WorldWideScience

Sample records for air medical meteorology

  1. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  2. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  3. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  4. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  5. Meteorological and Wave Measurements for Improving Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, J.; MacDonald, C.; Ray, A.; Fairall, C. W.; Pezoa, S.; Gibson, B.; Huang, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    A unique collaboration between corporate, government, and university researchers have teamed up to develop a marine environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The meteorological and oceanographic sensors have been deployed for an extended period (12-24 months) on a Chevron service platform (90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to improve dispersion modeling in and around the Gulf of Mexico. This task has recently been provided significant import, given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, the large regional population, and the recognized need for precise and accurate dispersion forecasts. Observations include marine boundary layer winds, height, and temperature, sea surface temperature and current, wave height, downwelling solar and infrared radiation, air-sea momentum and heat fluxes, and mean meteorological parameters. We will present a summary of the instrument deployment, show the initial time series of the observations, and provide context for the experimental outcomes.

  6. Evaluation of Relationship Between Air Pollutant Concentration and Meteorological Elements in Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyromski Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of the relation between meteorological elements and air pollutants’ concentrations. The analysis includes daily concentrations of pollutants and variation of meteorological elements such as wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation and total radiation at four monitoring stations located in the province of Lower Silesia in individual months of the winter half-year (November–April, according to hydrological year classification of 2005–2009. Data on air quality and meteorological elements came from the results of research conducted in the automatic net of air pollution monitoring conducted in the range of the State Environment Monitoring. The effect of meteorological elements on analysed pollutant concentration was determined using the correlation and regression analysis at significance level α < 0.05. The occurrence of maximum concentration of NO, NO2, NOX, SO2 and PM10 occurred in the coldest months during winter season (January, February and December confirmed the strong influence of “low emission” on air quality. Among the meteorological factors assessed wind speed was most often selected component in step wise regression procedure, then air temperature, less air relative humidity and solar radiation. In the case of a larger number of variables describing the pollution in the atmosphere, in all analyzed winter seasons the most common set of meteorological elements were wind speed and air temperature.

  7. BOREAS AES Five-Day Averaged Surface Meteorological and Upper Air Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) provided BOREAS with hourly and daily surface meteorological data from 23 of the AES meteorological stations located across Canada and upper air data from 1 station at The Pas, Manitoba. Due to copyright restrictions on the full resolution surface meteorological data, this data set contains 5-day average values for the surface parameters. The upper air data are provided in their full resolution form. The 5-day averaging was performed in order to create a data set that could be publicly distributed at no cost. Temporally, the surface meteorological data cover the period of January 1975 to December 1996 and the upper air data cover the period of January 1961 to November 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Eighth joint conference on applications of air pollution meteorology with A & WMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The eighth Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, held January 23-28, 1994, again brings together the American Meteorological Society and Air and Waste Management Association with a broader scientific community to examine the role of the atmosphere on current air quality issues. The CAA Amendments non-attainment title has brought renewed interest in the pairing of complex dynamical meteorological models with photochemical air quality models. Requirements that future attainment to regulations be demonstrated with these models invite a new look at model evaluation. The CAAA titles addressing air toxics have brought renewed interest in near-source dispersion and deposition of toxic chemicals. Consequently, this conference is divided into sessions focusing on topics related to these issues. They include: The Dispersion Environment; Meteorology in Emissions Determination; Long-Range and Mesoscale Pollutant Transport and Fate; Meteorology and Photochemistry; Advanced Dispersion Models and Modeling Systems; Topics in Model Evaluation; Complex Flow Affecting Dispersion Near Structures; and Coastal and Complex Terrain Issues Evaluation.

  9. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  10. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Air Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Air Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  11. [Air medical evacuation on modern stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Bochenkov, A A; Iamenskov, V V; Grebeniuk, S A; Peshkov, V V

    2010-01-01

    There was effectuated an analyze of using of aircrafts for medical air evacuation of ill and wounded persons, was shown it's place in system of treatment-evacuation measures during the war and peaceful time in course of liquidation of consequences of natural disasters. The article presents main clinical-physiological aspects of medical air evacuation, peculiarities of organization of delivery of health care aboard aircraft, state of medical air evacuation for now-days. The article presents characteristics of purposes and supply of created sanitary planes and helicopters: Mi-8MB "Bisectrix", An-26M "Saver", Il-76MD "Bistoury". There elaborated recommendations upon organization of medical air evacuation during war and peaceful time. PMID:20536037

  12. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka, E-mail: agofr@univ.szczecin.p [Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Szczecin, Waska 13 Street, 71-415 Szczecin (Poland); Strzelczak, Agnieszka [Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Wolski, Tomasz [Physical Oceanography Laboratory, University of Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  13. Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on exceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and implementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate forecasting of air pollution episodes and population exposure, including modelling of emissions, meteorology, atmospheric dispersion and chemical reaction of pollutants, population mobility, and indoor-outdoor relationship of the pollutants. In the past, these different areas have been treated separately by different models and even institutions. Progress in computer resources and ensuing improvements in numerical weather prediction, air chemistry, and exposure modelling recently allow a unification and integration of the disjunctive models and approaches. The current work presents a novel approach that integrates the latest developments in meteorological, air quality, and population exposure modelling into Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems (UAQIFS in the context of the European Union FUMAPEX project. The suggested integrated strategy is demonstrated for examples of the systems in three Nordic cities: Helsinki and Oslo for assessment and forecasting of urban air pollution and Copenhagen for urban emergency preparedness.

  14. Investigating the observed sensitivities of air quality extremes to meteorological drivers via quantile regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Porter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution variability is strongly dependent on meteorology. However, quantifying the impacts of changes in regional climatology on pollution extremes can be difficult due to the many non-linear and competing meteorological influences on the production, transport, and removal of pollutant species. Furthermore, observed pollutant levels at many sites show sensitivities at the extremes that differ from those of the overall mean, indicating relationships that would be poorly characterized by simple linear regressions. To address this challenge, we apply quantile regression to observed daily ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 levels and reanalysis meteorological fields in the United States over the past decade to specifically identify the meteorological sensitivities of higher pollutant levels. From an initial set of over 1700 possible meteorological indicators (including 28 meteorological variables with 63 different temporal options we generate reduced sets of O3 and PM2.5 indicators for both summer and winter months, analyzing pollutant sensitivities to each for response quantiles ranging from 2–98%. Primary drivers of high-quantile O3 levels include temperature and relative humidity in the summer, while winter O3 levels are most commonly associated with incoming radiation flux. Drivers of summer PM2.5 include temperature, wind speed, and tropospheric stability at many locations, while stability, humidity, and planetary boundary layer height are the key drivers most frequently associated with winter PM2.5. We find key differences in driver sensitivities across regions and quantiles. For example, we find nationally averaged sensitivities of 95th percentile summer O3 to changes in maximum daily temperature of approximately 0.9 ppb °C−1, while the sensitivity of 50th percentile summer O3 (the annual median is only 0.6 ppb °C−1. This gap points to differing sensitivities within various percentiles of the pollutant distribution

  15. Investigating the observed sensitivities of air-quality extremes to meteorological drivers via quantile regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D.; Russell, B.

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution variability is strongly dependent on meteorology. However, quantifying the impacts of changes in regional climatology on pollution extremes can be difficult due to the many non-linear and competing meteorological influences on the production, transport, and removal of pollutant species. Furthermore, observed pollutant levels at many sites show sensitivities at the extremes that differ from those of the overall mean, indicating relationships that would be poorly characterized by simple linear regressions. To address this challenge, we apply quantile regression to observed daily ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and reanalysis meteorological fields in the USA over the past decade to specifically identify the meteorological sensitivities of higher pollutant levels. From an initial set of over 1700 possible meteorological indicators (including 28 meteorological variables with 63 different temporal options), we generate reduced sets of O3 and PM2.5 indicators for both summer and winter months, analyzing pollutant sensitivities to each for response quantiles ranging from 2 to 98 %. Primary covariates connected to high-quantile O3 levels include temperature and relative humidity in the summer, while winter O3 levels are most commonly associated with incoming radiation flux. Covariates associated with summer PM2.5 include temperature, wind speed, and tropospheric stability at many locations, while stability, humidity, and planetary boundary layer height are the key covariates most frequently associated with winter PM2.5. We find key differences in covariate sensitivities across regions and quantiles. For example, we find nationally averaged sensitivities of 95th percentile summer O3 to changes in maximum daily temperature of approximately 0.9 ppb °C-1, while the sensitivity of 50th percentile summer O3 (the annual median) is only 0.6 ppb °C-1. This gap points to differing sensitivities within various percentiles of the pollutant

  16. The importance of meteorological scales to forecast air pollution scenarios on coastal complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Palau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the meteorological approaches commonly considered in urban air pollution models do not take into account the importance of the smaller scales in the meteorology of complex-terrain coastal sites. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of using the proper meteorological scales when simulating the behaviour of the pollutant concentrations emitted in the lower layers over coastal complex terrain areas. The availability of experimental measurements of a power plant plume near the Castellón conurbation (on the Spanish Mediterranean coast has allowed us to use this plume as a tracer of opportunity of the lower atmosphere to check the results of a simulation exercise using the RAMS mesoscale model coupled to the HYPACT particle model. The results obtained show that in a complex-terrain coastal site, because of the strong effect of the meteorological interactions between the different scales on the integral advection and the turbulent dispersion of pollutants, using an inadequate scale to solve the meteorology can result in a very big gap in the simulation of lower-layer pollutant behaviour at urban scales.

  17. An intercomparison of several diagnostic meteorological processors used in mesoscale air quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimont, J.C. [National Park Service, Lakewood, CO (United States); Scire, J.S. [Sigma Research Corp., Concord, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A major component, and area of uncertainty, in mesoscale air quality modeling, is the specification of the meteorological fields which affect the transport and dispersion of pollutants. Various options are available for estimating the wind and mixing depth fields over a mesoscale domain. Estimates of the wind field can be obtained from spatial and temporal interpolation of available observations or from diagnostic meteorological models, which estimate a meteorological field from available data and adjust those fields based on parameterizations of physical processes. A major weakness of these processors is their dependence on spatially and temporally sparse input data, particularly upper air data. These problems are exacerbated in regions of complex terrain and along the shorelines of large bodies of water. Similarly, the estimation of mixing depth is also reliant upon sparse observations and the parameterization of the convective and mechanical processes. The meteorological processors examined in this analysis were developed to drive different Lagrangian puff models. This paper describes the algorithms these processors use to estimate the wind fields and mixing depth fields.

  18. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  19. Correcting air pollution time series for meteorological variability. With an application to regional PM10 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Visser H; Noordijk H; CIM; LLO

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that a large part of the year-to-year variation in annual distribution of daily concentrations of air pollutants is due to fluctuations in the frequency and severity of meteorological conditions. This variability makes it difficult to estimate the effectiveness of emission control strategies. In this report we have demonstrated how a series of binary decision rules, known as Classification And Regression Trees (CART), can be used to calculate pollution concentrations that are...

  20. Interactions of Chemistry and Meteorology: Transforming Air Pollution into Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.

    2009-05-01

    PThe common goal of understanding and protecting Earth's environment has brought together chemists and meteorologists, despite the once widely held view that these are natural adversaries. Historically, dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology were explored as isolated aspects of air quality and climate, but nature has proved to be much more interesting than that. Emissions and atmospheric photochemistry create air pollutants, but meteorology drives day to day variability in air quality. Air pollution, no matter how severe, has no substantive impact on global atmospheric composition or climate unless it is transported away from the sources, usually through frontal passage and advection, isentropic lifting or, especially lofting in deep convective clouds and thunderstorms. At higher altitudes, greater actinic flux accelerates photochemistry, stronger winds speed dispersal, and lower temperatures slow losses while amplifying radiative heating of greenhouse forcing substance such as ozone and carbonaceous aerosols. Examples include the transport of reactive nitrogen compounds from one part of North America to another, or on to the remote North Atlantic and Europe. Although measurement of NOy and NHx gases and particles still presents an analytical challenge, these trace species have major impacts on ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. In East Asia chemistry and meteorology conspire to intensify long-range, even intercontinental transport of mineral dust and air pollutants. Recent discovery of a nonlocal dynamical driver to the Urban Heat Island effect shows that the adverse impact of urbanization can cascade to exacerbate heat stress, photochemical smog, and haze well downwind. A balanced consideration of meteorology and chemistry not only helps to identify and understand environmental problems, it can also provide powerful, policy relevant science that has led to success stories such as a regional approach to emissions controls and cleaner air over the eastern US.

  1. [Study on air quality and pollution meteorology conditions of Guangzhou during the 2010 Asian games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yuan; Deng, Xue-Jiao; Fan, Shao-Jia; Wu, Dui; Li, Fei; Deng, Tao; Tan, Hao-Bo; Jiang, De-Hai

    2012-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of NO2, O3, SO2, PM, visibility, regional air quality index (RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov. 4, 2010 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Guangzhou area, the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed. It was found that, during the Asian Games, the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games. The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games, while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower. The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships. Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards, whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards. Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games. The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission, while the concentration of NO2 was significantly influenced by local sources. The emissions of NO2, SO2 and PM10 surrounding Guangzhou had a trend to affect the concentrations in Guangzhou, but the situation of O3 was opposite, the relatively high concentration of O3 in Guangzhou had tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. The pollution meteorology conditions in the period of Asian Games were better than the conditions before or after the Asian Games. The decrease in the concentrations during the Asian Games did not only benefit from the emission control by the government, but also from the good meteorological conditions.

  2. Meteorology and air pollution in an alpine Valley during two strikingly different winter periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgeri, F.; Schäfer, K.; Obleitner, F.

    2009-04-01

    During winter essentially, Alpine valleys are frequently prone to enhanced air pollution inducing serious impairments of human health and of sustainable development in these regions. This is mainly due to particular topographic and meteorological effects, which are investigated within this study. The focus of this contribution is based on comparison of consistent data collected during two winters with strikingly different characteristics. The measurements were performed in context of specific campaigns covering the full winter periods 2005/06 and 2007/08 and a cross section in the lower Inn valley (Austria). Notably, the concentrations of air pollutant species matters and the meteorological parameters were measured at the same places employing almost identical instrumentation during both periods. Meteorological analysis is mainly based on data from routine synoptic stations and automatic weather stations located at different elevations in a cross section of the valley, which is supported by mixing-height data derived from SODAR and ceilometers operated at the valley bottom. Air pollution analysis consider NO, NO2 and PM10 and is based on data from routine monitoring stations, a passive sampler network and differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) yielding quasi-continuous information about the small scale gradients of the nitrogen compounds. Partly these measurements are strongly influenced by a nearby motorway. The analysis shows that both winter periods differed significant from the climatology. In 2005/06 there was a long-lasting snow cover and the meteorological regime was characterized by outstandingly low air temperatures (-1.5°C compared to the long-term average) in response to persistent high-pressure periods during the central winter months. Mixing processes were inhibited due to the inherent inversion conditions and low-lying mixing heights which both support high concentrations of the investigated air pollutants. In contrast to the first

  3. Impact of urban expansion on meteorological observation data and overestimation to regional air temperature in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Quanqin; SUN Chaoyang; LIU Jiyuan; HE Jianfeng; KUANG Wenhui; TAO Fulu

    2011-01-01

    Since the implementation of the reform and opening up policy in China in the late 1970s,some meteorological stations 'entered' cities passively due to urban expansion.Changes in the surface and built environment around the stations have influenced observations of air temperature.When the observational data from urban stations are applied in the interpolation of national or regional scale air temperature dataset,they could lead to overestimation of regional air temperature and inaccurate assessment of warming.In this study,the underlying surface surrounding 756 meteorological stations across China was identified based on remote sensing images over a number of time intervals to distinguish the rural stations that 'entered' into cities.Then,after removing the observational data from these stations which have been influenced by urban expansion,a dataset of background air temperatures was generated by interpolating the observational data from the remaining rural stations.The mean urban heat island effect intensity since 1970 was estimated by comparing the original observational records from urban stations with the background air temperature interpolated.The result shows that urban heat island effect does occur due to urban expansion,with a higher intensity in winter than in other seasons.Then the overestimation of regional air temperature is evaluated by comparing the two kinds of grid datasets of air temperature which are respectively interpolated by all stations' and rural stations' observational data.Spatially,the overestimation is relatively higher in eastern China than in the central part of China; however,both areas exhibit a much higher effect than is observed in western China.We concluded that in the last 40 years the mean temperature in China increased by about 1.58℃,of which about 0.01℃ was attributed to urban expansion,with a contribution of up to 0.09℃ in the core areas from the overestimation of air temperature.

  4. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs

  6. METEOROLOGICAL POTENTIAL FOR AIR POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS ALONG THE EAST COAST OF TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, S; Murugappan, A.; V.Kanakasabai; M.Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Many air pollution episodes occurred in the past decades were associated with the worst meteorological conditions like strong inversion and low mixing height apart from higher emission concentration. Quantitative study of meteorological potential with air pollution in a region is essential for environmental siting of industries, risk assessment for accidental release, etc. Generally, the coastal areas are potential sites for promotion of industrial activities because of the proximity of water...

  7. Predicting residential air exchange rates from questionnaires and meteorology: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Breen, Miyuki; Williams, Ronald W; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-12-15

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and removal of indoor source emissions. The mechanistic Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) AER model was linked to a leakage area model to predict AER from questionnaires and meteorology. The LBL model was also extended to include natural ventilation (LBLX). Using literature-reported parameter values, AER predictions from LBL and LBLX models were compared to data from 642 daily AER measurements across 31 detached homes in central North Carolina, with corresponding questionnaires and meteorological observations. Data was collected on seven consecutive days during each of four consecutive seasons. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 43% (0.17 h(-1)) and 40% (0.17 h(-1)) for the LBL and LBLX models, respectively. Additionally, a literature-reported empirical scale factor (SF) AER model was evaluated, which showed a median absolute difference of 50% (0.25 h(-1)). The capability of the LBL, LBLX, and SF models could help reduce the AER uncertainty in air pollution exposure models used to develop exposure metrics for health studies.

  8. (?) The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Aeronomy, aerospace instrumentation, space physics, meteorology, terrestrial sciences and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, A. B.

    1982-04-01

    Contents: The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; Aeronomy Division--Upper Atmosphere Composition, Middle Atmosphere Effects, Atmospheric UV Radiation, Satellite Accelerometer Density Measurement, Theoretical Density Studies, Chemical Transport Models, Turbulence and Forcing Functions, Atmospheric Ion Chemistry, Energy Budget Campaign, Kwajalein Reference Atmospheres, 1979, Satellite Studies of the Neutral Atmosphere, Satellite Studies of the Ionosphere, Aerospace Instrumentation Division--Sounding Rocket Program, Satellite Support, Rocket and Satellite Instrumentation; Space Physics Division--Solar Research, Solar Radio Research, Environmental Effects on Space Systems, Solar Proton Event Studies, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Ionospheric Effects Research, Spacecraft Charging Technology; Meteorology Division--Cloud Physics, Ground-Based Remote-Sensing Techniques, Mesoscale Observing and Forecasting, Design Climatology, Aircraft Icing Program, Atmospheric Dynamics; Terrestrial Sciences Division--Geodesy and Gravity, Geokinetics; Optical Physics Division--Atmospheric Transmission, Remote Sensing, INfrared Background; and Appendices.

  9. Effect of urbanization on the urban meteorology and air pollution in Hangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongnian; Ma, Wanli; Qian, Junlong; Cai, Juzhen; Ye, Xianman; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xueyuan

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization has a substantial effect on urban meteorology. It can alter the atmospheric diffusion capability in urban areas and therefore affect pollutant concentrations. To study the effects of Hangzhou's urban development in most recent decade on its urban meteorological characteristics and pollutant diffusion, 90 weather cases were simulated, covering 9 weather types, with the Nanjing University City Air Quality Prediction System and high-resolution surface-type data and urban construction data for 2000 and 2010. The results show that the most recent decade of urban development in Hangzhou substantially affected its urban meteorology. Specifically, the average urban wind speed decreased by 1.1 m s -1; the average intensity of the heat island increased by 0.5°C; and the average urban relative humidity decreased by 9.7%. Based on one case for each of the nine weather types, the impact of urbanization on air pollution diffusion was investigated, revealing that the changes in the meteorological environment decreased the urban atmosphere's diffusion capability, and therefore increased urban pollutant concentrations. For instance, the urban nitrogen oxides concentration increased by 2.1 μg m -3 on average; the fine particulate matter (diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5) pollution concentration increased by 2.3 μg m -3 on average; in highly urbanized areas, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 30 μg m -3 and average visibility decreased by 0.2 km, with a maximum decrease of 1 km; the average number of daily hours of haze increased by 0.46 h; and the haze height lifted by 100-300 m. The "self-cleaning time" of pollutants increased by an average of 1.5 h.

  10. Exploring the nature of air quality over southwestern Ontario: main findings from the border air quality and meteorology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Brook

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as an overview and discusses the main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met in southwestern Ontario in 2007. This region is dominated by the Great Lakes, shares borders with the United States and consistently experiences the highest ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter in Canada. The purpose of BAQS-Met was to improve our understanding of how lake-driven meteorology impacts air quality in the region, and to improve models used for forecasting and policy scenarios. Results show that lake breeze occurrence frequencies and inland penetration distances were significantly greater than realized in the past. Due to their effect on local meteorology, the lakes were found to enhance secondary O3 and aerosol formation such that local anthropogenic emissions have their impact closer to the populated source areas than would otherwise occur in the absence of the lakes. Substantial spatial heterogeneity in O3 was observed with local peaks typically 30 ppb above the regional values. Sulphate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA enhancements were also linked to local emissions being transported in the lake breeze circulations. This study included the first detailed evaluation of regional applications of a high resolution (2.5 km grid air quality model in the Great Lakes region. The model showed that maxima in secondary pollutants occur in areas of convergence, in localized updrafts and in distinct pockets over the lake surfaces. These effects are caused by lake circulations interacting with the synoptic flow, with each other or with circulations induced by urban heat islands. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions were both shown to play a role in the formation of SOA in the region. Detailed particle measurements and multivariate receptor models reveal that while individual particles are internally mixed, they often exist within more complex external mixtures. This makes it difficult to predict aerosol optical

  11. Exploring the nature of air quality over southwestern Ontario: main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Brook

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as an overview and discusses the main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met in southwestern Ontario in 2007. This region is dominated by the Great Lakes, shares borders with the United States and consistently experiences the highest ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter concentrations in Canada. The purpose of BAQS-Met was to improve our understanding of how lake-driven meteorology impacts air quality in the region, and to improve models used for forecasting and policy scenarios. Results show that lake breeze occurrence frequencies and inland penetration distances were significantly greater than realized in the past. Due to their effect on local meteorology, the lakes were found to enhance secondary O3 and aerosol formation such that local anthropogenic emissions have their impact closer to the populated source areas than would otherwise occur in the absence of the lakes. Substantial spatial heterogeneity in O3 was observed with local peaks typically 30 ppb above the regional values. Sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA enhancements were also linked to local emissions being transported in the lake breeze circulations. This study included the first detailed evaluation of regional applications of a high-resolution (2.5 km grid air quality model in the Great Lakes region. The model showed that maxima in secondary pollutants occur in areas of convergence, in localized updrafts and in distinct pockets over the lake surfaces. These effects are caused by lake circulations interacting with the synoptic flow, with each other or with circulations induced by urban heat islands. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions were both shown to play a role in the formation of SOA in the region. Detailed particle measurements and multivariate receptor models reveal that while individual particles are internally mixed, they often exist within more complex external mixtures. This makes it difficult to predict aerosol

  12. Medical Problems Related to Air Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, George Y.

    1985-01-01

    Air travel has become the preferred method of transportation for many Canadians, some of whom would otherwise be unable to travel long distances. Airline medical departments will provide advice and assistance with prior notification. The pressurized cabin has a slightly hypoxic atmosphere, so cardiac and chronic pulmonary patients require individual evaluations before departure. Severely anemic patients and those with neurological disorders may need to take special precautions, as will those ...

  13. Effects of urban land expansion on the regional meteorology and air quality of Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization throughout Eastern China is imposing an irreversible effect on local climate and air quality. In this paper, we examine the response of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to urbanization. Our study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem to simulate the climate and air quality impacts of four hypothetical urbanization scenarios with fixed surface pollutant emissions during the month of July from 2008 to 2012. An improved integrated process rate (IPR analysis scheme is implemented in WRF/Chem to investigate the mechanisms behind the forcing–response relationship at the process level. For all years, as urban land area expands, concentrations of CO, elemental carbon (EC, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5 tend to decrease near the surface (below ~ 500 m, but increase at higher altitudes (1–3 km, resulting in a reduced vertical concentration gradient. On the other hand, the O3 burden averaged over all newly urbanized grid cells consistently increases from the surface to a height of about 4 km. Sensitivity tests show that the response of meteorology and pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are nearly linear near the surface, but nonlinear at higher altitudes. Over eastern China, each 10% increase in nearby urban land coverage (NULC on average leads to a decrease of approximately 2% in surface concentrations for CO, EC, and PM2.5, while for O3 an increase of about 1% is simulated. At 800 hPa, each 10% increase in the square of NULC enhances air pollution concentrations by 5–10%, depending on species. This indicates that as large tracts of new urban land emerge, the influence of urban expansion on meteorology and air pollution would be amplified. IPR results indicate that, for primary pollutants, the enhanced sink (source caused by turbulent mixing and vertical advection in the lower (upper atmosphere

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants and correlation with meteorological factors and air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandini Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the most important cause of severe respiratory infections in infants with seasonal epidemics. Environmental factors (temperature, humidity, air pollution could influence RSV epidemics through their effects on virus activity and diffusion. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on a paediatric population who referred to our Paediatric Emergency Unit in order to analyze the correlation between weekly incidence of RSV positive cases during winter season in Bologna and meteorological factors and air pollutants concentration. Results We observed a significant correlation between the incidence of RSV infections and the mean minimum temperature registered during the same week and the previous weeks. The weekly number of RSV positive cases was also correlated to the mean PM10 concentration of the week before. Conclusions RSV epidemic trend in Bologna (Italy is related to the mean minimum temperature, and the mean PM10 concentration.

  15. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (AT is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR. Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  16. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  17. Meteorological analyses data set for air quality assessment modelling from national to local scale: verification and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finardi, S.; Pace, G.; Tinarelli, G.; Vitali, C.

    2009-09-01

    Since 2002, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of the Environment, ENEA has been leading a national Project, named MINNI (National Integrated Modelling system for International Negotiation), for the development of an Integrated Assessment Modelling system. The objective of the project is to support policy makers in the elaboration and assessment of air pollution policies at international, national and local level, by means of the more recent understandings of the atmospheric processes. The project activities include the realisation of air quality analysis and assessment at national and sub-national scale through model simulations with space resolution of 20x20 and 4x4 km2 and hourly time step on different target years. A Eulerian Atmospheric Modelling System (AMS), built around the chemical transport model FARM, has been applied to years 1999 and 2005 during the first phase of the project, while a second phase is presently ongoing and foresees simulations for years 2003 and 2007. The meteorological analyses used to drive the quality model have been produced by means of the meteorological models RAMS (http://atmet.com/) and LAPS (http://laps.noaa.gov/) using ECMWF synoptic analyses and surface observations as main input data. The meteorological data set is being used for MINNI project but also distributed to Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and other users to support air quality simulations at local scale employing different air quality model types. To verify the meteorological fields reliability and possibly define the usability limits of the dataset, model results have been compared with independent observations over different areas of the country (Friuli, Piedmont, Sardinia, Lazio and Puglia). The comparison confirmed that analysed meteorological fields can be considered representative over most part of the country, even if some critical areas emerged mainly due to the limited density of the input observations network and to the coarse resolution of

  18. Effects of urban land expansion on the regional meteorology and air quality of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid urbanization throughout eastern China is imposing an irreversible effect on local climate and air quality. In this paper, we examine the response of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to urbanization. Our study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem) to simulate the climate and air quality impacts of four hypothetical urbanization scenarios with fixed surface pollutant emissions during the month of July from 2008 to 2012. An improved integrated process rate (IPR) analysis scheme is implemented in WRF/Chem to investigate the mechanisms behind the forcing-response relationship at the process level. For all years, as urban land area expands, concentrations of CO, elemental carbon (EC), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) tend to decrease near the surface (below ~ 500 m), but increase at higher altitudes (1-3 km), resulting in a reduced vertical concentration gradient. On the other hand, the O3 burden, averaged over all newly urbanized grid cells, consistently increases from the surface to a height of about 4 km. Sensitivity tests show that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are nearly linear near the surface, but nonlinear at higher altitudes. Over eastern China, each 10 % increase in nearby urban land coverage on average leads to a decrease of approximately 2 % in surface concentrations for CO, EC, and PM2.5, while for O3 an increase of about 1 % is simulated. At 800 hPa, pollutants' concentrations tend to increase even more rapidly with an increase in nearby urban land coverage. This indicates that as large tracts of new urban land emerge, the influence of urban expansion on meteorology and air pollution would be significantly amplified. IPR analysis reveals the contribution of individual atmospheric processes to pollutants' concentration changes. It indicates that, for primary pollutants, the enhanced sink (source

  19. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  20. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report. WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Summer quarter, June 1977-August 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Catizone, P.A.; Church, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of the WIPP meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was to support the environmental effort for the evaluation of the site suitability. This data report is the latest in a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site.

  1. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields witho...

  2. METEOROLOGICAL POTENTIAL FOR AIR POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS ALONG THE EAST COAST OF TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANKARAN. S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many air pollution episodes occurred in the past decades were associated with the worst meteorological conditions like strong inversion and low mixing height apart from higher emission concentration. Quantitative study of meteorological potential with air pollution in a region is essential for environmental siting of industries, risk assessment for accidental release, etc. Generally, the coastal areas are potential sites for promotion of industrial activities because of the proximity of water and marine transport. Rapid growth of industries and high traffic volume in coastal urban area, Chennai, along the East Coast of Tamilnadu necessitated for the study of exploring the prevailing meteorological potential for air pollutant dispersion. Karaikal, another coastal rural area along the East Coast with industrial and traffic growth was also considered in this study. Upper radiosonde data and surface micrometeorological data relevant to the study areas were acquired from India Meteorological Department, Pune. Using the data, the spatial and temporal variations of wind speed and directional changes, the mixing height variation and atmospheric stability classes with respect to time and space, and the nature of inversion and its occurrence were worked out for the two study areas. From this the worst and favourableconditions for air pollutant dispersion were identified.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of operational NWP and mesoscale meteorological models for forecasting urban air pollution episodes - Helsinki case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neunhaeuserer, L.; Fay, B. [German Weather Service (DWD), Offenbach (Germany); Baklanov, A.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst. (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark); Bjergene, N.; Oedegaard, V. [Nowegian Meteorological Inst. (DNMI), Oslo (Norway); Kukkonen, J.; Rantamaeki, M.; Valkama, I. [Finnish Meteorological Inst. (FMI), Helsinki (Finland); Palau, J.L.; Landa, G.P. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM), Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Predicting potentially harmful air pollution episodes is the purpose of urban air quality information and forecasting systems (UAQIFSs) that are established in several European cities especially after the implementation of stricter European air quality directives. As nested numerical weather prediction models have recently approached urban scale resolution, UAQIFSs may benefit largely from using the output of operational weather prediction and mesoscale meteorological models. The improvement and urbanisation of NWP models applied in UAQIFSs and their application in several European target cities (Oslo, Turin, Helsinki, Valencia/Castellon, Bologna) is the aim of the European Union FP5 project FUMAPEX (Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure, http://fumapex.dmi.dk) established in the COST 715 action. This paper presents results from the working package WP3 ''Testing the quality of different operational meteorological forecasting systems for urban areas''. A wintertime inversion episode in Dec 1995 and spring dust episodes in March 1998 and April 2002 in Helsinki are investigated. Simulations are performed and inter-compared for four numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (DMI-/FMI-/DNMI-HIRLAM and LM of the DWD/COSMO group) and the mesoscale meteorological models MM5 and RAMS. (orig.)

  4. Final meteorological and air quality data report. WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico, March 1978-February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the WIPP meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was to support the environmental effort for the evaluation of the site suitability. This data report is the final in a series of data summaries issued for the southeastern New Mexico site

  5. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode

  6. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amicarelli, A; Pelliccioni, A [ISPESL - Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) Italy (Italy); Finardi, S; Silibello, C [ARIANET, via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano (Italy); Gariazzo, C

    2008-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM{sub 10} concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  7. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  8. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  9. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package to explore Air:Sea interaction on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The exchange of mass, heat and momentum at the air:sea interface are profound influences on our environment. Titan presents us with an opportunity to study these processes in a novel physical context. The MP3 instrument, under development for the proposed Discovery mission TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) is an integrated suite of small, simple sensors that combines the a traditional meteorology package with liquid physical properties and depth-sounding. In TiME's 6-Titan-day (96-day) nominal mission, MP3 will have an extended measurement opportunity in one of the most evocative environments in the solar system. The mission and instrument benefit from APL's expertise and experience in marine as well as space systems. The topside meteorology sensors (METH, WIND, PRES, TEMP) will yield the first long-duration in-situ data to constrain Global Circulation Models. The sea sensors (TEMP, TURB, DIEL, SOSO) allow high cadence bulk composition measurements to detect heterogeneities as the TiME capsule drifts across Ligeia, while a depth sounder (SONR) will measure the bottom profile. The combination of these sensors (and vehicle dynamics, ACCL) will characterize air:sea exchange. In addition to surface data, a measurement subset (ACCL, PRES, METH, TEMP) is made during descent to characterize the structure of the polar troposphere and marine boundary layer. A single electronics box inside the vehicle performs supervising and data handling functions and is connected to the sensors on the exterior via a wire and fiber optic harness. ACCL: MEMS accelerometers and angular rate sensors measure the vehicle motion during descent and on the surface, to recover wave amplitude and period and to correct wind measurements for vehicle motion. TEMP: Precision sensors are installed at several locations above and below the 'waterline' to measure air and sea temperatures. Installation of topside sensors at several locations ensures that at least one is on the upwind side of the vehicle. PRES: The

  10. Correlations Between the Incidence of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Public Open Data, Including Meteorological Factors and Medical Facility Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Ji-Hae; Je, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Myeong-Ji; Bae, Young Mee; Son, Hyeon Seok; Ahn, Insung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of national notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs) and meteorological factors, air pollution levels, and hospital resources in Korea. Methods: We collected and stored 660 000 pieces of publicly available data associated with infectious diseases from public data portals and the Diseases Web Statistics System of Korea. We analyzed correlations between the monthly incidence of these diseases and monthly av...

  11. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  13. The occurrence of Ganoderma spores in the air and its relationships with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, whose spores cause symptoms of allergy and whose levels are directly related to meteorological factors. There are only few articles from different parts of the world about the relationships between Ganoderma spore count and meteorological factors. The aim of the study was to review all available publications about airborne Ganoderma spores and to compare the results in a short useful form.

  14. Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 μg m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission

  15. Association between ambient air pollution, meteorological conditions and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult citizens of the town of Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smederevo is the only town in Serbia with a steel factory, whose exhausts contribute to air pollution. Therefore, the city conducts continuous monitoring of air quality. In recent years, high levels of particulate matter (PM, including coarse (PM10 and fine (PM2.5 particles in the air have frequently been recorded. The aim of this study was to assess association between exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults and air pollution or meteorological conditions. Methods. The study was conducted in the secondary care General Hospital in Smederevo covering approximately 81, 000 inhabitants living in the area of about 7 km around the automatic station for air quality monitoring from which the verified data were collected. Data on patients were obtained from medical records. The correlation between the incidence of diseases exacerbation and the number of days with exceedance of air pollutants limit level per month, as well as meteorological conditions, was tested with parametric Pearson bivariate correlation test in program SPSS. Results. The study population consisted of adults registered as asthma or COPD suffering patients (n = 1,624 with 570 episodes of remarkable exacerbations (moderate or severe of the disease in 2011. Asthma exacerbation was significantly more frequent in women than in men. The number of days with high levels of PM2.5 per month was statistically significantly associated with the total number of exacerbation (moderate and severe of both asthma and COPD episodes among the female patients. There was also a statistically significant association between the number of days with PM2.5 exceedance and the number of moderate exacerbations in the subgroups of nonsmokers and obese patients. A significant correlation of the number of days with the exceedance of PM10 limit level was shown only for the subgroup of obese, non-smoking patients with moderate exacerbation. A significant negative

  16. Evaluating the regional influence of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic influence on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the region. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume influences regional air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically influenced airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote regions of the East South Pacific.

  17. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most

  18. Source and meteorological influences on air quality (CO, CH4 & CO2) at a Southern Hemisphere urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kubistin, D.; Caldow, C.; Fisher, J. A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.; Macatangay, R.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Wollongong, Australia is an urban site at the intersection of anthropogenic, biomass burning, biogenic and marine sources of atmospheric trace gases. The location offers a valuable opportunity to study drivers of atmospheric composition in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, a record of surface carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser between April 2011 and August 2014. Clean air was found to arrive at Wollongong in approximately 10% of air masses. Biomass burning influence was evident in the average annual cycle of clean air CO during austral spring. A significant negative short-term trend was found in clean air CO (-1.5 nmol mol-1 a-1), driven by a reduction in northern Australian biomass burning. Significant short-term positive trends in clean air CH4 (5.4 nmol mol-1 a-1) and CO2 (1.9 μmol mol-1 a-1) were consistent with the long-term global average trends. Polluted Wollongong air was investigated using wind-direction/wind-speed clustering, which revealed major influence from local urban and industrial sources from the south. High values of CH4, with anthropogenic ΔCH4/ΔCO2 enhancement ratio signatures, originated from the northwest, in the direction of local coal mining. A pollution climatology was developed for the region using back trajectory analysis and ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Ozone production environments in austral spring and summer were associated with anticyclonic meteorology on the east coast of Australia, while ozone depletion environments in autumn and winter were associated with continental transport, or fast moving trajectories from southern latitudes. This implies the need to consider meteorological conditions when developing policies for controlling air quality.

  19. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  20. 医疗气象学研究方法进展%Progress in Research Methods of Medical Meteorology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周骥; 张书余; 王宝鉴; 罗斌

    2011-01-01

    The methods used in the studies of medical meteorology within its developing history are reviewed and classified into three categories: statistic methods, such as the co-relational analysis, regression analysis, time-series analysis; epidemiological methods, such as descriptive studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, and experimental epidemiology; toxicological methods, such as animal experiments and cellular-molecular experiments. Besides, the perspectives of these methods are also explored, and some issues that should be paid attention in the future study of Medical Meteorology are discussed. The research results in this field can be useful in the medical meteorological forecasting services.%综述了近年来国内外有关医疗气象的研究方法,特别是介绍了统计学方法(相关分析和回归分析方法、时间序列方法),流行病学方法(描述性研究方法、队列研究方法、病例对照和实验流行病学研究方法),毒理学方法(动物实验、细胞分子实验),以及用这些方法所得出的研究结果.对今后医疗气象的研究进行了展望,指出应进一步加强气象与医疗两个学科之间的合作,增强机理方面的研究.利用气象条件对疾病影响的机理性研究结果为医疗气象预报做好服务.

  1. Spatial and temporal analysis of Air Pollution Index and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in spatial and temporal variation of air pollution and its association with weather conditions. We presented the spatial and temporal variation of Air Pollution Index (API) and examined the associations between API and meteorological factors during 2001–2011 in Guangzhou, China. A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess (STL) was used to decompose API. Wavelet analyses were performed to examine the relationships between API and several meteorological factors. Air quality has improved since 2005. APIs were highly correlated among five monitoring stations, and there were substantial temporal variations. Timescale-dependent relationships were found between API and a variety of meteorological factors. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed were negatively correlated with API, while diurnal temperature range and atmospheric pressure were positively correlated with API in the annual cycle. Our findings should be taken into account when determining air quality forecasts and pollution control measures. - Highlights: • Air pollution is still serious in Guangzhou, China. • Air Pollution Index was associated with a variety of meteorological parameters. • The temporal relationships were timescale-dependent. • The findings should be taken into account in air quality forecasts and pollution control. - Spatial and temporal variation of API and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou were demonstrated

  2. PLAM - a meteorological pollution index for air quality and its applications in fog-haze forecasts in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, J.; Li, D.; Guo, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Using surface meteorological observation and high-resolution emission data, this paper discusses the application of the PLAM/h index (Parameter Linking Air-quality to Meteorological conditions/haze) in the prediction of large-scale low visibility and fog-haze events. Based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions, the study extends the diagnosis and prediction of the meteorological pollution index PLAM to the regional visibility fog-haze intensity. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the diagnostic identification ability of the fog-haze weather in North China. The determination coefficients for four seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) between PLAM/h and visibility observation are 0.76, 0.80, 0.96, and 0.86, respectively, and all of their significance levels exceed 0.001, showing the ability of PLAM/h to predict the seasonal changes and differences of fog-haze weather in the North China region. The high-value correlation zones are located in Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei), Bohai Bay rim, and southern Hebei-northern Henan, indicating that the PLAM/h index is related to the distribution of frequent heavy fog-haze weather in North China and the distribution of emission high-value zone. Through comparative analysis of the heavy fog-haze events and large-scale clear-weather processes in winter and summer, it is found that PLAM/h index 24 h forecast is highly correlated with the visibility observation. Therefore, the PLAM/h index has good capability in identification, analysis, and forecasting.

  3. Meteorological and air quality characterization of the Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meteorological and air quality characteristics of the Permian Basin locations in Deaf Smith County and Swisher County, Texas, are described using data from eight climatological stations in the vicinity. Meteorological conditions are reasonably represented by these data because of the generally flat terrain over the area and the geographical proximity of the climatological stations to the locations. Information regarding atmospheric transport and dispersion conditions is derived from data for the period 1976 to 1980 provided by the National Weather Service station at Amarillo, Texas. On an annual basis, southerly winds predominate and the average wind speed is 6.1 m/s (13.7 mph). The analysis of dispersion climatology indicates that neutral atmospheric stability also predominates over the year. This, in combination with high average wind speeds, is characteristic of relatively good dispersion conditions in the area. Significant topographic features are far enough away from the locations that their effects on local dispersion conditions are negligible. The closest available air quality data were collected around population centers and may not accurately represent conditions at these rural and undeveloped locations. The area has been declared ''attaining'' for particulate and sulfur dioxide standards and ''cannot be classified as better than ambient standard'' for nitrogen oxides, ozone, and carbon monoxide. 49 references, 5 figures, 18 tables

  4. Medical waste autoclaves: not just a lot of hot air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, G R

    1998-04-01

    Over the past ten years, the treatment of medical waste has received much attention. During this time, an entire new industry to develop "alternate medical waste treatment technologies" has emerged. Much of this has been in response to increasingly stringent air quality standards along with public sentiment opposed to incineration, with a resultant decline in the use of on-site medical waste incinerators. However, in between incinerators and alternative treatment systems is a technology that is as much a part of American healthcare as hospitals themselves. Medical waste regulation in all fifty states recognize steam sterilization as an acceptable method of treatment prior to disposal. Within this category of medical waste treatment technology, there is a wide array of systems available, many of which have altered the basic, simple principles of steam treatment to make it more conducive to this application. This Professional Development Series reviews some the basic and newer innovative techniques of steam treatment of medical waste.

  5. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  6. Modeling study on the air quality impacts from emission reductions and atypical meteorological conditions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Cheng, Shuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the relative impacts of emission reductions and meteorological variations on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics has an important policy implication. In this work, detailed process analyses and sensitivity simulations under different emission and meteorology scenarios were conducted using CMAQ and the Process Analysis tool to quantify the air quality benefits from emission reductions and meteorological variations in August 2008. The results indicate that emission-driven changes dominate surface concentration reductions of SO 2, NO 2, VOCs, daily maxima O 3 and PM 2.5 by -11% to -83%. The effect of meteorology-driven changes on species concentrations can be either ways (by -46% to 105%) at different locations. The dominant processes contributing to O 3, PM 2.5, SO 42-, NO 3-, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are identified. Gas-phase chemistry is a major process for O 3 production, and PM processes are dominant sources for PM 2.5 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The reduced emissions weaken the source contributions of gas-phase chemistry to O 3 and those of PM processes to PM 2.5, with weaker vertical mixing processes and horizontal transport in the PBL. Compared with 2007, 2008 has a higher humidity, lower temperature and more precipitation that benefit O 3 reduction within the PBL, and a weaker vertical mixing that disbenefits reductions of all pollutants concentrations. Stronger process contributions of cloud processes (e.g., below- and in-cloud scavenging, and wet deposition) in 2008 help reduce concentrations of PM 2.5, NO 3-, and SOA, but they (e.g., aqueous-phase chemistry) enhance surface SO 42- concentrations. Smaller process contributions of aerosol processes help reduce the concentrations of SOA and SO 42- but enhance NO 3- and PM 2.5 in lower layers (1-6) due to the evaporation of NO 3-. The ratios of P O /P increase under the controlled simulation, indicating that the emission control actions enforced during the 2008

  7. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  8. Traceability of ground based air temperature measurements: a case study on the Meteorological Observatory of Moncalieri (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, Giuseppina; Bertiglia, Fabio; Roggero, Guido; Merlone, Andrea; Mercalli, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Assessing climate change will depend crucially on the robustness of climate data and uncertainties associated with measurements. Measurement uncertainties can only be determined and hence minimized if proper consideration is given to the metrological traceability of the measurement results. The metrological traceability is the property of a measurement to be related to a SI (International System of Units) standard through an unbroken chain of calibrations each contributing to the measurement uncertainty [1]. This work illustrates the three principal steps to guarantee traceability to measurements of air temperature recorded by automatic weather stations: 1. The first step in traceability is related to the primary standards, which are maintained in each country by the National Institute of Metrology (NMI). The internationally agreed reference for the temperature is the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). The fixed point cells and the transfer instruments, standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRT), are here descried. 2. The second step is the calibration: the temperature sensors are compared directly with primary standards or through secondary standards, according to the target uncertainty and the procedure adopted or required. In this work we illustrate a procedure and a calibration facility manufactured for meteorological purpose by the Italian NMI [2]. The calibration facility is a chamber, with reduced dimensions, transportable for in situ calibrations. 3. Third requirement is the evaluation of the calibration uncertainties. To account in the uncertainty budget for this type B uncertainty, in addition to the usual type A, will allow to obtain more reliable temperature data. (Type A, as defined in the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) [3], is the component of uncertainty determined by means of statistical analysis, and type B by means other than statistical analysis). An application example of a complete traceability

  9. Prevention of Medical Events During Air Travel: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouri, Diane; Lapostolle, Frederic; Rondet, Claire; Ganansia, Olivier; Pateron, Dominique; Yordanov, Youri

    2016-09-01

    Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Physicians need to be aware of the management of these conditions in this unusual setting. Chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are common and are at increased risk of acute exacerbation. Physicians must be trained in these conditions and inform their patients about their prevention. PMID:27267286

  10. 武汉市空气质量与气象条件的关系及气象预报方法研究%Relationship between Wuhan Air Quality and Meteorological Conditions and Meteorological Forecasting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠荣; 柳戊弼; 江鸿

    2016-01-01

    利用2013~2014年武汉市空气质量指数和气象要素因子,分析了武汉市环境空气质量分布特征以及气象要素因子对空气质量的影响。结果表明,武汉市空气质量严重污染天气占全年的4%;近10年(2005~2014年)武汉市PM10、SO2污染物浓度逐年下降,首要污染物以细颗粒物为主。武汉市空气质量变化与气温、低云量、平均风速、降水量等气象因子相关性最好,均呈明显的负相关性。利用数理统计方法,选用与空气质量指数相关性较好的气象因子制作逐日空气质量指数多元回归预测方程,可结合气象预报产品及时制作空气质量预报。%Air quality index and meteorological factors in Wuhan City in 2013-2014 were used to analyze the distribution characteristics of environmental air quality in Wuhan City, as well as the effects of meteorological factors on air quality and meteorological factors.Result showed that the number of seriously polluted days in Wuhan was 4% of a year.In recent 10 years (2005-2014), the concentration of PM10 and SO2 pollutants in Wuhan City decreased year by year.The main pollutant was fine particulate.Changes in air quality in Wuhan City had the optimal correlation with temperature, low cloud cover, average wind speed, precipitation and other meteorological factors, showing a sig-nificant negative correlation.Mathematical statistics method was adopted.Meteorological factors having relatively good correlation with air quality index were selected to establish the daily AQI multiple regression prediction equation.Air quality forecast was carried out by using me-teorological forecast products.

  11. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall. PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from −700 ng m−3 K−1 (−8% K−1 to 300 ng m−3 K−1 (7% K−1. The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from −130 ng m−3%−1 (−1.6% %−1 to 160 ng m−3 %−1 (1.6% %−1 dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping constant the emissions increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m−3 %−1 due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m−3 %−1 in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m−3 %−1 on PM2.5. Regarding the

  12. Examining Air Quality-Meteorology Interactions on Regional to Hemispheric Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides motivation for coupling the atmospheric dynamics and chemistry calculations in air pollution modeling systems, provides an overview of how this coupling is achieved in the WRF-CMAQ 2-way coupled model, presents results from various applications of the m...

  13. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi/sup 2/ site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi2 site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. MP3 - A meteorology and physical properties package to explore air-sea interaction on Titan

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, R. D.; Stofan, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka , E.; Newman, C. E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B. C.; Yelland, M.; Leese, M. R.; Boldt, J; Darlington, E.; Neish, C. D.; Sotzen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The exchange of mass, heat and momentum at the air:sea interface are profound influences on the terrestrial environment, affecting the intensity of hurricanes, the size of waves and lake-effect precipitation. Titan presents us with an opportunity to study these processes in a novel physical context, with a different sea, atmosphere and gravity. The MP3 instrument, under development for the proposed Discovery mission TiME (Titan Mare Explorer [1,2]) is an integrated suite of small, simple sens...

  16. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  17. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  18. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  19. Application of meteorology of air pollution in nuclear design of the city of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that the urban environment provides the setting for the life framework of a large and growing proportion of the world's population. In consequence, urban dwellers spend much of their lives in a quite distinctive type of man-modified (polluted) climate. This study focuses on two aspects of urban climatology in the city of Tehran: Climate and Urban Form. Each building reacts with its atmospheric envelope and these micro climatic effects are then integrated into macro climatic zones which commonly mirror the form of urban development and major land uses. More specifically this research paper intends to test the hypothesis that concentration or dispersion of urban air pollutants depend on atmospheric conditions and heat island in the urban areas, which is affected in turn, by topography and urban form. By some modifications in urban form, therefore, the atmospheric conditions may be changed (wind direction and speed) in an urban area which will eventually lead to better air quality in the city. Part of the study was based on an experiment in a low speed wind tunnel, which was built for this purpose. Also satellite data was the source of information for preparing the heat islands in Tehran

  20. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of 2003 monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Singh; H R Hatwar; Onkari Prasad

    2007-08-01

    The second campaign of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX-II) was conducted in two phases viz., March–April and May–June 2003. In the present work, the buoy and ocean research vessel data collected during the second phase of ARMEX-II have been analysed to bring out the characteristic features of monsoon onset. The results have shown that the thermodynamical features such as build up of lower tropospheric instability and increased height of zero degree isotherm occurred about a week before the monsoon onset over Kerala and adjoining southeast Arabian Sea. There was a sharp fall in the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa, and the height of zero degree isotherm about 2–3 days before the monsoon onset. The flux of sensible heat was positive (sea to air) over south Arabian Sea during the onset phase. Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of sensible flux prevailed before the monsoon onset which became less negative with the advance of monsoon over that region. The pre-onset period was characterized by large sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Arabian Sea with rapid decrease towards north of the warm pool region. The buoy observations have shown that SST remained close to 30.5°C in the warm pool region during the pre-onset period in 2003 but only 2–3 degrees away (north of this region) SSTs were as low as 28.5-29°C. An interesting aspect of sea level pressure (SLP) variability over the Indian seas during the onset phase of summer monsoon 2003 was undoubtedly, the highest SLP in the warm pool region inspite of very high SSTs.

  1. Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic (Australia); Blockley, A.; Rayner, K. [Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2001-04-01

    A prognostic air pollution model (TAPM) has been used to predict meteorology and sulphur dioxide concentration in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia for 1997, with a view to verifying TAPM for use in environmental impact assessments and associated air pollution studies. The regulatory plume model, DISPMOD, developed for the Kwinana region has also been run using both an observationally based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-O) and using a TAPM-based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-T). TAPM predictions of the meteorology for 1997 compare well with the observed values at each of the five monitoring sites. Root mean square error and index of agreement values for temperature and winds indicate that TAPM performs well at predicting the meteorology, compared to the performance of similar models from other studies. The yearly average, 99.9 percentile, maximum and mean of the top 10 ground-level sulphur dioxide concentrations for 1997 were predicted well by all of the model runs, although DISPMOD-O and DISPMOD-T tended to overpredict extreme statistics at sites furthest from the sources. Overall, TAPM performed better than DISPMOD-O, which in turn performed better than DISPMOD-T, for all statistics considered, but we consider that all three sets of results are sufficiently accurate for regulatory applications. The mean of the top ten concentrations is generally considered to be a robust performance statistic for air pollution applications, and we show that compared to the site-averaged observed value of 95{mu}gm{sup -3}, TAPM predicted 94{mu}gm{sup -3}, DISPMOD-O predicted 111{mu}gm{sup -3} and DISPMOD-T predicted 125{mu}gm{sup -3}. The results indicate that the prognostic meteorological and air pollution approach to regulatory modelling used by TAPM, gives comparable or better results than the current regulatory approach used in the Kwinana region (DISPMOD), and also indicates that the approach of using a currently accepted regulatory model with a

  2. AQA - Air Quality model for Austria: comparison of ALADIN and ALARO forecasts with observed meteorological profiles and PM10 predictions with CAMx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, M.; Krüger, B. C.; Kaiser, A.

    2009-09-01

    In AQA, Air Quality model for Austria, the regional weather forecast model ALADIN-Austria of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) is used in combination with the chemical transport model CAMx (www.camx.com) to conduct forecasts of gaseous and particulate air pollutants over Austria. The forecasts which are done in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) are supported by the regional governments since 2005. In the current model version AQA uses the operational meteorological forecasts conducted with ALADIN which has a horizontal resolution of 9.7 km. Since 2008 the higher resolved ALARO is also available at the ZAMG. It has a horizontal resolution of 4.9 km and models the PBL with more vertical layers than ALADIN. ALARO also uses more complex algorithms to calculate precipitation, radiation and TKE. Another advantage of ALARO concerning the chemical modelling with CAMx is that additionally to the higher resolved meteorological forecasts it is possible to use finer emission inventories which are available for Austria. From 2006 to 2007 a SODAR-RASS of the ZAMG was operated in the north-eastern Austrian flat lands (Kittsee). In this study the measured vertical profiles of wind and temperature are compared with the model predictions. The evaluation is conducted for an episode in January 2007 when high PM10 concentrations were measured at the air quality station Kittsee. Analysis of the RASS-temperature-profiles show that during this episode a strong nocturnal inversion developed at the investigated area. The ability of the models ALADIN and ALARO to predict this complex meteorological condition is investigated. Both models are also used as meteorological driver for the chemical dispersion model CAMx and the results of predicted PM10 concentrations are compared to air quality measurements.

  3. How much spatial detail in meteorological parameters is needed to model air-quality in a city? A case study for the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Demuzere, Matthias; van Lipzig, Nicole; Brisson, Erwan; Lauwaet, Dirk; Viaene, Peter; Deutsch, Felix; Veldeman, Nele

    2013-04-01

    There exists a large discrepancy between the rural and urban land cover in terms of soil water, aerodynamical, thermal and radiative characteristics, and anthropogenic heat. This results in urban-scale meteorological features such as the urban heat island, reduced wind speed and the city breeze. Some of these effects have a considerable impact on human health in cities when the nocturnal cooling is reduced during heat waves or when air quality is affected during smog episodes. The question rises what impact does urban climate have on air quality in cities. The Regional climate model COSMO-CLM updated with the urban parameterization (TERRA_MLU) and the air-quality AURORA (VITO NV, Belgium) are used to quantify and understand the interactions between (urban) climate and air quality on different scales. COSMO-CLM is currently cascade-nested inside ECMWF 12.5km analysis up to a horizontal resolution of 1km over Antwerp (Belgium). The urban parameterization TERRA_MLU is implemented in COSMO-CLM using a tile approach in which the urban surface can coexist with the natural area in one grid-cell. The inclusion of anthropogenic heat is based on country-specific data of energy consumption downscaled with population density and urbanization. Meteorological model data from COSMO-CLM is used as forcing for the air-quality model AURORA. Results, in particular the urban heat island effect, are evaluated with urban/rural meteorological measurements in Antwerp, Ghent and Brussels starting from 2012. It is investigated whether air-quality modeling can be improved when forcing AURORA with (urban) microscale meteorological data from COSMO-CLM rather than with coarser meteorological data from ECMWF. Therefore each nesting step of COSMO is subsequently used as input for the air-quality model. In order to set priorities for the improvement of air-quality modelling in the future, the relative importance of orography, urban climate and the impact of uncertainty in pollutent emissions to

  4. Seasonal and temporal variations of criteria air pollutants and the influence of meteorological parameters on the concentration of pollutants in ambient air in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria air pollutants have their significance for causing health threats and damage to the environment. The study was conducted to assess the seasonal and temporal variations of criteria air pollutants and evaluating the correlations of criteria air pollutants with meteorological parameters in the city of Lahore, Pakistan for a period of one year from April 2010 to March 2011. The concentrations of criteria air pollutants were determined at fixed monitoring stations equipped with HORIBA analyzers. The annual average concentrations (μ/m/super 3/) of PM /sub 2.5/, O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO and NO/sub x/ (NO+NO/sub 2/) for this study period were 118.94±57.46, 46.0±24.2, 39.9±8.9, 1940±1300 and 130.9±81.0 (61.8±46.2+57.3±22.19), respectively. PM/sub 2.5/, SO/sub 2/, CO and NO/sub x/ had maximum concentrations during winter whereas O/sub 3/ had maximum concentration during summer. Minimum concentrations of PM/sub 2.5/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ were found during monsoon as compared to other seasons due to rainfall which scavenged these pollutants. The O/sub 3/ showed positive correlation with temperature and solar radiation but negative correlation with wind speed. All other criteria air pollutants showed negative correlation with wind speed, temperature and solar radiation. A significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between NO/sub x/ and CO (r = 0.779) which showed that NO/sub x/ and CO arise from common source that could be the vehicular emission. PM/sub 2.5/ was significantly correlated (P<0.01) with NO/sub x/ (r = 0.524) and CO (r = 0.519), respectively. High traffic intensity and traffic jams were responsible for increased air pollutants level especially the PM/sub 2.5/, NO/sub x/ and CO. (author)

  5. Permanent internal pacemaker safety in air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R S; O'Dell, K B

    1991-02-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing air medical transportation provides an important role in the management of critically-ill patients. As the use of cardiac pacemakers continues to grow, knowledge of their expanding capabilities and sophistication is important. The environments of our "airborne intensive care units" are subject to many sources of electromagnetic and vibrational interference. Although pacemaker shielding mechanisms have become quite elaborate, further studies are needed to define their reliability in modern aircraft. Further, the possible effects of electromagnetic and vibrational interference upon inflight reprogramming require further study. PMID:10109075

  6. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration and poorer ventilation conditions in dwellings can be risk factors for SBS symptoms in an adult Chinese population, especially among females. PMID:27101454

  7. A new perspective on the Fukushima releases brought by newly available air concentration observations (Tsuruta et al, 2014) and reliable meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Kajino, Mizuo; Adachi, Kouji; Bocquet, Marc; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Didier, Damien

    2016-04-01

    In case of nuclear power plant accident, the assessment of the temporal evolution in the amount of radionuclides released (source term) is required to evaluate human health and environment impacts. It is with in mind that IRSN has developed an operational tool based on inverse modeling techniques to evaluate the source term of a radioactive release. If the release amount is sufficiently strong as for the Fukushima accident, dose rate observations are primarily used to assess the source term (Saunier et al. 2013). Secondly, air concentrations measurements can also be used when available. For minor release events, air concentrations measurements are used. Five years after the Fukushima accident, many estimations of the source term based on the use of observations in the environment have been published. There is not yet consensus on the magnitudes on the releases rates, mainly due to the high uncertainties on meteorological fields used to assess the source term. Within the framework of cooperation between IRSN and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution (3 km) have been used (Sekiyama et al. 2013) to improve the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion from the Fukushima accident. Besides, new dataset of Cs137 atmospheric concentration obtained from the sampling tapes of the Suspended Particle Matter (SPM) monitoring network by the method of Tsuruta et al. (2014) are available. These data are very useful since several plumes, unknown until now, could be identified in addition with the two major plumes on March 15 and March 21. Therefore, the inverse modeling method has been applied to assess a new source term using Tsuruta air concentration measurements, dose rate measurements and meteorological fields provided by MRI. The simulations performed using this new inverted source term help enhance our knowledge about the Fukushima accident. Several releases events are better

  8. Applicability of meteorological statistics over a 5-year period to evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air. Based on meteorological statistics for 20 years at Oarai Research and Development Center, JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air obtained from atmospheric dispersion factor is intended to determine a public dose as a primary source for the safety analysis of nuclear facilities in normal operation. Oarai Research and Development Center (ORDC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency have used fixed 5-year meteorological statistics for derivation of atmospheric dispersion factors as average conditions. To show that the meteorological statistics for any 5-year period could be used as representative data for evaluation of average conditions, annual average (1-year average) and 5-year average of evaluated radionuclide concentrations derived from the meteorological data observed over a 20-year period (1991-2010) at ORDC were analyzed. Fluctuations of evaluated radionuclide concentrations of any 5-year averages were smaller than those of 1-year averages. Further, any 5-year averages were sufficiently convergent to 20-year average. Because any 5-year averages contained no rejections by the F-test (5% significance level), they were not statistically different to the rest of 20 years data set, instead that some of 1-year averages could be rejected. It means that any 5-year averages of radionuclide concentration evaluations are well representative for the safety analysis of normal operation of the nuclear facilities in ORDC. (author)

  9. Meteorological and environmental aspects of one of the worst national air pollution episodes (January, 2004) in Logan, Cache Valley, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Esmaiel; Davis, Tess; Martin, Randal S.; Silva, Philip J.

    2006-02-01

    Logan, Utah, USA, had the nation's worst air pollution on 15 January, 2004. The high concentration of PM 2.5 (particulates smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter) in the air resulted from geographical, meteorological, and environmental aspects of Cache Valley. A strong inversion (increase of temperature with height) and light precipitation and/or wind were the major causes for trapping pollutants in the air. Other meteorological factors enhancing the inversion were: the prolonged high atmospheric surface pressure, a snow-covered surface which plunged temperatures to as low as - 23.6 °C on January 23rd and high reflection of solar radiation (up to about 80%), which caused less solar radiation absorption during the day throughout the most part of January 2004. Among non-meteorological factors are Cache Valley's small-basin geographical structure which traps air, with no big body of water to help the air circulation (as a result of differential heating and cooling rates for land and water), motor vehicle emissions, and existence of excess ammonia gas as a byproduct of livestock manure and urine. Concentration of PM 2.5 was monitored in downtown Logan. On January 15, 2004, the 24-h, filter-based concentration reached about 132.5 μg per cubic meter of air, an astonishingly high value compared to the values of 65 μg m - 3 and over, indicating a health alert for everyone. These tiny particles in the air have an enormous impact on health, aggravating heart and lung disease, triggering asthma and even death. The causes of this inversion and some suggestions to alleviate the wintertime particle concentration in Cache Valley will be addressed in this article.

  10. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denise R.; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and ...

  11. OLM dispersion calculations based on 10 years' meteorology in relation to the Danish Air Quality Guideline; OML-spredningsberegninger paa basis af 10 aars meteorologi i relation til Luftvejledningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.

    2008-12-15

    In the Danish Air Quality Guideline (Luftvejledningen) the Danish Environmental Protection Agency recommends that the OML atmospheric dispersion model is used for compliance checking for industrial facilities. The current procedure to compare concentration levels with the limit value is based on the use of one years' worth of meteorological data. In order to obtain a better statistically founded basis for assessing the level of air pollution, the present study examines how the current use of one year of meteorological data can be extended to 10 years. The current use of only one year of data occasionally causes problems in the interpretation of the geographical distributions of the concentration levels. That is because different levels in different directions from the source might be due to random meteorological conditions, or due to the source configuration. The procedure is based on the statistical parameter known as the maximum monthly 99-percentile for one meteorological year (Kastrup Airport 1976). The present study uses 10 years of meteorological data from two Danish airports in Kastrup and AAlborg. These data are used for dispersion calculations for different types of point sources with varying stack heights, plume rise and possible nearby buildings. In order to obtain a new statistical parameter for the exposure - that corresponds to the current level of the maximum monthly 99-percentile and can be compared to the C-value ('limit value') of the Guideline the new statistics are based on the 120 monthly 99-percentiles for the 10 years of calculations. The 99-percentiles are ranked, and selected statistics are assessed, e.g. the maximum of all monthly 99-percentiles, the 4th highest monthly 99-percentile, the 8th highest monthly 99-percentile, the 12th highest monthly 99-percentile, and the average monthly 99-percentile. The study recommends that in future assessments the statistical parameter to be compared with the C-value of the Guideline is

  12. Influence of the meteorological parameters on CFCs and SF6 concentration in the air of Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewski, Jarosław; Najman, Joanna; Śliwka, Ireneusz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Rosiek, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    key words: gas chromatography, trace gases, CFCs and SF6 measurements in urban area. Halogenated compounds (chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs), both natural and industrial, so-called freons, currently exist as trace gases in the entire human environment. The CFCs cause ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Moreover CFCs and SF6 take part in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The decisions of the Vienna Convention (1985) and of the Montreal Protocol (1987) limited the world production level of CFCs in the year 1989 at least 35% after 2004, 90% after 2015 and total reduction after year 2030. On account of international agreements, the measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air were started. Measurement "clean" stations were situated at places outside of urban areas influence and gathered on world program - AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). One of these stations is Mace Head (Ireland, 53o N, 10o W), which participates in AGAGE since 1987 [1] and in European InGOS (Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System) program since 2011. Similar research is also conducted in Central Europe, in urban area of Krakow (Poland, 50o N, 19o E) since 1997. The work discusses results from 15 years of concentration measurements (in the years 1997-2012) of selected halocarbons and SF6 in Krakow. To obtain concentrations of measured compounds the mathematical procedure has been used, where concentrations were calculated using a five points Lagrange's interpolation method. Using temporary measurement data were determined daily arithmetic means and their standard deviations. Based on these data, efficiency of Montreal Protocol legislation, implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52) could be assessed [2]. Additionally cut-off filtration method was used to estimate trend of the base line of individual air pollutant. Rejected exceedances of base lines were corelated with meteorological characteristics of Krakow region to evaluate possible sources of pollution. The

  13. Influence of grid resolution and meteorological forcing on simulated European air quality: A sensitivity study with the modeling system COSMO-MUSCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Ralf; Schröder, Wolfram; Schrödner, Roland; Renner, Eberhard

    2012-06-01

    Model evaluation studies are essential for determining model performance as well as assessing model deficiencies, and are the focus of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The chemistry-transport model system COSMO-MUSCAT participates in this initiative. In this paper the robustness and variability of the model results against changes in the model setup are analyzed. Special focus is given to the formation of secondary particulate matter and the ability to reproduce unusually high levels of PM10 in Central Europe caused by long-range transported smoke of fires in western Russia. Seven different model configurations are investigated in this study. The COSMO-MUSCAT results are evaluated in comparison with ground-based measurements in Central Europe. The analysis is performed for two selected periods in April/May 2006 and October 2006 which are characterized by elevated concentrations of PM. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the results is studied against the used grid resolution and the meteorological forcing. Here, COSMO-MUSCAT is applied with different horizontal grid sizes and, alternatively, forced by reanalysis data with finer resolution. The use of finer grid resolutions in COSMO-MUSCAT has direct consequences on the meteorological forcing as well as on the calculated emission and deposition rates. The presented results suggest a large impact of the meteorological effects on the PM concentrations. The more accurate spatial appointment of the emissions and deposition fluxes seems to be of little consequence compared to the meteorological forcing.

  14. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  15. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature from Meteorological Stations on the Pan-Arctic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schmullius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based temperature measurements are an important indicator for global climate change studies over large areas. Records from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer ((AATSR are providing long-term time series information. Assessing the quality of remote sensing-based temperature measurements provides feedback to the climate modeling community and other users by identifying agreements and discrepancies when compared to temperature records from meteorological stations. This paper presents a comparison of state-of-the-art remote sensing-based land surface temperature data with air temperature measurements from meteorological stations on a pan-arctic scale (north of 60° latitude. Within this study, we compared land surface temperature products from (AATSR, MODIS and AVHRR with an in situ air temperature (Tair database provided by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC. Despite analyzing the whole acquisition time period of each land surface temperature product, we focused on the inter-annual variability comparing land surface temperature (LST and air temperature for the overlapping time period of the remote sensing data (2000–2005. In addition, land cover information was included in the evaluation approach by using GLC2000. MODIS has been identified as having the highest agreement in comparison to air temperature records. The time series of (AATSR is highly variable, whereas inconsistencies in land surface temperature data from AVHRR have been found.

  16. Software library of meteorological routines for air quality models; Libreria de software de procedimientos meteorologicos para modelos de dispersion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo Garcia, Ivan Francisco

    1999-04-01

    Air quality models are an essential tool for most air pollution studies. The models require, however, certain meteorological information about the model domain. Some of the required meteorological parameters can be measured directly, but others must be estimated from available measured data. Therefore, a set of procedures, routines and computational programs to obtain all the meteorological and micrometeorological input data is required. The objective in this study is the identification and implementation of several relationships and methods for the determination of all the meteorological parameters required as input data by US-EPA recommended air pollution models. To accomplish this, a study about air pollution models was conducted, focusing, particularly, on the model meteorological input data. Also, the meteorological stations from the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (SMN) were analyzed. The type and quality of the meteorological data produced was obtained. The routines and methods developed were based, particularly, on the data produced by SMN stations. Routines were organized in a software library, which allows one to build the specific meteorological processor needed, independently of the model used. Methods were validated against data obtained from an advanced meteorological station owned and operated by the Electrical Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)). The results from the validation show that the estimation of the parameters required by air pollution models from routinely available data from Mexico meteorological stations is feasible and therefore let us take full advantage of the use of air pollution models. As an application example of the software library developed, the building of a meteorological processor for a specific air pollution model (CALPUFF) is described. The big advantage the library represents is evident from this example. [Espanol] Los modelos de dispersion de contaminantes constituyen una herramienta

  17. Applications of satellite data to the studies of agricultural meteorology, 2: Relationship between air temperature and surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed in order to establish interpretation keys for estimation of air temperature from satellite IR data. Field measurements were carried out over four kinds of land surfaces including seven different field crops on the university campus at Sapporo. The air temperature was compared with the surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer (National ER2007, 8.5-12.5μm) and, also with other meteorological parameters (solar radiation, humidity and wind speed). Also perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was measured to know vegetation density of lands by ho radio-spectralmeter (Figs. 1 & 2). Table 1 summarizes the measurements taken in these experiments.The correlation coefficients between air temperature and other meteorological parameters for each area are shown in Table 2. The best correlation coefficient for total data was obtained with surface temperature, and it suggests the possibility that air temperature may be estimated by satellite IR data since they are related to earth surface temperatures.Further analyses were done between air temperature and surface temperature measured with thermal infrared radiometer.The following conclusions may be drawn:(1) Air temperature from meteorological site was well correlated to surface temperature of lands that were covered with dense plant and water, for example, grass land, paddy field and rye field (Table 2).(2) The correlation coefficients and the regression equations on grass land, paddy field and rye field were almost the same (Fig. 3). The mean correlation coefficient for these three lands was 0.88 and the regression equation is given in Eq. (2).(3) There was good correlation on bare soil land also, but had large variations (Fig. 3).(4) The correlations on crop fields depend on the density of plant cover. Good correlation is obtained on dense vegetative fields.(5) Small variations about correlation coefficients were obtained for the time of day (Table 3).(6) On the other hand, large

  18. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  19. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  20. On the usefulness of atmospheric measurements for air quality evaluation in the context of recent urban meteorology findings in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Nunez, X.; Jazcilevich Diamant, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: xochitl@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2007-10-15

    In many cities, the main tool used to assess pollution abatement policies is the air quality information obtained from local monitoring network. However, in the context of a complex meteorology and land use such as those prevailing in Mexico City, the point-wise character and lack of detailed chemistry of this information may confer conflictive or biased information. The approach to understand the problem could be not based on solid ground. It is not until the measurement effort is complemented with detailed meteorological and air quality modeling that proper use of the information can be assured. In order to provide an example of this assertion, the usefulness of measured air quality data is gauged in a simplified manner, constructing three dimensional graphs containing local emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations, that we call ozone isopleths, for three sites in Mexico City. Together with corresponding wind rose data, an interpretation of the air pollution transport in the Valley of Mexico using only measured data is attempted. This interpretation, based on measured information subject to local influences, is compared with recent air quality modeling results showing that when measured data is used in conjunction with air quality modeling a better interpretation of air pollution problem can be obtained. A correct strategy to study the air quality problem, especially in the case of Mexico City where complex meteorology and land use is present, should be that both endeavors, measuring and modeling, are pursued with equal vigor. [Spanish] En muchas ciudades la herramienta principal en la evaluacion de las politicas para el control de la contaminacion es la informacion de calidad del aire proveniente de las redes locales de mediciones. Sin embargo, en el contexto de una meteorologia compleja y el uso de suelo de la Ciudad de Mexico, el caracter puntual y la carencia de

  1. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  2. A joint modelling exercise designed to assess the respective impact of emission changes and meteorological variability on the observed air quality trends in major urban hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Dangiola, Ariela; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Gauss, Michael; Granier, Claire; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Jakobs, Hermann; Kanakidou, Maria; Khokhar, Fahim; Law, Kathy; Maurizi, Alberto; Meleux, Frederik; Memmesheimer, Michael; Nyiri, Agnes; Rouil, Laurence; Stordal, Frode; Tampieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    With the growth of urban agglomerations, assessing the drivers of variability of air quality in and around the main anthropogenic emission hotspots has become a major societal concern as well as a scientific challenge. These drivers include emission changes and meteorological variability; both of them can be investigated by means of numerical modelling of trends over the past few years. A collaborative effort has been developed in the framework of the CityZen European project to address this question. Several chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are deployed in this activity: four regional models (BOLCHEM, CHIMERE, EMEP and EURAD) and three global models (CTM2, MOZART, and TM4). The period from 1998 to 2007 has been selected for the historic reconstruction. The focus for the present preliminary presentation is Europe. A consistent set of emissions is used by all partners (EMEP for the European domain and IPCC-AR5 beyond) while a variety of meteorological forcing is used to gain robustness in the ensemble spread amongst models. The results of this experiment will be investigated to address the following questions: - Is the envelope of models able to reproduce the observed trends of the key chemical constituents? - How the variability amongst models changes in time and space and what does it tell us about the processes driving the observed trends? - Did chemical regimes and aerosol formation processes changed in selected hotspots? Answering the above questions will contribute to fulfil the ultimate goal of the present study: distinguishing the respective contribution of meteorological variability and emissions changes on air quality trends in major anthropogenic emissions hotspots.

  3. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  4. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of multi-year real-time air quality forecasting using an online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model over southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Hong, Chaopeng; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Li, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2016-08-01

    An online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model, WRF/Chem-MADRID, has been deployed for real time air quality forecast (RT-AQF) in southeastern U.S. since 2009. A comprehensive evaluation of multi-year RT-AQF shows overall good performance for temperature and relative humidity at 2-m (T2, RH2), downward surface shortwave radiation (SWDOWN) and longwave radiation (LWDOWN), and cloud fraction (CF), ozone (O3) and fine particles (PM2.5) at surface, tropospheric ozone residuals (TOR) in O3 seasons (May-September), and column NO2 in winters (December-February). Moderate-to-large biases exist in wind speed at 10-m (WS10), precipitation (Precip), cloud optical depth (COT), ammonium (NH4+), sulfate (SO42-), and nitrate (NO3-) from the IMPROVE and SEARCH networks, organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE, and elemental carbon (EC) and OC at SEARCH, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and column carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) in both O3 and winter seasons, column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in O3 seasons, and TOR in winters. These biases indicate uncertainties in the boundary layer and cloud process treatments (e.g., surface roughness, microphysics cumulus parameterization), emissions (e.g., O3 and PM precursors, biogenic, mobile, and wildfire emissions), upper boundary conditions for all major gases and PM2.5 species, and chemistry and aerosol treatments (e.g., winter photochemistry, aerosol thermodynamics). The model shows overall good skills in reproducing the observed multi-year trends and inter-seasonal variability in meteorological and radiative variables such as T2, WS10, Precip, SWDOWN, and LWDOWN, and relatively well in reproducing the observed trends in surface O3 and PM2.5, but relatively poor in reproducing the observed column abundances of CO, NO2, SO2, HCHO, TOR, and AOD. The sensitivity simulations using satellite-constrained boundary conditions for O3 and CO show substantial improvement for both spatial distribution and domain-mean performance

  6. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  7. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  8. Comparison of relationships between radon-222 concentration in outdoor air and some meteorological elements at different heights of the ground above sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People living near uranium mine tailings, uranium mill tailings and the ventilation shaft of uranium mine are exposed to 222Rn and its short-lived daughters from general soil areas and those from specific sites. Therefore, it is necessary to descriminate between them to a certain degree. The diurnal variations of the 222Rn concentration in outdoor air, which is assumed to be in radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived daughters, are observed at three times by measuring 214Po using a surface-barrier detector at Okayama-shi and at Kamisaibara-mura. The heights of Okayama-shi and Kamisaibara-mura are about 1 m and about 710 m above sea level, respectively. Furthermore, some meteorological elements are simultaneously observed. It becomes clear and the variation patterns of the 222Rn concentration and the relationships between the 222Rn concentration and some meteorological elements are the same as the other sites except one run. Therefore, these suggest that it is possible to develop the method for the distinction between 222Rn and its short-lived daughters from the general soil areas and those from the specific sites without consideration of the height of the ground above sea level except the period of snowfall. (author)

  9. Influence of Climate Change and Meteorological Factors on Houston’s Air Pollution: Ozone a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the past 23 years of ground-level O3 data and selected meteorological parameters in Houston, Texas, which historically has been one of the most polluted cities in the United States. Both 1-h and 8-h O3 exceedances have been reduced significantly down to single digit yearly occurrences. We also found that the frequency of southerly flow has increased by a factor of ~2.5 over the period 1990–2013, likely suppressing O3 photochemistry and leading to a “cleaner” Houston environment. The sea breeze was enhanced greatly from 1990 to 2013 due to increasing land surface temperatures, increased pressure gradients, and slightly stronger on-shore winds. These patterns driven by climate change produce a strengthening of the sea breeze, which should be a general result at locations worldwide.

  10. Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We enrolled a cohort of primary school children with a history of wheeze (n=148) in an 11-month longitudinal study to examine the relationship between ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidity. We obtained daily air pollution (ozone, particulate matter less than 10 μm, and nitrogen dioxide), meteorological, and pollen data. One hundred twenty-five children remained in the final analysis. We used logistic regression models to determine associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There were no associations between ambient ozone concentrations and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There was, however, an association between PM10 concentrations and doctor visits for asthma (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04-1.19) and between NO2 concentration and wet cough (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.003-1.10) in single-pollutant models. The associations remained significant in multipollutant models. There was no consistent evidence that children with wheeze, positive histamine challenge, and doctor diagnosis of asthma reacted differently to air pollution from children with wheeze and doctor diagnosis of asthma and children with wheeze only. There were significant associations between PM10 levels and doctor visits for asthma and an association between NO2 levels and the prevalence of wet cough. We were, however, unable to demonstrate that current levels of ambient air pollution in western Sydney have a coherent range of adverse health effects on children with a history of wheezing

  11. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with changes in air mass origin at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean, a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition, small concentrations of

  12. Effect of increasing urban albedo on meteorology and air quality of Montreal (Canada) - Episodic simulation of heat wave in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchaei, Ali G.; Akbari, Hashem; Tessum, Christopher W.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing albedo is an effective strategy to mitigate urban air temperature in different climates. Using reflective urban surfaces decreases the air temperature, which potentially reduces the rate of generation of smog. However, for implementing the albedo enhancement, complicated interactions between air, moisture, aerosols, and other gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere should be considered. We used WRF-CHEM to investigate the effect of increasing albedo in Montreal, Canada, during a heat wave period (July 10th through July 12th, 2005) on air quality and urban climate. The reflectivity of roofs, walls, and roads are increased from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.6, and 0.45, respectively. Air temperature at 2-m elevation is decreased during all hours in the simulation period and the maximum reduction is about 1 °C on each day (Tmax is reduced by about 0.7 °C) The concentration of two regulated pollutants -ozone (O3) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) - is calculated at a height of 5-m above the ground. The maximum decrease in 8-h averaged ozone concentration is about 3% (∼0.2 ppbv). 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentration decreases by 1.8 μg/m3. This relatively small change in concentration of pollutants is related to the decrease in planetary boundary layer height caused by increasing the albedo. Additionally, the combined effect of decreased solar heat gain by building surfaces and decreased air temperature reduces the energy consumption of HVAC systems by 2% (∼0.1 W/m2), which exacerbates the positive effect of the albedo enhancement on the air quality.

  13. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. -- Air pollution has a greater influence on acute human mortality than weather type, with significant differences in risk from exposure to gaseous air pollution based on cause of death

  14. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  15. Monitoring of meteorology and air quality at influence area of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Monitoramento meteorologico e da qualidade do ar na regiao de influencia do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Edler Lins de; Villa, Felipe de Santana; Lyra, Diogenes Ganghis Pimentel de [CETREL-LUMINA Solucoes Ambientais, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Secron, Marcelo; Iorio, Patricia Freire; Mendes, Marcos Faistauer [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex (COMPERJ) will be installed in the north region of Itaborai city. The start of COMPERJ operations is foreseen to 2012. Because of the intensification of industrialization and urbanization processes, the implantation of COMPERJ will bring environmental modifications for Itaborai city and neighbors areas. Thus, meteorological and air quality monitoring was initiated in February of 2007 with the intention of carrying out a characterization of air pollution in this area, before COMPERJ operations. In this work are presented the results found in campaigns performed of February of 2007 until April of 2008. The meteorological monitoring disclosed that the meteorological parameters have varied enough throughout the months, but these are representative of a global behavior of the studied area. Monitoring of air quality has shown that atmospheric levels of monitored pollutants has been generally below of Brazilian air quality standards. This fact corroborates the basic aspect of the present study: identification of the concentrations 'background' in the studied area. Throughout the period of monitoring, the primary air quality standard for ozone has been reached. Observations of meteorological parameters indicate that this fact is associated to the emissions originated from Sao Goncalo, Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro cities. (author)

  16. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air: a focus on the effect of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, A; Maggos, Th; Michopoulos, J; Helmis, C; Vasilakos, Ch

    2009-05-01

    PM(2.5) and VOCs (benzene, toluene, m-p-o-xylenes) concentrations were measured in an urban and a suburban site in Athens, Greece, during the period between April and November 2004. This period, which is considered to be the warmer period in Greece, is characterized by the development of sea-breeze over the Attica Basin. Additionally strong Northern, North-eastern winds called "The Etesians", predominate during the summer months (July-August), acting positively to the dispersion of pollutants. In this campaign, 24 days with sea-breeze development were observed, 15 days with northern winds, 6 days with southern winds while the rest of the days presented no specific wind profile. Maximum concentrations of PM(2.5), VOCs and nitrogen oxides, were detected during the days with sea-breeze, while minimum concentrations during the days with northern winds. Ozone was the only pollutant that appeared to have higher concentrations in the background site and not in the city centre, where benzene presented strong negative correlation with ozone, indicating the photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons that lead to the ozone formation. The BTX ratios were similar for both sites and wind profiles, indicating common sources for those pollutants. T/B ratio ranged in low levels, between 3-5 for site A and 2-5 for site B, suggesting vehicles emissions as the main sources of volatile compounds. Finally, the strong correlations of PM(2.5) and benzene concentrations, between the two sampling sites, indicate that both the city centre and the background site, are affected by the same sources, under common meteorological conditions (sea-breeze, northern winds).

  18. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Liao, Jingbiao; Wang, Tijian; Zhu, Kuanguang; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height) rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer), and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum

  19. "Chemical Composition of TSP and PM10 and their Relations with Meteorological Parameters in the Ambient Air of Shariati Hospital District"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kermani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Since particulate matter (total suspended particles and particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm is one of the important pollutants in the ambient air of Tehran, the capital of Iran, organic substances, inorganic substances and lead levels in TSP and PM10, correlation between TSP and PM10 concentrations, ratio among the two fractions and relation between TSP and PM10 concentrations with meteorological parameters (relative humidity and temperature were studied. Twenty-four hour simultaneous sampling of TSP and PM10 has been carried out during the period of 22 December 2001 to 20 April 2002 in the ambient air of Shariati Hospital district. The results showed that inorganic substances were the most abundant component of TSP and PM10 (Approximately 76% and 68%, respectively; 0.21% of total mass for TSP and 0.26% of total mass for PM10 were lead particles; 64% of lead particles had a diameter less than 10 µm; 48% of TSP had a diameter less than 10 µm; while atmosphere relative humidity and temperature were in the range of 50% and 5-10○C respectively, specially on Saturdays in winter and more importantly in inversion conditions, the highest concentrations of TSP and PM10 would be expected.

  20. Impact of 2000–2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality inferred from a multi-model analysis of meteorological modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effect of climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality using general circulation models (GCMs show inconsistent results including in the sign of the effect. This reflects uncertainty in the GCM simulations of the regional meteorological variables affecting PM2.5. Here we use the CMIP3 archive of data from fifteen different IPCC AR4 GCMs to obtain improved statistics of 21st-century trends in the meteorological modes driving PM2.5 variability over the contiguous US. We analyze 1999–2010 observations to identify the dominant meteorological modes driving interannual PM2.5 variability and their synoptic periods T. We find robust correlations (r > 0.5 of annual mean PM2.5 with T, especially in the eastern US where the dominant modes represent frontal passages. The GCMs all have significant skill in reproducing present-day statistics for T and we show that this reflects their ability to simulate atmospheric baroclinicity. We then use the local PM2.5-to-period sensitivity (dPM2.5/dT from the 1999–2010 observations to project PM2.5 changes from the 2000–2050 changes in T simulated by the 15 GCMs following the SRES A1B greenhouse warming scenario. By weighted-average statistics of GCM results we project a likely 2000–2050 increase of ~ 0.1 μg m−3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the eastern US arising from less frequent frontal ventilation, and a likely decrease albeit with greater inter-GCM variability in the Pacific Northwest due to more frequent maritime inflows. Potentially larger regional effects of 2000–2050 climate change on PM2.5 may arise from changes in temperature, biogenic emissions, wildfires, and vegetation, but are still unlikely to affect annual PM2.5 by more than 0.5 μg m−3.

  1. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three

  2. Modelling deposition and air concentration of reduced nitrogen in Poland and sensitivity to variability in annual meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Maciej; Dore, Anthony J; Błaś, Marek; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2011-04-01

    The relative contribution of reduced nitrogen to acid and eutrophic deposition in Europe has increased recently as a result of European policies which have been successful in reducing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions but have had smaller impacts on ammonia (NH(3)) emissions. In this paper the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model was used to calculate the spatial patterns of annual average ammonia and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) air concentrations and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) dry and wet deposition with a 5 km × 5 km grid for years 2002-2005. The modelled air concentrations of NH(3) and dry deposition of NH(x) show similar spatial patterns for all years considered. The largest year to year changes were found for wet deposition, which vary considerably with precipitation amount. The FRAME modelled air concentrations and wet deposition are in reasonable agreement with available measurements (Pearson's correlation coefficients above 0.6 for years 2002-2005), and with spatial patterns of concentrations and deposition of NH(x) reported with the EMEP results, but show larger spatial gradients. The error statistics show that the FRAME model results are in better agreement with measurements if compared with EMEP estimates. The differences in deposition budgets calculated with FRAME and EMEP do not exceed 17% for wet and 6% for dry deposition, with FRAME estimates higher than for EMEP wet deposition for modelled period and lower or equal for dry deposition. The FRAME estimates of wet deposition budget are lower than the measurement-based values reported by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection of Poland, with the differences by approximately 3%. Up to 93% of dry and 53% of wet deposition of NH(x) in Poland originates from national sources. Over the western part of Poland and mountainous areas in the south, transboundary transport can contribute over 80% of total (dry + wet) NH(x) deposition. The spatial pattern of the relative contribution of

  3. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere. PMID:16266739

  4. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  5. Laryngeal Cuff Force Application Modeling During Air Medical Evacuation Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, David; Eisenbrey, Arthur B; Pettengill, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal tubes are intended to protect the airway and assist with mechanical ventilation in sedated patients. The blood vessels of the tracheal mucosa can be compressed by high tracheal tube cuff pressures (> 30 cm H2O), leading to reduced mucosal blood flow with resulting ischemia and morbidity. Previous research showed a direct correlation between aircraft pressure altitude and the pressure reading from the tracheal cuff, with resulting pressures > 80 cm H2O at 10,000 ft. Standard practice is to periodically remove air from the cuff during ascent based on assumed increased pressure on the adjacent tracheal mucosa. Using a vacuum chamber and a direct reading micropressure sensor in a 22-mm-diameter semirigid tube, we assessed the direct force applied by the tracheal cuff against the laryngeal tube analog. Standard tracheal cuffs showed direct force/pressure relationships when properly inflated to 20 cm H2O but much less than reported in the literature. Current literature reports values of 55 to 150 cm H2O at 5,000 ft, whereas we report 23 to 25 cm H2O. Our data indicate that a properly inflated cuff does not exceed the critical pressure of 30 cm H2O until the altitude exceeds 8,000 ft. Thus, the standard practice of deflating the laryngeal cuff on ascent should be reconsidered because it may be counterproductive to patient safety. PMID:27637439

  6. Application of satellite data to the studies of agricultural meteorology: Relationship between ground temperature from GMS IR data and AMeDAS air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate air temperature in areas where there is no meteorological observation site, using satellite thermal IR data. Surface temperature from GMS IR data derived by eq. (1) was compared with AMeDAS (meteorological observation site) air temperature. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The maximum correlation coefficients between AMeDAS air temperature and surface temperature from GMS IR data is 0.90, the minimum is 0.30 and the mean is 0.60±0.15. 2) The correlation coefficients are affected by the precipitable water and decrease with increasing precipitable Water as shown in Fig. 2. 3) The correlation coefficients for each GMS observed time are better at night and in the morning than during the day (Table 2). 4) Also, the small values of the regression coefficients appear during the day and the large values at night and in the morning (Table 2). 5) The standard deviations which indicated scattering around the regression line are large at 12:00 and 15:00, but small at 06:00 and 09:00 (Table 2). The reason that correlation coefficients, regression coefficients and standard deviations between AMeDAS air temperature and surface temperature from GMS IR data are less during the day than at night and in the morning, is caused by ground conditions because the effects of solar radiation on surface temperature depend on ground surface conditions: plant cover, incline of slope etc. The hourly mean deviation from the regression line for surface temperature was calculated to investigate the characteristic of ground surface conditions for each AMeDAS observation site. AMeDAS observation sites were classified into four types according to the patterns of the hourly mean deviation as shown in Fig. 5. Most of type I were distributed in the plain regions: Ishikari, Konsen and Tokachi. Type II appears in the basin regions and type III on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsuk. The remaining areas are type IV. The standard

  7. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  8. National Environmental Meteorological Services in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental meteorological services in China are concerned with atmospheric environmental quality, which is directly related to human activities and affects human health. In recent years, air pollution and other environmental problems have attracted nationwide attention in China, so the environmental meteorological services have been developed rapidly. To provide better meteorological monitoring and forecasting services, the Environmental Meteorological Centre of China Meteorological Administration was established in March 2014 by integrating the resources of various national service units. We review the development of China’s national environmental meteorological services and highlight their current status including major technological capabilities. We also explore future trends of the national environmental meteorological services by analysing deficiencies, gaps in supply and demand, and capabilities of the current environmental meteorological services.

  9. Air conditioning a vaccine laboratory. [Connaught Medical Research Laboratory, Toronto, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross J.

    1976-05-01

    In 1974, the new Bacterial Vaccine Building of Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, Canada, was opened to produce such vaccines as pertussis, typhoid, paratyphoids, and cholera and such toxoids as staphylococcus, diphtheria, and tetanus. It also produces other medicinal products. The layout of the complex and the air conditioning system necessary in all zones are described and schematically shown. (MCW)

  10. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital. PMID:23252881

  11. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. Methods A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. Results The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene

  12. Singapore Haze in June 2013: Consequences of Land-Use Change, Fires, and Anomalous Meteorology for Air Quality in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplitz, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Kim, P. S.; DeFries, R. S.; Marlier, M. E.; Schwartz, J.; Buonocore, J.; Myers, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    warm anomalies (+2 C°) in the East. These conditions appear to provide an important meteorological pathway by which land-use change fires in Indonesia may affect the health of large populations. Our work suggests that this pathway should be taken into account in the development of strategies to curb fire-related air pollution and health effects in Indonesia.

  13. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure air medical transport for pPCI, without occurrence of prolonged bedside times. The incidence of excessive RIPC-related discomfort or hemodynamic instability is rare. STEMI patients requiring on average >30 minutes transport for pPCI may be the ideal group for RIPC utilization.

  14. 2006-2012年青岛市空气质量与气象条件的关系%Relationship between air quality and meteorological conditions from 2006 to 2012 in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄容; 郭丽娜; 马艳; 于粟冰

    2015-01-01

    利用2006—2012年青岛市 SO2、NO2及 PM10的监测资料,统计分析3种污染物时空分布特征及污染物平均浓度与气象要素的关系,并分析了污染日气象条件的变化特征。结果表明:2006—2012年青岛市年平均污染日数为23—33 d;青岛市空气污染主要出现在冬、春两季,主要污染物为 PM10。青岛市中度以上污染为 PM10污染,大多由浮尘天气引起。污染物浓度与云量、降水量和气温呈负相关,与气压呈正相关。冬季大雾易造成空气污染加重,而4—6月海雾则使空气质量提高。弱的地面天气形势和接地逆温层结的存在及持续的烟、霾天气易导致青岛市空气污染。%Based on atmospheric monitoring data including SO2 ,NO2 and PM10 from 2006 to 2012 in Qingdao,tem-poral and spatial distributions of three main air pollutants and their correlations with the simultaneous meteorologi-cal elements were analyzed.Variation of meteorological conditions in pollution days was discussed.The result shows that the number of annual mean air pollution days are 23-33 days in Qingdao,most of which occurs in win-ter and spring.PM10 is the primary atmospheric pollutant in Qingdao.Air pollution above the median level in Qing-dao is mainly from PM10 ,which is mostly caused by external floating dust.Pollutant concentration is a negative correlation with cloud cover,precipitation and air temperature and positive correlation with air pressure.Air quality worsens during foggy days in winter,while the sea fog from April to June improves the air quality in Qingdao.Air pollution is easily induced by the existence of weak surface pressure pattern with the temperature inversion layer near ground and prolonged smog or haze in Qingdao.

  15. Influence of synoptic meteorological conditions on urban air quality -A study over Hyderabad, India using satellite data and ground based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani Sharma, Anu; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kvs, Badarinath

    out using Kipp Zonen pyranometer model CMP 11. The collocated measurements provide bet-ter understanding of the changes in aerosol properties and their influence on ground reaching solar radiation associated with changes in synoptic meteorological conditions over the study site. Considerable variations in aerosol properties and ground-reaching solar irradiance due to changes in wind velocity and direction associated with the low pressure system formed over southeast BoB were observed. Terra/Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AOD550 variations showed trends matching with ground observations. The nighttime AOD values showed a 60% decrease on December 5, 2008, corresponding to the low pressure system located nearer to the measurement site in Hyderabad. The global solar irradiance showed an 6% increase on December 4, 2008, during low pressure over BoB due to reduction in columnar aerosol loading compared to a normal period. Nighttime Light Detection and Ranging observa-tions suggested considerable reduction in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) loading under the influence of low pressure system. Results of the study have implications for monitoring urban air quality as synoptic weather systems are capable of modifying the atmospheric PM loading. In the climate change scenario increased occurrence of low pressure systems over the region was anticipated, and this will have impact on the differential loading of atmospheric pollutants over the region. Keywords: Aerosol optical depth, LIDAR, solar irradiance, PM2.5, UVery, Low pressure system

  16. Influences of ambient air PM2.5 concentration and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a residential apartment in Beijing using a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM2.5 concentrations in a typical residential apartment in Beijing and immediately outside of the building were measured simultaneously during heating and non-heating periods. The objective was to quantitatively explore the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. A statistical method for predicting indoor PM2.5 concentrations was proposed. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were strongly affected by meteorological conditions, especially wind directions. A bimodal distribution was identified during the heating season due to the frequent and rapid transition between severe pollution events and clean days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with outdoor PM2.5 concentrations but with 1–2 h delay, and the differences can be explained by ambient meteorological features, such as temperature, humidity, and wind direction. These results indicate the potential to incorporate indoor exposure features to the regional air quality model framework and to more accurately estimate the epidemiological relationship between human mortality and air pollution exposure. - Highlights: • Ambient air PM2.5 concentration was strongly affected by wind direction. • The indoor PM2.5 concentrations were lower than the outdoor concentrations on polluted days but were higher on very clean days. • Shorter lag time between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations was found in heating period than non-heating period. - A statistical method is developed to predict indoor PM concentrations based on outdoor PM concentrations based on high-resolution measurements

  17. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  18. Meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality in the United States: implications for PM2.5 sensitivity to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied a multiple linear regression model to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with meteorological variables in the contiguous US and from there to infer the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. We used 2004–2008 PM2.5 observations from ~1000 sites (~200 sites for PM2.5 components and compared to results from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. All data were deseasonalized to focus on synoptic-scale correlations. We find strong positive correlations of PM2.5 components with temperature in most of the US, except for nitrate in the Southeast where the correlation is negative. Relative humidity (RH is generally positively correlated with sulfate and nitrate but negatively correlated with organic carbon. GEOS-Chem results indicate that most of the correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH do not arise from direct dependence but from covariation with synoptic transport. We applied principal component analysis and regression to identify the dominant meteorological modes controlling PM2.5 variability, and show that 20–40% of the observed PM2.5 day-to-day variability can be explained by a single dominant meteorological mode: cold frontal passages in the eastern US and maritime inflow in the West. These and other synoptic transport modes drive most of the overall correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH except in the Southeast. We show that interannual variability of PM2.5 in the US Midwest is strongly correlated with cyclone frequency as diagnosed from a spectral-autoregressive analysis of the dominant meteorological mode. An ensemble of five realizations of 1996–2050 climate change with the GISS general circulation model (GCM using the same climate forcings shows inconsistent trends in cyclone frequency over the Midwest (including in sign, with a likely decrease in cyclone frequency implying an increase in PM2.5. Our results demonstrate the need for multiple GCM realizations (because of climate chaos when diagnosing

  19. Meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality in the United States: implications for PM2.5 sensitivity to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied a multiple linear regression model to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with meteorological variables in the contiguous US and from there to infer the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. We used 2004–2008 PM2.5 observations from ~1000 sites (~200 sites for PM2.5 components and compared to results from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. All data were deseasonalized to focus on synoptic-scale correlations. We find strong positive correlations of PM2.5 components with temperature in most of the US, except for nitrate in the Southeast where the correlation is negative. Relative humidity (RH is generally positively correlated with sulfate and nitrate but negatively correlated with organic carbon. GEOS-Chem results indicate that most of the correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH do not arise from direct dependence but from covariation with synoptic transport. We applied principal component analysis and regression to identify the dominant meteorological modes controlling PM2.5 variability, and show that 20–40% of the observed PM2.5 day-to-day variability can be explained by a single dominant meteorological mode: cold frontal passages in the eastern US and maritime inflow in the West. These and other synoptic transport modes drive most of the overall correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH except in the Southeast. We show that interannual variability of PM2.5 in the US Midwest is strongly correlated with cyclone frequency as diagnosed from a spectral-autoregressive analysis of the dominant meteorological mode. An ensemble of five realizations of 1996–2050 climate change with the GISS general circulation model (GCM using the same climate forcings shows inconsistent trends in cyclone frequency over the Midwest (including in sign, with a likely decrease in cyclone frequency implying an increase in PM2.5. Our results demonstrate the need for multiple GCM realizations (because of climate chaos when diagnosing

  20. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  1. Climate change and the meteorological drivers of PM air pollution: Understanding U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a serious public health issue for the United States. While there is a growing body of evidence that climate change will partially counter the effectiveness of future precursor emission reductions to reduce ozone (O3) air pollution, the lin...

  2. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  3. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional...

  4. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context. PMID:25555005

  5. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment.

  6. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  7. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  8. 2010年广州亚运期间空气质量与污染气象条件分析%Study on Air Quality and Pollution Meteorology Conditions of Guangzhou During the 2010 Asian Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷苑; 邓雪娇; 范绍佳; 吴兑; 李菲; 邓涛; 谭浩波; 蒋德海

    2012-01-01

    利用2010年11月4日~12月10日广州地区NO2、O3、SO2、PM、能见度实测资料,区域空气污染指数RAQI及大气输送扩散特征参数,分析广州亚运期间空气质量与气象条件变化特征.结果表明,亚运期间空气质量比亚运前后好,能见度比亚运前后大,PM1和PM2.5浓度比亚运前后小,能见度与PM1和PM2.5有较好的反相关;亚运期间NO2和SO2日均值和小时均值均达到国家一级标准,PM10日均值和O3小时均值均满足国家二级标准,污染物得到较好的控制;广州地区SO2受本地源和外地源远距离输送叠加影响,NO2受本地源影响较大;广州周边城市NO2、SO2和PM10有向广州输送的潜势,而广州O3有向其周边城市扩散的潜势;亚运期间污染气象条件比亚运前后有利,亚运期间污染物浓度降低得益于政府实施的减排措施及良好的气象条件.%Based on the monitoring data of NO2,O3,SO2,PM,visibility,regional air quality index(RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov.4,2010 to Dec.10,2010 in Guangzhou area,the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed.It was found that,during the Asian Games,the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games.The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games,while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower.The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1,PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships.Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards,whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards.Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games.The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission,while the concentration of NO2 was significantly

  9. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  10. Wind Power Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars; Højstrup, Jørgen; Frank, Helmut Paul

    1997-01-01

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind re...

  11. Statistical Physics in Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Various aspects of modern statistical physics and meteorology can be tied together. The historical importance of the University of Wroclaw in the field of meteorology is first pointed out. Next, some basic difference about time and space scales between meteorology and climatology is outlined. The nature and role of clouds both from a geometric and thermal point of view are recalled. Recent studies of scaling laws for atmospheric variables are mentioned, like studies on cirrus ice content, bri...

  12. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  13. Meteorological Archival Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Bergen Data Center (BDC) provides data archival capability for meteorological and oceanographic data. DESCRIPTION: The BDC operates as a resource for...

  14. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  15. Classification of Meteorological Drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zou Xukai; Xiao Fengjin; Lu Houquan; Liu Haibo; Zhu Changhan; An Shunqing

    2011-01-01

    Background The national standard of the Classification of Meteorological Drought (GB/T 20481-2006) was developed by the National Climate Center in cooperation with Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,National Meteorological Centre and Department of Forecasting and Disaster Mitigation under the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),and was formally released and implemented in November 2006.In 2008,this Standard won the second prize of the China Standard Innovation and Contribution Awards issued by SAC.Developed through independent innovation,it is the first national standard published to monitor meteorological drought disaster and the first standard in China and around the world specifying the classification of drought.Since its release in 2006,the national standard of Classification of Meteorological Drought has been used by CMA as the operational index to monitor and drought assess,and gradually used by provincial meteorological sureaus,and applied to the drought early warning release standard in the Methods of Release and Propagation of Meteorological Disaster Early Warning Signal.

  16. Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oudin, Anna; Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire...

  17. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  18. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars;

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  19. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  20. Improvement and evaluation of the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 for air-quality applications in Southern California and the San Joaquin Valley: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Robert D.; Boucouvala, Dimitra; Wilkinson, James; Yaday, Anil; Seaman, Nelson L.; Stauffer, David R.; Hunter, Glenn K.; Miller, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Penn State University (PSU) part of the study was to investigate the MM5's ability to simulate wintertime fog in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and summertime sea breeze flows in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). For the SJV work the MM5 was configured with four nested grid and an advanced turbulence sub-model. Applied to the event of 7-12 December 1995, observed during the IMS-95 program, the model's innermost domain used 40 vertical layers and a 4-km mesh. Several exp...

  1. A Miniature Robotic Plane Meteorological Sounding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马舒庆; 陈洪滨; 汪改; 潘毅; 李强

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  2. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  3. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  4. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  5. Effects of meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy from nine hospitals in Changchun city, Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo-yu; ZHANG Yue; XU Chang-yan; JIA Bo-ting; WANG Chun-jie; JIA Zhan-jun; NI Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well recognized that meteorological factors have important influences on the onset and development of many kinds of diseases.The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy at Changchun city,Jilin Province,northeast China.Methods A total of 763 medical records of inpatients from nine hospitals at Changchun city,during a period from April 6 to April 17 in 2010,were reviewed.These patients were admitted to hospitals due to the occurrence of cerebral infarction.The hypertensive nephropathy was evidenced with certain diagnosis of essential hypertension and hypertension-related kidney injuries.The cerebral infarction was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (Stroke) standard.All the meteorological data were from practical monitoring records in Jilin Province Meteorological Observatory.The relationships between the epidemiological prevalence of cerebral infarction and meteorological variables were analyzed using the time series models of statistics.Results Compared with admission rates before the violent change in meteorological status (April 6 to April 17,2010),the number of admission patients suffering from cerebral infarction remarkably peaked on April 12.Such an increase was highly correlated with heavy precipitation,elevation of daily average relative humidity,and reduction of average daily air temperature.With the betterment of the meteorological conditions on April 17,the admission rates of cerebral infarction patients dropped to the same level as the dates before snowing (April 6 to April 11).Conclusions The meteorological changes are highly associated with the occurrence of cerebral infarction in patients with hypertensive renal injury in northeast China.This study also suggested that an intensive medical interference for those patients with hypertension-induced organ injuries is very necessary in preventing

  6. Variations in optical properties of aerosols on monsoon seasonal change and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD against the Angstrom exponent. A modified algorithm based on the prototype model of Tan et al. (2014a was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET because of frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on the coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests. The predicted AOD in the proposed model yielded a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68. The corresponding percent mean relative error was less than 0.33% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Validation tests were performed on the model against selected LIDAR data and yielded good correspondence. The predicted AOD can beneficially monitor short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information in atmospheric corrections.

  7. Variations in optical properties of aerosols on monsoon seasonal change and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent. A modified algorithm based on the prototype model of Tan et al. (2014a) was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET because of frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on the coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests. The predicted AOD in the proposed model yielded a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68. The corresponding percent mean relative error was less than 0.33% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Validation tests were performed on the model against selected LIDAR data and yielded good correspondence. The predicted AOD can beneficially monitor short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information in atmospheric corrections.

  8. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  9. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  10. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  11. Monsoonal variations in aerosol optical properties and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining continuous aerosol-optical-depth (AOD) measurements is a difficult task due to the cloud-cover problem. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed. In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the Ångström exponent against the AOD. A new empirical algorithm was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET due to frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The calibrated model coefficients have a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.72. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on these calibrated coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests, yielding a R2 of 0.68 as validation accuracy. The error in weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE) was less than 0.40% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Performance of our model was compared against selected LIDAR data to yield good correspondence. The predicted AOD can enhance measured short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information for climatological studies and monitoring aerosol variation.

  12. The DAURE field campaign: meteorological overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jorba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available From end of February until March 2009 and July 2009 the experimental campaign named DAURE took place in northeastern Spain in both an urban and rural sites (Barcelona city and Montseny Natural Park with the main objective of studying the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region. Several groups collaborated in an extensive measurement campaign with aerosol monitoring, meteorological measurements, atmospheric vertical structure retrievals from LIDAR and supported by numerical simulations of the meteorological and air quality conditions over the region. In this article, we present a description of the main meteorological conditions that affected the Barcelona geographical area during the campaign. The main synoptic conditions are identified and discussed by means of meteorological observations and numerical weather prediction models. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the local meteorological conditions during the campaign is also presented. The characteristic surface wind field and the vertical structure of the main flows affecting Barcelona and the Montseny rural site are discussed using high-resolution mesoscale meteorological simulations, vertical profiles of LIDAR measurements, radiosoundings, and analysis of backward dispersion simulations with a Lagrangian model. The analysis permits the identification of three main meteorological regimes for the winter campaign (February and March 2009: a first regime dominated by high-pressure conditions over Barcelona and western Mediterranean Basin, high insolation, and the development of thermally-driven wind flows. A second regime is characterized by a strong northwestern advection that produced a cleansing action over the atmosphere. And a third identified regime is dominated by strong stagnant conditions produced by thermal inversions that decouple the low troposphere of plain and coastal areas from mountainous terrains. On the other hand, the main meteorological regimes

  13. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  14. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... authorized provider through the payment of travel costs from their residence to the MTF. The travel... well as processing any travel vouchers. Travel for a non-medical attendant (NMA) for patients...

  15. Taking the Blood Bank to the Field: The Design and Rationale of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Guyette, Francis X; Neal, Matthew D; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Daley, Brian J; Harbrecht, Brian G; Miller, Richard S; Phelan, Herb A; Adams, Peter W; Early, Barbara J; Peitzman, Andrew B; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhage and trauma induced coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. Interest in the use of prehospital plasma in hemorrhaging patients as a primary resuscitation agent has grown recently. Trauma center-based damage control resuscitation using early and aggressive plasma transfusion has consistently demonstrated improved outcomes in hemorrhaging patients. Additionally, plasma has been shown to have several favorable immunomodulatory effects. Preliminary evidence with prehospital plasma transfusion has demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term outcomes. Applying state-of-the-art resuscitation strategies to the civilian prehospital arena is compelling. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital plasma transfusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk for traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with profound hypotension (SBP ≤ 70 mmHg) or hypotension (SBP 71-90 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR ≥ 108 bpm) from six level I trauma center air medical transport programs. The trial will also explore the effects of prehospital plasma transfusion on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research with an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizing a multipronged community consultation process. It is one of three ongoing Department of Defense-funded trials aimed at expanding our understanding of the optimal therapeutic approaches to coagulopathy in the hemorrhaging trauma patient.

  16. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  17. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of induced air activation in a Medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutrons produced during the bombardment of target with high energy protons produce induced air activation in the vaults. The major radioactive isotopes produced in air are 41Ar, 15O and 13N. 13N and 15O are the fast neutron reactions and 41Ar is produced by the absorption of thermal neutrons, slowed down through multiple collisions with the containment walls and floor. The concentration of air activity depends on the energy of the proton, current, target, room dimensions and ventilation rate etc. This paper presents the values of Monte Carlo computed resident air activity in a typical 30 MeV proton cyclotron vault and irradiation cave. The Monte Carlo simulations are made to estimate the air activity concentration using FLUKA(1,2) Monte Carlo code. 30 MeV protons falling on a thick target is simulated inside the concrete vaults. The beam is assumed to be lost in thick H2O18 target in an irradiation cave of dimension 4 m x 4 m x 2.4 m whereas in cyclotron vault of dimension 11.6 m x 8.4 m x 5.1 m, the beam loss material is tantalum. The thick target neutron yield per 30 MeV protons falling on thick Tantalum and H2O18 target computed using FLUKA are 2.12E-2 and 1.83E-2 respectively. These values are comparable with the values reported in lAEA TRS-283. The saturated activity with no ventilation computed by FLUKA code, and saturated activity with ventilation rate of 10 air changes per hour are presented. The activity values vary with the ventilation rates. (author)

  19. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  20. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  1. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  2. [Medical aspects of the environmental sanitation of workplaces in compressed air work in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Shibayama, M

    1987-01-01

    Actual follow-up investigations were made for a period of 5 yr and 10 months since February 1980 on 55 places of caisson and shield work. The maximum bottom pressure in caisson work was 3.6 kg/cm2 (4.6 ATA) and that of shield work was 1.6 kg/cm2. The number of exposures of workers was 23,737 in caisson work and 75,244 in shield work. The items of geomedical measurements were temperature (degrees C), humidity, dust, illumination, noise, oxygen, carbonic acid gas and others. In compressed air work, it is most important to prevent decompression sickness (bends) from the view of occupational health. The incidence of bends has decreased in recent years because of strict control by regulations. Environmental hygiene, however, has seldom been discussed in this field and little geomedical control has been made on compressed air work. In view of this situation, we have, therefore, studied, observed, and measured the hygienic factors of this work during the past five years. This investigation is without doubt the first of its kind in Japan and the areas covered most of the regions where compressed air works have been made in the past. From these results, it can be concluded as follows: The working temperature was controlled, but humidity was too high (nearly 90%). Illumination was insufficient. Dust was a problem, but high humidity played an important role in decreasing the volume. The environment was noisy. It is therefore natural that environmental studies should be continued and hygienic consideration be further emphasized in compressed air work. PMID:3613254

  3. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  4. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  5. `X meteograph and MO.D.A.`: two information systems for processing meteorological data for air quality assessment; X{sub M}eteograph e MO.D.A.: due sistemi informativi per la visualizzazione ed elaborazione interattiva di dati meteorologici e di qualita` dell`aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Andrea [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-03-01

    This paper introduces the Information System named `X{sub M}eteograph`, which enables an interactive processing of meteorological data stored in the `Meteodata` database, which is housed at the `Research Centre Casaccia` of ENEA, on a VAX computer. The `MO.D.A.` Information System is also described; this system allows the user to visualize and to apply some statistical processing to the a.m. meteorological data, and to air quality data. Both systems have been developed in co-operation between AMB/INF and AMB/SAF Sectors of ENEA - Environment Department. Co-operation included software design (concerning MO.D.A.) and sharing of costs. As a result of this activity, we provide the user with software packages easy to use, which enable retrieval, processing and rendering of meteorological data from the Meteodata database and air quality data from external sources; rendering is done in the form of tables, graphs and plotting of contours and symbols on geographical maps.

  6. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.)

  7. Impact of meteorological variation on hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Si-Heon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change could affect allergic diseases, especially due to pollen. However, there has been no epidemiologic study to demonstrate the relationship between meteorological factors, pollen, and allergic patients. We aimed to investigate the association between meteorological variations and hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy. Methods The study subjects were adult patients who received skin prick tests between April and July from 1999 to 2008. We reviewed the medical records for the test results of 4,715 patients. Patients with tree pollen allergy were defined as those sensitized to more than 1 of 12 tree pollen allergens. We used monthly means of airborne tree pollen counts and meteorological factors: maximum/average/minimum temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation. We analyzed the correlations between meteorological variations, tree pollen counts, and the patient numbers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between meteorological factors and hospital visits of patients. Results The minimum temperature in March was significantly and positively correlated with tree pollen counts in March/April and patient numbers from April through July. Pollen counts in March/April were also correlated with patient numbers from April through July. After adjusting for confounders, including air pollutants, there was a positive association between the minimum temperature in March and hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy from April to July(odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.25. Conclusions Higher temperatures could increase tree pollen counts, affecting the symptoms of patients with tree pollen allergy, thereby increasing the number of patients visiting hospitals.

  8. Disqualifying Medical Conditions of Flying Personnel in Chinese Army and Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-wei Wang; Shu-xuan Xu; Xian-rong Xu; Tong-xin Chen

    2008-01-01

    @@ After inpatient aircrews of Chinese Army and Air Force are treated at local hospitals,their health status will be evaluated.If it is aeronantieally adaptable,the conclusion would be flying qualification;if it may impact the flight safety or the flight environment may aggravate the illness,the conclusion would be flight suspension,and then the patient should be forwarded from local hospital to our hospital.After detailed examination,if the conditions of flying personnel are considered not qualified for flight,the conclusion of flying disqualification should be made finally.

  9. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  10. Wind power variations under humid and arid meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • It indicates the role of weather parameters’ roles in the wind energy calculation. • Meteorological variables are more significant in arid regions for wind power. • It provides opportunity to take into consideration air density variability. • Wind power is presented in terms of the wind speed, temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The classical wind power per rotor area per time is given as the half product of the air density by third power of the wind velocity. This approach adopts the standard air density as constant (1.23 g/cm3), which ignores the density dependence on air temperature and pressure. Weather conditions are not taken into consideration except the variations in wind velocity. In general, increase in pressure and decrease in temperature cause increase in the wind power generation. The rate of increase in the pressure has less effect on the wind power as compared with the temperature rate. This paper provides the wind power formulation based on three meteorological variables as the wind velocity, air temperature and air pressure. Furthermore, from the meteorology point of view any change in the wind power is expressed as a function of partial changes in these meteorological variables. Additionally, weather conditions in humid and arid regions differ from each other, and it is interesting to see possible differences between the two regions. The application of the methodology is presented for two meteorology stations in Istanbul, Turkey, as representative of the humid regions and Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for arid region, both on daily record bases for 2010. It is found that consideration of air temperature and pressure in the average wind power calculation gives about 1.3% decrease in Istanbul, whereas it is about 13.7% in Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah. Hence, consideration of meteorological variables in wind power calculations becomes more significant in arid regions

  11. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good......, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative...

  13. The US Air Force medical service system%美国空军的医疗保障体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志斌

    2016-01-01

    借鉴与学习美国空军医疗保障体系与先进理念,以及稳定航空军医队伍的有效手段.主要引用美国空军两个网络资料,文献4篇,军标1个.这些资料表明,美国空军高层已形成共识——良好的医疗服务是飞行安全与战斗力的重要保障.因此,每年预算庞大的经费,以维持75个医疗中心、医院、诊所或医疗站的专一而高效地运转.而军事人员通用医疗保险制度(TRICARE)使三军人员就近就诊,大幅节省费用.全球搜救、空运医疗服务系统和分级健康维护与治疗,构成完备的医疗保障体系.航空军医则是保障空军全体官兵健康的重要前哨,通过分级培训与较高待遇,使航空军医在专业与生活水平两方面均能不断提升,有效地稳定了这支队伍.美国TRICARE制度可以借鉴,稳定航空军医队伍的手段值得学习.%To analyze the United State Air Force (USAF) medical service system in order to obtain core concepts and methods to maintain high level and active flight surgeon team. Data from 4 articles, 1 military standard and 2 websites were cited. The data indicated that the USAF leadership had a consensus: good medical service was an important guarantee for flight safety and fighting capacity. Therefore, the 75 medical centers, hospitals, clinics or stations were maintained by a huge annual budget of funds. TRICARE medical insurance program provided the military personnel with the nearest medication to save substantial cost. Global search and rescue, aeromedical evacuation and grading healthcare constitute a comprehensive medical insurance system. The flight surgeon was as an outpost for healthcare of all the officers and airmen. The higher annual salary and grading professional training can effectively stabilize and improve the flight surgeon team. The medical insurance program serving uniformed military members should be followed as an example. The means of maintaining flight surgeon team was worth

  14. Comparison of 1997 and 2015 El-Nino on Meteorological and Atmospheric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lindsey; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of dramatic 1997-1998 and 2015-2016 El-Nino on meteorological and atmospheric parameters globally using satellite and ground observations. We have considered meteorological parameters (rainfall, air temperature, surface pressure, winds, water vapor) and atmospheric parameters (air temperature, total ozone column). Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in some of meteorological and atmospheric parameters in different parts of the world at different time. Further, we have carried out comparison of some of the various meteorological and atmospheric parameters associated with El-Nino of 1997-1998 and 20015-2016, detrimental impact of 2015-2016 El-Nino is observed.

  15. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  16. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  17. Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimešová, Jana; Stŕedová, Hana; Stŕeda, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Meteorology Research and Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yingchun; Wu Dui; Li Ju; Chen Fei; Lenschow Donald; Sun Jielun; Niyogi Dev; Lau Kaihon; Jiang Weimei; Ding Guoan

    2005-01-01

    @@ An international workshop on urban meteorology: observation and modeling, was jointly held by the Institute of Urban Meteorology ( China ) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (US) in Beijing, October, 2004. The workshop was intended to share recent progress in urban meteorological research, discuss issues related to research and development priorities faced by diverse Chinese institutions, and explore collaboration opportunities between Chinese and US research institutions. This article summarizes the major issues discussed at the workshop, including observation on urban boundary layer, urban landuse modeling, socio-economic impacts of weather and climates, and air quality in urban environment. It includes recommendations for future urban meteorology observational and modeling research, and potential collaborative opportunities between China and US.

  19. Relationship between onset of peptic ulcer and meteorological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yun Liu; Zhong-Hui Liang; An-Ning Gao; Guo-Du Tang; Wang-Yue Yang; Jiang Qin; Xin-Guo Wu; Dong-Cai Zhu; Gui-Ning Wang; Jin-Jiang Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the relationship between onset of peptic ulcer (PU) and meteorological factors (MFs).METHODS: A total of 24 252 Patients were found with active PU in 104 121 samples of gastroscoic examination from 17 hospitals in Nanning from 1992 to 1997. The detectable rate of PU (DRPU) was calculated every month,every ten days and every five days. An analysis of DRPU and MFs was made in the same period of the year. A forecast model based on MFs of the previous month was established. The real and forecast values were tested and verified.RESULTS: During the 6 years, the DRPU from November to April was 24.4 -28.8%. The peak value (28.8%)was in January. The DRPU from May to October was 20.0 -22.6%, with its low peak (20.0%) in June. The DRPU decreased from winter and spring to summer and autumn (P < 0.005). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average temperature value was -0.8704,-0.6624, -0.5384 for one month, ten days, five days respectively (P < 0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average highest temperature value was -0.8000, -0.6470,-0.5167 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average lowest temperature value was -0.8091, -0.6617, -0.5384 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average dew point temperature was -0.7812,-0.6246, -0.4936 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average air pressure value was 0.7320, 0.5777, 0.4579 respectively (P <0.01). The average temperature, average highest and lowest temperature, average air pressure and average dew point temperature value of the previous month, ten days and five days could forecast the onset of PU, with its real and forecast values corresponding to 71.8%, 67.9% and 66.6% respectively.CONCLUSION: DRPU is closely related with the average temperature, average highest and lowest temperature,average air pressure and average dew point temperature of each month, every ten days and every five

  20. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  1. Focusing on Improving Automated Meteorological Observations from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shawn R.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Resolution Marine Meteorology (HRMM) community is working to improve the quality of, and access to, surface marine meteorological and oceanographic data collected in situ by automated instrumentation on ships and moored platforms. The purpose of the Second High-Resolution Marine Meteorology Workshop, hosted by The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Climate Observation (OCO), last April, was to discuss implementation of the recommendations from the Workshop on High-Resolution Marine Meteorology held in Tallahassee, Florida on 3-5 March 2003 (for details, see http://www.coaps.fsu.edu/RVSMDC/marine_workshop/Workshop.html ). Shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOSs) are an essential component of a sustained ocean observing system. SAMOSs provide platform navigation, surface meteorology, and near-surface ocean data that are ideal benchmarks for new satellite sensors (e.g., WindSat, future National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) sensors) and global ocean-atmosphere models. SAMOS sampling is adequate to provide accurate estimates of the variability on scales (from subdiurnal) needed for satellite calibration and validation. Sampling rates also are ideal for estimating turbulent air-sea heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes that are critical for climate research and can be used to help understand sources of bias and uncertainty in global model flux fields. SAMOS observations from oceanographic research vessels (R/Vs) are of particular importance since these vessels frequently operate in areas far outside the normal merchant shipping lanes.

  2. Rescue procedures in the major trauma of upper extremities – The role of the polish medical air rescue in the therapeutic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the growing use of various types of industrial and agricultural machinery, occupational accidents are among the most serious ones and quite frequently result in the permanent posttraumatic disability of the injured person. In Poland, a replantation service has been operating since 2010. Each day, one out of six centres provides emergency replantation service accepting amputation calls from across the country. Patients qualified for replantation often need to be transported from places located even several hundred kilometres from the target hospital. Material and Methods: The analysis covered 174 Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS missions and 112 interhospital transports. The data were obtained as a result of a retrospective analysis of the air and medical documentation of 23 460 missions carried out by the Polish Medical Air Rescue (Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe – SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts in the years 2011–2013. Results: In the period under study, the Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopters dressed 135 patients with upper extremity amputations at the scene and transported them to hospitals as part of HEMS missions. At the same time, SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts made 102 interhospital transports. Ninety patients were qualified for treatment in replantation service centres. The average air transport time was 76 min, while the total transport time was 172.3 min. With transport exceeding 300 km, the average time advantage over the ground transport was approximately 1.5 h. Conclusions: In justified cases, the use of helicopters and airplanes is an optimal method of transporting patients with the major trauma to upper extremities. Med. Pr. 2014;65(6:765–776

  3. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  4. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  5. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  6. On the spectra and coherence of some surface meteorological parameters in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Spectra and cross-spectra of monthly time series of the surface meteorological parameters, sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure were computed for the period 1948-1972 over the Arabian Sea...

  7. The DOE/NOAA meteorological program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) has recently upgraded the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Meteorological Measuring Network. This has allowed the entire service system to be modernized

  8. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    Benthic Disturbance Experiment surveys in the Central Indian Ocean Basin yielded baseline data on surface meteorological conditions during June and August, 1997 together with sea surface temperature (SST) and could data to estimate the air-sea heat...

  9. Progress in Marine Meteorology Studies in China during 1999-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东晓; 秦曾灏; 施平

    2004-01-01

    The progresses of marine meteorology studies achieved in China during the four year period from 1999 to 2002 are summarized in six directions: air-sea flux, marine meteorology in high latitudes, marine disasters, connection between ocean and weather/climate in China, remote sensing applications and new methodologies in marine meteorology. Compared to the previous ones, these studies adopted much more first-hand datasets, and more scientific issues were involved. As an exciting remark, there were so many contributions done by the young scientists. A brief statement about the research strategy of marine meteorology in China for the coming years is also given.

  10. APPLICATION OF AIR PURIFICATION PRODUCTS IN MEDICAL BUILDINGS%空气净化产品在医疗建筑中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍亭; 武兴斌; 韩莉

    2016-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the main sources of indoor polutants in public buildings; describes the types and working principle of air purification products; analyzes the requirements of medical buildings for air purification products and ranges of various air purification products applied within the hospital.%文章简单介绍了公共建筑室内污染物的主要来源;介绍了空气净化产品的种类及工作原理;分析了医疗建筑对空气净化产品的要求以及各类空气净化产品在医院内的适用范围。

  11. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  12. ROMANIAN AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGY APPLICABLE LEGAL FRAMEWORK –BRIEFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this briefing is toprovide an overview of the aeronautical meteorology legal framework in Romania. In this context, the role and importance of aeronautical meteorology in international air traffic management will be underlined, with focus on the civil aviation activity in Romania. The international legal framework and modalities of implementing these rules at national level will constitute a significant part of the present study., Specific accent will be put on the national regulatory framework and structure, means of updating it, and how it responds to changing regulatory requirements.

  13. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP. To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US Air Force Medical Service (AFMS that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT structure. Conclusions: The

  14. Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Smreková, Lucia; Ostatníková, Daniela; Čabajová, Zlata; Hodosy, Július; Kúdela, Matúš

    2009-09-01

    Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant ( p statistical significance, the effects of selected meteorological parameters on salivary testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.

  15. 76 FR 34845 - Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Wireless Air-Conduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 874 Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of... to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 874 is amended as follows: PART 874--EAR,...

  16. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  17. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Tang

    Full Text Available To prevent surgical site infection (SSI, the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH, and carbon dioxide (CO2, suspended particulate matter (PM, and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18% and traumatic surgery room (8%. The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  18. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the th

  19. Meteorological Test Reference Case - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The report describes a case study. Actual weather data is converted into input for hygrothermal calculations. A survey of the literature on calculation of driving rain is reported and a ‘driving rain potential’ is generated on the basis of hourly meteorological data for selected years. The study...

  20. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) Applications In Global Environment And Natural Disaster Monitoring 1) Application in world crop yield estimation China is now one of the few nations in the world that can provide operational service with both GEO and polar-orbit meteorological satellites.

  1. Overview of the meteorological satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaira, Nobuhiko

    1988-01-25

    The geostational meteorological satellite (Himawari) GMS-3 is now in activity. The next satellite GMS-4-4 is to be launched in 1989. GMS is a geostational meteorological satellite with rotates at 100 rpm by the spin stabilization system. The spin axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane across the earth. For imaging of the earth, GMS scans the earth from the west to the east, with a visible IR radiator. With the computer recently introduced, the observation can be successively made every 1 hour interval in the normal condition. The cloud-moving image obtained by the successive observation shows the cloud movement more smoothly, as compared with that obtained by conventional observation every 3 hour interval. The main meteorological observation items which can not be achieved by the present meteorological satellite include rainfall and ground atmospheric pressure. TRMM for measuring rainfalls is under co-investigation of U.S.A. and Japan. Measurement of atomospheric pressure has not reached the practical use stage yet. Typical measuring method utilizes the O/sub 2/ absorption wavelength range with a microwave. (6 figs, 2 tabs, 4 refs)

  2. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  3. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao; Zong-xue Xu; De-peng Zuo; Xu-ming Wang

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteo-rological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that:(1) mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites;(2) the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time;and (3) relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches;solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  4. An Overview of the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis; Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) acts as a bridge between research and operations by transitioning technology to improve weather support to the Shuttle and American space program. It is a NASA entity operated under a tri-agency agreement by NASA, the US Air Force, and the National Weather Service (NWS). The AMU contract is managed by NASA, operated by ENSCO, Inc. personnel, and is collocated with Range Weather Operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The AMU is tasked by its customers in the 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and the NWS in Melbourne, FL with projects whose results help improve the weather forecast for launch, landing, and ground operations. This presentation describes the history behind the formation of the AMU, its working relationships and goals, how it is tasked by its customers, and examples of completed tasks.

  5. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and 133Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of 133Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 x 1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 x 1016 to 2.4 x 1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 x 1013 to 3.7 x 1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases

  6. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-01

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  7. Space Environment Deteation of Chinese Meteorological Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Shijin; ZHU Guangwu; LIANG Jinbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the space environment detection of Chinese geosynchronous and sun-synchronous meteorological satellites and gives a short perspective of space environment observations on board meteorological satellites.

  8. Meteorological and Environmental Research Welcomes Your Papers!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research (ISSN 2152-3940) is a comprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal founded by Wu Chu (USA-China) Science Culture Media Co. in January, 2010, in Rhode Island, USA. The journal covers main research and application areas of meteorology and environment, such as

  9. Meteorological and Environmental Research Welcomes Your Papers!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research (ISSN 2152-3940) is a comprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal founded by Wu Chu (USA-China) Science & Culture Media Co. in January, 2010, in Rhode Island, USA. The journal covers main research and application areas of meteorology and environment, such as

  10. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  11. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  12. Determination of the evaporation duct height from standard meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Levadnyi, Yu. V.

    2007-02-01

    Four models used for evaluating the height of the evaporation duct from measured atmospheric pressure, water and air temperatures, and air humidity are considered.The calculated results are compared with the duct heights measured during two oceanographic expeditions in the tropical zone of the Atlantic Ocean and the equatorial zone of the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity of models to the errors in the meteorological parameters is investigated. It is shown that, in the case of unstable stratification, the heights of ducts in the 5 20-m range can be evaluated with an error of about 2.5 m. Recommendations for selection of optimal models are given.

  13. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  14. Design and Application of Intelligent Air Puriifer of Medical Level%医疗级智能空气净化器的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史利克; 王悦; 徐亮; 贾媛; 姚东升; 励秀武; 刘燕

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the design principle and development process of the intelligent air puriifer of medical level. The air puriifer adopts the modes of ifltration, activated carbon adsorption, and plasma-combined puriifcation. The highly-efifcient iflter screen and activated the carbon iflter layer can iflter dust particles, adsorb formaldehyde, toluene and other harmful gases. The antiseptic plasma puriifer can release puriifcation factor and can cause active sedimentation of pm10 and pm2.5 particles, purify the harmful gas such as formaldehyde and toluene, and kill pathogenic microorganisms. Intelligent control system can adjust air volume of the running fan automatically according to the change of air quality and thus can effectively save the energy consumption. It is suitable for puriifcation and disinfection of indoor air in the medical environment.%本文介绍了医疗级智能空气净化器的设计及研制过程。该净化器采用过滤、活性炭吸附、等离子联合净化的模式研制,其高效过滤网和活性炭过滤层可过滤微尘颗粒,吸附甲醛、甲苯等有害气体;其等离子杀菌净化器可释放净化因子,主动沉降PM10、PM2.5颗粒物,净化甲醛、甲苯等有害气体,杀灭病原微生物;其智能控制系统可根据空气质量的变化,自动调节风机运行风量,可有效节约能耗,适用于医疗环境室内空气的净化与消毒。实际应用效果表明,该净化器可有效净化室内空气,达到了设计目的。

  15. Metrology for meteorology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlone, Andrea; Bellagarda, Simone; Bertiglia, Fabio; Coppa, Graziano; Lopardo, Giuseppina; Roggero, Guido; Sanna, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    For a few years now, a fruitful collaboration has been growing between the metrology and meteorology communities. The main need expressed by top level Institutions was for the availability of robust data for environmental and meteorological studies and for the benefit of the present and future generations of climatologists. This was translated by the metrology community into two key objectives centred on traceability and uncertainty. Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are continuously recorded by a multitude of different sensors on satellites, balloon radiosondes, aircraft, surface weather stations, buoys, and deep sea devices; all of them working in different operating environments and affected by different influence quantities. This complex system, as a whole, requires dedicated calibration techniques and methods to guarantee fully documented traceability and measurements uncertainty evaluation, thus ensuring complete comparability of measurement results. The inclusion of measurement uncertainty in historical and future data series represents a fundamental step towards greater public confidence in evaluations of climate change. EURAMET, the European association of national institute of metrology is funding several joint research projects on those topics and is launching a task group of experts, formed by both metrologists and members of environmental, meteorological Institutions and climatologists. One of those projects, "MeteoMet" (www.meteomet.org), started in 2011 and re-funded in 2014, stands out since it hits both targets: improve the traceability of an increasing number of ECVs and promote the involvement of stakeholders in support of their needs. This mission leads to a novel vision: a permanent cooperation between metrology and meteorology based on new and existing institutions and infrastructures.

  16. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); McEwen, M; Shen, H [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Siegbahn, EA [Department of Medical Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  18. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, The Royal Women' s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Stevenson, Andrew W. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Hall, Christopher J. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Lye, Jessica E. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Nordstroem, Terese [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden); Midgley, Stewart M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lewis, Robert A. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  19. Research on Standardization of Basic Meteorological Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunhu

    2011-01-01

    Current Development of National Meteorological Information Network The national meteorological information network (NMIN) is one of the most important information systems in China's basic meteorological business.Through the construction and development for more than 60 years,the national meteorological information network is beginning to take shape now.The core network in national level has been basically formed,which combines ground wideband network with aerospace satellite communications network all over the country,and the local networks of meteorological departments in different levels have also been developed.

  20. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  1. The influence of meteorological parameters on the occurrence of hypertensive urgency and emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppe, Christina [Centre for Human-Biometeorological Research, Freiburg (Germany). Deutscher Wetterdienst; Ghafoor, Jasmin; Arndt, Daniel; Schilling, Hanno; Boergel, Jan [Katharinen-Hospital, Unna (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Springer, Stephanie; Muegge, Andreas [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 2

    2011-10-15

    Hypertensive urgency/emergency is a common and potentially life threatening condition that is characterised by a rapid and strong increase in blood pressure. It is estimated that hypertensive urgencies/emergencies account for 25 % of all patient visits in the medical section of emergency departments. Between 24 September 2007 and 06 September 2008, we investigated 195 persons with hypertensive events who were admitted to the emergency unit of the University Clinic St. Josef Hospital in Bochum. After stabilization of blood pressure, the patients were sent to the ward for further evaluation. Aldosterone, renin, and cortisol levels were monitored during the first 24 hours. Blood was taken at 8 am after 2 hours in supine position and after mobilization at 10 am. Meteorological data at the time of admission were analyzed for potential associations with the temporary accumulation of hypertensive events. The meteorological parameters were air temperature TA, relative humidity RH, air pressure P, and sunshine duration SD, observed at the meteorological station in Duesseldorf (airport). In addition, perceived temperature PT was calculated and included in the analysis. First results indicate that the hypertensive events occurred on days when TA departed on average -0.28 K (95 % confidence interval: -0.59 to -0.03 K) and PT deviated on average -0.43 K (-0.82 to -0.04) from the respective values of the preceding day. On days without hypertensive events TA was on average 0.21 (-0.08 to 0.49) and PT was on average 0.32 K (-0.04 to 0.68) higher than on the day before. Days with and days without cases of hypertensive events were, with respect to the daily TA and PT changes, significantly different (TA: p = 0.012; PT: p = 0.003). On days with lower PT than on the previous day the probability of a hospital admission due to a hypertensive event was more than twice as high as on days with higher PT than on the day before. These first results indicate a potential relationship between

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  3. How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: a case study for six French sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how biases of meteorological drivers impact the calculation of ecosystem CO2, water and energy fluxes by models. To do so, we drive the same ecosystem model by meteorology from gridded products and by ''true" meteorology from local observation at eddy-covariance flux sites. The study is focused on six flux tower sites in France spanning across a 7–14 °C and 600–1040 mm yr−1 climate gradient, with forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems. We evaluate the results of the ORCHIDEE process-based model driven by four different meteorological models against the same model driven by site-observed meteorology. The evaluation is decomposed into characteristic time scales. The main result is that there are significant differences between meteorological models and local tower meteorology. The seasonal cycle of air temperature, humidity and shortwave downward radiation is reproduced correctly by all meteorological models (average R2=0.90. At sites located near the coast and influenced by sea-breeze, or located in altitude, the misfit of meteorological drivers from gridded dataproducts and tower meteorology is the largest. We show that day-to-day variations in weather are not completely well reproduced by meteorological models, with R2 between modeled grid point and measured local meteorology going from 0.35 (REMO model to 0.70 (SAFRAN model. The bias of meteorological models impacts the flux simulation by ORCHIDEE, and thus would have an effect on regional and global budgets. The forcing error defined by the simulated flux difference resulting from prescribing modeled instead than observed local meteorology drivers to ORCHIDEE is quantified for the six studied sites and different time scales. The magnitude of this forcing error is compared to that of the model error defined as the modeled-minus-observed flux, thus containing uncertain parameterizations, parameter values, and

  4. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  5. 某人防医疗救护站工程的通风与空调设计%Design of Ventilation and Air Conditioning for a Medical Aid Station of Civil Air Defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁飞; 张晨

    2016-01-01

    在新规范的指导下,对某社区卫生服务中心地下人防医疗救护站工程的通风空调设计及平战结合与转换进行了详细介绍,并就设计过程中遇到的难题提出了解决方案及新思路。此外,简要说明了降噪减振等几点值得注意的内容。%Under the guidance of new standard, this paper introduces in detail the design of ventilation and air conditioning for a community health center underground medical aid station of civil air defence. Also, the combination of peacetime and wartime and conversion is introduced. The author puts forward some new ideas and solutions to problems encountered in the process of design. Moreover, noise and vibration reduction measures and several noteworthy issues were briefly explained.

  6. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site NTAS from 2001-03-30 to 2016-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0131154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  7. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of Hawaii at Manoa and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site WHOTS from 2004-08-12 to 2016-07-28 (NCEI Accession 0131449)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  8. Biological, chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Hellenic Centre for Marine Research at OceanSITES site E1M3A from 2007-08-01 to 2015-07-07 (NCEI Accession 0130474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE,...

  9. Gridded in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at OceanSITES site RAMA from 1993-07-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  10. Gridded in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at OceanSITES site PIRATA from 1997-09-10 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  11. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) at OceanSITES site JKEO from 2008-02-29 to 2012-06-23 (NCEI Accession 0130035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  12. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at OceanSITES site KEO from 2004-06-01 to 2015-09-07 (NCEI Accession 0130037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  13. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute at OceanSITES site MBARI from 2004-04-30 to 2016-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0130040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY, AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE,...

  14. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at OceanSITES site PAPA from 2009-06-13 to 2015-06-16 (NCEI Accession 0130049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  15. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site Stratus from 2000-10-07 to 2016-07-28 (NCEI Accession 0131163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  16. Chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by National Research Council at OceanSITES site W1M3A from 2004-06-18 to 2016-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0131499)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE,...

  17. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP for the CMAQ modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Otte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system, a state-of-the-science regional air quality modeling system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, is being used for a variety of environmental modeling problems including regulatory applications, air quality forecasting, evaluation of emissions control strategies, process-level research, and interactions of global climate change and regional air quality. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP is a vital piece of software within the CMAQ modeling system that serves to, as best as possible, maintain dynamic consistency between the meteorological model and the chemical transport model. MCIP acts as both a post-processor to the meteorological model and a pre-processor to the CMAQ modeling system. MCIP's functions are to ingest the meteorological model output fields in their native formats, perform horizontal and vertical coordinate transformations, diagnose additional atmospheric fields, define gridding parameters, and prepare the meteorological fields in a form required by the CMAQ modeling system. This paper provides an updated overview of MCIP, documenting the scientific changes that have been made since it was first released as part of the CMAQ modeling system in 1998.

  18. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  19. «Medical deputies»: clinics and politics in the dispute for public resources in Buenos Aires (1906-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Pablo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In June, 1906, the conservative deputy and doctor Eliseo Cantón submitted in the Argentinian Parliament the project of a «big polyclinical hospital», which would take up four blocks, would be located in front of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires and would be made up by 20 institutes with a capacity for 80 beds each. The dispute over this huge project, which lasted until 1917, placed in the middle of the scene, a group of “medical deputies” who used the political platform as a space to define the main aspects of the hospital system. The controversy went beyond the Parliament reaching the public sphere. The lavishness of the project on the eve of the Centenary public festivities or the opulence of a Buenos Aires which aspired to be like Paris were related, in a symbolic view, to the progress of local medicine and its aspirations to be included in the international medical arena. The analysed case helps understand how an essentially political controversy —which led to economical, ethical and cognitive discussions— intervened in the process of bulding up a socio-professional space of the hospital medical practice.

    En junio 1906 el diputado conservador y médico Eliseo Cantón presentó en el Parlamento argentino el proyecto de «un gran hospital policlínico», que ocuparía cuatro manzanas, se ubicaría frente a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y estaría integrado por 20 institutos con capacidad de 80 camas cada uno. La disputa alrededor de este proyecto faraónico, que se extendió hasta 1917, puso en el centro de la escena a un grupo de «diputados médicos» que utilizaron la tribuna política como espacio para la definición de aspectos centrales del dispositivo hospitalario. La polémica desbordó el Parlamento y alcanzó la esfera pública. La fastuosidad del proyecto en vísperas de los festejos del Centenario o la opulencia de una Buenos Aires que aspiraba a ser Par

  20. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (Ta), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (hr). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (Ts) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing hr. The effect of Ta and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing Ta or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m−2 over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N = 0, G = 0, and hr = 1. Ta at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or hr is not affected by the value of N, G or hr, but increases as Ta or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in Ta or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. - Highlights: • Process of dewfall is examined for a wide range of meteorological conditions. • Effect of meteorological factors on dewfall is individually elucidated. • Interaction between factors and their combined effect on dewfall is assessed. • Extensive calculations with the energy

  1. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Huijie, E-mail: herr_xiao@hotmail.com [College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Qinghua East Road 35, Beijing 100083 (China); Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstraße 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Borg, Heinz [Faculty of Natural Sciences III, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Julius-Kühn-Straße 23, D-06112 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Zhang, Yuqing [College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Qinghua East Road 35, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T{sub a}), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h{sub r}). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T{sub s}) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h{sub r}. The effect of T{sub a} and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T{sub a} or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m{sup −2} over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N = 0, G = 0, and h{sub r} = 1. T{sub a} at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h{sub r} is not affected by the value of N, G or h{sub r}, but increases as T{sub a} or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in T{sub a} or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. - Highlights: • Process of dewfall is examined for a wide range of meteorological conditions. • Effect of meteorological factors on dewfall is individually elucidated. • Interaction between factors and their

  2. DESCARTES AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick BRISSEY

    2012-01-01

    Descartes claimed that he thought he could deduce the assumptions of his Meteorology by the contents of the Discourse. He actually began the Meteorology with assumptions. The content of the Discourse, moreover, does not indicate how he deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. We seem to be left in a precarious position. We can examine the text as it was published, independent of Descartes’ claims, which suggests that he incorporated a presumptive or hypothetical method. On the other hand, ...

  3. Air quality in Spain 1990. Calidad del aire en Espaa 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This monograph studies air quality in Spain. It is articulated into 7 chapters: - Air pollution in the world - Air pollution in regions (regional areas) - Air pollution in villages (local areas) - Local networks in Spain - Meteorological characteristics in 1990 - Events - Atmospheric chemistry.

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient air monitoring sites are geographic point locations with monitoring equipment, and possibly meteorological instruments, that monitor outdoor, near ground level criteria pollutant concentrations., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  5. Surface Meteorological Instrumentation for BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Bhat; S Ameenulla

    2000-06-01

    Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX- Pilot experiment is described along with some representative results. Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity and temperature data have been successfully collected using fast sensors. It is shown that the component due to the ship's pitching motion can be removed from the measured vertical velocity by making use of an accelerometer. This makes it possible to calculate the surface fluxes by direct methods.

  6. Extreme meteorological events in nuclear power plant siting, excluding tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide deals with the extremes of meteorological variables and the extreme meteorological phenomena in accordance with the general criteria of the Code. The Guide outlines a procedure based on the following steps: (1) The meteorological phenomena and variables are described and classified, according to their effects on safety. (2) Data sources are identified, and data are collected. (3) Meteorological variables such as air temperature are analysed to determine their design bases; and the design basis event in case of phenomena such as the design basis tornado is identified. (4) As appropriate, the design basis value for the variable, or the design basis for the phenomena (such as pressure drop and maximum wind speed of the design basis tornado), is defined. In the following sections, the general procedure for evaluating the design bases of extreme meteorological variables and phenomena is outlined. The procedure is then presented in detail for each variable or phenomenon considered. The variables characterizing the meteorological environment dealt with in this Guide are wind speed, atmospheric precipitation, and temperature. The extreme meteorological phenomena discussed here are the tornado and, briefly, the tropical cyclone, which is discussed more extensively in the Safety Guide on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B)

  7. The utilization of mesh meteorological data maps for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilly and mountainous areas occupy approximately 70% of Japan, and the area of farmland in these regions is decreasing; these areas are defined as those from the outer plains to the mountains. The development of strategies for the revitalization of local agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas is therefore a significant problem in Japan. Systematic agriculture is efficient in hilly and mountainous areas, and distribution maps are effective planning tools for evaluating the meteorological conditions for individual farms in those areas where farms are small and interspersed. Public agricultural research centers in each prefecture of Japan have developed mesh meteorological data maps with some kilometers grid cell resolutions for local agriculture, and have been made many studies using mesh meteorological data maps. However, critical variations exist between estimated mesh data and actual meteorological condition within the area of each grid cell. To address this problem, methods of estimating air temperature and solar radiation on a 50 m mesh (latitude 1.5 sec x longitude 2.25 sec) were developed. While many studies with mesh meteorological data maps have been made, numbers of concrete examples of utility for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous areas have been few. This paper presents therefore some studies for utilization facilitated of mesh meteorological data maps in hilly and mountainous areas. And furthermore, it is proposed some guides to utilize mesh meteorological data maps for the purpose of revitalizing an agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area with concrete examples

  8. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems.

  9. 长三角气象及空气质量场对地表资料的敏感性分析%Sensitivity analysis of meteorological conditions and air pollution concentration on land-use data in the YRD region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 战雯静; 马蔚纯; 余琦; 陈立民

    2015-01-01

    本文通过把精细化土地利用下垫面资料引入 WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting Model)气象模式和空气质量模式 CMAQ(Community Multiscale Air Quality),系统地讨论了土地利用下垫面对数值模拟结果的影响.对于气象要素,土地利用优化后的模拟地面气温、风速均更接近实测结果,替换前后造成风速的变化在-2~1.5 m·s-1之间,对气温的影响在-4~4℃之间;对于污染物浓度,土地利用下垫面优化后,极端高值出现的频率和程度有所下降,更接近实测结果,土地利用下垫面对于 NO x 、NO -3、SO 2-4和 SO 2的四个典型月月均浓度差异分别约在-1000~1000,-20~20,-10~10,-500~500 nmol·m-3.土地利用对数值模拟结果的影响与土地利用类型本身的特性、污染物特性、空间分布、盛行风向、季节变化、时刻等因素相关,其优化对于大气数值模式的意义不可忽视.%The meteorological conditions and pollutants concentrations have been simulated by the mesoscale meteorological model WRF and chemical transport model CMAQ.Through the modification of land-use data in met-erological model,the modeled results have been imporved for meterological parameters,of which surface temperature and wind speed are the two with the most improvements.The modeling difference of wind speed from original land-use data and modified data ranges from - 2 ~ 1.5 m·s-1 ,and the difference of surface temperature ranges from-4~4 ℃.The improved description of meterological conditions also results in better description of pollutants con-centrations.The modeling difference of NO x ,NO -3 、SO 2-4 and SO 2 concentrations ranges from - 1000 ~ 1000,-20~20,-10~10,-500~500 nmol·m-3 .It seems that the land-use data updating is meaningful though its com-prehensive impacts on numerical simulation results will vary with multiple factors such as spatial distribution of land-use types,air pollutants species,dominant wind direction and time periods.

  10. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  11. Geostationary meteorological satellite systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blersch, Donald J.; Probert, Todd C.

    Past and present geosynchronous meteorological satellites developed in the USA, Europe, Japan, India, and the Soviet Union are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Applications Technology Satellite Program, GOES and SMS/GOES, METEOSAT, GMS/Himawari, the Indian National Satellite, and a Soviet geostationary meteorological satellite program, GOMS.

  12. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  13. Estimation of daily net radiation from synoptic meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five models for net radiation estimation reported by Linacre (1968), Berljand(1956), Nakayama et al. (1983), Chang (1970) and Doorenbos et al. (1977) were tested for the adaptability to Korea. A new model with effective longwave radiation term parameterized by air temperature, solar radiation and vapor pressure was formulated and tested for its accuracy. Above five models with original parameter values showed large absolute mean deviations ranging from 0.86 to 1.64 MJ/m2/day. The parameters of the above five models were reestimated by using net radiation and meteorological elements measured in Suwon, Korea

  14. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE IMAGES IN GEOGRAPHY CLASSES: a didactic possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correia Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The satellite images are still largely unexplored as didactic resource in geography classes, particularly about meteorology. This article aims to contribute to the development of new methodologies of interpretation and understanding, beyond the construction of pedagogical practices involving meteorological satellite images, concepts and issues related to climate issues. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for the use of meteorological satellite images in the Teaching of Geography, aiming the promoting and the understanding of contents of air masses and fronts and climatic factors. RESUMO: As imagens de satélite ainda são pouco exploradas como recurso didático nas aulas de Geografia, principalmente aquelas relativas à meteorologia. Este artigo visa contribuir com o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de interpretação e compreensão, além da construção de práticas pedagógicas envolvendo imagens de satélite meteorológico, conceitos e temas ligados às questões climáticas. Seu objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de utilização das imagens de satélite meteorológico no Ensino de Geografia, visando à promoção e ao entendimento dos conteúdos de massas de ar e frentes e de elementos climáticos. Palavras chave

  15. Regional ground surface temperature mapping from meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, S.; Kohl, T.

    2004-02-01

    Evaluating ground surface temperature (GST) is common in applied and general geothermal research. Our main focus here is investigating GST for Switzerland because of its well-known impact on low-enthalpy resources, like borehole heat exchanger (BHE) utilization. Using mainly meteorological data, we determined the present-day GST distribution through different approaches. First, we analyzed the actual GST data from the last 20 years measured at the meteorological stations of the Swiss Meteorological Institute (SMI) by investigating recent climatic history and annual variation behavior. Recent climate change seems to have a higher impact on Alpine regions than on the Alpine Foreland. Next, we determined the GST altitude dependence in the range of 200-1800 m a.s.l., using nonlinear fitting approaches and investigated the relationship between GST and surface exposure. Contrary to previous publications, no universal correlation between GST and surface exposure was found, due to local and rapid changing meteorological conditions. Finally, we used a complete data set to consider meteorologically relevant data like soil moisture, wind speed, and vegetation cover and height. The measured GST was well reproduced for the case of low vegetation, except when covered by snow and for days of subzero surface air temperature (SAT). Other locations like urban areas could not be tested. Due to the complexity of physical interaction and the resulting assessment of large data sets, this approach is not suitable for determining regional GST distribution which we need as an input for BHE modeling. A relationship between GST and SAT was defined based on the data from the meteorological stations. By applying nonlinear approaches, we established three different altitude zones that require individual consideration. By further processing, an existing SAT map was converted into the first GST map of Switzerland. To verify this new map within the range of validity (up to altitudes of 1500 m a

  16. Relationship of the Amounts of Germs of Rice Blast Caught in the Air with the Incidence of Rice Blast in the Field and the Meteorological Factors in Cold Region%寒地稻瘟病菌空中捕捉量与田间稻瘟病发病和气象因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成艳; 王桂玲; 刘乃生; 周雪松

    2011-01-01

    为及时掌握稻瘟病菌发生的时空动态,有效控制病害发生,采用固定式孢子捕捉器对水稻品种空育131空中稻瘟病菌孢子量与田间稻瘟病发病关系及其与气象因子的关系进行了研究。结果表明:空中孢子的捕捉数量与叶瘟的发病率呈正相关,相关系数为0.848 4。每个检测单位(检测面积为18 mm×18 mm视野内的孢子数量)稻瘟菌孢子数量达到1-2个,可作为叶瘟进行药剂防治的参数。孢子数量与平均温度呈正相关,相关系数为0.181 0;与降雨量呈负相关,相关系数为-0.342 1;与空气相对湿度呈正相关,相关系数为0.120 3;与最大风速呈负相关,相关系数为-0.227 5。%Adopting the fixed type spore catcher to monitor the amount of the Pyricularia oryzae in the air,the relationship of the amount of rice blast spores in the air of Kongyu 131 with the incidence of rice blast and meteorological factors was studied. The results showed that it was positive correlation between the amount of spores caught in the air and the incidence of leaf blast with a correlation coefficient of 0. 848 4. The amount of the Pyricularia oryzae spores in each testing unit(the amount of the spore envisaged in the area of 18 mm× 18 mm)came up to one or two,which would be used as parameter to chemical control against the leaf blast. It also showed that there was a positive correlation between the amount of the spores and the average tempera- ture,with a correlation coefficient of 0. 181 0, while there was a negative correlation between the rainfall and the amount of the spores whose correlation was -0. 342 1. Meantime,the amount of the spores and the air relative humidity was positively correlated,and the correlation coefficient was 0. 120 3. But it was negatively correlated with the wind speed with a correlation coefficient of -0. 227 5.

  17. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  18. Enlightenment to Chinese Air Force of USAF medical selection standard system of flying cadets%美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系及其对我军的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志康; 张凌; 王广云; 孙金杰; 夏青; 刘伟; 吉保民; 马中立

    2016-01-01

    系统了解美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准情况,全面总结美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系和内容,为我军飞行学员医学选拔标准修订和执行提供参考依据.系统分析美国空军4个飞行学员相关医学选拔标准,对照我军飞行学员医学选拔标准,提出美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准及持续改进的特点内容,归纳我军飞行学员医学选拔优势和需要改进的主要内容.美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系由《国防部指令》《空军体格检查和标准》《空军医学标准指导》《空军特许飞行指南》4个相互引用、相互补充的标准共同构成,具体指标的制订依据来源于航空医学要求和军事训练需要,修改频率很快,整体上更加突出功能需求,与我军飞行学员医学选拔标准相比体系更完善,形态要求更低、功能评价技术更为先进,放飞和停飞依据更为充分.参照美军标准制订的原则和依据开展相应的科学研究,对眼科、外科等生源影响较大、飞行影响较小的一些标准进行针对性修改,完善相关医学选拔技术手段,对扩大招飞优质生源、提升招飞整体质量具有重要意义.%To review the American medical standards of recruiting student pilots, and summarise the features procedures, requirements, and medical standards for medical examinations given by the American Air Force, offer evidence to revise Chinese Air force medical standards of recruiting student pilots. By metrieving literature in this field from medical bibliographic database and foreign military official websites, four published reports and network information were cited, compared with the Chinese Air force medical standards, to find out the differences between the two standards. The American medical standards include Department of Defense Instruction, Air Force Medical Examination and Standards, Air Force Medical Standards Directory, and Air Force Waiver Guide

  19. SIMULATION OF SULFATE AEROSOL IN EAST ASIA USING MODELS-3/CMAQ WITH RAMS METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study attempts to address a few challenges in utilizing the flexibility of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. We apply the CMAQ system with the meteorological data provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and to a...

  20. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well

  1. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  2. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  4. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  5. Evaporation duct refractivity profile from satellite meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levadnyi, Iu.; Ivanov, V.; Shalyapin, V.

    The refractivity profile is initial data for the microwave propagation prediction models Evaporation duct height is usually used to characterize refractivity profile in the surface layer over sea The evaporation duct height is calculated using bulk measurement of air temperature wind speed humidity pressure at some level and sea surface temperature Four prevailing models LKB Liu-Katsaros-Businger RSHMU Russian State Hydro-Meteorological University optimized by us ECMWF European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast and COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment were examined The results of computation using above mentioned models were compared with the direct refractometric measurements All measurements meteorological and refractometric were made by us during two marine expeditions First expedition was in the Atlantic ocean from March to May in latitude 22 circ-32° North and longitude 52 circ-65° West 29 measurements Second one was in the Indian ocean from December to February in latitude 0 circ-15° North and longitude 55 circ-80° East 94 measurements The approximation by least square-root method was carried out to compare the direct measurements of evaporation duct height with the results of computations The minimum square-root error is obtained for LKB model 2 59m for negative air-sea temperature difference 2 42m maximum - for ECMWF model 2 72m All models overestimate low evaporation duct heights and underestimate - high values This effect is least of all define in RSHMU

  6. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  7. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  8. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  9. Standardization Promotes the Quality of Meteorological Audio & Video Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As an important part of meteorological sector and a critical basis for enhancing the capability of meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation and climate change response,the meteorological standardization is a significant support for facilitating the good and quick development of meteorological sector.Huafeng Group,as a leading enterprise of meteorological audio & video service,has,for years,attached much importance to employing the standardization of meteorological audio & video service to improve its management level and quality of programs,enhance the quality of meteorological audio & video service,build the brand image,cultivate the highlevel backbone personnel,and facilitate the sustainable development of meteorological audio & video service.

  10. Observed Low Ozone Events in Coastal Antarctica - The Critical Role of Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. E.; Wolff, E. W.; Anderson, P. S.; Turner, J.; Rankin, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Episodic loss of tropospheric ozone has been observed in both polar regions. The destruction of ozone appears to be associated with halogen chemistry, generally accepted as being driven by bromine released from sea ice surfaces. Since March 2003, measurements of surface ozone have been made at the British Antarctic Survey Clean Air Sector Laboratory (CASLab) at Halley station in coastal Antarctica. Detailed measurements of boundary layer meteorology as well as standard meteorology are also measured at the CASLab. Combining the data allows us to probe the role of meteorology in these "low ozone events". Low ozone events are observed at Halley on numerous occasions during Antarctic spring; on occasions the development of the event and its recovery are strongly associated with the build-up and decline of a stable boundary layer; on occasions, extremely rapid loss of ozone is observed (loss of 20ppbv in 3 minutes on one occasion) which are associated with larger scale transport. We report here on the events recorded during spring 2003, and show the critical influence of meteorology. The association suggests that the role of meteorology must be considered when striving to understand the mechanisms controlling observed low ozone events, and hence extremely good meteorology will need to be included in any modeling calculations trying to reproduce observed events.

  11. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period...

  12. Evaporation duct assessment from meteorological buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    2002-07-01

    The evaporation duct over the sea is usually assessed using bulk meteorological measurements. This paper investigates the utility of meteorological buoys as a source for these bulk measurements and compares evaporation duct assessments using two buoys in southern California waters separated by 128 km. A simple radio propagation experiment at 2.4 GHz between one of the buoys and the coast on an 18.2 km path is described. Observed propagation loss from this experiment is compared to modeled loss based on the meteorological measurements at each buoy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate radio propagation effects using established and accepted methods already described in the literature. Accordingly, no discussion of atmospheric surface layer meteorology affecting radio propagation is given.

  13. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  14. Summary of Research 1998, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    1998-01-01

    This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Meteorology. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, technical reports, and thesis abstracts.

  15. Summary of Research 1997, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    1997-01-01

    This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Meteorology. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, technical reports, and thesis abstracts.

  16. Assessment of Atmospheric and Meteorological Parameters for Control of Blasting Dust at an Indian Large Surface Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    S Roy; G.R. Adhikari, T.A. Renaldy and T.N. Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the atmospheric and meteorological parameters for the control of blasting dust. Dust generated due to blasting at large surface coal mines causes air pollution in and around the mining area. The dispersion of blasting dust depends on prevailing atmospheric and meteorological conditions. A Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) was installed at the mine site to monitor atmospheric conditions in four seasons. Over 2000 sodar echograms were examined and classified...

  17. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed

  18. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Storbreen, Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Glacio-meteorological investigations were conducted on Storbreen glacier, as an attempt to assess the relationship between meteorological conditions at the glacier surface and its mass balance. Primary focus was set on the mass balance year 2010/11 and in situ investigation conducted over the summer 2011, with the main aim of evaluating the spatio-temporal variations in ablation and albedo over the glacier. A discharge curve was constructed from water level measurements in Storbreagroven; a g...

  19. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  20. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant`s vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.).

  1. Meteorological Features at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) between 1 May and 22 July 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Aihong; REN Jiawen; QIN Xiang; JIANG Youyan

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), the highest mountain peak in the world, has little been studied extensively from a meteorological perspective, mostly because of the remoteness of the region and the resultant lack of meteorological data. An automatic weather station (AWS), the highest in the world, was set up on 27 April 2005 at the Ruopula Pass (6523 m asl) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma by the team of integrated scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma. Here its meteorological characteristics were analyzed according to the 10-minute-averaged and 24-hour records of air temperature, relative humidity,air pressure and wind from 1 May to 22 July 2005. It is shown that at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma, these meteorological elements display very obvious diurnal variations, and the character of averaged diurnal variation is one-peak-and-one-vale for air temperature, one-vale for relative humidity, two-peak-and-two-vale for air pressure, and one-peak with day-night asymmetry for wind speed. In the 83 days,all the air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure increased with some different fluctuations,while wind speed decreased gradually and wind direction turned from north to south. The variations of relative humidity had great fluctuations and obvious local differences. Then the paper discusses the reason for the characters of diurnal and daily variations.Compared with the corresponding records in May 1960, 5-day-averaged maximums, minimums and diurnal variations of air temperature in May 2005 were apparently lower.

  2. Meteorological and hydrographic data from a nearshore platform in Dauphin Island, AL from 22 Feb 1998 to 4 Jan 1999 (NODC Accession 0118645)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Feb 1998 to Jan 1999. Variables measured include air...

  3. Meteorological and hydrographic monitoring data collected at Dauphin Island Station in Alabama from 1999-11-06 to 2001-03-01 (NODC Accession 0122658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Nov 1999 to Feb 2001. Variables measured include air...

  4. Effect of particulate matter air pollution on hospital admissions and medical visits for lung and heart disease in two southeast Idaho cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulirsch, Gregory V; Ball, Louise M; Kaye, Wendy; Shy, Carl M; Lee, Carolyn V; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Symons, Michael; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-08-01

    Few, if any, published time series studies have evaluated the effects of particulate matter air exposures by combining hospital admissions with medical visit data for smaller populations. We investigated the relationship between daily particulate matter (influenza, and day-of-week effects were controlled. In single-pollutant models, respiratory disease admissions and visits increased (7.1-15.4% per 50 microg/m3 PM10) for each age group analyzed, with the highest increases in two groups, children and especially the elderly. Statistical analyses suggest that the results probably did not occur by chance. Sensitivity analyses did not provide strong evidence that the respiratory disease effect estimates were sensitive to reasonable changes in the final degrees of freedom choice for time and weather effects. No strong evidence of confounding by NO2 and SO2 was found from results of multi-pollutant models. Ozone and carbon monoxide data were not available to include multi-pollutant models, but evidence suggests that they were not a problem. Unexpectedly, evidence of an association between PM10 with cardiovascular disease was not found, possibly due to the lifestyles of the mostly Mormon study population. Successful time series analyses can be performed on smaller populations if diverse, centralized databases are available. Hospitals that offer urgent or other primary care services may be a rich source of data for researchers. Using data that potentially represented a wide-range of disease severity, the findings provide evidence that evaluating only hospital admissions or emergency room visit effects may underestimate the overall morbidity due to acute particulate matter exposures. Further work is planned to test this conclusion. PMID:17299531

  5. Using meteorological ensembles for atmospheric dispersion modelling of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Didier, Damien; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion models are used in response to an accidental release of radionuclides of the atmosphere, to infer mitigation actions, and complement field measurements for the assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impacts. However, the predictions of these models are subject to important uncertainties, especially due to input data, such as meteorological fields or source term. This is still the case more than four years after the Fukushima disaster (Korsakissok et al., 2012, Girard et al., 2014). In the framework of the SAKURA project, an MRI-IRSN collaboration, a meteorological ensemble of 20 members designed by MRI (Sekiyama et al. 2013) was used with IRSN's atmospheric dispersion models. Another ensemble, retrieved from ECMWF and comprising 50 members, was also used for comparison. The MRI ensemble is 3-hour assimilated, with a 3-kilometers resolution, designed to reduce the meteorological uncertainty in the Fukushima case. The ECMWF is a 24-hour forecast with a coarser grid, representative of the uncertainty of the data available in a crisis context. First, it was necessary to assess the quality of the ensembles for our purpose, to ensure that their spread was representative of the uncertainty of meteorological fields. Using meteorological observations allowed characterizing the ensembles' spread, with tools such as Talagrand diagrams. Then, the uncertainty was propagated through atmospheric dispersion models. The underlying question is whether the output spread is larger than the input spread, that is, whether small uncertainties in meteorological fields can produce large differences in atmospheric dispersion results. Here again, the use of field observations was crucial, in order to characterize the spread of the ensemble of atmospheric dispersion simulations. In the case of the Fukushima accident, gamma dose rates, air activities and deposition data were available. Based on these data, selection criteria for the ensemble members were

  6. Attributions of meteorological and emission factors to the 2015 winter severe haze pollution episodes in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tingting; Gong, Sunling; Yu, Meng; Zhao, Qichao; Li, Huairui; HE, JIANJUN; Jie ZHANG; Li, Lei; Wang, Xuguan; Li, Shuli; Lu, Yanli; Du, Haitao; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhou, Chunhong; Liu, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Northern China in the 2015 winter months of November and December has witnessed the most severe air pollution phenomena since the 2013 winter haze events occurred, which triggered the first ever Red Alert in the air pollution control history of Beijing, with an instantaneous PM2.5 concentration over 1 mg m−3. Analysis and modeling results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase of air pollutant concentrations and the ...

  7. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  8. Meteorological observations on Mount Everest in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Aihong; Qin Dahe; Ren Jiawen; Qin Xiang; Xiao Cunde; Hou Shugui; Kang Shichang; Yang Xingguo; Jiang Youyan

    2007-01-01

    Mount Everest, the highest point on the Earth is often referred to as the earth's third pole as such the place is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In April 2005, an automatic weather station was installed at the mountain's North Col (6523 ma. S. L. ). According to the observational 10-minute mean and daily records, the meteorological characteristics were analyzed.All the meteorological elements displayed obvious diurnal variations during May 1 to July 22, 2005. The monthly variation of daily meteorological elements on Mount Everest coincided with that on Dingri, the closest routine meteorological station, with the high correlation coefficients of 0. 928, 0. 877, 0. 682, 0. 755, 0. 826 and 0. 676 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001) for mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, pressure and wind speed, respectively. Furthermore, the vertical mean gradient of temperature was above 0.6℃/100 m, especially for the daily maximum temperature. Most weather events on Mount Everest prominently appeared on the same day as those on Dingri, especially those from daily mean pressure, temperature and relative humidity with the cross-correlation coefficients of 0. 673, 0. 485 and 0. 487 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001 ), respectively. Some other weather events on Mount Everest lagged one-day behind those on Dingri. Furthermore, forecasting of the weather events on Mount Everest from pressure on Dingri was more reliable than those from the other meteorological elements. The conclusions are much important for research on meteorology and climate changes in the region.

  9. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S95W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-06-05 (NCEI Accession 0131447)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  10. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  11. Chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Meteo France, Oceanographic Laboratory of Villefranche-sur-Mer and Oceanographic Observatory of Villefranche-sur-Mer at OceanSITES site DYFAMED from 1995-06-12 to 2016-05-18 (NCEI Accession 0130030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, in situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT...

  12. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  13. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  14. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  15. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N125W from 2006-08-27 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  16. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130857)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  17. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131445)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  18. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  19. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S180W from 2006-11-16 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  20. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N95W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0131173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  1. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S155W from 2007-07-22 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  2. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  3. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  4. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S125W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  5. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130855)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  6. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S125W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131175)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  7. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S125W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  8. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N95W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  9. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8S110W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  10. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S95W from 2006-11-09 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  11. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T9N140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  12. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  13. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  14. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  15. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N110W from 2006-11-20 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  16. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  17. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  18. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2S110W from 2006-11-22 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  19. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  20. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N125W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-04 (NCEI Accession 0130061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  1. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  2. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  3. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  4. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5N110W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  5. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N95W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  6. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S110W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  7. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  8. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0131178)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  9. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0130198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  10. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; OAR; Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory at OceanSITES site P12N23W from 2006-06-08 to 2013-02-27 (NCEI Accession 0130047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  11. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Italian National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics; Experimental Geophysical Observatory at OceanSITES site E2M3A from 2002-09-16 to 2009-10-13 (NCEI Accession 0130031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, DEPTH -...

  12. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N110W from 2006-11-22 to 2016-10-07 (NCEI Accession 0130052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  13. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N95W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  14. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N125W from 2006-09-01 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  15. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N165E from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  16. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  17. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N155W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  18. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N110W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  19. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T8N125W from 2006-08-26 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  20. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S95W from 2006-11-08 to 2016-07-07 (NCEI Accession 0131186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  1. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  2. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  3. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T2N180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130848)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  4. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T0N140W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0130054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CURRENT DIRECTION,...

  5. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S180W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  6. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by US DOC; NOAA; NWS; National Data Buoy Center at OceanSITES site T5S170W from 2006-08-25 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE,...

  7. Review and Development on the Studies of Chinese Meteorological Satellite and Satellite Meteorology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zongyi; XU Jianmin; ZHAO Fengsheng

    2006-01-01

    Meteorological satellite and satellite meteorology are the fastest developing new branches in the atmospheric sciences. Today the meteorological satellite has become a key element in the global atmospheric sounding system while the satellite meteorology is covering the main components of earth's system science.This article describes the major achievements that China has made in these fields in the past 30 years.The following contents are involved: (1) History and present status of China's meteorological satellites. It covers the development, launch, operation, technical parameters of China's polar and geostationary meteorological satellites. (2) Major achievements on remote sensing principle and method. It describes the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud character retrieval, aerosol character retrieval, precipitation retrieval as well as the generation of cloud wind. (3) Achievement on the studies of meteorological satellite data application. This part covers the applications of meteorological satellite data to weather analysis and forecast, numerical forecast, climate monitoring, and prediction of short-term climate change. Besides, the new results on data assimilation, climate monitoring, and forecast are also included.

  8. 医用空气加压氧舱设备运行中发生火灾事故因素与处置的探讨%Accident Analyses and Treatment for Medical Air Pressure Chamber Fire During Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 王强; 晏莉娜; 李兴明

    2011-01-01

    目的 本文介绍高压氧舱设备在运行中如何预防火灾事故的发生,以及对发生后如何处理等问题进行探讨,将发生的问题及时正确处理,以提高高压氧治疗的安全性.方法 高压氧舱设备在运行中突发了火灾事故,应用具有应急系统的医用空气加压氧舱设备系统来处理,及时启动舱内消防水喷淋灭火和向舱内吸氧面罩输送新鲜空气.结果 高压氧舱设备在运行中突发火灾事故时应用具有应急系统的医用空气加压氧舱技术处理,可以保证舱中戴面罩人员正常呼吸,保障其安全.结论 空气加压氧舱设备在工作时应注意防范事故苗头,同时又应用具有该应急系统的医用空气加压氧舱设备系统,增强高压氧治疗时的安全性.%Objective To probe into the measures on how to prevent the medical air pressure chamber fire during operation and how to manage the fire after accidents so as to enhance safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Methods A fire accident occurred during operation of hyperbaric oxygen chamber shouldbe managed with medical emergency system equipped with air pressure chamber. In the meantime, the cabin fire sprinkler was generated to extinguish the fire and transport fresh air to oxygen masks of the cabin. Results Medical air pressure chamber technique with fire emergency system can ensure normal breathing of patients wearing masks in the cabin to protect their safety when fire burst during operation of the hyperbaric oxygen chamber. Conclusion During operation of air pressure chamber, attention should be paid to potential risks. In the meantime, use of medical air pressure chamber technique with fire emergency system can enhance the safety of hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

  9. National Verification System of National Meteorological Center , China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyan; Wei, Qing; Qi, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Product Quality Verification Division for official weather forecasting of China was founded in April, 2011. It is affiliated to Forecast System Laboratory (FSL), National Meteorological Center (NMC), China. There are three employees in this department. I'm one of the employees and I am in charge of Product Quality Verification Division in NMC, China. After five years of construction, an integrated realtime National Verification System of NMC, China has been established. At present, its primary roles include: 1) to verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China; 2) to verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau; 3) to evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China. To verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China, we have developed : • Grid QPF Verification module ( including upascale) • Grid temperature, humidity and wind forecast verification module • Severe convective weather forecast verification module • Typhoon forecast verification module • Disaster forecast verification • Disaster warning verification module • Medium and extend period forecast verification module • Objective elements forecast verification module • Ensemble precipitation probabilistic forecast verification module To verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau, we have developed : • City elements forecast verification module • Public heavy rain forecast verification module • City air quality forecast verification module. To evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China, we have developed : • Off-duty forecaster QPF practice evaluation module • QPF evaluation module for forecasters • Severe convective weather forecast evaluation module • Typhoon track forecast evaluation module for forecasters • Disaster warning evaluation module for forecasters • Medium and extend period forecast evaluation module The further

  10. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate of hemispheric aerosol transport (HAT was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the magnitudes of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and are 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The HAT is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the inter-annual aerosol variations in the source-receptor (S-R relationships are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions in the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the HTAP-regions vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the magnitudes of inter-annual variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations over the HTAP-regions are 30–70% less than in the free troposphere and more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the S-R relationships for intercontinental aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere (NH with the strong/weak transport in the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies for the HAT in El Niño/ La Niña-years.

  11. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the northern hemispheric aerosol transport with the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the ranges of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and is 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The aerosol transport is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the intercontinental aerosol transport and its inter-annual variations are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions within the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the source regions of Europe, North America, South and East Asia vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the inter-annual aerosol variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations with the magnitudes from 6% to 20% is more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the intercontinental aerosols in El Niño- and La Niña-years respectively with the strong and weak transport of the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH.

  12. Progress on Technology of the Air Disinfection and Purification in Medical Institutions%医疗机构空气消毒净化处理技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米丽娟

    2011-01-01

    In view of the airborne disease has become the top transmitting disease in the world, the air disinfection and purification is more important and urgent.The indoor air disinfection and purification is an effective and important measure for interruption of spread of respiratory infectious diseases.In order to guide the daily work, this article summarizes the technology and methods of indoor air disinfection and purification from domestic and foreign medical institutions in recent years.The technology and methods are illustrated in two conditions, including circumstance with or without people.In circumstance with people, the medical institution could adopt the following methods: high-efficiency particulate air filtering sterilization, high-voltage electrostatic adsorption sterilization, plasma technology, dynamic air disinfecting machines, air purification by nano-photocatalyst materials, air purification by artificial anion and construction laminar flow cleaning sterilization, etc.In circumstance without people, the medical institution could adopt the methods of ultraviolet irradiation and ozone disinfector.%鉴于经空气传播的疾病已占世界传播疾病的首位,凸显出空气消毒净化处理的重要性和紧迫性,而室内空气消毒净化处理是有效阻断呼吸道传染病传播的重要措施.作者重点归纳了近年来国内外有关医疗机构室内空气消毒净化处理的技术方法,意义在于更好地指导日常工作,技术方法主要对有人状态和无人状态2种情况分别进行了阐述.在有人状态下,可采用高效颗粒空气过滤净化除菌、高压静电吸附除菌、等离子体技术、动态空气消毒机、纳米光催化材料的空气净化、人工负离子空气净化和建筑型层流洁净除菌等技术方法处理.在无人状态下,可采用紫外线照射法和臭氧消毒机等技术方法处理.

  13. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  14. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  15. Verification of Meteorological and Oceanographic Ensemble Forecasts in the U.S. Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, S.; Hansen, J.; Pauley, P.; Sestak, M.; Wittmann, P.; Skupniewicz, C.; Nelson, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Navy Ensemble Forecast Verification System (NEFVS) has been promoted recently to operational status at the U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC). NEFVS processes FNMOC and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) meteorological and ocean wave ensemble forecasts, gridded forecast analyses, and innovation (observational) data output by FNMOC's data assimilation system. The NEFVS framework consists of statistical analysis routines, a variety of pre- and post-processing scripts to manage data and plot verification metrics, and a master script to control application workflow. NEFVS computes metrics that include forecast bias, mean-squared error, conditional error, conditional rank probability score, and Brier score. The system also generates reliability and Receiver Operating Characteristic diagrams. In this presentation we describe the operational framework of NEFVS and show examples of verification products computed from ensemble forecasts, meteorological observations, and forecast analyses. The construction and deployment of NEFVS addresses important operational and scientific requirements within Navy Meteorology and Oceanography. These include computational capabilities for assessing the reliability and accuracy of meteorological and ocean wave forecasts in an operational environment, for quantifying effects of changes and potential improvements to the Navy's forecast models, and for comparing the skill of forecasts from different forecast systems. NEFVS also supports the Navy's collaboration with the U.S. Air Force, NCEP, and Environment Canada in the North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS) project and with the Air Force and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) program. This program is tasked with eliminating unnecessary duplication within the three agencies, accelerating the transition of new technology, such as multi

  16. Mutual Coupling Between Meteorological Parameters and Secondary Microseisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Holub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic scientific question of this study was: do other mechanisms exist for excitation of secondary microseisms aside from the widely accepted mechanism by non-linear interactions of respective ocean waves. Here we use continuous broadband data from secondary microseisms recorded at the Ostrava-KrásnéOstrava-KrásnéOstrava-Krásné Pole, Czech Republic (OKC seismic station to create a massive seismological database. Except for seismological data, various meteorological features and their mutual relations were analysed: temperature, the so called _ temperature, air density, changes of atmospheric pressure, and synoptic situations. These analyses prove that maximum amplitudes of microseisms were observed during winter, while minimum amplitudes occured in summer months. The annual variations of microseisms amplitudes could not be explained by annual variations of storm activity above the North Atlantic. In addition, current analyses also aim at quantitative and quantitative evaluation of synoptic situations for triggering individual microseismic anomalies. Some of the meteorological features, namely the distribution of low pressures above northern Europe and high-pressure areas in Central Europe make it easy to explain most of the microseismic extremes. Here we pay special attention to the influence of large earthquakes, which usually induce slow deformation waves. We conclude that at least three mechanisms of microseism generation are possible: (1 the function of atmospheric pressure at sea level in the North Atlantic, (2 the effects of spreading of thermoelastic waves in the rock mass and (3 deformation waves induced by large earthquakes.

  17. Meteorological, elevation, and slope effects on surface hoar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, S.; Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2015-08-01

    Failure in layers of buried surface hoar crystals (frost) can cause hazardous snow slab avalanches. Surface hoar crystals form on the snow surface and are sensitive to micro-meteorological conditions. In this study, the role of meteorological and terrain factors was investigated for three layers of surface hoar in the Columbia Mountains of Canada. The distribution of crystals over different elevations and aspects was observed on 20 days of field observations during a period of high pressure. The same layers were modelled over simplified terrain on a 2.5 km horizontal grid by forcing the snow cover model SNOWPACK with forecast weather data from a numerical weather prediction model. Modelled surface hoar growth was associated with warm air temperatures, high humidity, cold surface temperatures, and low wind speeds. Surface hoar was most developed in regions and elevation bands where these conditions existed, although strong winds at high elevations caused some model discrepancies. SNOWPACK simulations on virtual slopes systematically predicted smaller surface hoar on south-facing slopes. In the field, a complex combination of surface hoar and sun crusts were observed, suggesting the simplified model did not adequately resolve the surface energy balance on slopes. Overall, a coupled weather-snow cover model could benefit avalanche forecasters by predicting surface hoar layers on a regional scale over different elevation bands.

  18. A Note on Several Meteorological Topics Related to Polar Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sienicki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the meteorology of Polar Regions is fundamental to the process of understanding the global climatology of the Earth and Earth-like planets. The nature of air circulation in a polar vortex is of preliminary importance. I have show that the local and continental spatiotemporal relationship between near surface wind events is self-organized criticality. In particular, the wind event size, wind event duration, and duration of quiescent wind event are well approximated by power-law distributions. On a continental scale, the wind events in the Antarctic tend to be self-organized criticality with ergodic properties. A similar self-organized criticality wind event was also found in Taylor Valley located at McMurdo Dry Valleys discovered by Captain Scott's expedition. Captain Scott's meteorological Terra Nova record was also examined. I have also revisited and re-analyzed wind events in Hornsund at Spitsbergen Island, in terms of marginal probabilities and marginal copulas which describe positive L\\'evy pr...

  19. Predicting Fluctuating Rates of Hospitalizations in Relation to Influenza Epidemics and Meteorological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton-Hubert, Mireille; Sarazin, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In France, rates of hospital admissions increase at the peaks of influenza epidemics. Predicting influenza-associated hospitalizations could help to anticipate increased hospital activity. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of influenza epidemics through the analysis of meteorological data, and medical data provided by general practitioners. Methods Historical data were collected from Meteo France, the Sentinelles network and hospitals’ information systems for a period of 8 years (2007–2015). First, connections between meteorological and medical data were estimated with the Pearson correlation coefficient, Principal component analysis and classification methods (Ward and k-means). Epidemic states of tested weeks were then predicted for each week during a one-year period using linear discriminant analysis. Finally, transition probabilities between epidemic states were calculated with the Markov Chain method. Results High correlations were found between influenza-associated hospitalizations and the variables: Sentinelles and emergency department admissions, and anti-correlations were found between hospitalizations and each of meteorological factors applying a time lag of: -13, -12 and -32 days respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. Epidemic weeks were predicted accurately with the linear discriminant analysis method; however there were many misclassifications about intermediate and non-epidemic weeks. Transition probability to an epidemic state was 100% when meteorological variables were below: 2°C, 4 g/m3 and 32 W/m2, respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. This probability was 0% when meteorological variables were above: 6°C, 5.8g/m3 and 74W/m2. Conclusion These results confirm a good correlation between influenza-associated hospitalizations, meteorological factors and general practitioner’s activity, the latter being the strongest predictor of hospital activity. PMID

  20. Predicting Fluctuating Rates of Hospitalizations in Relation to Influenza Epidemics and Meteorological Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Spiga

    Full Text Available In France, rates of hospital admissions increase at the peaks of influenza epidemics. Predicting influenza-associated hospitalizations could help to anticipate increased hospital activity. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of influenza epidemics through the analysis of meteorological data, and medical data provided by general practitioners.Historical data were collected from Meteo France, the Sentinelles network and hospitals' information systems for a period of 8 years (2007-2015. First, connections between meteorological and medical data were estimated with the Pearson correlation coefficient, Principal component analysis and classification methods (Ward and k-means. Epidemic states of tested weeks were then predicted for each week during a one-year period using linear discriminant analysis. Finally, transition probabilities between epidemic states were calculated with the Markov Chain method.High correlations were found between influenza-associated hospitalizations and the variables: Sentinelles and emergency department admissions, and anti-correlations were found between hospitalizations and each of meteorological factors applying a time lag of: -13, -12 and -32 days respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. Epidemic weeks were predicted accurately with the linear discriminant analysis method; however there were many misclassifications about intermediate and non-epidemic weeks. Transition probability to an epidemic state was 100% when meteorological variables were below: 2°C, 4 g/m3 and 32 W/m2, respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. This probability was 0% when meteorological variables were above: 6°C, 5.8g/m3 and 74W/m2.These results confirm a good correlation between influenza-associated hospitalizations, meteorological factors and general practitioner's activity, the latter being the strongest predictor of hospital activity.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William Henry; Crawford, Winifred C.; Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's LSP and other programs at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) use wind forecasts issued by the 30th Operational Support Squadron (30 OSS) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle due to the occurrence of warning level winds at VAFB in California. The 30 OSS tasked the AMU to provide a wind forecasting capability to improve wind warning forecasts and enhance the safety of their customers' operations. This would allow 30 OSS forecasters to evaluate pressure gradient thresholds between pairs of regional observing stations to help determine the onset and duration of warning category winds. Development of such a tool will require that solid relationships exist between wind speed and the pressure gradient of one or more station pairs. As part of this task, the AMU will also create a statistical climatology of meteorological observations from the VAFB wind towers.

  2. Dependence of potato yielding on meteorological conditions in selected mesoregions of south-east Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sawicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the dependence of potato yields on meteorological conditions in two mesoregions of south and eastern Poland. The basis for the paper constituted the meteorological data, the results of measurements of groundwater level and yields of 40 cultivars of potatoes from field experiments, conducted in 1999-2008. Experiments were carried out in the villages located in two mesoregions of southern and eastern Poland, in similar soil conditions, in three replications. The course of the meteorological conditions was tested using the measurements of precipitation, air humidity and air temperature at meteorological stations spaced about 100 km. Additionally, the groundwater conditions in the studied catchments were tested. Data were analysed using analysis of variance, simple correlation and polynomial regression. The threat to potato crops in both mesoregions by excessive soil moisture during the growing season was significantly lower than the insufficient moisture, which may be the main cause of reduction in yield values. High yield of early potato cultivars to late cultivars, in the western part of the Lublin voivodeship, encourage the growing season average temperature within 14.6-14.8°C and rainfall from 400 to 450 mm, and in the eastern part – the temperature 14.8-15.0°C and rainfall of 350-400 mm.

  3. Critical role of meteorological conditions in a persistent haze episode in the Guanzhong basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, the critical role of the meteorological condition in a persistent extreme haze episode that occurred in Guanzhong basin of China on December 16 to 25, 2013 has been investigated. Analyses of the large-scale meteorological conditions on 850hPa during the episode have been performed using the NCEP FNL data set, indicating that synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of pollutants either in horizontal or vertical directions in the basin. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to illustrate the pollutant transport patterns during the episode, further showing the dominant role of synoptic conditions in accumulation of pollutants in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, and low-level horizontal wind speed also contribute to the extreme haze episode. In addition, the WRF-CHEM model has been used to evaluate the responses of the surface PM2.5 level to the emission mitigation. Generally, the predicted PM2.5 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites. Sensitivity studies show that the emissions in the basin need to be mitigated by more than 91% to meet the excellent level of the China National Air Quality Standard under the extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, demonstrating that it is imperative to implement stringent controls on emissions to improve the air quality.

  4. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  5. Summary of Research 2001, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    2001-01-01

    This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Meteorology which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports.

  6. Summary of Research 1995, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    1995-01-01

    This report contains 32 summaries of research projects in the Department of Meteorology which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports.

  7. Summary of Research 2000, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    2000-01-01

    This report contains project summaries of the research projects in the Department of Meteorology. A list of recent publications is also included, which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports. Thesis abstracts of students advised by faculty in the Department are also included.

  8. Summary of Research 1996, Department of Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School

    1996-01-01

    This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Meteorology which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports.

  9. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  10. Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural meteorology as an accepted term is only about 80 years old. The first half of this period saw its development in the western world, Japan, India, and China and this was made possible through the evolving possibilities for quantification of the physical aspects of the production environm...

  11. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research.

  12. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  13. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to uncertain

  14. 31. 1989 meteorological year book of Ispra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short description of the methods for measuring and elaborating atmospheric phenomena, many tables and graphics for the meteorological year 1989 are reported with English titles too. The measurements of solar irradiation are marked with the final hour following Italian winter time

  15. 30. 1988 meteorological year book of Ispra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short description of the methods for measuring and elaborating atmospheric phenomena, many tables and graphics for the meteorological year 1988 are reported with English titles too. The measurements of solar irradiation are marked with the final hour following Italian winter time

  16. Quantitative Cloud Analysis using Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is about observations of clouds from satellite and ground based instruments. The aim is to reconstruct the three dimensional cloud distributions. This information is used both in climate research and operational meteorological applications. In climate research, cloud observations provide

  17. Observing Boundary-Layer Winds from Hot-Air Balloon Flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de E.I.F.; Haan, de S.; Bosveld, F.C.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution upper-air wind observations are sparse, and additional observations are a welcome source of meteorological information. In this paper the potential of applying balloon flights for upper-air wind measurements is explored, and the meteorological content of this information is investiga

  18. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  19. The use of a dense urban meteorological network to enable long term electricity consumption forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes de Azevedo, J.

    2015-12-01

    High air temperatures have an impact on energy consumption, since the demand for cooling fans and air conditioning increases. With current climate projections indicating a general increase in air temperatures, as well as more frequent and intense heat waves, cooling energy demand will increase with time and should therefore be considered by industry and policy makers. Cooling degree days (CDD) are a standard approach used by energy industry to estimate cooling demand. The methodology compares ambient temperatures with a base value for air temperature considered representative of the city being analysed. However, due to the Urban Heat Island effect, temperature and energy consumption will vary considerably across a city. Hence, for CDD to be estimated across an urban area, air temperature data from dense urban networks are required. This study analysed air temperature data available from a dense urban meteorological network to estimate CDD and cooling needs across Birmingham-UK for summer 2013. From the results, it was possible to identify the potential role and limitations of urban meteorological networks in forecasting electricity demand within a city for future climate scenarios.

  20. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology - A Pre-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Bange, Jens;

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm...... at a wind farm in Lolland and on an atmospheric campaign in France. Planning of an offshore campaign using the developed techniques is underway....

  1. Development of meteorological parameters and total ozone during the total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Winkler; Uwe Kaminski; Ulf Köhler; Johann Riedl; Hans Schroers; Doris Anwender

    2001-01-01

    During the total eclipse of August 11, 1999 frequent showers occurred due to a unstable stratification of the air mass. At different observation sites, meteorological effects from the eclipse (99.4% coverage at Hohenpeißenberg) and from showers were superimposed making it partly difficult to unambiguously interpret the observations. The weather radar at Hohenpeißenberg observatory provided a general overview of the distribution of clouds and precipitation in this area (200 km diameter). From ...

  2. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  3. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  4. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  5. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  6. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  7. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  10. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  14. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  17. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  20. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  8. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  10. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  11. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  7. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  9. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  10. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  11. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  12. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  13. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  14. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  15. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  16. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  17. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  18. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  19. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon...

  20. The effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Founda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on meteorological variables across Greece. Integrated micrometeorological measurements were conducted at Kastelorizo, a small island within the path of totality, and other sites within the Greek domain, with various degrees of solar obscuration. The observations showed a dramatic reduction in the incoming global radiation and subsequent, pronounced changes in surface air temperature with the lowest temperature values occurring about 15 min after the full phase. The amplitude of the air temperature drop was not analogous to the obscuration percentage but was principally determined by the surrounding environment (mainly the sea influence, the background meteorological conditions and local cloudiness. Surface wind-speed decreased in most sites as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. This perturbation provided a unique opportunity to apply a sensitivity analysis on the effect of the eclipse to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF numerical mesoscale meteorological model. Strong anomalies, not associated with a dynamic response, were simulated over land especially in surface air temperature. The simulated temperature drop pattern was consistent with the observations.

  1. Impacts of Short-Term Meteorological Fluctuations on Near-Surface Ground Temperatures in Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, S. M.; Christiansen, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    The state of permafrost in a given area is dependent on heat balance, which is largely controlled by major trends in climate. However, smaller-scale meteorological events can impact the thermal regime as well, depending on a number of ground surface factors. This project investigates the impact of short-term meteorological fluctuations on near-surface ground temperatures in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and identifies the depths at which these changes are perceptible. The Svalbard archipelago is subject to significant air temperature fluctuations due to its maritime climate; this can result in wintertime rain events. Even when snow is present, rain has the potential to notably affect near-surface ground temperatures. A few studies have examined Svalbard ground temperatures during specific wintertime warm periods, but no previous research has utilized the available long-term active layer and permafrost temperature data to compare distinct events. Though summer air temperatures on Svalbard are more stable, particularly warm intervals alter active layer thaw progression. By comparing high-resolution air temperature data with high-resolution ground temperature data, the temporal and spatial impact of short-term meteorological fluctuations is assessed and compared between sites from varying locations and lithology.

  2. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  3. Forecasting the air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Milford, C; Marrero, C.; C. Martin; Bustos, J. J.; Querol, X.

    2008-01-01

    International audience In the frame of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment programme (GURME), a system for forecasting air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands has been developed. Meteorological parameters relevant to air quality (synoptic wind speed, wind direction, boundary layer height and temperature at 91 vertical levels) are obtained from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) once a day for up to four days...

  4. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, especially offshore. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In order to test the potential and limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has...

  5. The second Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 'Himawari-2'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.; Usuda, S.

    Design features and performance to date of the Japanese meteorological satellite GMS-2 are presented. The GMS-2 is configured to provide weather imagery with VISSR sensors, collect and distribute meteorological data, and monitor solar particles. GMS-2 is spin-stabilized in GEO and was launched on an N-II rocket. The spacecraft length is 3.45 m on-station, the diameter is 2.15 m, and the mass is 653 kg beginning-of-life. Ground links are maintained through despun S-band and UHF antennas. The actual mission life is 3 yr due to the limitations of the on-board hydrazine fuel supply for station-keeping. Noncritical performance anomalies have been exhibited in the telemetry gating circuitry, S-band transmitters, and the PCM telemetry data control circuitry. Back-up systems have compensated for the failures experienced thus far.

  6. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser J.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  7. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  8. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  9. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  10. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  11. Neural networks for meteorological satellite image interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Michael Robert.

    1997-01-01

    Meteorological satellite images at visible and infra-red wavelengths are an invaluable source of information on cloud systems because of their extensive coverage of the whole of the Earth's surface, providing data in areas that are only sparsely monitored, if at all, by other means. Although this information has been used subjectively by forecasters for many years, the lack of automatic, quantitative analysis techniques largely prevents its assimilation into numerical weather ...

  12. A Vegetated Urban Canopy Model for Meteorological and Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Park, Soon-Ung

    2008-01-01

    An urban canopy model is developed for use in mesoscale meteorological and environmental modelling. The urban geometry is composed of simple homogeneous buildings characterized by the canyon aspect ratio ( h/ w) as well as the canyon vegetation characterized by the leaf aspect ratio (σ l ) and leaf area density profile. Five energy exchanging surfaces (roof, wall, road, leaf, soil) are considered in the model, and energy conservation relations are applied to each component. In addition, the temperature and specific humidity of canopy air are predicted without the assumption of thermal equilibrium. For radiative transfer within the canyon, multiple reflections for shortwave radiation and one reflection for longwave radiation are considered, while the shadowing and absorption of radiation due to the canyon vegetation are computed by using the transmissivity and the leaf area density profile function. The model is evaluated using field measurements in Vancouver, British Columbia and Marseille, France. Results show that the model quite well simulates the observations of surface temperatures, canopy air temperature and specific humidity, momentum flux, net radiation, and energy partitioning into turbulent fluxes and storage heat flux. Sensitivity tests show that the canyon vegetation has a large influence not only on surface temperatures but also on the partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition, the surface energy balance can be affected by soil moisture content and leaf area index as well as the fraction of vegetation. These results suggest that a proper parameterization of the canyon vegetation is prerequisite for urban modelling.

  13. Experimental Forecasts of Wildfire Pollution at the Canadian Meteorological Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Beaulieu, Paul-Andre; Chen, Jack; Landry, Hugo; Cousineau, Sophie; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canadian Meteorological Centre Operations division (CMCO) has been running an experimental North American air quality forecast system with near-real-time wildfire emissions since 2014. This system, named FireWork, also takes anthropogenic and other natural emission sources into account. FireWork 48-hour forecasts are provided to CMCO forecasters and external partners in Canada and the U.S. twice daily during the wildfire season. This system has proven to be very useful in capturing short- and long-range smoke transport from wildfires over North America. Several upgrades to the FireWork system have been made since 2014 to accommodate the needs of operational AQ forecasters and to improve system performance. In this talk we will present performance statistics and some case studies for the 2014 and 2015 wildfire seasons. We will also describe current limitations of the FireWork system and ongoing and future work planned for this air quality forecast system.

  14. Validation of ice loads predicted from meteorological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, A.; Skea, A. [UK Met Office, Exeter, England (United Kingdom); Wareing, B. [Brian Wareing Tech Ltd., England (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Results of a field trial conducted on 2 Gerber PVM-100 instruments at Deadwater Fell test site in the United Kingdom were presented. The trials were conducted to assess whether the instruments were capable of measuring the liquid water content of the air, as well as to validate an ice model in terms of accretion rates on different sized conductors. Ambient air temperature, wind speed and direction were monitored at the Deadwater Fell weather station along with load cell values. Time lapse video recorders and a web camera system were used to view the performance of the conductors in varying weather conditions. All data was collected and stored at the site. It was anticipated that output from the instruments could be related to the conditions under which overhead line conductors suffer from ice loads, and help to revise weather maps which have proved to be incompatible with utility experience and the lifetimes achieved by overhead line designs. The data provided from the Deadwater work included logged data from the Gerbers, weather data and load data from a 10 mm diameter aluminium alloy conductor. When the combination of temperature, wind direction and Gerber output indicated icing conditions, they were confirmed by the conductor's load cell data. The tests confirmed the validity of the Gerber instruments to predict the occurrence of icing conditions, when combined with other meteorological data. It was concluded that the instruments may aid in optimized prediction methods for ice loads and icing events. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 无缝隙对接在空勤科医疗保障中的应用%Application of Seamless Handover in Special Medical Service for the Air Serviceman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娟; 于涛; 陈燚

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过无缝隙对接在空勤科医疗保障中的应用提高飞行人员满意度。方法宣传、执行无缝隙对接,深入细节,分工明确,抓好质量,落实回访。结果根据科室层面综合评价指标,门诊、住院人数增加,飞行人员满意度上升。讨论无缝隙对接适应空勤科医疗保障的新特点。%Objective To improve the satisfaction of flight personnel on air force special medical service through seamless handover.Methods To propagate and implement seamless handover , and attach much impor-tance on details and implementing return .Results According to the comprehensive evaluation of the department level indicators, the quantities of outpatient and inpatient increased .The satisfaction rate also increased.Discus-sio n Seamless handover does adapts to the new features of air force special medical service .

  16. Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.04). Mann-Whitney’s U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage ( p < 0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

  17. 机动卫生装备舱室空气质量与人体热舒适性关系的评价与分析%Evaluation for Human Thermal Comfort and Compartment Air Quality of Mobile Medical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琛; 徐新喜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To master and improve the compartment air quality of mobile medical equipment and ensure human thermal comfort in compartment. Methods The Grey Correlation Grade Method was applied to evaluate the thermal comfort of the wounded and medical personnel under high temperature and high humidity condition when air-condition had worked 30min and 60min. Results The thermal comfort grade of human in compartment was 'uncomfortable' at the beginning. The thermal comfort grade of human in compartment was best comfortable' and 'comfortable' at 30min. The thermal comfort was improved at 60min. Besides, the thermal comfort of the recumbent wounded was better than standing medical personnel and the seating wounded. Conclousion The Grey Correlation Grade Method is suitable to evaluate and analyze the human thermal comfort and compartment air quality of mobile medical equipment.%目的:控制和改善机动卫生装备的舱室空气质量,保障舱室内人员的热舒适性.方法:运用灰色关联度方法研究某急救车舱室在高温高温条件下开启制冷空调30min和60 min时舱室内伤病员和医护人员的热舒适性.结果:初始条件下舱室内人体热舒适性为“不舒适”等级:30 min时伤病员和医护人员的热舒适性等级达到“最舒适”和“舒适”等级;60min时热舒适性进一步提高:卧姿伤病员的热舒适性优于坐姿伤病员和站姿医护人员的热舒适性.结论:灰色关联度法能较好地应用于机动卫生装备舱室空气质量与人体热舒适性的评价与分析.

  18. Correlation Between the "seeing FWHM" of Satellite Optical Observations and Meteorological Data at the OWL-Net Station, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Ho; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Sun-Youp; Moon, Hong Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Park, Maru; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between meteorological data collected at the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) Station No. 1 and the seeing of satellite optical observation data was analyzed. Meteorological data and satellite optical observation data from June 2014 to November 2015 were analyzed. The analyzed meteorological data were the outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud index data, and the analyzed satellite optical observation data were the seeing full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data. The annual meteorological pattern for Mongolia was analyzed by collecting meteorological data over four seasons, with data collection beginning after the installation and initial set-up of the OWL-Net Station No. 1 in Mongolia. A comparison of the meteorological data and the seeing of the satellite optical observation data showed that the seeing degrades as the wind strength increases and as the cloud cover decreases. This finding is explained by the bias effect, which is caused by the fact that the number of images taken on the less cloudy days was relatively small. The seeing FWHM showed no clear correlation with either temperature or relative humidity.

  19. GPS Zenith Total Delays and Precipitable Water in comparison with special meteorological observations in Verona (Italyduring MAP-SOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corradini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous meteorological examination of the Pre-Alpine zones in Northern Italy (Po Valleyis important for determination of atmospheric water cycles connected with floods and rainfalls.During a special meteorological observing period (MAP-SOP,radiosounding and other measurements were made in the site of Verona (Italy. This paper deals with Zenith Total Delay (ZTDand Precipitable Water (PWcomparisons obtained by GPS, radiosounding and other meteorological measurements.PW and ZTD from ground-based GPS data in comparisonwith classical techniques (e.g.,WVR,radiosoundingfrom recent literature present an accurate tool for use in meteorology applications (e.g.,assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWPmodels on short-range precipitation forecasts.Comparison of such ZTD for MAP-SOP showed a standard deviation of 16.1 mm and PW comparison showed a standard deviation of 2.7 mm,confirming the accuracy of GPS measurements for meteorology applications.In addition,PW data and its time variation are also matched with time series of meteorological situations.Those results indicate that changes in PW values could be connected to changes in air masses,i.e.to passages of both cold and warm fronts.There is also a correlation between precipitation, forthcoming increase and the following decrease of PW.A good agreement between oscillation of PW and precipitation and strong cyclonic activities is found.

  20. Sensitivity of meteorological input and soil properties in simulating aerosols (dust, PM10, and BC) using CHIMERE chemistry transport model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishi Srivastava; S K Satheesh; Nadège Blond

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of a European chemistry transport model, ‘CHIMERE’ driven by the US meteorological model MM5, in simulating aerosol concentrations [dust, PM10 and black carbon (BC)] over the Indian region. An evaluation of a meteorological event (dust storm); impact of change in soil-related parameters and meteorological input grid resolution on these aerosol concentrations has been performed. Dust storm simulation over Indo-Gangetic basin indicates ability of the model to capture dust storm events. Measured (AERONET data) and simulated parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent are used to evaluate the performance of the model to capture the dust storm event. A sensitivity study is performed to investigate the impact of change in soil characteristics (thickness of the soil layer in contact with air, volumetric water, and air content of the soil) and meteorological input grid resolution on the aerosol (dust, PM10, BC) distribution. Results show that soil parameters and meteorological input grid resolution have an important impact on spatial distribution of aerosol (dust, PM10, BC) concentrations.

  1. Medicanes: cataloguing criteria and exploration of meteorological environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tous

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressions with a similar structure to tropical cyclones, that can reach the intensity of hurricanes, are occasionally generated in the Mediterranean. Such phenomena are called “medicanes”. Although the geographical dimensions of tropical oceans and the Mediterranean Sea are clearly different, the precursor mechanisms of these perturbations, based on the air-sea thermodynamic imbalance, are similar. This fact made us think about the existence of a physical parallelism between both phenomena. We tried to identify such cases from historical images of the Meteosat satellite, for the period 1982-2005. Different lists have been created, each of them increasingly delimiting the selection criteria based on the cyclone structure in the infrared channel. Some of these criteria are, for instance, the size of the cyclone, the clear existence of an eye and the lifetime of the system. This identification has been made in a subjective way. In total, twelve cases of medicanes were identified. The characterization of meteorological environments that are a precursor to medicanes can help us understand the genesis mechanisms and to improve forecasts. This study compares the values of several meteorological variables of interest in the cases of medicanes with those of cyclones catalogued in the database of the MEDEX project to try to identify the environments that favor the genesis and development of medicanes instead of other Mediterranean cyclones. In this sense, the sea surface temperature, the diabatic contribution to the local trend of surface equivalent potential temperature and an empirical index derived from the genesis of tropical cyclones are presented as possible discriminatory parameters.

  2. An Overview of Tropical Cyclone and Tropical Meteorology Research Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈联寿; 罗会邦; 端义宏; 余辉

    2004-01-01

    There has been much progress in the study of tropical cyclones and tropical meteorology in China in the past few years. A new atmospheric field experiment of tropical cyclone landfall with the acronym of CLATEX (China Landfalling Typhoon Experiment) was implemented in July-August 2002. The boundary layer characteristics of the target typhoon Vongfong and the mesoscale structural features of other landfalling typhoons were studied. In addition, typhoon track operational forecasting errors in the last decade have been reduced because the operational monitoring equipment and forecast techniques were improved.Some results from the research program on tropical cyclone landfall, structure and intensity change, intensification near coastal waters, interaction between tropical cyclone and mid-latitude circulation, and the interaction among different scales of motion are described in this paper. Four major meteorological scientific experiments in China with international cooperation were implemented in 1998: the South China Sea monsoon field experiment (SCSMEX), the Tibetan Plateau field experiment (TIPEX), the Huaihe River basin energy and water cycle experiment (HUBEX), and the South China heavy rain scientific experiment (HUAMEX). Although these field experiments have different scientific objectives, they commonly relate to monsoon activities and they interact with each other. The valuable intensive observation data that were obtained have already been shared internationally. Some new findings have been published recently.Other research work in China, such as the tropical air-sea interaction, tropical atmospheric circulation,and weather systems, are reviewed in this paper as well. Some research results have shown that the rainfall anomalies for different regions in China were closely related to the stages of El Nino events.

  3. World Meteorological Organization's model simulations of the radionuclide dispersion and deposition from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Roland; Arnold, Dèlia; Chino, Masamichi; Galmarini, Stefano; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Leadbetter, Susan; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Rolph, Glenn; Saito, Kazuo; Servranckx, René; Shimbori, Toshiki; Solazzo, Efisio; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Five different atmospheric transport and dispersion model's (ATDM) deposition and air concentration results for atmospheric releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident were evaluated over Japan using regional (137)Cs deposition measurements and (137)Cs and (131)I air concentration time series at one location about 110 km from the plant. Some of the ATDMs used the same and others different meteorological data consistent with their normal operating practices. There were four global meteorological analyses data sets available and two regional high-resolution analyses. Not all of the ATDMs were able to use all of the meteorological data combinations. The ATDMs were configured identically as much as possible with respect to the release duration, release height, concentration grid size, and averaging time. However, each ATDM retained its unique treatment of the vertical velocity field and the wet and dry deposition, one of the largest uncertainties in these calculations. There were 18 ATDM-meteorology combinations available for evaluation. The deposition results showed that even when using the same meteorological analysis, each ATDM can produce quite different deposition patterns. The better calculations in terms of both deposition and air concentration were associated with the smoother ATDM deposition patterns. The best model with respect to the deposition was not always the best model with respect to air concentrations. The use of high-resolution mesoscale analyses improved ATDM performance; however, high-resolution precipitation analyses did not improve ATDM predictions. Although some ATDMs could be identified as better performers for either deposition or air concentration calculations, overall, the ensemble mean of a subset of better performing members provided more consistent results for both types of calculations.

  4. Impact of meteorology on fine aerosols at Lucas Heights, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Chambers, Scott; Cohen, David D.; Williams, Alastair; Griffiths, Alan; Stelcer, Eduard; Dyer, Leisa

    2016-11-01

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques were used to assign nine years of PM2.5 observations to seven source types, at Lucas Heights, a topographically complex urban fringe site of Sydney. The highest contributions to total PM2.5 were from motor vehicles (Autos, 26.3%), secondary sulfur (2ndryS, 23.7%), a mixture of industry and aged sea air (IndSaged, 20.6%), and smoke (Smoke, 13.7%). The Autos contribution was highest in winter, whereas 2ndryS was highest in summer, indicating that mitigation measures targeting SO2 release in summer and vehicle exhaust in winter would be most effective in reducing the PM2.5 concentrations at this site. Since concentrations of particulate matter can be significantly affected by local meteorology, generalised additive model (GAM) techniques were employed to investigate relationships between PM2.5 source types and meteorological conditions. The GAM predictors used included: time (seasonal to inter-annual variations), mixing layer depth, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric pressure. Meteorological influences on PM2.5 variability were found to be 58% for soil dust, 46% for Autos, 41% for total PM2.5, and 35% for 2ndryS. Effects were much smaller for other source types. Temperature was found to be an important variable for the determination of total PM2.5, 2ndryS, IndSaged, Soil and Smoke, indicating that future changes in temperature are likely to have an associated change in aerosol concentrations. However, the impact on different source types varied. Temperature had the highest impact on 2ndryS (sometimes more than a factor of 4 increase for temperatures above 25 °C compared to temperatures under 10 °C) and IndSaged, being predominantly secondary aerosols formed in the atmosphere from precursors, whereas wind speed and wind direction were more important for the determination of vehicle exhaust and fresh sea salt concentrations. The marginal effect of relative humidity on 2ndryS increased up to

  5. Radiation-use efficiency in maize: response to fertilization and meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fertilization rates on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize was examined. The investigations were carried out in Sadovo Experimental station on the leached vertisol. Two years with different growing periods in terms of meteorological conditions were chosen. The RUE by organs and for the whole plant for each phenological phase of maize development was estimated. It was found that the highest RUE in conditions of low air temperature and high air humidity during the first stages of growing period (vegetative growth) are observed in maize grown at 125% of fertilization rate. In conditions of high air temperature and low air humidity during the same stages, the plants, grown at 50% of fertilization rate, utilization of mineral fertilization are more successfully

  6. Design and application of air controller for medical oxygen tank%医用氧舱空调控制器的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明振; 王华锐; 孙力

    2012-01-01

    目的:设计一种氧舱空调控制器,实现定时排水,使制热过程中内风机延迟工作,避免空调开始工作时吹凉风。方法:该设计过程利用空调的内、外风机及三通电磁阀,通过与交流接触器及微处理器的相互连接,以及继电器与微处理器的连接来实现,并利用继电器将高电压与氧舱隔离,使空调能够在氧舱内使用。结果:微处理器对空调的运行状态进行检测,实现了定时排水,制热过程中内风机延迟工作,达到了预期的目的。结论:本实用新型专利的设计,实现了自动定时排水,制热延时启动的功能,避免了空调开始工作时吹凉风,效果良好,值得推广。%Objective: The new utility model patents is to design a kind of oxygen tank,air controller that can achieve timing drainage,make the heating process of fan to avoid delay in air conditioning started cool wind blow.Methods: The design process of the use of air conditioning,within the fan and the 3-way magnet valve,through its and ac contactor and microprocessor connected,and relays and microprocessor connected to the implementation,and relay use will high voltage and oxygen tank,air conditioning in isolation to use oxygen cabin.Results: Microprocessor to air conditioning operation state for testing,realize the timing drainage,in the process of heating in fan delay work,achieve the expected purpose.Conclusion: The new utility model patent design,has realized automatic timing drainage,heating time delay activated function,avoid the air conditioning when he began to work,good effect and blow cool wind is worth extending.

  7. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors)

  8. THE NEW YORK MIDTOWN DISPERSION STUDY (MID-05) METEOROLOGICAL DATA REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; SULLIVAN, T.M.; SMITH, S.; CASSELLA, V.

    2007-01-01

    The New York City midtown dispersion program, MID05, examined atmospheric transport in the deep urban canyons near Rockefeller Center. Little is known about air flow and hazardous gas dispersion under such conditions, since previous urban field experiments have focused on small to medium sized cities with much smaller street canyons and examined response over a much larger area. During August, 2005, a series of six gas tracer tests were conducted and sampling was conducted over a 2 km grid. A critical component of understanding gas movement in these studies is detailed wind and meteorological information in the study zone. To support data interpretation and modeling, several meteorological stations were installed at street level and on roof tops in Manhattan. In addition, meteorological data from airports and other weather instrumentation around New York City were collected. This document describes the meteorological component of the project and provides an outline of data file formats for the different instruments. These data provide enough detail to support highly-resolved computational simulations of gas transport in the study zone.

  9. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  10. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  11. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Limei; Pleim, Jonathan; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Hogrefe, Christian; Band, Larry

    2016-03-01

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model) that employs the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM). Recently, PX LSM WRF/CMAQ has been updated in vegetation, soil, and boundary layer processes resulting in improved 2 m temperature (T) and mixing ratio (Q), 10 m wind speed, and surface ozone simulations across the domain compared to the previous version for a period around August 2006. Yearlong meteorology simulations with the updated system demonstrate that MODIS input helps reduce bias of the 2 m Q estimation during the growing season from April to September. Improvements follow the green-up in the southeast from April and move toward the west and north through August. From October to March, MODIS input does not have much influence on the system because vegetation is not as active. The greatest effects of MODIS input include more accurate phenology, better representation of leaf area index (LAI) for various forest ecosystems and agricultural areas, and realistically sparse vegetation coverage in the western drylands. Despite the improved meteorology, MODIS input causes higher bias for the surface O3 simulation in April, August, and October in areas where MODIS LAI is much less than the base LAI. Thus, improvements may be needed in the CMAQ dry deposition model for low LAI areas where deposition on the soil surface becomes important.

  12. Applications of MST radars: Meteorological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar to mesoscale meteorology are discussed. The applications include using the radar either as a research tool to improve our understanding of certain dynamical systems or as part of a network used to provide input data for weather forecasting. The workhorse of the operational observing network is the radiosonde balloon which provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds up to heights of 16 to 20 km. Horizontal and vertical measurement capabilities, reflectivity data, derivable quantities and parameters, and special operational requirements are surveyed.

  13. Sound propagation in areas with a complex meteorology: a meteorological-acoustical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2008-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is largely affected by the vertical wind and temperature gradients. In areas where the meteorology can be complex, such as coastal areas, islands, and lake districts, the gradients usually vary as a function of the horizontal distance. As a result the sound propagation i

  14. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie

    2013-09-01

    Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and

  15. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550768

  16. Correlations between meteorological parameters and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists a north-south pattern to the distribution of prostate cancer in the U.S., with the north having higher rates than the south. The current hypothesis for the spatial pattern of this disease is low vitamin D levels in individuals living at northerly latitudes; however, this explanation only partially explains the spatial distribution in the incidence of this cancer. Using a U.S. county-level ecological study design, we provide evidence that other meteorological parameters further explain the variation in prostate cancer across the U.S. Results In general, the colder the temperature and the drier the climate in a county, the higher the incidence of prostate cancer, even after controlling for shortwave radiation, age, race, snowfall, premature mortality from heart disease, unemployment rate, and pesticide use. Further, in counties with high average annual snowfall (>75 cm/yr the amount of land used to grow crops (a proxy for pesticide use was positively correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion The trends found in this USA study suggest prostate cancer may be partially correlated with meteorological factors. The patterns observed were consistent with what we would expect given the effects of climate on the deposition, absorption, and degradation of persistent organic pollutants including pesticides. Some of these pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been associated with prostate cancer.

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  18. Meteorological Circulations at Gale Environment Through Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Observations and Mesoscale Modeling (MRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) [5] has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology strongly influenced by the complex topography, as predicted by numerous previous studies. The types of perturbations of pressure, air and ground temperature and wind measured by REMS have never been observed at other locations and these data provide a great opportunity to test the models at the most meteorological interesting area measured to date. In an effort to better understand the atmospheric circulations of the Gale Crater, the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)[6]was applied to the landing site region using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the landing site. We provide a comparison of MRAMS predictions for pressure, air temperature, winds and ground temperature,to the REMS data available at the location of the Rover for sols 51-55 (Ls=180), sols 195-199 (Ls=270), sols 348-352 (Ls=0) and sols 541-545 (Ls=90), in order to provide a baseline of model performance.Pressure and ground temperature provide the most robust parameters with which to test the model predictions(Figures 2 and 3).

  19. Preliminary meteorological forecasting strategy to support nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meteorological forecasting strategy designed specifically for supporting emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants is described in this paper. The objective of such a strategy is to provide the framework from which utility meteorologists can develop and implement an effective meteorological forecasting capability at their facilities. The strategy must provide a systematic approach to the analysis of meteorological conditions, preparation of weather forecasts, and utilization of this information to support emergency response systems. The meteorological forecasting strategy was designed to satisfy three principal requirements. First, it must provide the basic logic that allows one to efficiently assemble and interpret the large volumes of meteorological information available at any given time. Second, it must direct the meteorologist's attention to those phenomena and weather elements that are most important to the emergency response system. Third, it must reduce the subjectivity inherent in meteorological forecasting

  20. Numerical experiments with assimilation of the mean and unresolved meteorological conditions into large-eddy simulation model

    CERN Document Server

    Esau, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Micrometeorology, city comfort, land use management and air quality monitoring increasingly become important environmental issues. To serve the needs, meteorology needs to achieve a serious advance in representation and forecast on micro-scales (meters to 100 km) called meteorological terra incognita. There is a suitable numerical tool, namely, the large-eddy simulation modelling (LES) to support the development. However, at present, the LES is of limited utility for applications. The study addresses two problems. First, the data assimilation problem on micro-scales is investigated as a possibility to recover the turbulent fields consistent with the mean meteorological profiles. Second, the methods to incorporate of the unresolved surface structures are investigated in a priopi numerical experiments. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the simplest nudging or Newtonian relaxation technique for the data assimilation is applicable on the turbulence scales. It is also shown that the filtering property of...