draft-induced local annoyance is inversely related to workload in active but independent from workload in non-active body areas. To improve the situation for the workers concerned it is suggested to apply protective gloves that cover an as great area of the forearms as possible and to limit airflows to mean velocities of less than 0.2 m/s (with turbulence intensities of 50%).

  16. Impact of aspect ratio and solar heating on street canyon air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Lal, K.

    2011-01-01

    The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group) version of k-and turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width) and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy an sport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios) one to eight and surface temperature difference (delta and theta/sub s-a/)) of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature 'high and low AR street canyons (AR) was positive and high with higher delta and theta/sub s-a/) conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of delta and theta(/sub s-a/). These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers Id HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements. (author)

  17. Impact of Aspect Ratio and Solar Heating on Street Conyn Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group version of k-? turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios one to eight and surface temperature difference (??s-a of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature of high and low AR street canyons ( AR was positive and high with higher ??s-a. Conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of ??s-a. These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers and HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements.

  18. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned. © 2013.

  19. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  20. Choices Behind Numbers: a Review of the Major Air Pollution Health Impact Assessments in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, E; Oudin, A; Pascal, M; Medina, S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the key contextual and methodological differences in health impact assessments (HIA) of ambient air pollution performed for Europe. We limited our review to multi-country reviews. An additional aim is to quantify some of these differences by applying them in a HIA template in three European cities. Several HIAs of ambient air pollution have been performed for Europe, and their key results have been largely disseminated. Different studies have, however, come up with substantial differences in attributed health effects. It is of importance to review the background contributing to these differences and to quantify their importance for decision makers who will use them. We identified several methodological differences that could explain the discrepancy behind the number of attributable deaths or years of life lost. The main differences are due to the exposure-response functions chosen, the ways of assessing air pollution levels, the air pollution scenarios and the study population. In the quantification part, we found that using risk estimates from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) instead of the American Cancer Society (ACS) study could nearly double the attributable burden of ambient air pollution. This study provides some insights into the differential results in previously published HIAs on air pollution in Europe. These results are important for stakeholders in order to make informed decisions.

  1. Modeled Trends in Impacts of Landing and Takeoff Aircraft Emissions on Surface Air-Quality in U.S for 2005, 2010 and 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennam, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the present-day impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality is essential to plan potential mitigation policies for future growth. Stringent regulation on mobile source-related emissions in the recent past coupled with anticipated rise in the growth in aviation activity can increase the relative impacts of aviation-attributable surface air quality if adequate measures for reducing aviation emissions are not implemented. Though aircraft emissions during in-flight mode (at upper altitudes) contribute a significant (70 - 80%) proportion of the total aviation emissions, landing and takeoff (LTO) related emissions can have immediate impact on surface air quality, as most of the large airports are located in urban areas, specifically those that are designated in nonattainment for O3 and/or PM2.5. In this study, we modeled impacts of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles on surface air quality using the latest version of the CMAQ model for two contemporary years (2005, 2010) and one future year (2018). For this regional scale modeling study, we used highly resolved aircraft emissions from the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), meteorology from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) downscaled with the WRF model, dynamically varying chemical boundary conditions from the CAM-Chem global model (which also used the same AEDT emissions but at the global scale), and spatio-temporally resolved lightning NOx emissions estimated using National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) flash density data. We evaluated our model results with air quality observations from surface-based networks and in-situ aircraft observation data for the contemporary years. We will present results from model evaluation using this enhanced modeling system, as well as the trajectories in aviation- related air quality (focusing on O3, NO2 and PM2.5) for the three modeling years considered in this study. These findings will help plan

  2. Potential impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustine, I.; Yulinawati, H.; Gunawan, D.; Suswantoro, E.

    2018-01-01

    Particulate is a main urban air pollutant affects the environment and human wellbeing. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang. The analysis is done with calendarPlot Function of openair model, which is based on the calculation of Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) or better known as Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI category of “moderate” dominates Jakarta’s calendar from 2015 to 2016, which indicates the impact of PM10 is the visibility reduction. There was one day with category “unhealthy” that indicates the impact of dust exposure everywhere in Jakarta during 2015. Similar to Jakarta, the AQI category “moderate” also dominates Palembang’s calendar during 2015. However, the AQI category “hazardous” happened for few days in September and October 2015 during forest fires, which indicates the more harmful impacts of PM10, such as reduced visibility, dust exposure everywhere, increased sensitivity in patients with asthma and bronchitis to respiratory illness in all exposed populations. During 2016, AQI category of Jakarta mostly “moderate”, while in Palembang was “good”. Dominant AQI category from 2015 to 2016 shows higher PM10 concentration occurred in Jakarta compared to Palembang.

  3. [Effect of high impact movements on body composition, strength and bone mineral density on women over 60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villada, Jhon F; León-Ariza, Henry H; Argüello-Gutiérrez, Yenny P; Porras-Ramírez, Keyla A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue microarchitecture that leads to fragility related to the risk of fractures. The aim of the study is to analyse the effects of a training program based on explosive movements and impact, assessed in a swimming pool, on body composition, explosive strength and bone mineral density in women over 60 years old. A total of 35 healthy physically active women (60±4.19 years) were divided into a training pool group using multi jumps (JG) and a control group (CG). JG trained for 24 weeks, 3 times a week, an hour and a half per session. Body composition testing, explosive strength, and bone mineral density were assessed before and after the program. There were differences in the explosive force (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .001) and the estimated power (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .002) between JG vs CG, with significant increases in JG. There were no significant differences in the percentage of fat and lean mass, bone mineral density lumbar and femoral between groups, although slightly significant increases in bone mineral density lumbar and femoral could be seen in JG after program implementation (JG pre-test vs JG post- test=P<.05). The training program with impact and explosive movements assessed in a pool induces gains in muscle strength and power with slight adaptations in body mass index in women over 60 years. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking a Movement: U.S. Milestones in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Jahn, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidology and suicide prevention are relatively new fields of study in the United States, but they have made significant progress since their beginnings. This study aimed to identify the most impactful theories in the history of science and suicidology and the most impactful events in the suicide prevention movement. These theories and events…

  5. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  6. Airborne Measurements and Air Quality Impacts of the 2016 California Soberanes Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. E.; Asher, E. C. C.; Yates, E. L.; St Clair, J. M.; Ryoo, J. M.; McNamara, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Gore, W.; Faloona, I. C.; Iraci, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are an important source of a multitude of trace gases and particles that contribute to local and regional air quality, climate forcing, and have human health impacts. Among the compounds emitted are greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), organics such as formaldehyde (HCHO), and other harmful species including carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). In addition, biomass burning is a primary source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), contributing to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and reduced regional air quality. Emissions of the various ozone precursors in a fire differ based on vegetation (fuel) type, fire intensity, and age of the plume, complicating the prediction of O3 formation. The Soberanes Fire began from an illegal campfire on 22 July 2016 in the Garrapata State Park in Monterey County, California (36.460 °N, -121.900 °W). Over the following three months the fire burned a total of 132,127 acres. Presented here are aircraft measurements of CO2, CH4, O3, and HCHO from five flights near and downwind of the Soberanes wildfire, collected as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). In situ data are used to determine emission ratios (ERs), or excess mixing ratio relative to CO2. In addition, measurements of NOx and O3 from a coastal mountaintop site are presented, and are used to estimate O3 production rates during the Soberanes Fire burning period. Lastly, the extent of ozone enhancement and air quality impacts downwind of the fire will be addressed using ground-based monitoring data, the NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke product and HYSPLIT trajectory model.

  7. Cyclic movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.G.; Martin, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a recurring movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor by shifting a neutron absorbing assembly, vertically mobile in the nuclear reactor, to adjust the power and for emergency shut-down. This mechanism ensures a continuous movement and accurate shut-down at any level of the travel height of the absorbing assembly in the core. It also prevents the impacts of the pivoting pins in the control rod slots [fr

  8. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Fires on Air Quality in the Southeastern U.S. with a Unified Prescribed Burning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Menendez, F.; Afrin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Prescribed fires are used extensively across the Southeastern United States and are a major source of air pollutant emissions in the region. These land management projects can adversely impact local and regional air quality. However, the emissions and air pollution impacts of prescribed fires remain largely uncertain. Satellite data, commonly used to estimate fire emissions, is often unable to detect the low-intensity, short-lived prescribed fires characteristic of the region. Additionally, existing ground-based prescribed burn records are incomplete, inconsistent and scattered. Here we present a new unified database of prescribed fire occurrence and characteristics developed from systemized digital burn permit records collected from public and private land management organizations in the Southeast. This bottom-up fire database is used to analyze the correlation between high PM2.5 concentrations measured by monitoring networks in southern states and prescribed fire occurrence at varying spatial and temporal scales. We show significant associations between ground-based records of prescribed fire activity and the observational air quality record at numerous sites by applying regression analysis and controlling confounding effects of meteorology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the response of measured PM2.5 concentrations to prescribed fire estimates based on burning permits is significantly stronger than their response to satellite fire observations from MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and geostationary satellites or prescribed fire emissions data in the National Emissions Inventory. These results show the importance of bottom-up smoke emissions estimates and reflect the need for improved ground-based fire data to advance air quality impacts assessments focused on prescribed burning.

  10. Meteorological factors had more impact on airborne bacterial communities than air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Quan; Deng, Ye; Wang, Yaqing; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-12-01

    Airborne bacteria have gained increasing attention because they affect ecological balance and pose potential risks on human health. Recently, some studies have focused on the abundance and composition of airborne bacteria under heavy, hazy polluted weather in China, but they reached different conclusions about the comparisons with non-polluted days. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that meteorological factors could have a higher impact on shaping airborne bacterial communities than air pollutants by systematically monitoring the communities for 1year. Total suspended particles in Beijing were sampled for 20 consecutive days in each season of 2015. Bacterial abundance varied from 8.71×10 3 to 2.14×10 7 ribosomal operons per cubic meter according to the quantitative PCR analysis. There were relatively higher bacterial counts in spring and in autumn than in winter and summer. Airborne bacterial communities displayed a strong seasonality, according to the hierarchical cluster analysis. Only two exceptions overtook the seasonal trend, and both occurred in or after violent meteorological changes (sandstorm or rain). Aggregated boosted tree analysis performed on bacterial abundance showed that the dominant factors shaping bacterial communities were meteorological. They were air pressure in winter, air temperature and relative humidity in spring, RH in summer, and vapor pressure in autumn. Variation partition analysis on community structure showed that meteorological factors explained more variations than air pollutants. Therefore, both of the two models verified our hypothesis that the differences in airborne bacterial communities in polluted days or non-polluted days were mainly driven by the discrepancies of meteorological factors rather than by the presence of air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient Air-Water Flow and Air Demand following an Opening Outlet Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, the dam-safety guidelines call for an overhaul of many existing bottom outlets. During the opening of an outlet gate, understanding the transient air-water flow is essential for its safe operation, especially under submerged tailwater conditions. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are undertaken to examine air-water flow behaviors at both free and submerged outflows. The gate, hoisted by wire ropes and powered by AC, opens at a constant speed. A mesh is adapted to follow the gate movement. At the free outflow, the CFD simulations and model tests agree well in terms of outlet discharge capacity. Larger air vents lead to more air supply; the increment becomes, however, limited if the vent area is larger than 10 m2. At the submerged outflow, a hydraulic jump builds up in the conduit when the gate reaches approximately 45% of its full opening. The discharge is affected by the tailwater and slightly by the flow with the hydraulic jump. The flow features strong turbulent mixing of air and water, with build-up and break-up of air pockets and collisions of defragmented water bodies. The air demand rate is several times as much as required by steady-state hydraulic jump with free surface.

  12. Consideration of the overall impact of an emission when setting standards for air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, D.

    1981-01-01

    By increasing the release height, dispersion of the effluent is improved and thus the release rate that can be tolerated for the same air concentration at ground level is also increased. Stacks are thus often misapplied if the ground-level concentration alone is taken into account, while total release, and thus the overall impact, are disregarded. In the nuclear industry the control of radioactive releases to the environment is based on two important requirements, viz.: dose limits (air-quality standards) may under no circumstances be exceeded, and; doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, which requires that total exposure from all doses, even those well below the dose limit, to all members of the public and for all future time, should be considered. Permissible releases are determined by taking into account the overall impact of the release and optimising the release to the point where the cost of further decreasing the amount is not justified by the additional protection obtained [af

  13. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  14. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON THE MOVEMENT OF CROBEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tomic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many research showed a high degree of correlation between the US and European capital markets, partly due to industrial‒financial linkages of the United States and Europe, and partly due to the influence of psychological factors on the behavior of individuals, and the concept of behavioral finance. However, it can be assumed that the movement of the value of an observed index does not depend solely on the change of values of the S & P 500 index. Accordingly and in line with rational economic theory, this paper examines the link between changes in the value of selected macroeconomic indicators and the value of the main share Croatian capital market index CROBEX. The results indicate that of the nine initially observed variables, movement of CROBEX can be described and further explained by changes in the value of average wages, parity rate and dollar, the kuna and the euro and the kuna and the Swiss franc.

  15. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  16. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguri, A; Soleimani, M; Grychtol, B; Adler, A

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. (paper)

  17. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biguri, A; Grychtol, B; Adler, A; Soleimani, M

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT.

  18. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct

  19. White Paper: Movement System Diagnoses in Neurologic Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Lois D; Quinn, Lori; Gill-Body, Kathleen; Brown, David A; Quiben, Myla; Riley, Nora; Scheets, Patricia L

    2018-04-01

    The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems. We propose that, going forward, diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated. The Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy's Movement System Task Force was convened to address these issues with respect to management of movement system problems in patients with neurologic conditions. The purpose of this article is to report on the work and recommendations of the Task Force. The Task Force identified 4 essential elements necessary to develop and implement movement system diagnoses for patients with primarily neurologic involvement from existing movement system classifications. The Task Force considered the potential impact of using movement system diagnoses on clinical practice, education and, research. Recommendations were developed and provided recommendations for potential next steps to broaden this discussion and foster the development of movement system diagnostic classifications. The Task Force proposes that diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated with the long-range goal to reach consensus on and adoption of a movement system diagnostic framework for clients with neurologic injury or disease states.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A198).

  20. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Orleans and Tours impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Orleans et de Tours impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Orleans and Tours according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Centre. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002 and 2003) and mortality. Long-term mortality was also estimated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations are: Orleans: 11 [2-23]* for respiratory admissions and 26 [16-36]* for cardiovascular admissions; Tours: 11 [3-22]* for respiratory admissions and 34 [20-48]* for cardiovascular admissions. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 59 [36-84]* in Orleans and 61 [37-86]* in Tours. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  1. Impact of increasing ship emissions on air quality and deposition over Europe by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Bill; Sanderson, Michael G.; Johnson, Colin E. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A global chemistry-transport model has been used to study the effect of shipping emissions on air quality and ecosystems over Europe, through changes in surface ozone and surface sulphate aerosols, and changes in the deposition of sulphur and oxidised nitrogen. Scenarios are chosen to determine the impact of current (2000) shipping emissions, and the combined impact of changes in land-based and shipping emissions by 2030. The effects of shipping on ozone are small, compared to land-based emissions changes, and can be both positive and negative. Due to the non-linear nature of ozone chemistry, the effects of shipping depend on the magnitude of the emission change, and on the choice of scenario for the land-based emissions. The effects on sulphate aerosol levels and deposition fluxes of sulphate aerosols and oxidised nitrogen species are larger, and are comparable to expected changes in land-based emissions. This is particularly true for SO{sub 2} emissions from shipping. SO{sub 2} has a sufficiently short lifetime that most of the impacts are felt within the European region, although much of that is over the sea. The increase in sulphate aerosols and sulphur deposition due to the SO{sub 2} from shipping will offset 75 % of the benefits in air quality that would be expect from land-based emission controls under the SRES A2 scenario. (orig.)

  2. Impacts of Transit-Oriented Compact-Growth on Air Pollutant Concentrations and Exposures in the Tampa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    Amy L. Stuart (ORCID # 0000-0003-1229-493) The objective of this study was to model the potential impacts of alternative transit-oriented urban design scenarios on community exposures to roadway air pollution. We used a modeling framework developed p...

  3. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Espinosa, G.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  4. Analyzing the movement of an invasive weevil (Polydrusus sericeus) using stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Lund; Paula Marquardt; William Jr. Mattson

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the response of insect populations to increasing CO2 and O3, we used ratios of stable carbon isotopes (d 13C) to trace the movement of an invasive insect in mixed tree communities grown under different air quality conditions. Polydrusus sericeus is a non-native...

  5. Exploring children's movement characteristics during virtual reality video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Pierrynowski, Michael R; Canestraro, Melissa; Gurr, Lindsay; Leonard, Laurean; Neeley, Christyann

    2010-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of commercially-available virtual reality video gaming systems within pediatric rehabilitation, yet little is known about the movement characteristics of game play. This study describes quantity and quality of movement during Nintendo Wii and Wii Fit game play, explores differences in these movement characteristics between games and between novice and experienced players, and investigates whether motivation to succeed at the game impacts movement characteristics. Thirty-eight children (aged 7-12) with and without previous game experience played Wii (boxing and tennis) and Wii Fit (ski slalom and soccer heading) games. Force plate data provided center of pressure displacement (quantity) and processed pelvis motion indicated smoothness of pelvic movement (quality). Children rated their motivation to succeed at each game. Movement quantity and quality differed between games (pgames demonstrated greater movement quantity during Wii Fit game play (p<.001); quality of movement did not differ between groups. Motivation to succeed did not influence the relationship between experience and outcomes. Findings enhance clinical understanding of this technology and inform the development of research questions to explore its potential to improve movement skills in children with motor impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Pau impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Pau impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Pau according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. Short-term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001) have been estimated. Long-term effect on mortality was also assessed. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in twenty-nine cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Pau agglomeration, i.e. a study population of about 150,000 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 17 anticipated deaths, including 7 for cardiovascular reason and 2 for respiratory reason. Concerning morbidity, it generated 20 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason in 2002, 11 for cardiac reason, and 7 for respiratory reason among elderly people. Regarding long-term health gains, an annually decrease according to the European standards levels of 2010 could allow avoiding 12 deaths per year, and a decrease by 30% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 33 premature deaths per year. This study shows that, even if the relative risks associated to air pollution are quite low, the number of attributable cases is non negligible since everyone is exposed to air pollution. It also shows that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view

  7. MEGAPOLI: concept of multi-scale modelling of megacity impact on air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Lawrence, M.; Pandis, S.; Mahura, A.; Finardi, S.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Beekmann, M.; Laj, P.; Gomes, L.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Borbon, A.; Coll, I.; Gros, V.; Sciare, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Galmarini, S.; Giorgi, F.; Grimmond, S.; Esau, I.; Stohl, A.; Denby, B.; Wagner, T.; Butler, T.; Baltensperger, U.; Builtjes, P.; van den Hout, D.; van der Gon, H. D.; Collins, B.; Schluenzen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Sokhi, R.; Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Kummer, U.; Jalkinen, L.; Halenka, T.; Wiedensholer, A.; Pyle, J.; Rossow, W. B.

    2010-11-01

    The EU FP7 Project MEGAPOLI: "Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation" (http://megapoli.info) brings together leading European research groups, state-of-the-art scientific tools and key players from non-European countries to investigate the interactions among megacities, air quality and climate. MEGAPOLI bridges the spatial and temporal scales that connect local emissions, air quality and weather with global atmospheric chemistry and climate. The suggested concept of multi-scale integrated modelling of megacity impact on air quality and climate and vice versa is discussed in the paper. It requires considering different spatial and temporal dimensions: time scales from seconds and hours (to understand the interaction mechanisms) up to years and decades (to consider the climate effects); spatial resolutions: with model down- and up-scaling from street- to global-scale; and two-way interactions between meteorological and chemical processes.

  8. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10 -4 Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility

  9. Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; O'Connor, Fiona M

    2017-12-05

    This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O 3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. There is considerable literature on the effects of climate change on O 3 but fewer studies on the effects of climate change on PM concentrations. Under the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), background O 3 entering Europe is expected to decrease under most scenarios due to higher water vapour concentrations in a warmer climate. However, under the extreme pathway RCP8.5 higher (more than double) methane (CH 4 ) abundances lead to increases in background O 3 that offset the O 3 decrease due to climate change especially for the 2100 period. Regionally, in polluted areas with high levels of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), elevated surface temperatures and humidities yield increases in surface O 3 - termed the O 3 climate penalty - especially in southern Europe. The O 3 response is larger for metrics that represent the higher end of the O 3 distribution, such as daily maximum O 3 . Future changes in PM concentrations due to climate change are much less certain, although several recent studies also suggest a PM climate penalty due to high temperatures and humidity and reduced precipitation in northern mid-latitude land regions in 2100.A larger number of studies have examined both future climate and emissions changes under the RCP scenarios. Under these pathways the impact of emission changes on air quality out to the 2050s will be larger than that due to climate change, because of large reductions in emissions of O 3 and PM pollutant precursor emissions and the more limited climate change response itself. Climate change will also affect climate extreme events such as heatwaves. Air pollution episodes are associated with stagnation events and sometimes heat waves. Air quality during

  10. [Impacts of Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) on lake sediment properties and phosphorus movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gu, Xiao-Zhi; Shao, Shi-Guang; Hu, Hai-Yan; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of Corbicula fluminea on sediment properties and phosphorus dynamics across sediment-water interface in lake, the microcosm experiment was carried out with sediment and lake water from the estuary of Dapu River, a eutrophic area in Taihu Lake. Rhizon samplers were used to acquire pore water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) flux across sediment-water interface and sediment properties were determined. The activity of C. fluminea destroyed the initial sediment structure, mixed sediment in different depths, increased oxygen penetration depth, sediment water content, and total microbial activity in sediment. The downward movement of overlying water was enhanced by the activity of C. fluminea, which decreased Fe2+ in pore water by oxidation. The production of ferric iron oxyhydroxide adsorbed SRP from pore water and decreased SRP concentration in pore water, and this increased iron bound phosphorus in corresponding sediment. The emergence of C. fluminea accelerated SRP release from sediment to overlying water, and enhanced SRP flux increased with the rise of introduced C. fluminea density. Metabolization of C. fluminea might play an important role in accelerating SRP release.

  11. Oxidative damage to biological macromolecules in Prague bus drivers and garagemen: Impact of air pollution and genetic polymorphisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagryantseva, Yana; Novotná, Božena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Chvátalová, Irena; Milcová, Alena; Švecová, Vlasta; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 1 (2010), s. 60-68 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * bud drivers * oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.581, year: 2010

  12. Evaluation of the sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Update version of the methodological guide; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Version actualisee du guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    In order to bring a help to the evaluation of effects of air quality on health, the Institute of Sanitary surveillance published in 1999 a method guide for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations of the urban air pollution. This work to prepare to an update version of the guide presents the first recommendations that can be made today for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations at short and long term at a local level, taking into account the knowledge evolution. (N.C.)

  13. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  14. Cognitive impacts of ambient air pollution in the National Social Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Salhi, Carmel; Suh, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM) for 3377 participants. Exposures to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) were estimated for each participant using GIS-based spatio-temporal models, and exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were obtained from the nearest EPA monitors. In adjusted linear regression models, IQR increases in 1 to 7year PM 2.5 exposures were associated with a 0.22 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.01) to a 0.25 (95% CI: -0.43, -0.06) point decrease in CCFM scores, equivalent to aging 1.6years, while exposures to NO 2 were equivalent to aging 1.9years. The impacts of PM 2.5 on cognition were modified by stroke, anxiety, and stress, and were mediated by depression. The impacts of NO 2 were mediated by stress and effect modification by impaired activities of daily living for NO 2 was found. Exposures to long-term PM 2.5 and NO 2 were associated with decreased cognitive function in our cohort of older Americans, and individuals who experienced a stroke or elevated anxiety were more susceptible to the effects of PM 2.5 on cognition. Additionally, mediation results suggest that PM 2.5 may impact cognition through pathways related to mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Table - Impacts of the Proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table shows the impacts of the proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems, both with and without the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  16. Impacts Of Passive Removal Materials On Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin; Cros, Clement; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of building materials with and without ozone. Air samples were collected in twin 30 m3 chambers to assess the C5 to C10 aldehyde content of the air while a panel of 18 to 23 human subjects assessed air quality using...... a continuous acceptability scale. Materials were either new carpet that was aired out for three weeks, clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard that was aired out for up to one month, both materials, or neither. Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) assessed by the panel was most acceptable and concentrations...

  17. THE IMPACT OF SOME AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE VEGETATION NEARBY THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU SIMONA MARIANA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are affected primarily by air pollution. This is generated by the accumulation in the atmospheric air of gaseous chemical compounds or solid particles in the form of powder, which are then deposited on the ground. The gaseouse pollutants result from industrial activities, such as the sulphur compounds (SO2, SO3, H2S, carbon sulphide, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and carbon (CO and CO2. The impact of air pollution can cause severe damages to the plants located near industrial areas, especially because the most Romanian thermal power plants were built in a period when their operation impact on the environment was undervalued, and the constraints related to the environmental protection were relatively few. The pollutants enter plants through stomata causing a reduction of metabolic processes. The study has been conducted during 2010-2012 in Craiova City, in the area of the powerplant CET I – Isalnita, on 15 species both annual and perenae from spontaneous plants in the influence area. The observations were particularly conducted for the following purposes: identification of the inflicted organs (leafs, bodies, branches; percentage of the organs inflicted; the pollutant implied; to answer what kind of pollutant is implied; to classify the species with regard to their sensibility to the studied pollutants, respectevily: NO2, SO2, PM10. The main result of this study are: the main pollutants, which affects the vegetation are SO2, NO2 and particulate matter, this pollutants affecting more the leafs than the bodies of the plants, the number of individuals affected varies between 15-70 %; the following species can be considered as bioindicator: Pinus nigra, Urtica dioica, Phaseolus vulgaris.

  18. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  19. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  20. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  1. Fashioning Farmers: Ideology, Agricultural Knowledge and the Manitoba Farm Movement, 1890-1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffery

    This book presents a study of educational institutions in Manitoba (Canada) agriculture before 1925, the dominant ideologies that resided there, and the impact of those ideologies on the agrarian movement. The first chapter overviews a variety of ideologies, state structures, and agrarian movements in North America during the late 19th and early…

  2. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.

  3. [Impact of air fresheners and deodorizers on the indoor total volatile organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Obama, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Jun; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing health concern because of the increased incidence of the building-related illness, such as sick-building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity/idiopathic environmental intolerance. In order to effectively reduce the unnecessary chemical exposure in the indoor environment, it would be important to quantitatively compare the emissions from many types of sources. Besides the chemical emissions from the building materials, daily use of household products may contribute at significant levels to the indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, we investigated the emission rate of VOCs and carbonyl compounds for 30 air fresheners and deodorizers by the standard small chamber test method (JIS A 1901). The total VOC (TVOC) emission rates of these household products ranged from the undetectable level (fragrances in the products account for the major part of the TVOC emissions. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and a ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The mean of the TVOC increment for the indoor air fresheners was 170 microg/m3, accounting for 40% of the current provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. These results suggest that daily use of household products can significantly influence the indoor air quality.

  4. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    forbid, tobacco smoking in or around your home. • Switch to non-toXic cleaning products (such as baking soda, hydrogen peroxide and vinegar) and safer...checked false assertion that the Air Force impact study was "a boiler plate document that was not specific to our area." Several reports attributed

  5. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. KERENTANAN KAWASAN TEPI AIR TERHADAP KENAIKAN PERMUKAAN AIR LAUT Kasus Kawasan Tepi Air Kota Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Suprijanto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though global warming are still debates whether it will or not be happened, the changes on climate will influence activities of human. Regarding global warming issue, one of the impact that is very interesting to be investigated is sea level rise. Sea level rise is predicted has very big impact since, in general, in coastal areas locate a lot of important activities for such city or country. On the context of Indonesian locality, most of big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, Makasar, etc. are located on the coastal area. Since a lot of important activities located on those cities, in general, sea level rise will influence the development processes of those cities. On the basis of the observation gathering in Surabaya City, the impact of sea level rise will influence not only the development of coastal area but also development of Surabaya City in general. The influence is because the area accommodates activities which are very important in city development both for present and future. The activities are port, industrial estate and location for new housing. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Terlepas dari ketidakpastian mengenai terjadi atau tidaknya pemanasan global, setiap perubahan iklim di bumi akan memberikan dampak terhadap kelangsungan hidup manusia. Salah satu kajian yang saat ini banyak dilakukan berkaitan dengan isu pemanasan global adalah mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut. Pengkajian mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut tersebut penting mengingat dampak yang akan ditimbulkannya dan dengan kenyataan secara umum kawasan tepi air memegang peranan penting dalam perkembangan suatu kota ataupun negara. Hal ditandai dengan banyaknya aktivitas yang berlokasi di kawasan tepi air. Kondisi geografis Indonesia dengan duapertiga bagian wilayahnya adalah perairan, menjadikan Indonesia memiliki garis pantai terpanjang di dunia. Hal tersebut menjadikan pula beberapa bagian wilayah di Indonesia merupakan kawasan pesisir atau tepi air

  7. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with −20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3, but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5–0.8 and 0.4–0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2–0.5. The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5 are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50–70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5, but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10–20 %. Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of % fraction of the

  8. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Gastmeier, Petra; Kenneweg, Björn; Holdack-Janssen, Hinrich; Sohr, Dorit; Chaberny, Iris F

    2010-06-01

    Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle--and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction--is yet unknown. Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 microm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals.

  9. Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together

  10. Impact of Transpacific Aerosol on Air Quality over the United States: A Perspective from Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhining; Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian

    2015-01-01

    Observations have well established that aerosols from various sources in Asia, Europe, and Africa can travel across the Pacific and reach the contiguous United States (U.S.) at least on episodic bases throughout a year, with a maximum import in spring. The imported aerosol not only can serve as an additional source to regional air pollution (e.g., direct input), but also can influence regional air quality through the aerosol-cloud-radiation (ACR) interactions that change local and regional meteorology. This study assessed impacts of the transpacific aerosol on air quality, focusing on surface ozone and PM2.5, over the U.S. using the NASA Unified Weather Research Forecast model. Based on the results of 3- month (April to June of 2010) simulations, the impact of direct input (as an additional source) of transpacific aerosol caused an increase of surface PM2.5 concentration by approximately 1.5 micro-g/cu m over the west coast and about 0.5 micro-g/cu m over the east coast of the U.S. By influencing key meteorological processes through the ACR interactions, the transpacific aerosol exerted a significant effect on both surface PM2.5 (+/-6 micro-g/cu m3) and ozone (+/-12 ppbv) over the central and eastern U.S. This suggests that the transpacific transport of aerosol could either improve or deteriorate local air quality and complicate local effort toward the compliance with the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

  11. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investig...

  12. Winter movements of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; John G. Himes; C. Mike Duran; Laurence M. Hardy; Robert R. Fleet

    2014-01-01

    Despite concerns that the Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) has been extirpated from large portions of its historic range, only a limited number of studies on their movement patterns have been published. Winter movement patterns are of particular interest since it has been hypothesized that impacts of management practices would be reduced during the winter....

  13. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  14. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  15. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  16. Interventions for disorders of eye movement in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, A.; Hazelton, C.; Henderson, C.A.; Angilley, J.; Dhillon, B.; Langhorne, P.; Livingstone, K.; Munro, F.A.; Orr, H.; Rowe, F.J.; Shahani, U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eye movement disorders may affect over 70% of stroke patients. These eye movement disorders can result in difficulty maintaining the normal ocular position and difficulty moving the eyes appropriately. The resulting functional disabilities include a loss of depth perception, reduced hand-to-eye co-ordination, marked difficulties with near tasks and reading and reduced ability to scan the visual environment. They can also impact on the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. There ...

  17. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  18. Impact of methanol vehicles on ozone air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Rudy, S. J.; Kuntasal, G.; Gorse, R. A.

    A single-cell trajectory model with an updated chemical mechanism has been used to evaluate the impact on ozone air quality of methanol fueled vehicle (MFV) substitution for conventional fueled vehicles (CFV) in 20 urban areas in the U.S. Recent measurement data for non-methane organic compound (NMOC) concentrations and NMOC/NO x ratios for each of the areas was used. The sensitivity of peak 1-h O 3 values to variations in many of the input parameters has been tested. The functional dependence of peak 1-h O 3 on NMOC/NO x, ratios shows that, for many cities, the maximum O 3 levels occur near the median urban-center 6-9 a.m. NMOC/NO x ratios. The results of the photochemical model computations, including several methanol-fuel substitution scenarios, have been used to derive relative reactivities of methanol and formaldehyde. Per-vehicle O 3 reduction potentials for MFV have also been derived. The reduction potentials and calculated percentage O 3 reductions for selected MFV market-penetrations have been used to estimate the impact of any MFV market-penetration or change in MFV emission factors. All substitution scenarios evaluated lead to projections of lower peak 1-h O 3 levels. Even with significant replacement of CFV by MFV, the reduction of urban O 3 levels appears to be modest. However, the reductions may be significant in comparison to other available O 3-reduction options.

  19. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  20. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  1. Examining Culturally Structured Learning Environments with Different Types of Music-Linked Movement Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Juanita M.; Boykin, A. Wade

    2008-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that extended earlier work on the Afrocultural theme Movement Expression. The impact of various learning conditions characterized by different types of music-linked movement on story recall performance was examined. African American children were randomly assigned to a learning condition, presented a story, and…

  2. "It's in Love with You". Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas; Hepworth, Sam J.; Berg, Kirstine Sonne

    2012-01-01

    In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, ...

  3. Eye Movements in Darkness Modulate Self-Motion Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Ivar Adrianus H; Selen, Luc P J; Pomante, Antonella; MacNeilage, Paul R; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2017-01-01

    During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first. This task was used in two experiments. In the first ( n = 8), eye movements were constrained differently in the two translation intervals by presenting either a world-fixed or body-fixed fixation point or no fixation point at all (allowing free gaze). Results show that perceived translations were shorter with a body-fixed than a world-fixed fixation point. A linear model indicated that eye-movement signals received a weight of ∼25% for the self-motion percept. This model was independently validated in the trials without a fixation point (free gaze). In the second experiment ( n = 10), gaze was free during both translation intervals. Results show that the translation with the larger eye-movement excursion was judged more often to be larger than chance, based on an oculomotor choice probability analysis. We conclude that eye-movement signals influence self-motion perception, even in the absence of visual stimulation.

  4. Health impacts of air pollution on morbidity and mortality among children of Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico : working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Aguilar, M.R.; Macias, H.M.; Villarreal, A.B.; Cadena, L.H.; Arroyo, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of air pollution on a group of children in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where a large urban population of children live in poor conditions. In particular, the study examined the associations between ozone ambient levels and respiratory-related emergency visits to hospitals by children. The impact of PM10 on respiratory health was also examined. Upper respiratory infections and asthma were found to be associated with ozone ambient levels for all age groups. In children aged 5 or less, ozone exposure was related to lower respiratory infections as well. Ambient air pollutants were not related to respiratory deaths in the population of children involved in this study, but data suggests that that PM10 ambient levels might increase the risk of respiratory mortality in infants less than one year old. An increase in respiratory mortality was noted among infants from the lowest socio-economic status (SES) group. This report emphasizes the need for implementing cost effective interventions to control existing air pollution problems and to prevent the situation from worsening. 22 refs., 27 tabs., 5 figs

  5. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  6. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances for individual body segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; del Ferraro, Simona; Lin, Li-Yen; Sotto Mayor, Tiago; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Ribeiro, Miguel; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Evaporative resistance is an important parameter to characterise clothing thermal comfort. However, previous work has focused mainly on either total static or dynamic evaporative resistance. There is a lack of investigation of localised clothing evaporative resistance. The objective of this study was to study localised evaporative resistance using sweating thermal manikins. The individual and interaction effects of air and body movements on localised resultant evaporative resistance were examined in a strict protocol. The boundary air layer's localised evaporative resistance was investigated on nude sweating manikins at three different air velocity levels (0.18, 0.48 and 0.78 m/s) and three different walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Similarly, localised clothing evaporative resistance was measured on sweating manikins at three different air velocities (0.13, 0.48 and 0.70 m/s) and three walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Results showed that the wind speed has distinct effects on local body segments. In contrast, walking speed brought much more effect on the limbs, such as thigh and forearm, than on body torso, such as back and waist. In addition, the combined effect of body and air movement on localised evaporative resistance demonstrated that the walking effect has more influence on the extremities than on the torso. Therefore, localised evaporative resistance values should be provided when reporting test results in order to clearly describe clothing local moisture transfer characteristics. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances are essential data for clothing design and assessment of thermal comfort. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of air and body movement on localised evaporative resistance is also necessary by both textile and apparel researchers and industry.

  7. New Mars free-air and Bouguer gravity: Correlation with topography, geology and large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Bills, Bruce G.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Roark, James H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field (MGM635), derived at the Goddard Space Flight Center, with global topography, geology, and the distribution of large impact basins was compared. The free-air gravity anomalies were derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and have a spatial resolution of 250-300 km. Bouguer anomalies were calculated using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface. Rotational flattening was removed using a moment of inertia of 0.365 and the corrections from Table B2 of Sleep and Phillips. Crustal density and mean density were assumed to be 2.9 and 3.93 gm/cm(sup 3). The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from the USGS maps by about 2 km. Comparisons with global geology use a simplified map with about 1/3 the number of units on the current maps. For correlation with impact basins, the recent compilation by Schultz and Frey was used.

  8. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  9. Air quality and human health impacts of grasslands and shrublands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Varsha; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Ziv, Guy; Bakshi, Bhavik R.

    2018-06-01

    Vegetation including canopy, grasslands, and shrublands can directly sequester pollutants onto the plant surface, resulting in an improvement in air quality. Until now, several studies have estimated the pollution removal capacity of canopy cover at the level of a county, but no such work exists for grasslands and shrublands. This work quantifies the air pollution removal capacity of grasslands and shrublands at the county-level in the United States and estimates the human health benefits associated with pollution removal using the i-Tree Eco model. Sequestration of pollutants is estimated based on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived dataset estimates of LAI and the percentage land cover obtained from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the year 2010. Calculation of pollution removal capacity using local environmental data indicates that grasslands and shrublands remove a total of 6.42 million tonnes of air pollutants in the United States and the associated monetary benefits total 268 million. Human health impacts and associated monetary value due to pollution removal was observed to be significantly high in urban areas indicating that grasslands and shrublands are equally critical as canopy in improving air quality and human health in urban regions.

  10. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  11. Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the

  12. Air quality impact of two power plants using a sub-grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jerome; Musson-Genon, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Modeling point source emissions of air pollutants with regional Eulerian models is likely to lead to errors because a 3D Eulerian model is not able to correctly reproduce the evolution of a plume near its source. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a Gaussian puff model - imbedded within a 3D Eulerian model - for an impact assessment of EDF fossil fuel-fired power plants of Porcheville and Vitry, Ile-de-France. We simulated an entire year of atmospheric processes for an area covering the Paris region with the Polyphemus platform with which we conducted various scenarios with or without a Gaussian puff model, referred as Plume-in-grid, to independently handle 'with major point source emissions in Ile-de-France. Our study focuses on four chemical compounds (NO, NO 2 , SO 2 and O 3 ). The use of a Gaussian model is important, particularly for primary compounds with low reactivity such as SO, especially as industrial stacks are the major source of its emissions. SO 2 concentrations simulated using Plume-in-grid tare closer to the concentrations measured by the stations of the air quality agencies (Associations Agreees de Surveillance de la Qualite de l'Air, AASQA), although they remain largely overestimated. The use of a Gaussian model increases the concentrations near the source and lowers background levels of various chemical species (except O 3 ). The simulated concentrations may vary by over 30 % depending on whether we consider the Gaussian model for primary compounds such as SO 2 and NO, and around 2 % for secondary compounds such as NO 2 and O 3 . Regarding the impact of fossil fuel-fired power plants, simulated concentrations are increased by about 1 μg/m 3 approximately for SO 2 annual averages close to the Porcheville stack and are lowered by about 0.5 μg/m 3 far from the sources, highlighting the less diffusive character of the Gaussian model by comparison with the Eulerian model. The integration of a sub-grid Gaussian model offers the advantage of

  13. Beyond reward prediction errors: the role of dopamine in movement kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBarter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We recorded activity of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta in unrestrained mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. Our approach allows an unbiased examination of the continuous relationship between single unit activity and behavior. Although DA neurons show characteristic burst firing following cue or reward presentation, as previously reported, their activity can be explained by the representation of actual movement kinematics. Unlike neighboring pars reticulata GABAergic output neurons, which can represent vector components of position, DA neurons represent vector components of velocity or acceleration. We found neurons related to movements in four directions—up, down, left right. For horizontal movements, there is significant lateralization of neurons: the left nigra contains more rightward neurons, whereas the right nigra contains more leftward neurons. The relationship between DA activity and movement kinematics was found on both appetitive trials using sucrose and aversive trials using air puff, showing that these neurons belong to a velocity control circuit that can be used for any number of purposes, whether to seek reward or to avoid harm. In support of this conclusion, mimicry of the phasic activation of DA neurons with selective optogenetic stimulation could also generate movements. Contrary to the popular hypothesis that DA neurons encode reward prediction errors, our results suggest that nigrostriatal DA plays an essential role in controlling the kinematics of voluntary movements. We hypothesize that DA signaling implements gain adjustment for adaptive transition control, and describe a new model of BG in which DA functions to adjust the gain of a transition controller. This model has significant implications for our understanding of movement disorders implicating DA and the BG.

  14. Theoretical calculation of solid particles deposition from the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobro Milan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation of harmful substance deposition (air pollution from the point source (Slanèo, et al., 2001 using equation (1. The point source shall be understood as e.g. chimneys of factory, heat plant, incinerator, boiler plant, local heating plant, etc.The theoretical calculation of concentration (1, or deposition (8 is based on the study of transfer and dispersion of pollution in air (Slanèo, et al., 2000a. The movement of pollution in air consists of a movement of the air itself and a relative movement of pollution particles and air, while the movement of harmful substance in the smoke trail is under the influence of turbulent diffusion, convection and gravitation. Molecular diffusion is not important in this process. When calculating concentrations (1 and deposition (8 of air pollution on a particular place near the source, it is assumed that the air speed is constant, the direction of wind does not change with the height and the source of air pollution is time-constant. The change in the wind speed with the height depends on the stability class of atmosphere (temperature gradient (Slanèo, et al., 2000a and it is calculated using equation (10.The theoretical calculation of concentration and or deposition of harmful substance from the point source (1 and (8 shall be applied if the harmful substance particles, which leave the source, have the same density (composition, shape (spherical and size.The experimental observations of dust deposition showed the significance of 0.1-20 µm particles. The application of equation (1 to calculate the concentration is conditioned, in addition to the recognition of source parameters and meteorological conditions, by the recognition of the particle sedimentation speed, which changes with the size of particle radius (2.For a practical calculation of deposition it is therefore necessary to know the differential distribution function f(r of particle radii, which can be made on the basis

  15. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  16. Can a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) maintain air purification capability when using polluted air for regeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Clean Air Heat Pump (CAHP) was one type of rotary desiccant cooling system which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, dehumidifying and cooling in buildings. Using exhaust air from the conditioned room for regeneration of the silica gel rotor might have an advantage...... on reducing the regeneration air temperature and further improving the energy performance of the CAHP. However, the exhaust air carried a lot of indoor air pollutants. Whether using exhaust air for the regeneration of the silica gel rotor had an impact on the air cleaning performance of the CAHP...... was experimentally studied. The results showed that using the air contained acetone or toluene for regeneration reduced the pollutants removal capability of CAHP with a reduction of approx. 10% in air cleaning efficiency. The energy performance of the CAHP when using exhaust air for regeneration was also evaluated...

  17. Goal-selection and movement-related conflict during bimanual reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-12-01

    Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.

  18. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  19. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, Daniel [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  20. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  1. MEG-compatible pneumatic stimulator to elicit passive finger and toe movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Hari, Riitta; Jousmäki, Veikko

    2015-05-15

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals recorded from the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex are coherent with kinematics of both active and passive finger movements. The coherence mainly reflects movement-related proprioceptive afference to the cortex. Here we describe a novel MEG-compatible stimulator to generate computer-controlled passive finger and toe movements that can be used as stimuli in functional brain-imaging experiments. The movements are produced by pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM), elastic actuator that shortens with increasing air pressure. To test the applicability of the stimulator to functional brain-imaging, 4-min trains of passive repetitive 5-mm flexion-extension movements of the right and left index finger and the right hallux were produced at 3Hz while the subject's brain activity was measured with whole-scalp MEG and finger or toe kinematics with an accelerometer. In all ten subjects studied, statistically significant coherence (up to 0.78) occurred between the accelerometer and MEG signals at the movement frequency or its first harmonic. Sources of coherent activity were in the contralateral hand or foot SM1 cortices. Movement-evoked fields elicited with intermittent movements of the right index finger (once every 3.2-4.0s; mean±SD peak response latency 88±25ms) were co-located with the respective coherent sources. We further moved the right index finger at 3, 6, and 12Hz (movement ranges 5, 3, and 2mm, respectively), and analyzed the first 1, 2, and 4-min epochs of data. One minute of data was sufficient to locate the left hand area of the SM1 cortex at all movement frequencies. Sound-induced spurious coherence was reliably ruled out in a control experiment. Our novel movement stimulator thus provides a robust and reliable tool to track proprioceptive afference to the cortex and to locate the SM1 cortex. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the impact of industrial flue gases on the PCDD/Fs congener profile in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgiel, Małgorzata; Chrząszcz, Ryszard; Maślanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emissions from combustion processes from sinter, medical, waste and sewage waste incineration plants on the PCDD and PCDF congener profile in ambient air in Krakow (city in Poland). The subject matter of the study were air samples from the outskirts and the city center. It was found that in flue gases from industrial sources and in ambient air the share of PCDF congeners in relation to the total content of PCDD/Fs was higher than the share of PCDDs. However, in air samples collected in the city center, this relationship was reversed. The PCDD congener profiles in flue gases and in air samples are comparable. However, in the samples from the city centre, the share of OCDD is significantly higher and amounts to about 80%. The PCDF congener shares show higher spatial diversity, although in all the analyzed air samples, ODCF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HpCDF dominated. Analyzing the share of congeners in regard to the sum of PCDDs/Fs a mutual resemblance of air from the suburbs, exhaust gases from the sinter ore and sewage sludge incinerator plant was observed. The study showed a similarity between the profile of congeners in air from the city centre and exhaust gases from the medical waste incinerator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formative factors of the Maria Åkerblom movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Björkstrand

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The Åkerblom movement exemplifies the best known impact on the cultural and religious environment of Swedish Finland, of a geographically and historically extensive phenomenon—the prophet movement. An obvious prerequisite for the emergence of a prophet movement is the prophet figure. The character and development of the movement are, to a great extent, dependent on the background and personality of this figure. The adolescence of Ida Maria Åkerblom (IMÅ, a cottar's daughter, born in Snappertuna in rural West Nyland in 1898, was both materially and spiritually barren. In matter of religion, she grew up in an atmosphere of piety best described as 'traditional and formalistic', with elements of evangelistic and later, also Anglo-Saxon revivalist piety. On th