WorldWideScience

Sample records for air ionization

  1. Pressurized air ionization chamber with aluminium walls for radiometric dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.G.S.; Pela, C.A.; Netto, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized air ionization chamber with 23 cm 3 and aluminium walls is evaluated concerning its sensitiveness in low exposure rate. Considering conventional ionization chambers, this chamber shows a better performance since the air pressure of 2500 kPa minimizes the energy dependence to less than 5% between 40 and 1.250 keV

  2. Microwave Triggered Laser Ionization of Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiee, Ehsan; Prasad, Sarita; Jerald Buchenauer, C.; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work is to study the evolution and dynamics of plasma expansion when a high power microwave (HPM) pulse is overlapped in time and space on a very small, localized region of plasma formed by a high energy laser pulse. The pulsed Nd:YAG laser (8 ns, 600mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz) is focused to generate plasma filaments in air with electron density of 10^17/cm^3. When irradiated with a high power microwave pulse these electrons would gain enough kinetic energy and further escalate avalanche ionization of air due to elastic electron-neutral collisions thereby causing an increased volumetric discharge region. An X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator(RBWO) at the Pulsed Power,Beams and Microwaves laboratory at UNM is constructed as the microwave source. The RBWO produces a microwave pulse of maximum power 400 MW, frequency of 10.1 GHz, and energy of 6.8 Joules. Special care is being given to synchronize the RBWO and the pulsed laser system in order to achieve a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A photodiode and a microwave waveguide detector will be used to ensure the overlap. Also, a new shadowgraph technique with a nanosecond time resolution will be used to detect changes in the shock wave fronts when the HPM signal overlaps the laser pulse in time and space.

  3. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.; Whitehead, A. H.; Goldhagen, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) established that the uncertainty in the data and models associated with the high-altitude radiation environment could and should be reduced. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) created the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project under the auspices of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program Office at the Langley Research Center. NASA's HSR Program was developed to address the potential of a second-generation supersonic transport. A critical element focussed on the environmental issues, including the threat to crew and passengers posed by atmospheric radiation. Various international investigators were solicited to contribute instruments to fly on an ER-2 aircraft at altitudes similar to those proposed for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A list of participating investigators, their institutions, and instruments with quantities measured is presented. The flight series took place at solar minimum (radiation maximum) with northern, southern, and east/west flights. The investigators analyzed their data and presented preliminary results at the AIR Workshop in March, 1998. A review of these results are included.

  4. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  5. Development of alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Naito, Susumu; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Fukumoto, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Alpha radioactivity Measurement using ionized Air Transportation technology (AMAT) is developed to measure alpha contaminated wastes with large and complex surfaces. An outline of this project was described in this text. A major problem of AMAT technology is that the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and observed ion current is unclear because of the complicated behavior of ionized air molecules. An ion current prediction model covering from ionization of air molecules to ion detection was developed based on atmospheric electrodynamics. This model was described in this text, too. (author)

  6. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.N.; Xie, Z.Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L.B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  7. Effects of air humidity on ionization chamber response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meger, C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Venci, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effect of air humidity on four different ionization chamber cap materials verified earlier studies (Kristensen and Sundbom, 1981; Mijnheer et al., 1983) and extended our understanding of the problem. We found nylon and A-150 plastic caps swell as they absorb water from the air. This accounts for as much as 2.5% increase in ionization response. Graphite chambers readily absorb and desorb water from the air. This creates a problem in maintaining dry air in a wet graphite chamber. Humid air has a different density and W value than dry air (Niatel, 1969, 1975). This decreases the charge collected in a wet graphite chamber. We observe a decrease in response of approximately 2%, a value greater than can be accounted for by these effects alone. Polyethylene chambers are unaffected by humid air. 4 refs., 9 figs

  8. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  9. Development of alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A novel alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology has been developed for future constitution of 'Clearance Level' for uranium and TRU radioactive waste. We carried out optimum design and realized two kinds of practical alpha activity monitor, combining with radiation detector technology, ionized air physics and computational fluid dynamics. The results will bring paradigm shift on the alpha-ray measurement such as converting 'closely contacting and scanning measurement' to 'remotely measurement in the block', and drastically improve the efficiency of measurement operation. We hope that this technology will be widely endorsed as the practical method for the alpha clearance measurement in future. (author)

  10. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  11. Shock velocity in weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the principal mechanism(s) for the shock velocity increase in weakly ionized gases. This paper reports experimental data on the propagation of spark-generated shock waves (1< Mach<3) into weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon glow discharges (1 < p<20 Torr). In order to distinguish between effects due solely to the presence of electrons and effects due to heating of the background gas via elastic collisions with electrons, the weakly ionized discharge was pulsed on/off. Laser deflection methods determined the shock velocity, and the electron number density was collected using a microwave hairpin resonator. In the afterglow of nitrogen, air, and argon discharges, the shock velocity first decreased, not at the characteristic time for electrons to diffuse to the walls, but rather at the characteristic time for the centerline gas temperature to equilibrate with the wall temperature. These data support the conclusion that the principal mechanism for the increase in shock velocity in weakly ionized gases is thermal heating of the neutral gas species via elastic collisions with electrons

  12. Experimental and calculated calibration of ionization chambers with air circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Peetermans, A

    1972-01-01

    The reports describes the method followed in order to calibrate the different ionization chambers with air circulation, used by the 'Health Physics Group'. The calculations agree more precisely with isotopes cited previously (/sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O, /sup 41 /Ar, /sup 14/O, /sup 38/Cl) as well as for /sup 85/Kr, /sup 133/Xe, /sup 14/C and tritium which are used for the experimental standardisation of different chambers.

  13. CALCULATION OF AIR ION REGIME IN THE CASE OF ARTIFICIAL AIR IONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILIAIEV M. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the major tasks in the field of labor protection is providing of the necessary qualitative composition of air in the working areas of office and industrial spaces. In order to maintain the necessary air ion level in the air space premises, the artificial ionization of air is used often in the premises. At present in Ukraine analytical model are used for the calculation of air ion regime in premises, influencing on the formation process of air ions concentration field. An alternative solution is the use of CFD models, developing including the air jets aerodynamics in the premise, the presence of furniture, equipment, transfer of ions under an electric field, and other physical factors, determining intensity and shape of air ions concentration field in the premise. Methodology. Influence of air flow was taken into account in the development of CFD models for calculation of air ion regime in the apartment, caused by operation of ventilation, diffusion, electric field impact, as well as the interaction of different polarity ions with each other, and their interaction with dust particles. The proposed model of calculation of air ion regime in premises based on the use of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer levels. This model allows operatively to calculate air ions concentration field with the influence of the walls, floor, ceiling and obstacles on the process of air ions dispersion, the specific location of different polarity ions emission and their interaction in the premise and work areas in conditions of artificial air ionization. Results. The calculated data were obtained and on their base could be estimated the concentration of air ion anywhere in the premise with artificial air ionization. Ions concentration field, being calculated using this CFD model, as concentration field isolines is presented. Originality. The results of the air ion regime calculation in the premise are presented, based on numerical 2D CFD model

  14. Scattering study at free air ionization chamber diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Alexandre Lo Bianco dos

    2011-01-01

    The maim of this work consisted in the assessment of the correction factor for air kerma, due to scattered radiation in the diaphragm of the free-air ionization chamber model 481. LNMRl measurements were made to acquire x-ray spectra corresponding to the Qualities RQR-M, described in IEC 61627 standards (2005). These spectra were used as input data in the MC simulations. The operational range of energy spectra provide up to 35 keV. This energy range is typically used in diagnostic radiology, although there is not primary standard for air kerma. The determination of this factor is a fundamental process in the primary standardization of the air kerma. These factors were obtained by computer simulation using the Penelope code. The results are k RQR-M1 =0,9946, k RQR -M2 =0,9932, k RQR-M3 =0,9978 and k RQR-M4 =0,9885; with uncertainties of 0,007 and coverage factor equal to 2. lt can be concluded that, with respect to the diaphragm, the chamber can be used in the primary standard of air kerma. (author)

  15. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-01-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k e ) and air attenuation (k a ). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  16. Air ionization as a control technology for off-gas emissions of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO 2 and H 2 O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O 3 ). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O 3 , NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Light focusing from large refractive indices in ionized air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo-Martinez, A.; Sobral, H.; Villagran-Muniz, M.; Bredice, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sheath that surrounds a laser-induced plasma in air was investigated with a light probe. The sheath is a 3-mm-thick halo of ionized gas created by ultraviolet light emitted from the plasma core. A beam of laser light tracked with a streak camera was employed to probe it. It was found that in the first hundreds of a nanosecond after plasma inception, the beam is deflected towards the plasma center. This result points to a high refractive index inside the sheath. The index values obtained (up to 2.0) are due to an increased susceptibility caused by a bulk electric polarization. Using previous results on the sheath's electric polarizability values, the refractive index was calculated and was found to agree with the observed indices. The application of the electric polarization model to the guiding of laser beams and to plasma lenses is also discussed.

  18. CFD SIMULATION OF AIR ION REGIME IN WORK AREAS AT CONDITION OF ARTIFICIAL AIR IONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper supposes creation of a CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in the premises and in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by the ionizer installation indoors with considering the most important physical factors that influence the formation of ions concentration field. Methodology. The proposed CFD model for calculation of the air ion regime in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by installing ionizer indoors is based on the application of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer equations. The mass transfer equation takes into account the interaction of different polarities of ions with each other and with the dust particles. The calculation of air flow rate in the room is realized on the basis of the potential flow model by using the Laplace equation for the stream function. Poisson equation for the electric potential is used for calculation of the charged particles drift in an electric field. At the simulation to take into account: 1 influence of the working area geometric characteristics; 2 location of the ventilation holes; 3 placement of furniture and equipment; 4 ventilation regime in the room; 5 presence of obstacles on the ions dispersion process; 6 specific location of dust particles emission and ions of different polarity, and their interaction in the room and in the working zones. Findings. The developed CFD model allows determining the concentration of negative ions in the room and in the area of the human respiratory organs. The distribution of the negative ions concentration is presented in the form of concentration field isolines. Originality. The 2D CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in working areas, providing the ability to determine the ions concentration in a given place in the room was created. The proposed model is developed taking into account: placement of furniture and equipment in the room; geometric characteristics of the room; location of dust emissions

  19. Determination of the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Cintra, Felipe B.; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experimental and simulation results for the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders of Victoreen, model 481-5. This correction factor was obtained for the standard mammography qualities established in the Instrument Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN. The values were compared with the results from the German primary standard laboratory Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and maximum differences of 0.40% in relation to the experimental value and 0.31% in relation to the simulated value were obtained. (author)

  20. Free-air ionization intensity in the lower atmosphere due to cosmic-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Katsurayama, Kousuke

    1979-01-01

    Being able to be determined by subtracting the gamma-ray ionization intensity from that obtained with ionization chamber, cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated by using with 15l air-filled ionization chamber and 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Optimum applied voltage to 15l air-filled ionization chamber was determined in accordance with Scott and Greening's formula to obtain the ionization intensity caused by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays. Pulse-height distribution of cosmic-rays created in 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was investigated for the precise determination of gamma-ray ionization intensity. Field measurements were carried out by using with these two instruments at about 1.5 meter above the ground in the several locations around Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated from the results obtained with air-filled ionization chamber and was 3.33 +- 0.15 μR/hr equivalent in natural environment near Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. (author)

  1. Influence of water vapor on the ionization of air in the case of a cavity chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niatel, M.-T.

    1975-01-01

    Former measurements of ionization current produced in moist air by X rays led to propose a variation curve for W (mean energy expended in air per ion pair formed) as a function of the amount of water vapor in air. This curve is used here to predict the ionization current for a cavity chamber exposed to γ rays. The predictions are in agreement with measurements recently made in two other laboratories [fr

  2. Unrestricted release measurements with ambient air ionization monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Gunn, R.; Dockray, T.; Luff, C.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique, such as the BNFL Instruments IonSens trademark, provide a single contamination measurement for an entire object rather than the more familiar individual readings for smaller surface areas. The LRAD technique relies on the ionization of ambient air molecules by alpha particles, and the subsequent detection of these ions, rather than direct detection of the alpha particles themselves. A single monitor can detect all of the ions produced over a large object and report a total contamination level for the entire surface of that object. However, both the unrestricted release limits specified in USDOE Order 5400.5 (and similar documents in other countries), and the definitions of radioactive waste categories, are stated in terms of contamination per area. Thus, conversion is required between the total effective contamination as measured by the LRAD-based detector and the allowable release limits. In addition, since the release limits were not written assuming an averaging detector system, the method chosen to average the assumed contamination over the object can have a significant impact on the effective sensitivity of the detector

  3. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes

  4. Investigation of air bipolar ionization effects in cheese and kajmak craft production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pešić-Mikulec, D.; Puđa, P.D.; Blagić, G.S.; Miočinović, J.B.; Slović, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are sustainable to the development of numerous microorganisms, especially pathogens. Therewith, it is necessary to achieve a high level of hygiene in dairy plants, in order to get safe and high quality products. Based on that, modern food production implies application of different air treatments. Microbiological status of air and working surfaces in the cheese and kajmak craft production, before and after air treatment by bipolar ionization, was investigated. It is concluded that bipolar ionization may be considered as an efficient method for improving of microbiological status of air, as well as surfaces that are in contact with the air

  5. Stability results of a free air ionization chamber in standard mammography beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Xavier, Marcos; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Free air ionization chambers are absolute dosimeters, because they can measure basic physical quantities directly without the need of their calibration in a standard radiation beam. They are used for measuring exposure and air kerma in X and gamma radiation beams. The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN has a free air ionization chamber of the cylindrical type for low energies. The characterization of this ionization chamber was already performed and reported in a previous study. After a modification in the support of the micrometers used for the movement of the internal cylinder devices, the tests were redone. The objective of this work was to present the new alignment protocol of the free air ionization chamber in low energies of X-ray beams of standard mammography qualities, assuring the positioning reproducibility, and new results of stability tests performed with the application of this protocol will be presented. (author)

  6. Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document reprints the text of the French by-law from January 8, 2002 relative to the approval and to the controls and verifications of facilities devoted to the ionizing of food products for human beings and animals. The by-law imposes the operators of such facilities to perform measurements and dosimetric verifications all along the ionization process. (J.S.)

  8. Dose response of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation in air-liquid interface cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.; Shimo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The dose-response relationships of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation was examined in air-liquid interface cultures, which were developed for the purpose of simulating in vivo conditions. The cultures investigated in this study were expected to be advantageous for the performance of irradiation experiments using short-range α rays. The level of dose response of air-liquid interface cultures to ionizing radiation proved to be the same as that for in vivo conditions. This result indicates that air-liquid interface cultures will prove most useful, to facilitate future studies for the investigation of the biological effects induced in tracheal epithelial cells by ionizing radiation, especially by α-rays. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of air kerma rate for Cs-137 using different ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K. T. A.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the importance of radiation doses in medical field quality assurance should be established in order to maintain a reasonable balance between the purpose of application and exposure. This study had been carried out to achieve quality control for protection based on air kerma rate. Measurements were performed by using Cs-137 for the comparison of two working ionization chambers in secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. Spherical ionization chamber L S-01 1000 cc S/N 912 and Farmer ionization chamber 2675 A 600 cc S/N 0511, respectively. The results obtained from this study have been represented as mean and their standard deviations shown in most cases remains at 5% uncertainly. Comparison between kinetic energy released per unit mass in air rate (air kerma rate) were obtained by using spherical ionization chamber L S-01 1000 cc S/N 912 and results have been determined using inverse square law. The differences have been represented as means and standard deviations with significant P-value less than 0.05. Spherical ionization chamber gives accurate, reproducible results with acceptable uncertainty which is more suitable for calibration of radiation detectors.(Author)

  10. Formal description of styrene conversion in ionized air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselov, Yu.N.; Filatov, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    The styrene conversion in the air flow under the effect of the electron beam with the energy of 180 keV and the streamer corona charge is studied with the purpose of searching the general criterion of the efficiency of the air purification from the toxic aromatic unsaturated compounds with application of the electrophysical methods. It is established, that dependence of the styrene concentration on the radiation pulse number have the character of the falling curves specific for the first order reactions. It is shown that it is advisable to use as the criterion of the efficiency of the electrophysical air purification methods the initial characteristic energy, the numerical value whereof corresponds to the energy quantity, removed substance concentration by e = 2.718 times [ru

  11. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roderick Escombe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutional tuberculosis (TB transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air.For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304 of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303 by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group. TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304 of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303 by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group. Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001 and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001. Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055 and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02. An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB

  12. Effects of Ionization-Induced Smog on Air Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-30

    MAR 33 APR eoiton may n* wJse vi+til Ctn l en u SEC’.ITY C ,SSIC-ACN OF -’S PAGE All Ott 𔃻t OitlDOrn are OllOel.i UNCLASSIFIED %N UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...reported around 5.85 om and 7.5 pim . However, these were not observed in our measure- ments with nitric acid deliberately added to the air sample...term buildup of absorption in the 6.7 pim to 7.4 pm range and a shorter-lived (8 minute decay) absorption near 6.2 pm, and a shorter-lived absorption

  13. Air filled ionization chambers and their response to high LET radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Background Air filled ionization chambers (ICs) are widely used for absolute dosimetry, not only in photon beams but also in beams of heavy charged particles. Within the IC, electron hole pairs are generated by the energy deposition originating from incoming radiation. High-LET particles create......-plate ionization chamber exposed to heavy ions Phys. Med. Biol. 43 3549–58, 1998. ELSAESSER, T. et al.: Impact of track structure on biological treatment planning ion ion radiotherapy. New Journal pf Physics 10. 075005, 2008...

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on moist air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of nitrogen/oxygen/water systems is reviewed. General radiolytic effects in dry nitrogen/oxygen systems are relatively well characterized. Irradiation results in the formation of steady state concentrations of ozone, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide. In closed systems, the concentration observed depends on the total dose, temperature and initial gas composition. Only three studies have been published that focus on the radiation chemistry of nitrogen/oxygen/water homogeneous gas systems. Mixed phase work that is relevant to the gaseous system is also summarized. The presence of water vapor results in the formation of nitric acid and significantly changes the chemistry observed in dry air systems. Mechanistic evidence from the studies reviewed are summarized and discussed in relation to characterizing the gas phase during the containment period of a repository in tuff

  15. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs

    2012-04-09

    A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].

  16. Ignition of hydrocarbon-air supersonic flow by volumetric ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Marat A.; Pozdnyakov, George A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the results of the electron-beam initiation of the combustion in the mixtures of hydrogen, natural gas or kerosene vapors with air. Electron beam characteristics were studied in closed volume with immobile gas. The researches included definition of an integrated current of an electronic beam, distribution of a current density and an estimation of average energy of electrons. Possibility of fuel mixtures ignition by means of this approach in the combustor at high velocity at the entrance was demonstrated. Experiments were carried out at Mach numbers of 4 and 5. Process of ignition and combustion under electron beam action was researched. It was revealed that ignition of mixture occurs after completion of electron gun operation. Data obtained have confirmed effectiveness of electron beam application for ignition of hydrogen and natural gas. The numerical simulation of the combustion of mixture in channel was carried out by means of ANSYS CFD 12.0 instrumentation on the basis of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equation using SST/k-ω turbulence model. For combustion modeling, a detailed kinetic scheme with 38 reactions of 8 species was implemented taking into account finite rate chemistry. Computations have shown that the developed model allow to predict ignition of a mixture and flame propagation even at low flow temperatures.

  17. Effect of ionization, bedding, and feeding on air quality in a horse stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegers, Esther Willemijn; Anthonisse, Milou; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; van den Broek, Jan; Wouters, Inge M; Westermann, Cornélie Martine

    2018-05-01

    Organic dust is associated with Equine asthma. Ionization should reduce airborne dust levels. To determine the effect of ionization of air, type of bedding, and feed on the levels of airborne dust, endotoxin, and fungal colonies in horse stables. 24 healthy University-owned horses occupied the stables. A randomized controlled cross-over study. Four units with 6 stables were equipped with an ionization installation (25 VA, 5000 Volt Direct Current). Horses were kept either on wood shavings and fed haylage (2 units), or on straw and fed dry hay (2 units). Measurements were performed with and without activated ionization, during daytime and nighttime, repeatedly over the course of a week and repeatedly during 4-6 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect model with Akaike's Information Criterion for model reduction and 95% profile (log) likelihood confidence intervals (CI). Ionization did not alter concentrations of dust, endotoxin, or fungi, fewer. In the units with straw and hay, the concentration of dust, endotoxin, and fungi (difference in logarithmic mean 1.92 (95%CI 1.71-2.12); 2.86 (95%CI 2.59-3.14); 1.75 (95%CI 1.13-2.36)) were significantly higher compared to wood shavings and haylage. The installation of a negative air-ionizer in the horse stable did not reduce concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and viable fungal spores. The substantial effect of low dust bedding and feed is confirmed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Microparticle charging in dry air plasma created by an external ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, I N; Filippov, A V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper the dust particle charging is studied in a dry air plasma created by an external ionization source. The ionization rate is changed in the range 10 1 -10 20 cm -3 s -1 . It is found that the main positive ion of the plasma is O + 4 and the main negative ones are O − 2 and O − 4 . The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approach shows that the screening potential distribution around a dust particle is a superposition of four Debye-like exponentials with four different spatial scales. The first scale almost coincides with the Debye radius. The second one is the distance, passed by positive and negative plasma components due to ambipolar diffusion in their recombination time. The third one is defined by the negative ion conversion and diffusion. The fourth scale is described by the electron attachment, recombination and diffusion at low gas ionization rates and by the recombination and diffusion of negative diatomic ions at high ionization rates. It is also shown that the electron flux defines the microparticle charge at high ionization rates, whereas the electron number density is much less than the ion one. (paper)

  19. Portable meter study of ionizing radiation Teletector in high rates of air kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian Behling; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    A set of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma (teletectors) commonly used in emergencies in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analyst is parameters for the detectors behavior were established. Applied tests were: energy dependence and primarily overload with the new irradiation system. Thus it was possible to determine the most common characteristic found in these equipment (quality control programs) and new calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. (author)

  20. Free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, designed for medium energy X-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The primary standard for X-ray photons is based on parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is tried to design and build the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The main aim of the present work is to investigate specification of the FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber and design it. FAC-IR-300 dosimeter is composed of two parallel plates, a high voltage (HV) plate and a collector plate, along with a guard electrode that surrounds the collector plate. The guard plate and the collector were separated by an air gap. For obtaining uniformity in the electric field distribution, a group of guard strips was used around the ionization chamber. These characterizations involve determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation and introducing correction factors.

  1. Transport coefficients in high-temperature ionized air flows with electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    Transport coefficients are studied in high-temperature ionized air mixtures using the modified Chapman-Enskog method. The 11-component mixture N2/N2+/N /N+/O2/O2+/O /O+/N O /N O+/e- , taking into account the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules and electronic degrees of freedom of both atomic and molecular species, is considered. Using the PAINeT software package, developed by the authors of the paper, in wide temperature range calculations of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, diffusion, and shear viscosity coefficients for an equilibrium ionized air mixture and non-equilibrium flow conditions for mixture compositions, characteristic of those in shock tube experiments and re-entry conditions, are performed. For the equilibrium air case, the computed transport coefficients are compared to those obtained using simplified kinetic theory algorithms. It is shown that neglecting electronic excitation leads to a significant underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 25 000 K. For non-equilibrium test cases, it is shown that the thermal diffusion coefficients of neutral species and the self-diffusion coefficients of all species are strongly affected by the mixture composition, while the thermal conductivity coefficient is most strongly influenced by the degree of ionization of the flow. Neglecting electronic excitation causes noticeable underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 20 000 K.

  2. Design of the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for X-ray dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa; Tavakoli-Anbaran, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The primary standard for X-ray dosimetry is based on the free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) designed the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The purpose of this work is the study of the free-air ionization chamber characteristics and the design of the FAC-IR-150. The FAC-IR-150 dosimeter has two parallel plates, a high voltage plate and a collector plate. A guard electrode surrounds the collector and is separated by an air gap. A group of guard strips is used between up and down electrodes to produce a uniform electric field in all the ion chamber volume. This design involves introducing the correction factors and determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Alpha radioactivity measurement technology with ionized air type measurement. Applicability evaluation to verification of the clearance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yutaka; Matsumura, Toshihiro; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this test is to evaluate the applicability of the clearance level measuring system by Ionized Air Type Measurement after decontaminated by sulfuric acid sample. In Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. The equipment and radioactive waste which were contaminated with uranium are generated so much in future dismantling stage. In our plan, some of equipments and radioactive waste are contaminated to a clearance level, and cut down on decommission and disposal expense. This plan needs the alpha-rays measurement technology of the very low level. We think that ionized Air transfer measurement technology is promising as of clearance verification technology. The ionized Air transfer measurement technology applied to the Ionized Air Type Measurement can measure plan radioactivity of a very low level. Moreover, as compared with a direct survey, there is the merit which can be measured in a short time. However ionized Air transfer measurement technology is new technology. Therefore, there is almost no measurement track record. Furthermore, the date about the influence of a background, a detection limit, measurement performance, and reliability is insufficient. So, this measurement test estimated applicability as clearance level verification of an Ionized Air Type Measurement. (author)

  4. Effective ionization coefficient of C5 perfluorinated ketone and its mixtures with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aints, Märt; Jõgi, Indrek; Laan, Matti; Paris, Peeter; Raud, Jüri

    2018-04-01

    C5 perfluorinated ketone (C5 PFK with UIPAC chemical name 1,1,1,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butanone and sold by 3M as Novec™ 5110) has a high dielectric strength and a low global warming potential, which makes it interesting as an insulating gas in medium and high-voltage applications. The study was carried out to determine the effective Townsend ionization coefficient α eff as a function of electric field strength and gas density for C5 PFK and for its mixtures with air. The non-self-sustained Townsend discharge between parallel plate electrodes was initiated by illuminating the cathode by UV radiation. The discharge current, I, was measured as a function of inter-electrode distance, d, at different gas densities, N, and electric field strengths, E. The effective ionization coefficient α eff was determined from the semi-logarithmic plots of I/I 0 against d. For each tested gas mixture, the density normalized effective ionization coefficient α eff/N was found to be a unique function of reduced electric field strength E/N. The measurements were carried out in the absolute pressure range of 0.05-1.3 bar and E/N range of 150-1200 Td. The increasing fraction of C5 PFK in air resulted in the decrease of effective ionization coefficient. The limiting electric field strength (E/N)lim where the effective ionization coefficient α eff became zero was 770 Td (190 kV cm-1 at 1 bar) for pure C5 PFK and decreased to 225 Td (78 kV cm-1 at 1.4 bar) for 7.6% C5 PFK/air mixture. The latter value of (E/N)lim is still more than two times higher than the (E/N)lim value of synthetic air and about two-thirds of the value corresponding to pure SF6. The investigated gas mixtures have the potential to become an alternative to SF6 in numerous high- and medium-voltage applications.

  5. Gaschromatographic proof of nitrous oxide concentrations in air by means of radiation ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Schoentube, E.; Oppermann, G.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations at workplaces in operating theatres, gaschromatography is a particularly suitable method if it is possible to measure nitrous oxide concentrations in the ppm to ppb region. For this, most frequently used gaschromatographic detectors (flame ionization detector, thermal conductivity detector) are unsuitable, whereas radiation ionization detectors can be used successfully. The investigations using detectors designed at the Central Institute for Isotopes and Radiation Research of the GDR Academy of Sciences showed that a high-temperature electron-capture detector (ECD), working at a temperatur of 250 0 C, enables the determination of traces of nitrous oxide with a detection limit of about 200 ppb, while the helium detector has a limit of 50 ppb of nitrous oxide in room air. Since the helium detector requires extremely pure carrier gas, the high-temperature ECD appears more suitable for analyzing nitrous oxide. (author)

  6. Alpha-ionization gas analyzer for air traces in hydrogen or deuterium at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The constructional features and the principle of operation of and α-ionization gas analyzer are described. The analyzer is based on a radioactive monometric transducer MP-2 with a plutonium source, which makes it possible to measure the volume admixture of air in H 2 or D 2 in the range from 0 to 30% with an accuracy to about 0.3%. The operating principle of the instrument involves the dependence of the saturation current in the ionization chamber on the molecular weight of the gas analysed. As the output unit of the gas analyzer, either a microamperometer or a recording potentiometer is used. The sensitivity of the gas analyzer is about the same as that of instruments based on the phenomenon of heat conduction. The gas analyzer is explosion proof and reliable in operation, which enables it to compete with thermal gas analyzers [ru

  7. The influence of air humidity on an unsealed ionization chamber in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blad, B.; Nilsson, P.; Knoeoes, T.

    1996-01-01

    The safe and accurate delivery of the prescribed absorbed dose is the central function of the dose monitoring and beam stabilization system in a medical linear accelerator. The absorbed dose delivered to the patient during radiotherapy is often monitored by a transmission ionization chamber. Therefore it is of utmost importance that the chamber behaves correctly. We have noticed that the sensitivity of an unsealed chamber in a Philips SL linear accelerator changes significantly, especially during and after the summer season. The reason for this is probably a corrosion effect of the conductive plates in the chamber due to the increased relative humidity during hot periods. We have found that the responses of the different ion chamber plates change with variations in air humidity and that they do not return to their original values when the air humidity is returned to ambient conditions. (author)

  8. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  9. A new approach to the determination of air kerma using primary-standard cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D T

    2006-01-01

    A consistent formalism is presented using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the reference air kerma from the measured energy deposition in a primary-standard cavity ionization chamber. A global approach avoiding the use of cavity ionization theory is discussed and its limitations shown in relation to the use of the recommended value for W. The role of charged-particle equilibrium is outlined and the consequent requirements placed on the calculations are detailed. Values for correction factors are presented for the BIPM air-kerma standard for 60 Co, making use of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, a detailed geometrical model of the BIPM 60 Co source and event-by-event electron transport. While the wall correction factor k wall = 1.0012(2) is somewhat lower than the existing value, the axial non-uniformity correction k an = 1.0027(3) is significantly higher. The use of a point source in the evaluation of k an is discussed. A comparison is made of the calculated dose ratio with the Bragg-Gray and Spencer-Attix stopping-power ratios, the results indicating a preference for the Bragg-Gray approach in this particular case. A change to the recommended value for W of up to 2 parts in 10 3 is discussed. The uncertainties arising from the geometrical models, the use of phase-space files, the radiation transport algorithms and the underlying radiation interaction coefficients are estimated

  10. Influence of ionizing irradiation in air and nitrogen for sterilization of surgical grade polyethylene for implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the atmosphere and the applied dose during ionizing radiation treatment on selected properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) have been investigated. A linear correlation between extinction coefficient and applied doses in air from 6 to 125 kGy was found, while oxidation was not linear with irradiation in nitrogen. Bacteria survival rate shows a necessary minimum dose of 15 kGy for assured sterility of the product. Post reaction of latent free radicals in UHMWPE created during irradiation, which react or recombine time- and environment dependent, has also been investigated after storage of UHMWPE-films in air and nitrogen at 21 0 C and in water at body temperature 37 0 C for up to nine months. Results show that the properties of UHMWPE after radiation-sterilization change depending on time, the absorbed dose, the atmosphere where irradiation took place and the environment of storage. UHMWPE, which mainly crosslinks during irradiation degrades by an oxidation process after sterilizing when stored in air and even more in water at body temperature. So irradiation and storage in nitrogen before implantation in the human body is beneficial. (author)

  11. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: ksteph@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  12. Analysis of volatile compounds by open-air ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2017-05-08

    This study demonstrates a simple method for rapid and in situ identification of volatile and endogenous compounds in culinary spice samples through mass spectrometry (MS). This method only requires a holder for solid spice sample (2-3 mm) that is placed close to a mass spectrometer inlet, which is applied with a high voltage. Volatile species responsible for the aroma of the spice samples can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Sample pretreatment is not required prior to MS analysis, and no solvent was used during MS analysis. The high voltage applied to the inlet of the mass spectrometer induces the ionization of volatile compounds released from the solid spice samples. Furthermore, moisture in the air also contributes to the ionization of volatile compounds. Dried spices including cinnamon and cloves are used as the model sample to demonstrate this straightforward MS analysis, which can be completed within few seconds. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the suitability of the current method for rapid screening of cinnamon quality through detection of the presence of a hepatotoxic agent, i.e. coumarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The experimental effect of artificial air ionizer (negative and positive on some hematological parameters at Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The air near the ground, where the most organisms live, is characterized by physical-chemical and biological properties.All these factors (e.g. temperature, humidity, air ionization, etc perform certains roles and any quantitative and qualitative change, beyond certain limits, are felt on the body in one form or another.From the physical factors of the air, the electrical power includes, in turn, electrical conductivity, electric field, electrical potential gradient, thunderstorms, air ionization, atmospherical which manifests itself differently in beautiful weather (low cloud, little wind, no precipitation or the disturbed weather (storm.The most common electricity of beautiful weather, is characterized by a multitude of meanings with has direct or indirect effects on the living world, favorable or unfavorable, perceptible or not, depending on the intensity, duration or frequency of manifestation of that power factor.A special place of these biometeorological factors is occupied by the category natural air ionization. The first observations on the existence of gaseous ions in air have been made since the early twentieth century `30 (German physicist Panthenier Ladenburg and French, thorough research and then resumed after the 50s of various collective (including French physicist J. Bricard, University of Paris. They have highlighted the link between low ion content in the air and micropopulation atmosphere and that lack almost daily a minimum amount of negative ions of oxygen from small places of daily activities constitute a cause of a inevitable occurrence of disorders, often severe, health status.

  14. Measurement and evaluation of alpha radioactivity using ionized air transport technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    A novel alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology has been developed for future constitution of 'clearance level' for uranium and TRU radioactive waste. This technology will bring paradigm shift on alpha-ray measurement, such as converting 'closely contacting and scanning measurement' to 'remotely contacting measurement in the block', and drastically improve the efficiency of measurement operation. In this article, the origin and chronicle of this technology were simply explained and our newest accomplishment was described. Furthermore, using measurement data obtained in our development process, measurement and evaluation examples of alpha radioactivity were shown for practical operations as informative guides. We hope that this technology will be widely endorsed as a practical method for alpha clearance measurement in the near future. (author)

  15. Consequences of air around an ionization chamber : Are existing solid phantoms suitable for reference dosimetry on an MR-linac?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackett, S. L.; Van Asselen, B.; Wolthaus, J. W H; Kok, J. G M; Woodings, S. J.; Lagendijk, J. J W; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A protocol for reference dosimetry for the MR-linac is under development. The 1.5 T magnetic field changes the mean path length of electrons in an air-filled ionization chamber but has little effect on the electron trajectories in a surrounding phantom. It is therefore necessary to correct

  16. Shock wave air dissociation and ionization; Dissociation et ionisation de l'air par une onde de choc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1959-07-01

    The composition and internal energy of air are computed for a range of temperature from 3 500 up to 11500 deg. K and a range of density from 4 up to 12 times normal density. In another connection, the increase of internal energy of air by a shock wave traveling through it is evaluated in terms of the same parameters. By adjusting both expressions of energy, a relation between the temperature T and the ratio of molecular volumes V{sub 0}/V ahead and behind the shock front is obtained. The others physical variables, pressure, front velocity, material velocity, degree of ionization, can be then computed if either of parameters T or V{sub 0}/V is known. Conversely, measurement of any one physical variable makes it possible to get values of all the others. Present calculations show the oxygen to be completely dissociated by strong shock waves (velocities above 7000 m/s), the nitrogen by a rate of 50 % higher, and the concentration of free electrons to be over 0,1 %. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le journal de physique et le radium', Tome 19, July 1958, p. 639-648 [French] La composition de l'air et la valeur de son energie interne sont calculees pour des temperatures allant de 3 500 a 11 500 deg. K et des densites de 4 a 12 fois superieures a la densite normale. D'autre part, on determine, en fonction des memes parametres, l'augmentation d'energie interne de l'air due au passage d'une onde de choc. En egalant les deux expressions de l'energie, on obtient une relation entre la temperature T et le rapport des volumes moleculaires V{sub 0}/ V devant et derriere le front de choc. Les valeurs des autres grandeurs physiques, pression, vitesse du front, vitesse d'ecoulement, taux d'ionisation dans le front, sont alors determinees si l'on connait l'un des parametres T ou V{sub 0}/ V. Inversement, la mesure de l'une quelconque de ces grandeurs physiques permet de fixer la valeur de toutes les autres. Le calcul montre que pour des chocs intenses (vitesses superieures a 7000 m

  17. Metrological reliability of the calibration procedure in terms of air kerma using the ionization chamber NE2575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Margarete Cristina; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da; Rosado, Paulo H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to provide X radiation beams that were established by international standardization organizations to perform calibration and testing of dosimeters. Reliable and traceable standard dosimeters should be used in the calibration procedure. The aim of this work was to study the reliability of the NE 2575 ionization chamber used as standard dosimeter for the air kerma calibration procedure adopted in the CDTN Calibration Laboratory. (author)

  18. Electron Transport Coefficients and Effective Ionization Coefficients in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air Mixtures Using Boltzmann Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linsheng; Xu, Min; Yuan, Dingkun; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji; Tan, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    The electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), density-normalized effective ionization coefficient and density-normalized longitudinal diffusion velocity are calculated in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures. The experimental results from a pulsed Townsend discharge are plotted for comparison with the numerical results. The reduced field strength varies from 40 Td to 500 Td (1 Townsend=10-17 V·cm2) and the SF6 concentration ranges from 10% to 100%. A Boltzmann equation associated with the two-term spherical harmonic expansion approximation is utilized to gain the swarm parameters in steady-state Townsend. Results show that the accuracy of the Boltzmann solution with a two-term expansion in calculating the electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient is acceptable. The effective ionization coefficient presents a distinct relationship with the SF6 content in the mixtures. Moreover, the E/Ncr values in SF6-Air mixtures are higher than those in SF6-O2 mixtures and the calculated value E/Ncr in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures is lower than the measured value in SF6-N2. Parametric studies conducted on these parameters using the Boltzmann analysis offer substantial insight into the plasma physics, as well as a basis to explore the ozone generation process.

  19. Characterization of a free-air ionization chamber in direct X-ray beams as used in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Mateus Hilario de

    2014-01-01

    At this work stability and characterization tests were undertaken on a Victoreen free-air ionization chamber, model 481. The tests were realized using direct X-ray beams as a contribution for its establishment as a primary standard system of the quantity air kerma. The characterization tests were: saturation curve, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, response linearity with the air kerma rate and response linearity with the chamber volume variation. The ion collection efficiency allowed the determination of the ion recombination factor. Most of the test results showed agreement with the limits established by international standards. Furthermore, the air attenuation factors for the mammography beams with aluminum and molybdenum filters were obtained. The factors for photon transmission and scattering at the diaphragm edges were also determined for mammography beams with aluminum filter and for the standard beam with molybdenum filter. (author)

  20. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-H. E-mail: jhlee@iner.gov.tw; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  1. Real-time measurement of plutonium in air by direct-inlet surface ionization mass spectrometry. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, J.J.

    1980-04-01

    A new technique is being developed for monitoring low-level airborne plutonium on a real-time basis. The technique is based on surface ionization mass spectrometry of airborne particles. It will be capable of measuring plutonium concentrations below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) level. A complete mass spectrometer was designed and constructed for this purpose. Major components which were developed and made operational for the instrument include an efficient inlet for directly sampling particles in air, a wide dynamic range ion detector and a minicomputer-based ion-burst measurement system. Calibration of the direct-inlet mass spectrometer (DIMS) was initiated to establish the instrument's response to plutonium dioxide as a function of concentration and particle size. This work revealed an important problem - bouncing of particles upon impact with the ionizing filament. Particle bounce results in a significant loss of measurement sensitivity. The feasibility of using an oven ionizer to overcome the particle bounce problem has been demonstrated. A rhenium oven ionizer was designed and constructed for the purpose of trapping particles which enter via the direct inlet. High-speed particles were trapped in the oven yielding a measurement sensitivity comparable to that for particles which are preloaded. Development of the Pu DIMS can now be completed by optimizing the oven design and calibrating the instrument's performance with UO 2 and CeO 2 particles as analogs to PuO 2 particles

  2. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the {sup 222}Rn decays detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu.M.; Gangapshev, A.M.; Gezhaev, A.M.; Etezov, R.A.; Kazalov, V.V.; Kuzminov, V.V. [Baksan Neutrino Observatory,Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 361609 Neutrino (Russian Federation); Panasenko, S.I. [V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Ratkevich, S.S., E-mail: ssratk@gmail.com [V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Tekueva, D.A.; Yakimenko, S.P. [Baksan Neutrino Observatory,Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 361609 Neutrino (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-21

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register α-particles from the {sup 222}Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV α-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented. - Highlights: • The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. • The chamber is intended to register alpha-particles from {sup 222}Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. • The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. • An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV alpha-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure have been investigated and the results are presented.

  3. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-01-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  4. Effect of negative ions on current growth and ionizing wave propagation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    The spatiotemporal development of electron and ion densities, electric fields, and luminosity are calculated for electron pulse experiments in overvolted parallel-plane gaps by numerically solving continuity equations together with Poisson's equation. Experimental coefficients for primary ionization, cathode photoemission, photoionization, and luminosity are used. Unambiguous determination of the coefficients for attachment, detachment, and charge transfer is not possible from available experimental results. Therefore, the calculations are repeated for three sets of coefficients for these processes, corresponding to the following assumptions: unstable negative ions, stable negative ions, and no negative ions. The results of the calculations show, in each case, that the electron pulse initiates an avalanche which grows exponentially until the onset of space-charge effects. The calculated growth rate is strongly affected by the assumed attachment, detachment, and charge-transfer coefficients. When the total number of electrons in the avalanche reaches approx.10 8 , anode- and cathode-directed ionizing waves, or streamers, develop from the avalanche and produce a weakly ionized filamentary plasma. The calculated ionizing wave velocities are strongly increasing functions of the space-charge--enhanced electric field within the waves and are insensitive to the assumed attachment, detachment, and charge-transfer coefficients. The numerically calculated ionizing wave velocities are in approximate agreement with a simple analytical theory

  5. An investigation of the effect of some gaseous admixtures on the ionization currents in the air in the discharge chambers of the proportional counter type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowska, E.; Zastawny, A.

    1981-01-01

    Voltage-current characteristics of the ionization discharge in chambers of the proportional counter filled with air with admixtures of CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O have been investigated. It was found that in the transition region between dependent and self-maintained discharge the characteristics change sufficiently for detection of the presence of those admixtures in the air. (author)

  6. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring system with a large volume air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, C.; Witzani, J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved environmental monitoring system has been designed and tested consisting of an ionization chamber with 120 l sensitive volume, operated at atmospheric pressure, and a commercial electrometer amplifier with digital voltmeter. The system is controlled by a desk calculator with printer for automated operation and calculation of dose and doserate. The ionization chamber provides superior dosimetric performance as compared to usual GM-counters and high pressure chambers. The system has been field-tested during the 'European Intercomparison Programme for Environmental Monitoring Instruments' organized by the Commission of the European Communities. (Author)

  7. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  8. Scattering study at free air ionization chamber diaphragm; Estudo do espalhamento no diafragma da camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alexandre Lo Bianco dos

    2011-07-01

    The maim of this work consisted in the assessment of the correction factor for air kerma, due to scattered radiation in the diaphragm of the free-air ionization chamber model 481. LNMRl measurements were made to acquire x-ray spectra corresponding to the Qualities RQR-M, described in IEC 61627 standards (2005). These spectra were used as input data in the MC simulations. The operational range of energy spectra provide up to 35 keV. This energy range is typically used in diagnostic radiology, although there is not primary standard for air kerma. The determination of this factor is a fundamental process in the primary standardization of the air kerma. These factors were obtained by computer simulation using the Penelope code. The results are k{sub RQR-M1}=0,9946, k{sub RQR} {sub -M2}=0,9932, k{sub RQR-M3}=0,9978 and k{sub RQR-M4}=0,9885; with uncertainties of 0,007 and coverage factor equal to 2. lt can be concluded that, with respect to the diaphragm, the chamber can be used in the primary standard of air kerma. (author)

  9. Measures of association of some air pollutants. Natural ionizing radiation and cigarette smoking with mortality rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, R C; McDonald, G C

    1976-03-01

    Two methods are employed to estimate the association of hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, natural ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoking with some age stratified and disease specific United States mortality rates for white males. The first method is based on a ridge regression technique and the second on a sign constrained least squares analysis. It is concluded that increased concentration of sulfur compounds and increased consumption of cigarettes are associated with increases in the total white male mortality rate. Associations for nitrogen compounds, the hydrogen index, and ionizing radiation are dependent on methodology and data stratification. The estimated elasticities are not directly comparable to those from other studies. Most estimates are fairly close except for the associations of heart disease with sulfur compounds. (JTE)

  10. Air ionizer application for electrostatic discharge (ESD) dust removal in automotive painting industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosri, M. H.; Muhamad, P.; Ismail, M. A.; Yatim, N. H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Dust and fiber have been identified among the highest contributor for the defect in automotive painting line with range from 40% to 50% of total defect breakdown. Eventually, those defects will effect on both visual appearance and also the performance of the parts. In addition, the significance of controlling dust in an assembly line is crucial in order to maintain the quality of the product, part performance yield and effect on workers’ health [1]. By considering the principle and technology applied in electronic clean room technology, the ionizer have been introduce to control dust contamination in automotive painting line. The first auto maker industry whom found the effectiveness of the clean room application to reduce the defect and production line downtime was Chrysler [2]. By doing so, it’s allowed the transmission plant to offer 50 000 mile guarantee on the transmission systems. The main objective of this research is to verify the effectiveness of ionizer device in order to reduce the rejection contribute by dust and fiber particle in the automotive painting line. Towards the main objective, a few sub areas will be explored, as a supporting factor to ensure the result gain from this study is solid and constructive. The experiment start by verifying the electrostatic value of the raw material (substrate) before and after the ionizer treatment. From here the correlation of the electrostatic value generated by the raw material that effect to production pass rate can be explored. At the meantime, the performance of the production pass rate after the ionizer treatment which related to the painted surface area can be determined.

  11. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  12. Verification of traceability and backscattering in surface entrance air kerma measurements with detector type ionizing chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of doses in radiology services by ionizing chambers are easier than those made by TLD, however the protocols for measurements differ regarding the calibration. The objectives were to verify the traceability in the measures of ESAK corrected by the inverse square law, due to the difference in position between the source and IC and the influence of the backscattered radiation in bringing the detector to the table. Was defined a procedure practiced by the radiological services and designed experimental arrangements for the same technique. Was noted that the approximation of the detector to the table generated a significant backscattered. (author)

  13. Chemical separation of plutonium from air filters and preparation of filaments for resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Erdmann, N.; Funk, H.; Herrmann, G.; Naehler, A.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Urban, F.

    1995-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used for the determination of plutonium in environmental samples. A chemical procedure based on an ion-exchange technique for the separation of plutonium from a polycarbonate filter is described. The overall yield is about 60% as determined by α-particle spectroscopy. A technique for the subsequent preparation of samples for RIMS measurements is developed. Plutonium is electrode-posited as hydroxide and covered with a thin metallic layer. While heating such a sandwich filament the plutonium hydroxide is reduced to the metal and an atomic beam is evaporated from the surface, as required for RIMS. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  14. Poster - 15: Air kerma rate measurements using a cylindrical free-air ionization chamber on the 05B1-1 beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Danielle; Siegbahn, Albert; Fallone, Gino; Warkentin, Brad [BCCA - Sindi Ahluwalia Hawkins Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna BC, Stockholm University, Sweden, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services and University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services and University of Alberta, Edmonton AB (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the Canadian Light Source offer the opportunity for investigating novel imaging and therapy applications of synchrotron radiation. A necessary component in advancing this research, and in progressing toward clinical applications, is the availability of accurate dosimetry that is traceable to a standards institution. However, dosimetry in this setting is challenging. These beams are typically small, non-uniform, and highly intense. This work describes air kerma rate measurements on a BMIT beamline using a free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Methods: The measurements were taken at the 05B1-1 beamline (∼8 – 100 keV) for several beam qualities with mean energies between 20.0 and 84.0 keV. The Victoreen Model 480 cylindrical FAC, with a specially fabricated 0.52 mm diameter aperture, was used to measure air kerma rates. The required correction factors were determined using a variety of methods: tabulated data, measurements, theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc user code egs-fac). Results: The experimental air kerma rates measured between 0.270 ± 13.6% and 312 ± 2.7% Gy/min. At lower energies (low filtration), the most impactful correction factors were those for ion recombination and for x-ray attenuation. Conclusions: These measurements marked the first absolute dosimetry performed at the BMIT beamlines. The experimental and Monte Carlo methods developed will allow air kerma rates to be measured under other experimental conditions, provide a benchmark to which other dosimeters will be compared, and provide a reference for imaging and therapy research programs on this beamline.

  15. Influence of ambient humidity on the current delivered by air-vented ionization chambers revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Aurelie; Douysset, Guilhem

    2006-01-01

    The influence of ambient humidity on the current delivered by a vented ionization chamber has been re-investigated. A Nucletron 077.091 well-type chamber together with a 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy source was enclosed in a climatic test chamber and the current was recorded for various humidity values. Great care has been taken for the design of the experimental setup in order to obtain reliable measurements of currents and humidity values inside the chamber active volume. A ±0.35% linear variation of the measured currents has been observed over a common range of humidities. This result is larger than the expected variation. No formal explanation of such a discrepancy has been found yet, however the present results could lead to a set of recommendations

  16. Influence of ambient humidity on the current delivered by air-vented ionization chambers revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Aurelie; Douysset, Guilhem [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel-LNE, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-10-07

    The influence of ambient humidity on the current delivered by a vented ionization chamber has been re-investigated. A Nucletron 077.091 well-type chamber together with a {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source was enclosed in a climatic test chamber and the current was recorded for various humidity values. Great care has been taken for the design of the experimental setup in order to obtain reliable measurements of currents and humidity values inside the chamber active volume. A {+-}0.35% linear variation of the measured currents has been observed over a common range of humidities. This result is larger than the expected variation. No formal explanation of such a discrepancy has been found yet, however the present results could lead to a set of recommendations.

  17. Uncertainty evaluation of the kerma in the air, related to the active volume in the ionization chamber of concentric cylinders, by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software

  18. O2 rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Jordan; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Adams, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Nonintrusive spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge are presented. The measurements were based on coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen. The open air DC microdischarge source operated in a stable “normal-glow” mode and pin-to-pin electrodes spaced 1.3 mm apart. The second harmonic of a tunable dye laser beam was focused between the two electrodes and scanned between 286 and 288 nm. Coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering was used to collect the two-photon rotational spectra of O 2 at C 3 Π(v = 2)←X 3 Σ(v′ = 0) transitions. The Boltzmann plots from analyses of the O 2 rotational lines determined local rotational temperatures at various axial locations between the electrodes. The molecular oxygen rotational temperature varied from ∼1150 K to ∼1350 K within the discharge area. The measurements had an accuracy of ∼±50 K.

  19. O2 rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jordan; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Adams, Steven F.

    2013-06-01

    Nonintrusive spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge are presented. The measurements were based on coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen. The open air DC microdischarge source operated in a stable "normal-glow" mode and pin-to-pin electrodes spaced 1.3 mm apart. The second harmonic of a tunable dye laser beam was focused between the two electrodes and scanned between 286 and 288 nm. Coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering was used to collect the two-photon rotational spectra of O2 at C3Π(v = 2)←X3Σ(v' = 0) transitions. The Boltzmann plots from analyses of the O2 rotational lines determined local rotational temperatures at various axial locations between the electrodes. The molecular oxygen rotational temperature varied from ˜1150 K to ˜1350 K within the discharge area. The measurements had an accuracy of ˜±50 K.

  20. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR): Analysis, Results, and Lessons Learned From the June 1997 ER-2 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W. (Editor); Jones, I. W. (Editor); Maiden, D. L. (Editor); Goldhagen, P. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The United States initiated a program to assess the technology required for an environmentally safe and operationally efficient High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entrance on the world market after the turn of the century. Due to the changing regulations on radiation exposures and the growing concerns over uncertainty in our knowledge of atmospheric radiations, the NASA High Speed Research Project Office (HSRPO) commissioned a review of "Radiation Exposure and High-Altitude Flight" by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). On the basis of the NCRP recommendations, the HSRPO funded a flight experiment to resolve the environmental uncertainty in the atmospheric ionizing radiation levels as a step in developing an approach to minimize the radiation impact on HSCT operations. To minimize costs in this project, an international investigator approach was taken to assure coverage with instrument sensitivity across the range of particle types and energies to allow unique characterization of the diverse radiation components. The present workshop is a result of the flight measurements made at the maximum intensity of the solar cycle modulated background radiation levels during the month of June 1997.

  1. Energy dependence of the air kerma response of a liquid ionization chamber at photon energies between 8 keV and 1250 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgers, G.; Bahar-Gogani, J.; Wickman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In its recent reports on cardiovascular brachytherapy the DGMP recommends the source strength of brachytherapy sources being characterized in terms of absorbed dose to water at a distance of 2 mm from the central axis of the source. As a consequence, the response of a detector suitable for characterizing such sources with respect to absorbed dose to water should depend only to a small extent on radiation energy. Additionally, the detection volume of the detector has to be sufficiently small for the necessary spatial resolution to be obtained. The liquid ionization chamber as described in seems to be a promising means for this type of measurements. The two components of the ionization liquid (TMS and isooctane) can be mixed in a ratio which ensures that the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the resulting mixture deviates from that of water by less than ±15 % down to photon energies of 10 keV. Due to the high density of the ionization medium, the spacing between the two electrodes of the ionization chamber can be made as small as a few tenths of a millimeter and still the resulting ionization current is sufficiently large. The ionization chamber used in the present investigation is a plane parallel chamber 5 mm in diameter and of 0.3 mm electrode spacing. The ionization medium is a mixture of 40 % TMS and 60 % isooctane. The irradiations were carried out with the ISO wide spectra series with tube voltages between 10 kV and 300 kV and with 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-radiation. As a first step, the response of the liquid ionization chamber was investigated with respect to air kerma instead of absorbed dose to water. Although the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the liquid deviates from that of air by less than ±10 % over the photon energy range, the measured chamber response varies by a factor of about 3.5. Monte Carlo calculations carried out with EGSnrc show a variation of the chamber response smaller than ±20 %. Measurements of the ion yield of the

  2. Air density dependence of the response of the PTW SourceCheck 4pi ionization chamber for 125I brachytherapy seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Del Río, J; Tornero-López, A M; Guirado, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Lallena, A M

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the air density dependence of the response of the new SourceCheck 4pi ionization chamber, manufactured by PTW. The air density dependence of three different SourceCheck 4pi chambers was studied by measuring 125 I sources. Measurements were taken by varying the pressure from 746.6 to 986.6hPa in a pressure chamber. Three different HDR 1000 Plus ionization chambers were also analyzed under similar conditions. A linear and a potential-like function of the air density were fitted to experimental data and their achievement in describing them was analyzed. SourceCheck 4pi chamber response showed a residual dependence on the air density once the standard pressure and temperature factor was applied. The chamber response was overestimated when the air density was below that under normal atmospheric conditions. A similar dependence was found for the HDR 1000 Plus chambers analyzed. A linear function of the air density permitted a very good description of this residual dependence, better than with a potential function. No significant variability between the different specimens of the same chamber model studied was found. The effect of overestimation observed in the chamber responses once they are corrected for the standard pressure and temperature may represent a non-negligible ∼4% overestimation in high altitude cities as ours (700m AMSL). This overestimation behaves linearly with the air density in all cases analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber; Determinacao da atenuacao do ar e perda eletronica para a camara de ionizacao de ar livre de cilindros concentricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-07-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k{sub e}) and air attenuation (k{sub a}). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  4. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  5. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  6. Cyclic organic peroxides identification and trace analysis by Raman microscopy and open-air chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Quevedo, Alvaro Javier

    The persistent use of cyclic organic peroxides in explosive devices has increased the interest in study these compounds. Development of methodologies for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) has become an urgent priority. However, differences in physical properties between cyclic organic peroxides make difficult the development of a general method for peroxide analysis and detection. Following this urgency, the first general technique for the analysis of any peroxide, regarding its structural differences is reported. Characterization and detection of TATP and HMTD was performed using an Open-Air Chemical Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. The first spectrometric analysis for tetramethylene diperoxide dicarbamide (TMDD) and other nitrogen based peroxides using Raman Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry is reported. Analysis of cyclic peroxides by GC-MS was also conducted to compare results with OACI-HRTOF data. In the OACI mass spectrum, HMTD showed a clear signal at m/z 209 MH + and a small adduct peak at m/z 226 [M+NH4]+ that allowed its detection in commercial standard solutions and lab made standards. TMDD presented a molecular peak of m/z 237 MH+ and an adduct peak of m/z 254 [M+NH4]+. TATP showed a single peak at m/z 240 [M+NH4]+, while the peak of m/z 223 or 222 was completely absent. This evidence suggests that triperoxides are stabilized by the ammonium ion. TATP samples with deuterium enrichment were analyzed to compare results that could differentiate from HMTD. Raman microscopy was used as a complementary characterization method and was an essential tool for cyclic peroxides identification, particularly for those which could not be extensively purified. All samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to confirm the Mass Spectrometry results. Peroxide O-O vibrations were observed around 750-970 cm-1. D18-TATP studies had identified ketone triperoxide nu(O-O) vibration around

  7. SU-E-T-552: Monte Carlo Calculation of Correction Factors for a Free-Air Ionization Chamber in Support of a National Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Bergstrom, P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo radiation transport methods to calculate correction factors for a free-air ionization chamber in support of a national air-kerma standard for low-energy, miniature x-ray sources used for electronic brachytherapy (eBx). Methods: The NIST is establishing a calibration service for well-type ionization chambers used to characterize the strength of eBx sources prior to clinical use. The calibration approach involves establishing the well-chamber’s response to an eBx source whose air-kerma rate at a 50 cm distance is determined through a primary measurement performed using the Lamperti free-air ionization chamber. However, the free-air chamber measurements of charge or current can only be related to the reference air-kerma standard after applying several corrections, some of which are best determined via Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a detailed geometric model of the Lamperti chamber was developed in the EGSnrc code based on the engineering drawings of the instrument. The egs-fac user code in EGSnrc was then used to calculate energy-dependent correction factors which account for missing or undesired ionization arising from effects such as: (1) attenuation and scatter of the x-rays in air; (2) primary electrons escaping the charge collection region; (3) lack of charged particle equilibrium; (4) atomic fluorescence and bremsstrahlung radiation. Results: Energy-dependent correction factors were calculated assuming a monoenergetic point source with the photon energy ranging from 2 keV to 60 keV in 2 keV increments. Sufficient photon histories were simulated so that the Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty of the correction factors was less than 0.01%. The correction factors for a specific eBx source will be determined by integrating these tabulated results over its measured x-ray spectrum. Conclusion: The correction factors calculated in this work are important for establishing a national standard for eBx which will help ensure that dose

  8. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takatoshi; Hirata, Yosuke; Naito, Susumu; Izumi, Mikio; Yoshimura, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  9. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-06

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs.

  10. Direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the continuous real-time trace analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjagbo, Koffi; Picard, Pierre; Moore, Serge; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2009-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in ambient air is essential for the early warning detection associated with the release of these hazardous chemicals and in estimating the potential exposure risks to humans and the environment. We have developed a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for continuous real-time determination of ambient trace levels of BTEX. The technique is based on the sampling of air via an atmospheric pressure inlet directly into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. The method is linear over four orders of magnitude, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996. Low limits of detection in the range 1-2 microg/m(3) are achieved for BTEX. The reliability of the method was confirmed through the evaluation of quality parameters such as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation below 8% and 10%, respectively) and accuracy (over 95%). The applicability of this method to real-world samples was evaluated through measurements of BTEX levels in real ambient air samples and results were compared with a reference GC-FID method. This direct APCI-MS/MS method is suitable for real-time analysis of BTEX in ambient air during regulation surveys as well as for the monitoring of industrial processes or emergency situations.

  11. Correction factors for the NMi free-air ionization chamber for medium-energy x-rays calculated with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Dijk, E. van; Vries, W. de

    1998-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors for free-air ionization chambers. The method is based on weighting correction factors for mono-energetic photons, which are calculated using the Monte Carlo method, with measured air kerma spectra. With this method, correction factors for electron loss, scatter inside the chamber and transmission through the diaphragm and front wall have been calculated for the NMi free-air chamber for medium-energy x-rays for a wide range of x-ray qualities in use at NMi. The newly obtained correction factors were compared with the values in use at present, which are based on interpolation of experimental data for a specific set of x-ray qualities. For x-ray qualities which are similar to this specific set, the agreement between the correction factors determined with the new method and those based on the experimental data is better than 0.1%, except for heavily filtered x-rays generated at 250 kV. For x-ray qualities dissimilar to the specific set, differences up to 0.4% exist, which can be explained by uncertainties in the interpolation procedure of the experimental data. Since the new method does not depend on experimental data for a specific set of x-ray qualities, the new method allows for a more flexible use of the free-air chamber as a primary standard for air kerma for any x-ray quality in the medium-energy x-ray range. (author)

  12. Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field. In addition, human well-being may be expected to be impaired as a result of the diminished atmospheric-electrical field. There is also the risk of radiochemical actions and effects caused-by krypton-85-containing plumes in other air-borne pollutants like the latters' transformation to aggressive oxidants. This implies radiation smog and more acid rain in the countries exposed. This study summarizes findings gained in these issues by various sciences, analyses them and elaborates hypotheses on the actions and effects of krypton-85 on the air, the atmosphere and the climate. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  14. Determination of the Kwall correction factor for a cylindrical ionization chamber to measure air-kerma in 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.; Pimpinella, M.; Bovi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The factor K wall to correct for photon attenuation and scatter in the wall of ionization chambers for 60 Co air-kerma measurement has been traditionally determined by a procedure based on a linear extrapolation of the chamber current to zero wall thickness. Monte Carlo calculations by Rogers and Bielajew (1990 Phys. Med. Biol. 35 1065-78) provided evidence, mostly for chambers of cylindrical and spherical geometry, of appreciable deviations between the calculated values of K wall and those obtained by the traditional extrapolation procedure. In the present work an experimental method other than the traditional extrapolation procedure was used to determine the K wall factor. In this method the dependence of the ionization current in a cylindrical chamber was analysed as a function of an effective wall thickness in place of the physical (radial) wall thickness traditionally considered in this type of measurement. To this end the chamber wall was ideally divided into distinct regions and for each region an effective thickness to which the chamber current correlates was determined. A Monte Carlo calculation of attenuation and scatter effects in the different regions of the chamber wall was also made to compare calculation to measurement results. The K wall values experimentally determined in this work agree within 0.2% with the Monte Carlo calculation. The agreement between these independent methods and the appreciable deviation (up to about 1%) between the results of both these methods and those obtained by the traditional extrapolation procedure support the conclusion that the two independent methods providing comparable results are correct and the traditional extrapolation procedure is likely to be wrong. The numerical results of the present study refer to a cylindrical cavity chamber like that adopted as the Italian national air-kerma standard at INMRI-ENEA (Italy). The method used in this study applies, however, to any other chamber of the same type. (author)

  15. Quantum chemistry in arbitrary dielectric environments: Theory and implementation of nonequilibrium Poisson boundary conditions and application to compute vertical ionization energies at the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Marc P.; Herbert, John M.

    2018-06-01

    Widely used continuum solvation models for electronic structure calculations, including popular polarizable continuum models (PCMs), usually assume that the continuum environment is isotropic and characterized by a scalar dielectric constant, ɛ. This assumption is invalid at a liquid/vapor interface or any other anisotropic solvation environment. To address such scenarios, we introduce a more general formalism based on solution of Poisson's equation for a spatially varying dielectric function, ɛ(r). Inspired by nonequilibrium versions of PCMs, we develop a similar formalism within the context of Poisson's equation that includes the out-of-equilibrium dielectric response that accompanies a sudden change in the electron density of the solute, such as that which occurs in a vertical ionization process. A multigrid solver for Poisson's equation is developed to accommodate the large spatial grids necessary to discretize the three-dimensional electron density. We apply this methodology to compute vertical ionization energies (VIEs) of various solutes at the air/water interface and compare them to VIEs computed in bulk water, finding only very small differences between the two environments. VIEs computed using approximately two solvation shells of explicit water molecules are in excellent agreement with experiment for F-(aq), Cl-(aq), neat liquid water, and the hydrated electron, although errors for Li+(aq) and Na+(aq) are somewhat larger. Nonequilibrium corrections modify VIEs by up to 1.2 eV, relative to models based only on the static dielectric constant, and are therefore essential to obtain agreement with experiment. Given that the experiments (liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy) may be more sensitive to solutes situated at the air/water interface as compared to those in bulk water, our calculations provide some confidence that these experiments can indeed be interpreted as measurements of VIEs in bulk water.

  16. Ionization chamber with build-up cup spectral sensitivity to megavoltage (0.5-20 MeV) photon fluences in free air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In-air measurements of photon beam properties, used in radiation therapy, is common practice for determining radiation output dependence from the field size, known as head scatter factors (HSF). PMMA and brass build-up caps are most popular miniphantoms for providing electron equilibrium. Discrepancies up to 2% in HSF measurements by different combinations of detectors and equilibrium caps have been published. One of the main reasons of those discrepancies is the detector system spectral sensitivity and differences in primary and scatter radiation spectra. In the light of new model based dose calculation methods direct radiation fluence measurement is of great interest. So, understanding of detector spectral sensitivity is important task for modern dosimetry of radiation therapy. In the present study Monte Carlo (MC) method was employed to calculate ionization chamber response to monoenergetic photon fluences, normalized to water kerma units. Simulation was done using EGS4 package. Electron transport was performed with ESTEPE equal to 4%. PEGS cross sections were generated for maximal energy 20 MeV with cutoff kinetic energy 10 KeV both for photons and electrons. Scanditronix RK-05 ionization chamber was chosen as a prototype. Eight cylindrical miniphantoms, representing four materials (PMMA, Al, Cu, Pb) and two front wall thickness, were simulated. Results are presented. Miniphantom front wall thicknesses in each case are shown in the figure. Diameter depends on the material and equal respectively: PMMA - 4, Al - 2.5, Cu - 1.5, and PB - 1.5 cm. Ionization chamber outer diameter is equal to 0.7 cm. Detector sensitivity has considerable energy dependence. Two effects explain it. First is the radiation attenuation in the miniphantom. Second is pair production, which dominates in high atomic number miniphantoms for energies above 5 MeV. Depending on the miniphantom material detector response changes from 1.5 to 5 times in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. Correct

  17. Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij: indicatieve evaluatie van positieve ionisatie van uitgaande ventilatielucht = Measures to reduce fine dust emission from poultry: indicative evaluation of positive ionization of exhaust air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a positive ionization system (end of pipe technique) is indicatively evaluated for its potential to remove fine dust from exhaust air of poultry houses. From this study it is concluded that the system can be effective and applicable.

  18. Direct detection of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene at trace levels in ambient air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using a handheld mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangming; Gao, Liang; Duncan, Jason; Harper, Jason D; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of a portable mass spectrometer for real-time monitoring of trace levels of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene in air are illustrated. An atmospheric pressure interface was built to implement atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for direct analysis of gas-phase samples on a previously described miniature mass spectrometer (Gao et al. Anal. Chem.2006, 78, 5994-6002). Linear dynamic ranges, limits of detection and other analytical figures of merit were evaluated: for benzene, a limit of detection of 0.2 parts-per-billion was achieved for air samples without any sample preconcentration. The corresponding limits of detection for toluene and ethylbenzene were 0.5 parts-per-billion and 0.7 parts-per-billion, respectively. These detection limits are well below the compounds' permissible exposure levels, even in the presence of added complex mixtures of organics at levels exceeding the parts-per-million level. The linear dynamic ranges of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene are limited to approximately two orders of magnitude by saturation of the detection electronics. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Post-Pyrolysis Air Oxidation of Biomass Chars on Adsorption of Neutral and Ionizable Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2016-06-21

    This study was conducted to understand the effects of thermal air oxidation of biomass chars experienced during formation or production on their adsorptive properties toward various compounds, including five neutral nonpolar and polar compounds and seven weak acids and bases (pKa = 3-5.2) selected from among industrial chemicals and the triazine and phenoxyacetic acid herbicide classes. Post-pyrolysis air oxidation (PPAO) at 400 °C of anoxically prepared wood and pecan shell chars for up to 40 min enhanced the mass-normalized adsorption at pH ∼ 7.4 of all test compounds, especially the weak acids and bases, by up to 100-fold. Both general and specific effects were identified. The general effect results from "reaming" of pores by the oxidative removal of pore wall matter and/or tarry deposits generated during the pyrolysis step. Reaming creates new surface area and enlarges nanopores, which helps relieve steric hindrance to adsorption. The specific effect results from creation of new acidic functionality that provides sites for the formation of very strong, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (CAHB) with solutes having comparable pKa. The CAHB hypothesis was supported by competition experiments and the finding that weak acid anion adsorption increased with surface carboxyl content, despite electrostatic repulsion from the growing negative charge. The results provide insight into the effects of air oxidation on pollutant retention.

  20. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The monograph is a small manual to get a knowledge of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations. The main chapters are: - Electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations - Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing electromagnetic radiation - Other ionizing radiations - Ionizing radiation effects - The Nuclear Safety Conseil

  1. Fabrication of Free Air Well Type Ionization Chamber and Calculational Assessment and Measurement of Its Operational Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Arbabi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Well type ionization chamber is a measuring device which is used to determine the activity of brachytherapy sources. The chamber has a cylindrical volume in which a cylindrical tube is mounted in the middle of the chamber. For the measurements, the brachytherapy sources are transferred to the middle of the tube. Materials and Methods: For designing the well type chamber, the measurement principals of well type chambers were considered and MCNP-4C code as a calculation tool was used. The designed chamber was simulated and the response of the chamber was evaluated. In this investigation, the chamber operational parameters such as operating voltage, leakage current, reproducibility, reference measuring point, recombination and polarization factors as well as response stability for 137Cs, 57Co and 241Am sources were studied. Results: The chamber leakage currents at the operating voltage in comparison to the chamber response for the measurement of the above mentioned sources were negligible. The responses of the fabricated chamber for these sources are reproducible and its reference measurement position for these sources was obtained at 6 cm from the bottom of the chamber. The recombination factor for the well type chamber was negligible and the polarization factor is close to 1. Therefore, these two factors were not considered in the measurements. The reproducibility of the measurements in different intervals shows the stability of the chamber response for each source. Also the results of the chamber current measurement in term of source strength were compared to the response of the simulated chamber for different source positions and energy ranges of the used sources. Discussion and Conclusion: The results show that the measurement of the reference positions for each source in the simulated and fabricated chamber is quite in a good agreement. Regarding the reliable operational properties of the fabricated chamber, this chamber can be

  2. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  3. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This is an update about the radiological monitoring in base nuclear installations. A departmental order of the 23. march 1999 (J.O.28. april, p.6309) determines the enabling rules by the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations of person having at one's disposal the results with names of individual exposure of workers put through ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  4. Characterization of a free-air ionization chamber in direct X-ray beams as used in mammography; Caracterizacao de uma camara de ionizacao de ar-livre em feixes diretos de raios X utilizados em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Mateus Hilario de

    2014-08-01

    At this work stability and characterization tests were undertaken on a Victoreen free-air ionization chamber, model 481. The tests were realized using direct X-ray beams as a contribution for its establishment as a primary standard system of the quantity air kerma. The characterization tests were: saturation curve, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, response linearity with the air kerma rate and response linearity with the chamber volume variation. The ion collection efficiency allowed the determination of the ion recombination factor. Most of the test results showed agreement with the limits established by international standards. Furthermore, the air attenuation factors for the mammography beams with aluminum and molybdenum filters were obtained. The factors for photon transmission and scattering at the diaphragm edges were also determined for mammography beams with aluminum filter and for the standard beam with molybdenum filter. (author)

  5. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  6. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  7. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  8. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  9. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  10. III. Penning ionization, associative ionization and chemi-ionization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.

    1975-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of three important ionization processes in a cold plasma and the methods of their experimental study are discussed. An apparatus for the investigation of the Penning ionization using ionization processes of long lived metastable rare gas atoms is described. Methods of determining interaction energies and ionization rates from the measured energy spectra of the originating electrons are described and illustrated by several examples. Typical associative ionization processes are listed and the ionization rates are compared with those of the Penning ionization. Interactions with short-lived excited particles and the transfer of excitation without ionization are discussed. (J.U.)

  11. Measurement of formic acid, acetic acid and hydroxyacetaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and methyl peroxide in air by chemical ionization mass spectrometry: airborne method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Victoria; Heikes, Brian G.; McNeill, Ashley S.; Silwal, Indira K. C.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2018-04-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) method utilizing a reagent gas mixture of O2, CO2, and CH3I in N2 is described and optimized for quantitative gas-phase measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl peroxide (CH3OOH), formic acid (HCOOH), and the sum of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and hydroxyacetaldehyde (HOCH2CHO; also known as glycolaldehyde). The instrumentation and methodology were designed for airborne in situ field measurements. The CIMS quantification of formic acid, acetic acid, and hydroxyacetaldehyde used I- cluster formation to produce and detect the ion clusters I-(HCOOH), I-(CH3COOH), and I-(HOCH2CHO), respectively. The CIMS also produced and detected I- clusters with hydrogen peroxide and methyl peroxide, I-(H2O2) and I-(CH3OOH), though the sensitivity was lower than with the O2- (CO2) and O2- ion clusters, respectively. For that reason, while the I- peroxide clusters are presented, the focus is on the organic acids. Acetic acid and hydroxyacetaldehyde were found to yield equivalent CIMS responses. They are exact isobaric compounds and indistinguishable in the CIMS used. Consequently, their combined signal is referred to as the acetic acid equivalent sum. Within the resolution of the quadrupole used in the CIMS (1 m/z), ethanol and 1- and 2-propanol were potential isobaric interferences to the measurement of formic acid and the acetic acid equivalent sum, respectively. The CIMS response to ethanol was 3.3 % that of formic acid and the response to either 1- or 2-propanol was 1 % of the acetic acid response; therefore, the alcohols were not considered to be significant interferences to formic acid or the acetic acid equivalent sum. The multi-reagent ion system was successfully deployed during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) in 2014. The combination of FRAPPÉ and laboratory calibrations allowed for the post-mission quantification of formic acid and the acetic acid equivalent sum observed during the Deep

  12. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  13. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber; Estabelecimento de um sistema padrao primario para raios-X de energias baixas com uma camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-08-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  14. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: characteristics of ionizing radiations; biological effects; comparison of radiation and other industrial risks; principles of protection; cost-benefit analysis; dose limits; the control and monitoring of radiation; reference levels; emergency reference levels. (U.K.)

  15. Ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  16. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  17. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  19. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  20. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanning-Solís, Ana Lucía; Stradi-Granados, Benito A

    2014-01-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  1. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  2. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  3. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  4. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  5. Determination of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene in administration room′s air of hospitals using solid phase micro extraction/gas chromatography/flame ionization detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kheirmand

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The accounting unit showed highest concentrations of BTEX that its possible due to usage of the numerous numbers of electronic devices (computers, printer and copier, official supply (ink varnish, adhesive, etc. and the air-conditioner.

  6. Uncertainty evaluation of the kerma in the air, related to the active volume in the ionization chamber of concentric cylinders, by Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao de incerteza no kerma no ar, em relacao ao volume ativo da camara de ionizacao de cilindros concentricos, por simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: abianco@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software

  7. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  8. Measurements of 212Pb concentration in the ground-level air in Beijing area and assessment of ionizing radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Wen Huifen; Zhou Yuanwen

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the method of measuring 212 Pb concentration in the ground-level air with a gamma spectrometer and the results of the measurements of 212 Pb concentrations during February 1988-January 1989. The results showed that the average and standard deviation are 0.54 and 0.40 Bq·m -3 ; the distribution of 212 Pb concentrations in air was logarithmic normal distribution, geometric average and geometric standard deviation are 0.44 Bq·m -3 and 2.0. The 212 Pb concentration in rain season is the lowest (0.42 Bq·m -3 ) while in heating season is the highest (0.66 Bq· -3 ). In period of a day, 212 Pb concentration in the morning 0-4 o'clock is the highest and in the afternoon 12-18 o'clock is the lowest, 212 Pb(max)/ 212 Pb(min) = 4.8

  9. Novel Semi-Direct OH Reactivity (kOH) Measurements by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry during a Chamber Instrument Comparison Campaign and Continuous Ambient Air Sampling at a Central European GAW Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J.; Kubistin, D.; Elste, T.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Claude, A.; Englert, J.; Holla, R.; Fuchs, H.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Novelli, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Rohrer, F.; Yu, Z.; Bohn, B.; Williams, J.; Pfannerstill, E.; Edtbauer, A.; Kluepfel, T.

    2016-12-01

    Total OH reactivity (kOH) has been recognized as a useful measure to gauge the potential atmospheric oxidation capacity and a few different in-situ measurement techniques have been developed over the last 15 years. Here results are presented from a novel semi-direct method developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) utilizing a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). Recently in April 2016, the CIMS system participated in a half-blind kOH instrument comparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) SAPHIR chamber. Experiments provided controlled conditions with a range of different VOC mixtures and varying NOx levels, representing environments dominated by biogenic or urban emissions. Alongside CIMS, kOH was also measured by systems using the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and the pump-probe technique with OH detection. The intercomparison revealed a good performance of CIMS at lower OH reactivities (0-15 s-1), a range for which the instrumental set up was optimized. Limitations of the CIMS system consist of an upper limit for kOH detection and the need for applying a chemical correction function as a result of instrument-internal HOx recycling. Findings and instrument parameters obtained from the FZJ SAPHIR campaign and flow tube experiments are then applied to ambient air kOH measurements at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHp), Germany. The CIMS instrument is used there for long-term measurements of OH, H2SO4, ROx and kOH. Here, we show ambient air kOH measurements, interpreted in conjunction with volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic trace gases also measured at the GAW station Hohenpeissenberg. These observations provide a unique dataset to investigate turnover rates and seasonal cycles of reactive trace gases, i.e. sources that make up total OH reactivity in this central European, rural setting.

  10. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  11. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors

  13. Characteristics of a Dry Fog Ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y; Kudo, Y; Yonezawa, M

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed 'Dry Fog Ionizer' generates charged dry fog. The dry fog consists of very fine water droplets 8μm in mean diameter. This system consists of a dry fog nozzle (H.Ikeuchi and Co., LTD.), a ring electrode for induction charging (50mm outside diameter, and 10mm thick) in front of the nozzle, and a fan for dissipating charged dry fog. The ring electrode is DC or AC-biased and fine droplets ejected from the nozzle are electrified by induction charging. The particle size of the charged water droplets are reduced through evaporation during the transporting process by air flow, and completely evaporate approximately 2m from the nozzle under normal atmospheric conditions (25 deg. C, 60%R.H.) leaving high density ions. Using this system, high density ionic space charge can be realized in a remote spot from the ionizer. By this principle, the Dry Fog Ionizer shows strong charge-eliminating ability in the region away from the ionizer. When a dc bias of 5kV was applied to a ring electrode with the rate of water flow from the nozzle being 21/h, an ionic space-charge density of 1200nC /m 3 was able to be obtained at a distance 2m away from the ionizer, which was 10 2 times the value produced by an ordinary corona-type ionizer with an air blower.

  14. Propagation of ionizing waves in glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1977-01-01

    Ionizing waves were produced along the positive column of a glow discharge in air by applying an impulse voltage to an electrode at one end of the column. Five photomultipliers and three current-sensing coils were used to observe how the waves were affected by the rise time and the magnitude of the applied impulses and by the electron density in the positive column of the glow discharge. It is shown that the speed of the ionizing waves increases with the slope of the applied impulses and with the preexisting electron density. The electron density is augmented about 100--200 times due to the buildup of ionization at the front of the waves. The theory was developed to explain the property of ionizing waves

  15. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...... a differential equation applying several simplifications and approximations leading to discrepancies between theory and experiments [3]. The theory predicts the collection efficiency as a function of the electrical field and was applied for both air filled ionization chambers and liquid filled ionization...... chambers. For liquids the LET can be roughly deduced from the collection efficiency dependency on the electrical field inside a liquid ionization chambers [4] using an extrapolation method. We solved the fundamental differential equation again presented by Jaffe numerically, but now taking into account...

  16. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  17. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Ginkel, G. van; Leun, K. van der; Muller, H.; Oude Elferink, J.; Vesseur, A.

    1985-10-01

    This booklet dels with the risks of the use of ionizing radiation for people working in a hospital. It is subdivided in three parts. Part 1 treats the properties of ionizing radiation in general. In part 2 the various applications are discussed of ionizing radiation in hospitals. Part 3 indicates how a not completely safe situation may be improved. (H.W.). 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  19. Numerical solutions of differential equations of an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novkovic, D.; Tomasevic, M.; Subotic, K.; Manic, S.

    1998-01-01

    A system of reduced differential equations generally valid for plane-parallel, cylindrical, and spherical ionization chambers filled with air, which is appropriate for numerical solution, has been derived. The system has been solved for all three geometries. The comparison of the calculated results of Armstrong and Tate, for plane-parallel ionization chambers, and Sprinkle and Tate, for spherical ionization chambers, with the present calculations has shown a good agreement. The calculated values for ionization chambers filled with CO 2 were also in good agreement with the experimental data of Moriuchi et al (author)

  20. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  1. Experiments on how photo- and background ionization affect positive streamers: oxygen concentration, repetition and radioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers in air and other oxygen-nitrogen mixtures are generally believed to propagate against the electron drift direction due to photo-ionization. Photo-ionization is the non-local ionization of O2-molecules by UV radiation from excited N2-molecules. This facilitates the streamer

  2. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  3. Introduction to ionizing radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1979-01-01

    Basic properties are described of the atom, atomic nucleus and of ionizing radiation particles; nuclear reactions, ionizing radiation sources and ionizing radiation interaction with matter are explained. (J.P.)

  4. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  5. SU-F-T-16: Experimental Determination of Ionization Chamber Correction Factors for In-Phantom Measurements of Reference Air Kerma Rate and Absorbed Water Dose Rate of Brachytherapy 192Ir Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M; Lee, V; Wong, M; Leung, R; Law, G; Lee, K; Cheung, S; Tung, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. Methods: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor. Similarly, Ka is determined by M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)ka, where (kglob)ka the in-phantom Ka correction factor. Two thimble ICs PTW30013 and another PTW30016 having a ND,w,60Co from the German primary standard laboratory (PTB) were simultaneously exposed to the microselectron 192Ir v2 source at 8cm in a PMMA phantom. A reference well chamber (PTW33004) with a PTB transfer Ka calibration Nka was used for comparing the in-phantom measurements to derive the experimental (kglob)ka factors. We determined the experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 by comparing the PTW30016 measurements with MC-calculated (kglob)Dw1. Results: Ka results of the PTW30016 based on ND,w,60Co and MC-calculated (kglob)ka differ from the well chamber results based on Nka by 1.6% and from the manufacturer by 1.0%. Experimental (kglob)ka factors for the PTW30016 and two other PTW30013 are 0.00683, 0.00681 and 0.00679, and vary <0.5% with 1mm source positioning uncertainty. Experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 ICs are 75.3 and 75.6, and differ by 1.6% from the conversion by dose rate constant from the AAPM report 229. Conclusion: The 1.7% difference between MC and experimental (kglob)ka for the PTW30016 IC is within the PTB 2.5% expanded uncertainty in Ka calibration standard. Using a single IC with ND,w,60Co to calibrate the brachytherapy source and dose output in external

  6. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  7. What is ''ionizing radiation''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific background of radiation protection and hence ''ionizing radiation'' is undergoing substantial regress since a century. Radiations as we are concerned with are from the beginning defined based upon their effects rather than upon the physical origin and their properties. This might be one of the reasons why the definition of the term ''ionizing radiation'' in radiation protection is still weak from an up to date point of view in texts as well as in international and national standards. The general meaning is unambiguous, but a numerical value depends on a number of conditions and the purpose. Hence, a clear statement on a numerical value of the energy threshold beyond a radiation has to be considered as ''ionizing'' is still missing. The existing definitions are, therefore, either correct but very general or theoretical and hence not applicable. This paper reviews existing definitions and suggests some issues to be taken into account for possible improvement of the definition of ''ionizing radiation''. (author)

  8. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  9. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  10. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, S.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO 2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  11. A pressurized ionization chamber dose ratemeter for enviromental radiation measaurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu; Jin Hua

    1986-01-01

    The dose ratemeter, mainly used for measuring absorbed doserate of environmental gamma radiation and the charged particle components of cosmic-rays in f ree-air , consists of an energy compensated spherical pressurized ionization chamber, a MOS electrometer and a digital voltmeter. The flat energy response of the pressurized ionization chamber ranges from 60 keV to 1250 keV. It has good stability and higher sensitivity, and weights 6 kg

  12. Pressurized ionization chamber dose ratemeter for enviromental radiation measaurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingyu, Yue; Hua, Jin; Youling, Jiang

    1986-01-01

    The dose ratemeter, mainly used for measuring absorbed doserate of environmental gamma radiation and the charged particle components of cosmic-rays in /sup f/ree-air/sup ,/ consists of an energy compensated spherical pressurized ionization chamber, a MOS electrometer and a digital voltmeter. The flat energy response of the pressurized ionization chamber ranges from 60 keV to 1250 keV. It has good stability and higher sensitivity, and weights 6 kg.

  13. Explosives vapour identification in ion mobility spectrometry using a tunable laser ionization source: a comparison with conventional 63Ni ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Kosmidis, C.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Laser multiphoton ionization (MPI) is used to produce ions from explosive vapours at atmospheric pressure in air for analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). In the positive ion mode of detection, NO + ions, generated directly by multiphoton dissociation/ionization of the explosive compounds, show strong variation with laser wavelength. This provides a means of identifying the presence of nitro-containing compounds. Moreover, electrons formed in the MPI of gaseous components in the air carrier stream, primarily O 2 , are transferred via neutral molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to trace explosive vapour, forming negative ions which give rise to characteristic and identifiable ion mobility spectra. Further, negative ion mobility spectra of several explosive vapours are presented using conventional 63 Ni ionization and are compared qualitatively with the laser ionization approach. (author)

  14. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  15. Ionization front accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In a recently proposed linear collective accelerator, ions are accelerated in a steep, moving potential well created at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam. The steepness of the potential well and its motion are controlled by the external ionization of a suitable background gas. Calculations concerning optimum choices for the background gas and the ionization method are presented; a two-step photoionization process employing Cs vapor is proposed. In this process, a super-radiant light source is used to excite the gas, and a UV laser is used to photoionize the excited state. The appropriate line widths and coupled ionization growth rate equations are discussed. Parameter estimates are given for a feasibility experiment, for a 1 GeV proton accelerator, and for a heavy ion accelerator (50 MeV/nucleon uranium). (auth)

  16. The ionizing treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book of proceedings contains the talks given by the members of the Society of chemical experts of France (SECF) and by various specialists of the ionizing treatment during the scientific days of September 25-26, 1997. The aim of this meeting was to reconsider the effects of ionization from a scientific point of view and apart from the polemics generated by this domain. The following topics were discussed successively: source and characterization of a ionizing treatment, biological effects of ionization on food and the expected consequences, the ionizing treatment and the reduction of the vitamin C content of fruits and vegetables, is it safe to eat irradiated food?, the organoleptic modifications of food after ionization, quality assurance of dosimetry measurements in an industrial installation of food ionization, the French and European regulations in food ionization, the detection of irradiated foodstuffs, processed food and complex lipid matrices, sterilization of dishes for immuno-depressed patients using ionization. (J.S.)

  17. Guided ionization waves: Theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G.V.; Laroussi, M.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on one of the fundamental phenomena that occur upon application of sufficiently strong electric fields to gases, namely the formation and propagation of ionization waves–streamers. The dynamics of streamers is controlled by strongly nonlinear coupling, in localized streamer tip regions, between enhanced (due to charge separation) electric field and ionization and transport of charged species in the enhanced field. Streamers appear in nature (as initial stages of sparks and lightning, as huge structures—sprites above thunderclouds), and are also found in numerous technological applications of electrical discharges. Here we discuss the fundamental physics of the guided streamer-like structures—plasma bullets which are produced in cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. Plasma bullets are guided ionization waves moving in a thin column of a jet of plasma forming gases (e.g., He or Ar) expanding into ambient air. In contrast to streamers in a free (unbounded) space that propagate in a stochastic manner and often branch, guided ionization waves are repetitive and highly-reproducible and propagate along the same path—the jet axis. This property of guided streamers, in comparison with streamers in a free space, enables many advanced time-resolved experimental studies of ionization waves with nanosecond precision. In particular, experimental studies on manipulation of streamers by external electric fields and streamer interactions are critically examined. This review also introduces the basic theories and recent advances on the experimental and computational studies of guided streamers, in particular related to the propagation dynamics of ionization waves and the various parameters of relevance to plasma streamers. This knowledge is very useful to optimize the efficacy of applications of plasma streamer discharges in various fields ranging from health care and medicine to materials science and nanotechnology

  18. Nanosecond air breakdown parameters for electron and microwave beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Air breakdown by avalanche ionization plays an important role in the electron beam and microwave propagations. For high electric fields and short pulse applications one needs avalanche ionization parameters for modeling and scaling of experimental devices. However, the breakdown parameters, i.e., the ionization frequency vs E/p (volt. cm -1 . Torr -1 ) in air is uncertain for very high values of E/P. A review is given of the experimental data for the electron drift velocity, the Townsend ionization coefficient in N 2 and O 2 and the ionization frequency and the collision frequency for momentum transfer in air are developed. (author)

  19. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  20. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  1. Radiation dependent ionization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1991-01-01

    For laser created plasma simulation, hydrodynamics codes need a non-LTE atomic physics package for both EOS and optical properties (emissivity and opacity). However in XRL targets as in some ICF targets, high Z material can be found. In these cases radiation trapping can induce a significant departure from the optically thin ionization description. The authors present a method to change an existing LTE code into a non-LTE code with coupling of ionization to radiation. This method has very low CPU cost and can be used in 2D simulations

  2. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  3. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  4. Review Ionizing Radiation In The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Our environment is pervaded by ionizing radiation of natural origin including terrestrial radionuclides and extra-terrestrial sources but man's activities can increase radiation levels by acting on natural sources or by producing artificial radionuclides. The energy released by radionuclides can be measured. The amount of energy generated in our bodies from the radioactive decay of within- body radionuclides is called internal dose. External dose results from gamma rays emitted by terrestrial sources such as the ground, building materials and from extraterrestrial sources. The major contributors to human exposure are radon and its daughters in the air that we breathe. Ionizing radiation can penetrate into matter and thus, causing damage by interacting with the atoms and molecules of the medium. If the medium is living tissue, damage to cells can take place. Very large doses of radiation will result in serious tissue, damage that may lead to death of the organism. Lower doses may also be harmful and do not cause the immediate damage of high doses but instead act to increase the likelihood of developing cancer. So, exposure to ionizing radiation can have health consequences, which is why we are concerned about and, to a large extent, is why this review paper was written. Exposure to ionizing radiation should be kept as minimum as practically possible. People are advised to monitor the concentrations of radon in their houses. In addition, the levels of radionuclides in drinking water should also be monitored in accordance with the guidelines used in the USA

  5. Detection of ionized foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiated foods and feed might be identified with two kinds of tests: 1. biochemical: detection of specific products are not yet available 2. microbiological: when a microbial species dissapears from a sample of food i.e. it is not detectable after enrichment (for instance Coliforms in hamburgers) it is likely that the sample has been ionized [fr

  6. Ionization loss in BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.A.; Denes, P.; Piroue, P.A.; Stickland, D.P.; Sumner, R.L.; Taylor, C.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Falciano, S.; Ferroni, F.; Gratta, G.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Morganti, S.; Valente, E.; Blaising, J.J.; Boutigny, D.; Coignet, G.; Karyotakis, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Schneegans, M.; Vivargent, M.; Extermann, P.; Morand, G.; Ossmann, J.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schaad, T.P.; Lecoq, P.; Walk, W.; Li, P.J.; Micke, M.; Micke, U.; Schmitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a precise measurement of the energy loss through ionization by pions in bismuth germanate performed at several values of the incident particles momentum with a prototype of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions showing the relativistic rise modified by density effect. (orig.)

  7. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  8. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  9. Basic ionizing radiation symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the standard symbol for ionizing radiation and of the conditions under which it should not be used. The Arabic equivalent of some English technical terms in this subject is given in one page. 1 ref., 1 fig

  10. Ionizing radiation and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  11. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  12. Approaches for protection standards for ionizing radiation and combustion pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The question ''can the approach used for radiation protection standards, i.e., to extrapolate dose--response relationships to low doses, be applied to combustion pollutants'' provided a basis for discussion. The linear, nonthreshold model postulated by ICRP and UNSCEAR for late effects of ionizing radiation is described and discussed. The utility and problems of applying this model to the effects of air pollutants constitute the focus of this paper. The conclusion is that, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, one should assume the same type of dose--effect relation for chemical air pollutants as for ionizing radiation

  13. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1996-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen can penetrate through the heliopause, enter the heliosphere, and may become ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. A fluid model is introduced to study the flow of interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere. The flow is governed by moment equations obtained from integration of the Boltzmann equation over the velocity space. Under the assumption that the flow is steady axisymmetric and the pressure is isotropic, we develop a method of solution for this fluid model. This model and the method of solution can be used to study the flow of neutral hydrogen with various forms of ionization rate β and boundary conditions for the flow on the upwind side. We study the solution of a special case in which the ionization rate β is inversely proportional to R2 and the interstellar hydrogen flow is uniform at infinity on the upwind side. We solve the moment equations directly for the normalized density NH/NN∞, bulk velocity VH/VN∞, and temperature TH/TN∞ of interstellar hydrogen as functions of r/λ and z/λ, where λ is the ionization scale length. The solution is compared with the kinetic theory solution of Lallement et al. The fluid solution is much less time-consuming than the kinetic theory solutions. Since the ionization rate for production of pickup protons is directly proportional to the local density of neutral hydrogen, the high-resolution solution of interstellar neutral hydrogen obtained here will be used to study the global distribution of pickup protons.

  14. Equipment for handling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    The device consists of an ionization channel with an ionization chamber, of a support ring, axial and radial bearings, a sleeve, a screw gear and an electric motor. The ionization chamber is freely placed on the bottom of the ionization channel. The bottom part of the channel deviates from the vertical axis. The support ring propped against the axial bearing in the sleeve is firmly fixed to the top part of the ionization channel. The sleeve is fixed to the reactor lid. Its bottom part is provided with a recess for the radial bearing which is propped against a screw wheel firmly connected to the ionization channel. In measuring neutron flux, the screw wheel is rotated by the motor, thus rotating the whole ionization channel such that the ionization chamber is displaced into the reactor core.(J.B.). 1 fig

  15. Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas

    Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordinary matter (ionization). If this is the case, radiation is called ionizing. It is known that ionizing radiation can be far more harmful to living beings than non-ionizing radiation. In this dissertation, we are concerned with ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring ionizing radiation in the form of radioactivity is a most natural phenomenon. Almost everything is radioactive: there is radiation emerging from the soil, it is in the air, and the whole planet is constantly undergoing streams of energetic cosmic radiation. Sinc...

  16. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  17. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  18. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  19. Design, construction and characterization of special ionization chambers for X radiation beams monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Maira Tiemi

    2010-01-01

    X radiation equipment may show fluctuations in the radiation beam intensity, as they are connected to the power net. These intensity variations can, in turn, modify the air kerma rate produced by this radiation beam. In a calibration laboratory, where radiation detectors (from clinics and hospital services) are calibrated, variations in the radiation beam intensity may cause an error in the absorbed dose determination. The monitor ionization chambers are used to verify the radiation beam intensity constancy, and to provide a correction for possible fluctuations. In this work, monitor ionization chambers for X radiation beams were designed, assembled and characterized. The developed ionization chambers have an innovative design, ring-shaped, with aluminium or graphite electrodes. These ring-shaped ionization chambers have the advantage of not interfering in the direct radiation beams. A double-volume ionization chamber with graphite electrodes was also developed. This ionization chamber is similar to the commercial monitor ionization chamber used in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. All developed ionization chambers were tested in several standardized radiation beams and their performances were compared with those of commercial ionization chambers. The results show that two of the four ionization chambers developed showed performance comparable to that of the commercial ionization chambers tested. Besides presenting good results, the ionization chambers were designed and manufactured using low cost materials, which are easily found on the Brazilian market. (author)

  20. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  1. Ionization processes in combined high-voltage nanosecond - laser discharges in inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Shneider, Mikhail; PU Team

    2016-09-01

    Remote control of plasmas induced by laser radiation in the atmosphere is one of the challenging issues of free space communication, long-distance energy transmission, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and standoff detection of trace gases and bio-threat species. Sequences of laser pulses, as demonstrated by an extensive earlier work, offer an advantageous tool providing access to the control of air-plasma dynamics and optical interactions. The avalanche ionization induced in a pre-ionized region by infrared laser pulses where investigated. Pre-ionization was created by an ionization wave, initiated by high-voltage nanosecond pulse. Then, behind the front of ionization wave extra avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused infrared laser pulse. The experiment was carried out in argon. It is shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation under low pressure conditions.

  2. Pregnancy and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, Th.N.; Nikolaou, K.I.; Syrgiamiotis, G.V.; Dousi, M.; Panou, Th.; Georgiadis, K.; Bougias, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this report there will be presented the effects of ionizing radiation at the fetus and the necessary radioprotection. The biological results on the fetus, caused by the irradiation, depend on the dose of ionizing radiation that it receives and the phase of its evolution. The imminent effects of the irradiation can cause the fetus death, abnormalities and mental retardation, which are the result of overdose. The effects are carcinogenesis and leukemia, which are relative to the acceptable irradiating dose at the fetus and accounts about 0,015 % per 1 mSv. The effects of ionizing radiation depend on the phase of the fetus evolution: 1 st phase (1 st - 2 nd week): presence of low danger; 2 nd phase (3 rd - 8 th week): for doses >100 mSv there is the possibility of dysplasia; 3 rd phase (8 th week - birth): this phase concerns the results with a percentage 0,015 % per 1 mSv. We always must follow some rules of radioprotection and especially at Classical radiation use of necessary protocols (low dose), at Nuclear Medicine use of the right radioisotope and the relative field of irradiation for the protection of the adjacent healthy tissues and at Radiotherapy extreme caution is required regarding the dose and the treatment. In any case, it is forbidden to end a pregnancy when the pregnant undergoes medical exams, in which the uterus is in the beam of irradiation. The radiographer must always discuss the possibility of pregnancy. (author)

  3. Non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The still growing use of non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet radiation laser light, ultrasound and infrasound, has induced growing interest in the effects of these types of radiation on the human organism, and in probable hazards emanating from their application. As there are up to now no generally approved regulations or standards governing the use of non-ionizing radiation and the prevention of damage, it is up to the manufacturers of the relevant equipment to provide for safety in the use of their apparatus. This situation has led to a feeling of incertainty among manufacturers, as to how which kind of damage should be avoided. Practice has shown that there is a demand for guidelines stating limiting values, for measuring techniques clearly indicating safety thresholds, and for safety rules providing for safe handling. The task group 'Non-ionizing radiation' of the Radiation Protection Association started a programme to fulfill this task. Experts interested in this work have been invited to exchange their knowledge and experience in this field, and a collection of loose leaves will soon be published giving information and recommendations. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Calibration of working standard ionization chambers and dose standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmahoud, A. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements were performed for the calibration of two working standard ionization chambers in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. 600 cc cylindrical former type and 1800 cc cylindrical radical radiation protection level ionization chambers were calibrated against 1000 cc spherical reference standard ionization chamber. The chamber were calibrated at X-ray narrow spectrum series with beam energies ranged from (33-116 KeV) in addition to 1''3''7''Cs beam with 662 KeV energy. The chambers 0.6 cc and 0.3 cc therapy level ionization were used for dose standardization and beam output calibrations of cobalt-60 radiotherapy machine located at the National Cancer Institute, University of Gazira. Concerning beam output measurements for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine, dosimetric measurements were performed in accordance with the relevant per IAEA dosimetry protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398. The kinetic energy released per unit mass in air (air kerma) were obtained by multiplying the corrected electrometer reading (nC/min) by the calibration factors (Gy/n C) of the chambers from given in the calibration certificate. The uncertainty of measurements of air kerma were calculated for the all ionization chambers (combined uncertainty) the calibration factors of these ionization chambers then were calculated by comparing the reading of air kerma of secondary standard ionization chambers to than from radical and farmer chambers. The result of calibration working standard ionization chambers showed different calibration factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.52 for different radiation energies and these differences were due to chambers response and specification. The absorbed dose to to water calculated for therapy ionization chamber using two code of practice TRS-277 and TRS-398 as beam output for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine and it can be used as a reference for future beam output calibration in radiotherapy dosimetry. The measurement of absorbed dose to water showed that the

  5. Development of capacity for measuring ionizing radiation in aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the activities performed in a research program of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Brazil, belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, joining to researches from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in order to bring to Brazil the capacity and acknowledge necessary to the evaluation of dose from ionizing radiation originated in the cosmic radiation and its by products which fall on aircraft crews

  6. Nonproliferation and safeguarding via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Steadman, P.

    1995-01-01

    A significant signature of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) is ionizing radiation. SNM naturally decays with the emission of alpha particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. Detecting and monitoring these emissions is an important capability for international safeguards. A new detection method collects the ions produced by such radiation in ambient air. Alpha particles in particular are specific to heavy nuclei but have very short range. The ions produced by an alpha, however, can be transported tens of meters to an ion detector. These new monitors are rugged, very sensitive, respond in real time, and in most cases are quite portable

  7. Ionization of anisothermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    During this last mid-century, only the temperature of electrons has been involved in the Saha's mass action law, whatever be the other ionic and neutral ones in any isothermal or anisothermal plasma. In order to set aside this underlying paradox in the case of argon ionization, it is necessary to improve this equation of partial equilibrium after having defined: - the basic Gibbs-Duhem's relations for such a polythermal mixture, - the inhomogeneous equilibrium issued from chemical reactions according to Le Chatelier's principle. (author). 3 refs

  8. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  9. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  10. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  11. Doubly resonant multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crance, M.

    1978-01-01

    A particular case of doubly resonant multiphoton ionization is theoretically investigated. More precisely, two levels quasi-resonant with two successive harmonics of the field frequency are considered. The method used is based on the effective operator formalism first introduced for this problem by Armstrong, Beers and Feneuille. The main result is to show the possibility of observing large interference effects on the width of the resonances. Moreover this treatment allows us to make more precise the connection between effective operator formalism and standard perturbation theory

  12. Plasma production via field ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. O’Connell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch, or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam’s bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  13. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  14. News about ionized food identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are used to clean food and increase their preservation life. If a lot of countries permits ionized products commercialization, others are opposed to it. To control the commercial exchanges, check the applied treatment aim and give to the consumers a better information, several ionized food identification methods were perfected and several are about to be recognized as european standards. 4 refs. 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Resonance ionization spectroscopy 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.E.; Omenetto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and its Applications was held in Varese, Italy, 16-21 September 1990. Interest in RIS and its applications continues to grow, and RIS is expanding into a more diverse and mature field of study. This maturity was evident in this meeting both in the basic science and understanding of RIS processes and in the number of new and improved applications and techniques. The application of RIS techniques to molecular detection problems made remarkable progress since the last meeting two years ago. Subtle effects pertaining to isotopic discrimination received more theoretical attention, and there now seems to be good understanding of these effects, which can lead to correction procedures and/or methods to avoid isotopic effects. RIS applications were presented in which significant, real world problems were addressed, demonstrating its capability to solve problems that previously could not be accurately solved by other more traditional techniques. The contributions to the conference are grouped under the following major topic headings: physics applications of rare atoms; laser ionization mechanisms - spectroscopy; atomic, molecular and ion sources; molecular RIS; atomic RIS - Rydberg states; environmental trace analysis; biological and medical applications; state selected chemistry; new laser sources and techniques; ultra-high resolution and isotopic selectivity; surface and bulk analysis. (Author)

  16. Hygiene of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, I.-M.; Conceicao Cunha, M. da

    1976-01-01

    The concepts of quality factor and rem are introduced and a table of biological effects of external ionizing radiation sources is presented. Natural exposures, with tables of background radiation sources and of doses due to cosmic rays on high altitude areas and their populations are treated, as well as medical exposures; artificial background; fallout; scientific, industrial and other sources. The maximum and limit doses for man are given and tables of maximum admissible doses of ionizing radiations for 16-18 year old workers professionaly exposed, for professionals eventually subjected to radiation in their work and for people eventually exposed. Professional protection is discussed and tables are given of half-value layer of water, concrete, iron and lead for radiations of different energies, as well as the classification of exposure zones to the radiations and of maximum acceptable contamination for surfaces. The basic safety standards for radiation protection are summarized; tables are given also with emergency references for internal irradiation. Procedures with patients which received radioisotopes are discussed. At last, consideration is given to the problem of radioactive wastes in connection with the medical use of radionuclides [pt

  17. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  18. Ionization and Corona Discharges from Stressed Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M. J.; Kulahci, I.; Cyr, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Freund, F. T.

    2008-12-01

    Pre-earthquake signals have long been observed and documented, though they have not been adequately explained scientifically. These signals include air ionization, occasional flashes of light from the ground, radio frequency emissions, and effects on the ionosphere that occur hours or even days before large earthquakes. The theory that rocks function as p-type semiconductors when deviatoric stresses are applied offers a mechanism for this group of earthquake precursors. When an igneous or high-grade metamorphic rock is subjected to deviatoric stresses, peroxy bonds that exist in the rock's minerals as point defects dissociate, releasing positive hole charge carriers. The positive holes travel by phonon-assisted electron hopping from the stressed into and through the unstressed rock volume and build up a positive surface charge. At sufficiently large electric fields, especially along edges and sharp points of the rock, air molecules become field-ionized, loosing an electron to the rock surface and turning into airborne positive ions. This in turn can lead to corona discharges, which manifest themselves by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions. We applied concentrated stresses to one end of a block of gabbro, 30 x 15 x 10 cm3, inside a shielded Faraday cage and observed positive ion currents through an air gap about 25 cm from the place where the stresses were applied, punctuated by short bursts, accompanied by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions characteristic of a corona discharge. These observations may serve to explain a range of pre-earthquake signals, in particular changes in air conductivity, luminous phenomena, radio frequency noise, and ionospheric perturbations.

  19. Development of special ionization chambers for a quality control program in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jonas Oliveira da

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is an imaging method that uses X-rays. The use of ionization chambers in mammography quality control programs presents an essential role which is to verify whether the parameters of the patient exposure are correct. However, the commercial ionization chambers for dosimetry in mammography represent a high cost for small and medium size clinics that wish to have this equipment or for professionals that work with quality control programs. The innovative feature of this work was to develop ionization chambers for this purpose. In this work ionization chambers for X radiation beams in the mammography energy range were designed, constructed and characterized. The ionization chambers were tested in standard X radiation beams at the LCI/IPEN. The main characterization tests performed with the ionization chambers were: saturation curve, linearity of response, angular and energy dependence. The response stability tests of the ionization chambers were also conducted at the LCI, presenting results within 2.0 % for long-term stability. The results of the remaining tests are in accordance with international standards. These ionization chambers were also submitted to quality control tests of mammography equipment: linearity of the air kerma rates, determination of half-value layers and mean glandular doses. The results for air kerma rate linearity were less than 10 %, as recommended in international standards. The mean glandular dose obtained with the developed chambers presented values comparable to those of commercial ionization chambers tested, with an estimated variation within international standards. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Li, Anyin; Soparawalla, Santosh; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  4. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  5. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  6. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  7. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  8. Transport processes in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Based on kinetic theory of gases and on the combined of Chapman-Enskog and Grad, the laws of Ohm, Fourier and Navier-Stokes are derived for a non-relativistic fully ionized gas. Moreover, the combined method is applied to the BGK model of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the Ohm's law is derived for a relativistic fully ionized gas. (author)

  9. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  10. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  11. Food ionizing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.; Raffi, J.; Hasselmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

  12. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber. 8 claims, 7 figures

  13. Indoor ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L-G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation in indoor air is discussed in the perspective of the effective dose equivalents from other sources of radiation. Estimates of effective doses equivalents from indoor radon and its contribution to lung cancer incidence are reviewed. Swedish experiences with cost effective remedial actions are presented. The authors present optimal strategies for screening measurements and remedial actions in cost-benefit perspective. (author.)

  14. Laser-enhanced ionization spectroscopy around the ionization limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axner, O.; Berglind, T.; Sjoestroem, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-induced photoionization and Laser-Enhanced collision Ionization (LEI) of Na, Tl, and Li in flames are detected by measuring the production of charges following a laser excitation. The ionization signal is investigated for excitations of the atoms from lower lying states both to Rydberg states close to the ionization limit, as well as to continuum states, i.e. the process of collision ionization is compared with that of photoionization. The qualitative behaviour of the ionization signal when scanning across the ionization limit is studied. It is shown that the ionization signal has a smooth behaviour when passing from bound states into continuum states. The laser-induced photoionization signal strength of atoms in flames is both calculated and measured and a good agreement is obtained. A calculation of wavelength dependent photoionization signal strengths for a number of elements is also presented. Photoionization is used to determine flame- and geometry-dependent parameters. An implication of photoionization in connection with LEI spectrometry for trace element analysis is that there will be a significant increase in background noise if the sample contains high concentrations of easily photoionizing elements and short wavelength light is used. (orig.)

  15. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  16. Characteristics of Noble Gas-filled Ionization Chambers for a Low Dose Rate Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jan Ho; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Jung Bok; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2007-01-01

    An ionization chamber is still widely used in fields such as an environmental radiation monitoring, a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in nuclear facilities, and an industrial application due to its operational stability for a long period and its designs for its applications. Ionization chambers for RMS and an environmental radiation monitoring are requested to detect a low dose rate at as low as 10-2 mR/h and several 3R/h, respectively. Filling gas and its pressure are two of the important factors for an ionization chamber development to use it in these fields, because these can increase the sensitivity of an ionization chamber. We developed cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers for a low dose rate monitoring. Response of a cylindrical ionization chamber, which has a 1 L active volume, was compared when it was filled with Air, Ar, and Xe gas respectively. Response of a spherical ionization chamber was also compared in the case of 9 atm and 25 atm filling-pressures. An inter-comparison with a commercially available high pressure Ar ionization chamber and a fabricated ionization chamber was also performed. A High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) ionization chamber, which was configured with a shielding mesh to eliminate an induced charge of positive ions, was fabricated both for the measurement of an environmental dose rate and for the measurement of an energy spectrum

  17. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Fontelos, Marco A; Trueba, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work

  18. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fontelos, Marco A [Departamento de Matematicas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Trueba, Jose L [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-21

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work.

  19. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism

  20. Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Naoaki

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analysed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are evaluated using the data of the low pressure Argon-discharge, and the simple solutions (plane wave and envelope soliton type solutions) are presented. Under a certain condition an envelope soliton is propagated through the positive column. (author)

  1. Ionization of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, E.C.; Bakale, G.

    1976-01-01

    Application of pulsed-conductivity techniques to ionization phenomena in liquids has yielded new results on electron transport and electron reactions in nonpolar liquids which we have extrapolated to biological systems to develop a novel model of direct radiation damage to mammalian cells that involves the unsolvated electron as the key reactant. Among these new results are electron attachment rate constants of thirty-five substituted nitrobenzene compounds measured in nonpolar solvents which when combined with product anion lifetimes are correlated with cellular radiosensitization efficiencies. From this study we found that electron attachment rates are dependent upon the electron mobility in the solvents and upon the dipole moment of the electron-accepting nitrobenzene compounds. The model also drawn upon energy-dependent electron attachment rates which we have measured in cryogenic liquids, and we have measured in the same solvents associative detachment rate constants and electron momentum transfer cross sections. In addition to these studies of electronic processes in liquids, we have measured ion mobilities of lecithin and chlorophyll in nonpolar solvents and conclude that these solutes form inverse micelles under certain conditions. Formation of these micelles permits electron transport through the lipid micellar walls and electron attachment to electron-accepting polar solutes inside the lipid vesicles to be studied

  2. Ionization in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakale, G.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987--1990 reporting period, studies were conducted that entailed the direct measurement of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in nonpolar liquids through the use of pulse-conductivity techniques. The results obtained from these studies should be applicable toward the development of a better understanding of the primary ionizing event in liquids as well as to providing physico-chemical information that is pertinent to electron-transfer processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Progress was also made in developing a better understanding of electron attachment reactions in liquids through measurements of the electron attachment rate constants, k e s, of a variety of electron-attaching solutes. The effects of several functional groups substituted at different positions on benzene were studied in liquid cyclohexane and isooctane. The electron-attaching properties of chemicals having well characterized carcinogenic properties were studied in cyclohexane to determine if the measure of electron-accepting potential that k e provides can elucidate the role that electrons play in the initiation step of carcinogenesis. The k e s that were measured indicate that the k e -carcinogenicity correlation that was observed can be used to complement short-term carcinogen-screening bioassays to identify potential carcinogens. 115 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  4. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  5. Ionization waves caused by the effects of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kosuke; Imazu, Shingo

    1980-01-01

    The self-excited ionization waves was observed in the Ne positive column. The experiments were made for Ne gas from 0.07 to 1.0 Torr, with the magnetic field from 0 to 3.33 kG. The discharge current were 10 to 300 mA. The longitudinal magnetic field was made by an air-core solenoid coil. The axial electric field was measured by two wall probes. The frequency, wave length and amplitude of waves were measured with a photo multiplier. It was found that the longitudinal magnetic field caused new self-excited ionization waves. The frequency of these waves decreased monotonously with increasing field. The behaviors of the wave length and amplitude were complicate, and the cause of these phenomena is related to the ionization waves due to the spatial resonance of electron gas, namely s-waves, p-waves and fluid γ-waves. The threshold of the magnetic field to cause the ionization waves increased with increasing gas pressure, and with decreasing discharge current in the range 0.07 to 0.44 Torr. The frequency of the self-excited ionization waves occurred at zero field was almost constant in the field-frequency relation. A simple dispersion equation was derived, and the Novak constant can be introduced. (J.P.N.)

  6. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  7. Biomedical applications of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.; Pietrzak, M.

    1997-01-01

    Application of ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical devices, hygienization of cosmetics products as well as formation of biomaterials have been discussed. The advantages of radiation sterilization over the conventional methods have been indicated. The properties of modern biomaterials, hydrogels as well as some ways of their formation and modification under action of ionizing radiation were presented. Some commercial biomaterials of this kind produced in accordance with original Polish methods by means of radiation technique have been pointed out. (author)

  8. Whole body personnel monitoring via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Bounds, K.A.; Kerr, P.L.; Steadman, P.A.; Whitley, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    A project between Fernald EMP and LANL is to field a monitor for the detection of alpha-emitting contamination on a human body. Traditional personnel monitoring for alpha emitters involves either frisking with a probe or pressing against large detectors in order to overcome the short range of alpha particles. These methods have a low alpha collection efficiency, and can miss contamination on less accessible surfaces. The authors have investigated the sensitivity and practicality of measuring the entire subject simultaneously using the technique of ionization monitoring. The goal is to create a booth that personnel step into quickly during egress from radiological facilities. The detection technique relies on a breeze of air passing over the subject. Alpha emission produces copious ions in the ambient air which are transported by the air current to an ion collector, resulting in a small electrical current proportional to the amount of contamination. Results indicate a conservative sensitivity of 3,000 disintegrations per minute localized to one of five areas of the body in a measurement lasting less than 2 minutes

  9. Proton-therapy and hadron-therapy ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ARCHADE project (Advanced Resource Center for Hadron-therapy in Europe), a research project in Carbone ion beam therapy and clinical Proton-therapy, this work investigates the beam monitoring and dosimetry aspects of ion beam therapy. The main goal, here, is to understand the operating mode of air ionization chambers, the detectors used for such applications. This study starts at a very fundamental level as the involved physical and chemical parameters of air were measured in various electric field conditions with dedicated setups and used to produce a simulation tools aiming at reproducing the operating response in high intensity PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning) coming from IBA's (Ion Beam Applications) next generation of proton beam accelerators. In addition, an ionization chamber-based dosimetry equipment was developed, DOSION III, for radiobiology studies conducted at GANIL under the supervision of the CIMAP laboratory. (author)

  10. Modeling ionization by helicon waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeling, A.W.; Boswell, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The response of the electron distribution function in one dimension to a traveling wave electric field is modeled for parameters relevant to a low-pressure helicon wave plasma source, and the resulting change in the ionization rate calculated. This is done by calculating the trajectories of individual electrons in a given wave field and assuming no collisions to build up the distribution function as the distance from the antenna is increased. The ionization rate is calculated for argon by considering the ionization cross section and electron flux at a specified position and time relative to the left-hand boundary, where the distribution function is assumed to be Maxwellian and the wave travels to the right. The simulation shows pulses in the ionization rate that move away from the antenna at the phase velocity of the wave, demonstrating the effect of resonant electrons trapped in the wave close-quote s frame of reference. It is found that the ionization rate is highest when the phase velocity of the wave is between 2 and 3x10 6 m/s, where the electrons interacting strongly with the wave (i.e., electrons with velocities inside the wave close-quote s open-quotes trapping widthclose quotes) have initial energies just below the ionization threshold. Results from the model are compared with experimental data and show reasonable qualitative agreement. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  12. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  13. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  14. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  15. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  16. Surveillance of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the French air force: an example with a workplace study concerning the flight personnel on the E-3F; Surveillance de l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants dans l'armee de l'air. Exemple d'une etude de poste concernant les personnels navigants sur E-3F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagne, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-12-15

    This workplace study was first based on measurements of the ambient dose rates on board the E-3F (2000 to 2001). These results have been complemented by a series of measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosimeters (2004 to 2005). We show that, from level 300 and after more than 200 flying hours per year, the air-crews of the French Air Force flying on board the E-3F are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey in favour of the air-crews of the E-3F and other aircraft with the same flight criteria. (authors)

  17. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, P

    1997-12-01

    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  18. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  19. Ionization equilibrium in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, R.

    1987-01-01

    The average degree of ionization for a strongly coupled plasma is investigated and calculated. Two widely used approaches: the Saha equation method and the Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical atomic model are adopted to determine the degree of ionization. Both methods are modified in a number of ways to include the strong-coupling effect in the plasma. In the Saha equation approach, the strong-coupling effects are introduced through: (i) a replacement of the Coulomb potential by a screened Debye potential; (ii) adoption of the Planck-Larkin partition function; (iii) description of the electron component by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated degree of ionization exceeds that obtained from the original Saha equation, exhibits a minimum as a function of the density and shows an abrupt phase transition from weakly ionized to a fully ionized state. The zero-temperature TF model for compressed ions and the finite-temperature TF model for ions are investigated for the first time. In order to take into account the strong-coupling effect in a systematic way, a strong-coupling TF model is set up. Favorable results with the relatively simple approximations indicate that the newly established strong-coupling TF model is a more systematic and physically consistent approach

  20. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  1. Technical sheets of ionizing radiations. 2. Non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of different non-ionizing radiations are studied: ultra-violet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, micrometric waves, ultrasonics. In spite of their apparent diversity these radiations are similar in their physico-chemical effects, but in view of their widely varying production methods and types of application each type is considered separately. It is pointed out that no organization resembling the CIPR exists in the field of non-ionizing radiations, the result being a great disparity amongst the different legislations in force [fr

  2. Ionizing energy treatment of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an ionizing energy treatment to poultry carcasses results in a decrease of the number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Salmonellae. At the same time the refrigerated shelf life of treated poultry products is considerably increased. To achieve these beneficial effects doses ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 kGy are needed, but in poultry doses over 5.00 kGy may cause undesirable side-effects. To asses the microbiological quality of ionizing radiation treated end-products adequate isolation methods should be used to include all sublethally injured microorganisms in the colony counts. The assessment of the required lethality of an ionizing energy treatment is difficult as D 10 (decimal reduction) - values depend greatly on several parameters

  3. Ionization of nitrogen cluster beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Katsuki; Be, S.H.; Enjoji, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Kosuke

    1975-01-01

    A nitrogen cluster beam (neutral particle intensity of 28.6 mAsub(eq)) is ionized by electron collisions in a Bayard-Alpert gauge type ionizer. The extraction efficiency of about 65% is obtained at an electron current of 10 mA with an energy of 50 eV. The mean cluster size produced at a pressure of 663 Torr and temperature of 77.3 K is 2x10 5 molecules per cluster. By the Coulomb repulsion force, multiply ionized cluster ions are broken up into smaller fragments and the cluster ion size reduces to one-fourth at an electron current of 15 mA. Mean neutral cluster sizes depend strongly on the initial degree of saturation PHI 0 and are 2x10 5 , 7x10 4 and 3x10 4 molecules per cluster at PHI 0 's of 0.87, 0.66 and 0.39, respectively. (auth.)

  4. Spectroscopy of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic structure and decay characteristics of excited states in multiply ionized atoms represent a fertile testing ground for atomic calculations ranging from accurate ab initio theory for few-electron systems to practical semi-empirical approaches for many-electron species. Excitation of fast ions by thin foils generally produces the highest ionization stages for heavy ions in laboratory sources. The associated characteristics of spectroscopic purity and high time resolution provide unique capabilities for studying the atomic properties of highly-ionized atoms. This report is limited to a brief discussion of three classes of atomic systems that are experiencing current theoretical and experimental interest: precision structure of helium-like ions, fine structure of doubly-excited states, and lifetimes of metastable states. Specific measurements in each of these types of systems are mentioned, with emphasis on the relation to studies involving slow, highly-charged ions

  5. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  6. Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, T.; Hirota, K.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene and other chloroethenes by ionizing radiation were examined to get information on treatment of industrial off-gas. Model gases, airs containing chloroethenes, were confined in batch reactors and irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition were larger in the order of tetrachloro- > trichloro- > trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in electron beam irradiation and tetrachloro-, trichloro-, trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in gamma ray irradiation. For tetrachloro-, trichloro- and trans-dichloroethylene, G-values of decomposition in EB irradiation increased with increase of chlorine atom in a molecule, while those in gamma ray irradiation were almost kept constant. The G-value of decomposition for tetrachloroethylene in EB irradiation was the largest of those for all chloroethenes. In order to examine the effect of the initial concentration on G-value of decomposition, airs containing 300 to 1,800 ppm of tetrachloroethylene were irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition in both irradiation increased with the initial concentration. Those in electron beam irradiation were two times larger than those in gamma ray irradiation

  7. Ionization chamber for smoke detector and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rork, G.D.; Thorp, E.J.; Zegarski, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to detectors of the ionization type for detecting airborne particulate matter and, in particular, to the construction of an ionization chamber for such a detector. This invention may be used for detecting a variety of materials, such as dust, fog and the like, but is particularly useful for detecting combustion products such as smoke. The smoke detector ionization chamber has two electrodes connected to a source of electric power; means defining access openings for enabling air flow into and out of the chamber; and means for causing ionization within the chamber. It has control structure means within the chamber in the path of the airflow cooperating with the electrodes to establish within the chamber an electric field having a higher intensity close to the access openings and a lower intensity in the remainder of the chamber without significantly impairing the flow of neutral particles into the chamber. The control structure reduces airflow velocity within the chamber without adversely affecting the access of airborne particles to the chamber

  8. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Food irradiation with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudkova, A.; Pohlova, M.; Sedlackova, J.

    1974-01-01

    Application possibilities are discussed of ionizing radiation in inhibiting plant germination, in radiopasteurization and radiosterilization of food. Also methods of combining radiation with thermal food sterilization are discussed. The problems of radiation doses and of hygienic purity of irradiated foodstuffs are dealt with. (B.S.)

  10. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig

  11. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  12. Resonance ionization spectroscopy in dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D., E-mail: dstuder@uni-mainz.de; Dyrauf, P.; Naubereit, P.; Heinke, R.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of high-lying energy levels in dysprosium. We developed efficient excitation schemes and re-determined the first ionization potential (IP) via analysis of Rydberg convergences. For this purpose both two- and three-step excitation ladders were investigated. An overall ionization efficiency of 25(4) % could be demonstrated in the RISIKO mass separator of Mainz University, using a three-step resonance ionization scheme. Moreover, an extensive analysis of the even-parity 6sns- and 6snd-Rydberg-series convergences, measured via two-step excitation was performed. To account for strong perturbations in the observed s-series, the approach of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was applied. Considering all individual series limits we extracted an IP-value of 47901.76(5) cm{sup −1}, which agrees with the current literature value of 47901.7(6) cm{sup −1}, but is one order of magnitude more precise.

  13. Ionizing radiation accidents. Data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, Adriana S.

    2003-01-01

    After a general outlook of the biological effects at the cellular and molecular level, the somatic effects of the ionizing radiation are described. Argentine regulations and the ICRP recommendations on radiological protection of professionally exposed workers are also summarized. The paper includes practical advices for the physician that has to take care of an irradiated patient

  14. Atomic and molecular resonance ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, R.; Petit, A.

    1990-01-01

    Published in summary form only the paper recalls the principle of resonance photoionization, transition probability, selectivity and critical parameters. Examples of applications are briefly treated: Trace analysis by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy for detection of Fe in Zr F 4 for fabrication of optical fibers and laser isotopic separation of U 235 and Gd 157 [fr

  15. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  16. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  17. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  18. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  19. Ionizing radiations, detection, dosimetry, spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1997-10-01

    A few works in French language are devoted to the detection of radiations. The purpose of this book is to fill a gap.The five first chapters are devoted to the properties of ionizing radiations (x rays, gamma rays, leptons, hadrons, nuclei) and to their interactions with matter. The way of classification of detectors is delicate and is studied in the chapter six. In the chapter seven are studied the statistics laws for counting and the spectrometry of particles is treated. The chapters eight to thirteen study the problems of ionization: charges transport in a gas, ionization chambers (theory of Boag), counters and proportional chambers, counters with 'streamers', chambers with derive, spark detectors, ionization chambers in liquid medium, Geiger-Mueller counters. The use of a luminous signal is the object of the chapters 14 to 16: conversion of a luminous signal in an electric signal, scintillators, use of the Cerenkov radiation. Then, we find the neutron detection with the chapter seventeen and the dosimetry of particles in the chapter eighteen. This book does not pretend to answer to specialists questions but can be useful to physicians, engineers or physics teachers. (N.C.)

  20. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We revisit the Saha Ionization Equation in order to highlightthe rich interdisciplinary content of the equation thatstraddles distinct areas of spectroscopy, thermodynamics andchemical reactions. In a self-contained discussion, relegatedto an appendix, we delve further into the hidden message ofthe equation in terms ...

  1. A comparison of different experimental methods for general recombination correction for liquid ionization chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas; Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Gomez, Faustino

    2012-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry of highly modulated dose distributions requires a detector with a high spatial resolution. Liquid filled ionization chambers (LICs) have the potential to become a valuable tool for the characterization of such radiation fields. However, the effect of an increased recombination...... of the charge carriers, as compared to using air as the sensitive medium has to be corrected for. Due to the presence of initial recombination in LICs, the correction for general recombination losses is more complicated than for air-filled ionization chambers. In the present work, recently published...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. A liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, J.; Keim, H.

    1983-12-01

    First results with a liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane (TMS) are presented. A stack of iron plates was tested with cosmic ray muons and the charge output for minimum ionizing particles was measured. (orig.) [de

  4. UV Ionizer for Neutral Wind Mass Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current neutral particle instrumentation relies on hot cathode filaments or an electron gun for ionizing the target medium.  These ionization sources represent a...

  5. CASE REPORT Air embolus revisited – a diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hazards of ionizing radiation and the potential for contrast media to ... the vascular sys- tem through lacerations to major veins, due to the sucking effect of the ... A further, indirect mechanism of systemic arterial air embolus is recognised.

  6. Automatic system for evaluation of ionizing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, N.L.; Calil, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional cartesian manipulator for evaluating the ionizing field and able to position a ionization chamber in any point of the space is developed. The control system is made using a IBM microcomputer. The system aimed the study of isodose curves from ionizing sources, verifying the performance of radiotherapeutic equipment. (C.G.C.)

  7. Progress on untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian

    2010-01-01

    The side effect of ionizing irradiation has been paid more attention with its widely using in tumor treating and mutation breeding. In recent years, untargeted effects induced by ionizing irradiation have become a hotspot of radiobiology. Here, according to reported results, we reviewed the types (genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response) and mechanisms of untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation in this paper. (authors)

  8. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1096 - Ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1910.1096 Section 1910.1096 Labor... Ionizing radiation. (a) Definitions applicable to this section. (1) Radiation includes alpha rays, beta... the quantity of ionizing radiation absorbed, per unit of mass, by the body or by any portion of the...

  10. Ionizing radiation sources. Ionizing radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popits, R.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics are reviewed under the headings: obtaining of X-rays and their properties; modes of radioactive decay of natural or man-made radionuclides; radioactive neutron sources; nuclear fission as basis for devising nuclear reactors and weapons; thermonuclear reactions; cosmic radiation. Basic aspects of ionizing radiation interactions with matter are considered with regard to charged particles, photon radiation, and neutrons. (A.B.)

  11. Electron-Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that secondary electrons play an important role in radiation damage to humans. Particularly important is the damage of DNA by electrons, potentially leading to mutagenesis. Molecular-level study of electron interaction with DNA provides information on the damage pathways and dominant mechanisms. Our study of electron-impact ionization of DNA fragments uses the improved binary-encounter dipole model and covers DNA bases, sugar phosphate backbone, and nucleotides. An additivity principle is observed. For example, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3(sup prime)- and C5 (sup prime)-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 5%. Investigation of tandem double lesion initiated by electron-impact dissociative ionization of guanine, followed by proton reaction with the cytosine in the Watson-Crick pair, is currently being studied to see if tandem double lesion can be initiated by electron impact. Up to now only OH-induced tandem double lesion has been studied.

  12. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  13. The application of ionizers in domestic refrigerators for reduction in airborne and surface bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Y; Klingshirn, A; Kloft, K; Kreyenschmidt, J

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial effect of ionization on bacteria in household refrigerators. Ionizer prototypes were tested with respect to their technical requirements and their ability to reduce surface and airborne contamination in household refrigerators. Ion and ozone production of the tested prototypes were measured online by an ion meter and an ozone analyser. The produced negative air ion (NAI) and ozone amounts were between 1.2 and 3.7 x 10(6) NAI cm(-3) and 11 and 19 ppb O(3), respectively. To test the influence of ionization on surface contamination, different materials like plastic, glass and nutrient agar for simulation of food were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. The reduction rate was dependent on surface properties. The effect on airborne bacteria was tested by nebulization of Bacillus subtilis- suspension (containing spores) aerosols in refrigerators with and without an ionizer. A clear reduction in air contamination because of ionization was measured. The antimicrobial effect is dependent on several factors, such as surface construction and airflow patterns within the refrigerator. Ionization seems to be an effective method for reduction in surface and airborne bacteria. This study is an initiation for a new consumer tool to decontaminate domestic refrigerators.

  14. Cell fusion by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.B.

    1993-08-01

    The relevance and importance of cell fusion are illustrated by the notion that current interest in this phenomenon is shared by scientists in quite varied disciplines. The diversity of cellular membrane fusion phenomena could provoke one to think that there must be a multitude of mechanisms that can account for such diversity. But, in general, the mechanism for the fusion reaction itself could be very similar in many, or even all, cases. Cell fusion can be induced by several factors such as virus Sendai, polyethylene glycol, electric current and ionizing radiation. This article provides the reader with short view of recent progress in research on cell fusion and gives some explanations about fusion mechanisms. This study shows for the first time, the results of the cell fusion induced by ionizing radiations that we have obtained in our researches and the work performed by other groups. (author). 44 refs

  15. Laser ionization of molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Feigerle, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization coupled with mass spectrometry was used to investigate molecular cluster distributions. Three examples will be discussed in this presentation. First, in studies of neat nitric oxide clusters, (NO) m , an interesting odd-even intensity alternation was observed and will be discussed in terms of electron-pairing considerations. In a separate study, the binary clusters comprising nitric oxide and methane preferentially form a stoichiometric cluster made up of repeating units of (NO) 2 CH 4 . These presumably represent a particularly strongly bound open-quotes van der Waalsclose quotes subunit. Finally, in similar studies of neat carbon disulfide clusters, (CS 2 ) m , additional photon absorption after the two-photon ionization step stimulates a series of intracluster ion-molecular reactions leading to formation of S m + and (CS) m + polymers, as well as intermediate species such as S m + (CS 2 ). This molecular cluster analogue of open-quotes laser snowclose quotes will be described in detail

  16. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is restricted to the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In general, these cumulative exposures are well below 100 rem, or about 50 times background or less. The two effects of interest in this dose range are genetic mutations and cancer production. The genetic effects will not be discussed in detail. The chief reason for the rise in risk estimates for cancer is the longer follow-up of exposed populations

  17. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  18. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Risks Associated with Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiations implies certain risks which are widely balanced by their diagnostic and therapeutic benefits. Nevertheless, knowledge about these risks and how to diagnose and prevent them minimizes their disadvantages and optimizes the quality and safety of the method. This article describes the aspects related to skin dose (nonstochastic effects), the importance of dose limit, the physiopathology of biological damage and, finally, the prevention measures. [es

  20. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  1. Ionization of H Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillermier, C.F.; Bluemental, R.; Smilansky, U.

    1991-07-01

    Concepts from the theory of transient chaos are applied to study the classical ionization process of one dimensional model of kicked hydrogen Rydberg atoms. The phase-space dynamics is represented by a mapping T which is proved to be hyperbolic. The fraction of atoms not ionized after time t, P B (t), decays asymptotically according to P B (t)∼t -α with α ∼ 1.65. The observed algebraic decay, which seems to contradict the hyperbolicity of T, is explained by (i) the symbolic dynamics of T consists of a countably infinite number of symbols and (ii) the invariant manifold of phase-space points which never ionize is an anomalously scaling fractal. Therefore, the one-dimensional kicked hydrogen atom provides a counterexample to the hypothesis that algebraic decay marks regular dynamics, whereas hyperbolic systems decay exponentially. The algebraic decay is reproduced by an analytically solvable diffusion model which predicts α = 3/2. Replacing zero-width δ-kicks by smooth finite-width pulses, the mapping T is no longer completely hyperbolic, and a subset of phase-space is regular. For this case we observe that P B (t) shows a transition between two power-law decays with α ∼ 1.65 for short times and α ∼ 2.1 for long times where the effect of the regular domain is felt. (author)

  2. Ionizing radiation and cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation long has been recognized as a cause of cancer. Among environmental cancer risks, radiation in unique in the variety of organs and tissues that it can affect. Numerous epidemiological studies with good dosimetry provide the basis for cancer risk estimation, including quantitative information derived from observed dose-response relationships. The amount of cancer attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to naturally occurring exposures, such as cosmic and terrestrial radiation, are not preventable. The major natural radiation exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure; because of the importance of its benefits to one's health, the appropriate prevention strategy is to simply work to minimize exposures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Loss of ions in cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, N.; Tran, N.T.; Kim, E.; Marsoem, P.; Kurosawa, T.; Koyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ion losses due to initial recombination, volume recombination, and back diffusion were each determined by measurements and calculations for different size cylindrical ionization chambers and spherical ionization chambers. By measuring signal currents from these ionization chambers irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays, two groups of ion losses were obtained. (Group 1) Ion loss due to initial recombination and diffusion, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the voltage applied to the ionization chambers; (and group 2) ion loss due to volume recombination, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the square of the applied voltage. The diffusion loss was obtained separately by computing electric field distributions in the ionization chambers. It was found that diffusion loss is larger than initial recombination loss for the cylindrical ionization chambers and vise versa for the spherical ionization chambers

  4. On the ionization of interstellar magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown that two concentric ionization zones of interstellar magnesium must exist around each star: internal, with a radius coinciding with that of the zone of hydrogen ionization Ssub(H); and external, with a radius greater than Ssub(H), by one order. Unlike interstellar hydrogen, interstellar magnesium is ionized throughout the Galaxy. It also transpires that the ionizing radiation of ordinary hot stars cannot provide for the observed high degree of ionization of interstellar magnesium. The discrepance can be eliminated by assuming the existence of circumstellar clouds or additional ionization sources of interstellar magnesium (X-ray background radiation, high-energy particles, etc.). Stars of the B5 and BO class play the main role in the formation of ionization zones of interstellar magnesium; the contribution of O class stars is negligible (<1%). (Auth.)

  5. Characteristics of the saturation curve of the ionization chambers in overlapping pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, H.S.; Kang, S.M.; Ha, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    When a pulsed radiation is incident on an air-filled ionization chamber wherein the primary electrons are rapidly absorbed to become negative ions, it is known that the reciprocal of the ionizing current is linearly proportional to the reciprocal of the polarization voltage in the near saturation region. However, the relationship between the reciprocal of the ionizing current and the reciprocal of the polarization voltage will deviate from a simple linearity when the ion transit time in the ionization chamber is longer than the interval between the radiation pulses. Two thimble-type ionization chambers, one of which was designed and fabricated by us, were employed to measure the saturation curves of the ionization chambers in a pulsed Bremsstrahlung X-ray, which was generated with an electron accelerator. A model was developed to explain the shape of the measured saturation curves in the overlapping pulsed radiation, and the results of it were compared with the measured ones. The dependency of the shape of the saturation curve on the geometrical design of the ionization chambers in the pulsed radiation was discussed

  6. Probing photo-ionization: simulations of positive streamers in varying N2:O2 mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wormeester, G; Pancheshnyi, S; Luque, A A; Nijdam, S Sander; Ebert, UM Ute

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractPhoto-ionization is the accepted mechanism for the propagation of positive streamers in air though the parameters are not very well known; the efficiency of this mechanism largely depends on the presence of both nitrogen and oxygen. But experiments show that streamer propagation is amazingly robust against changes of the gas composition; even for pure nitrogen with impurity levels below 1 ppm streamers propagate essentially with the same velocity as in air, but their minimal diame...

  7. Aerosol ionization gas analyzer for continious detection of toxic compounds in industrial gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groze, Kh.; Dering, Kh.; Gleizberg, F.

    1979-01-01

    In is noted that the problem of the environment protection as well as protection of the personnel at their working places against influence of harmful substances in air, demands continious measuring of an increasing number of harmful substances with provision of high sensitivity and accuracy of measurements. The demands are listed to the gas analyzers developed for these purposes: flexibility towards solution of different problems of measurement; great number of the substances to be measured; acceptable threshold of determination of different substances concentration in air and small measurement error; simplicity of maintanance and technical service and high reliability in exploitation; economy of fabrication and application. The data are given for the aerosol ionization gas analyzer which, in many cases, met the requirements listed. In the gas analyzer described, the analysed substance is converted for measuring its concentration into an aerosol by means of the aerosol generator, especially designed for this substance or group of substances. The produced aerosol is introduced into an ionization chamber with build-in radiation source and caused decrease of the ionization current in it. According to the decrease of the ionization current, concentration of the harmful substance in air is determined. Characteristics and possibilities of the gas analyzer exploitation are given and discussed on the base of the results of determination of some harmful substances concentrations in air in the laboratory conditions and in the real conditions of industrial production and in the health protection system [ru

  8. Laboratory implantation for well type ionization chambers calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, E.A.; Dias, D.J.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    The Radiological Science Laboratory is implanting a service for calibration of well type chambers by IAEA training program. The kerma rate in the air (mu Gy/h) of the linear Cs-137 reference source CDCS-J4 have been determined using a well type chamber Standard Imaging HDR-1000 model, which have been calibrated at Secondary Standard Laboratory Calibration of IAEA, whereas two HDR-1000 Plus chambers were calibrated too, following the same standards. The results were compared with Wisconsin University calibration certification and has demonstrated that well type ionization chamber calibration can be used in brachytherapy for several kinds of radionuclides. (Author)

  9. Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl JR., Robert R.

    1990-03-06

    Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

  10. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  11. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  13. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  14. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO 2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  15. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  16. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  17. V. Physical effects in ionizing radiation passage through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The ionization of the medium during absorption of alpha particles is described. The ranges are given of alpha particles in the air and in certain liquids and solids. The absorption of protons and deuterons takes place similarly as in alpha particles but protons and deuterons have a bigger range at the same energy. The term half-thickness has been introduced for the absorption of beta particles. For different energies of beta particles the absorption of these particles is graphically represented for different materials. The greatest attention is devoted to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, i.e., X radiation and gamma radiation. The mechanisms are explained of absorption by photoelectric effect, the Compton effect and electron pair formation. In X radiation radiotherapy, filters are used, mostly aluminium, copper or zinc plates. The values are given of radiation intensity for different thicknesses of aluminium and copper filters and a survey is given of combined filters for 220 to 400 kV. For radiotherapy purposes great attention is devoted to the calculation of the depth dose. The effects are discussed of ionizing radiation on photographic emulsion, on changes in the colouring of some substances and fluorescence. Also given are the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the theory of direct and indirect effects is briefly described. (E.S.)

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  19. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  20. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over 40 years have passed since the research of the Manhattan Project suggested the possibility of chemical protection against ionizing radiation. During that time, much has been learned about the nature of radiation-induced injury and the factors governing the expression of that injury. Thousands of compounds have been tested for radioprotective efficacy, and numerous theories have been proposed to account for these actions. The literature on chemical radioprotection is large. In this article, the authors consider several of the mechanisms by which chemicals may protect against radiation injury. They have chosen to accent this view of radioprotector research as opposed to that research geared toward developing specific molecules as protective agents because they feel that such an approach is more beneficial in stimulating research of general applicability. This paper describes the matrix of biological factors upon which an exogenous radioprotector is superimposed, and examines evidence for and against various mechanisms by which these agents may protect biological systems against ionizing radiation. It concludes with a brief outlook for research in chemical radioprotection

  1. NMR Metabolomics in Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xiao, Xiongjie; Hu, Mary Y.

    2016-09-08

    Ionizing radiation is an invisible threat that cannot be seen, touched or smelled and exist either as particles or waves. Particle radiation can take the form of alpha, beta or neutrons, as well as high energy space particle radiation such as high energy iron, carbon and proton radiation, etc. (1) Non-particle radiation includes gamma- and x-rays. Publically, there is a growing concern about the adverse health effects due to ionizing radiation mainly because of the following facts. (a) The X-ray diagnostic images are taken routinely on patients. Even though the overall dosage from a single X-ray image such as a chest X-ray scan or a CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), is low, repeated usage can cause serious health consequences, in particular with the possibility of developing cancer (2, 3). (b) Human space exploration has gone beyond moon and is planning to send human to the orbit of Mars by the mid-2030s. And a landing on Mars will follow.

  2. Ionizing radiations in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Tata, A.

    1999-01-01

    Foodstuffs treatment by ionization is able to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food borne diseases control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main process goal is to ensure the hygienic quality and the wholesomeness of products to be marketed, in order to limit food borne diseases originated mainly through the cross contamination process. In fact several products may contain pathogenic agents or bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Campylbacter in poultry meat), whose associated pathologies are world-wide increasing. At present, over 40 countries provide clearances for the treatment of about 45 different types of foodstuffs and in over 20 of them the ionizing process is already industrially utilized for spices, poultry, shrimps and vegetables. As it refers to process economic aspects, market researches have shown cost figures ranging from few tens to some hundreds Lit/kg, depending on the dose to products. The costs are competitive with alternative treatments, beyond the recovery of economic productivity reduction caused by food borne diseases

  3. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  4. K-shell ionization by antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehler, G.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1987-01-01

    We present first calculations for the impact parameter dependence of K-shell ionization rates in anti pCu and in anti pAg collisions at various projectile energies. We show that the effect of the attractive Coulomb potential on the Rutherford trajectory and the anti-binding effect caused by the negative charge of the antiproton result in a considerable increase of the ionization probability. Total ionization cross-sections for proton and antiproton projectiles are compared with each other and with experimental ionization cross-sections for protons. (orig.)

  5. Regulatory control of ionizing radiations in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-03-01

    This document deals with legal aspects for controlling ionizing radiations, radiological safety regulations and objectives, scopes and features of the national radioprotection planning in Ecuador. (The author)

  6. Ionization probes of molecular structure and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Various photoionization processes provide very sensitive probes for the detection and understanding of the spectra of molecules relevant to combustion processes. The detection of ionization can be selective by using resonant multiphoton ionization or by exploiting the fact that different molecules have different sets of ionization potentials. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of individual molecules can be studied even in a mixed sample. The authors are continuing to develop methods for the selective spectroscopic detection of molecules by ionization, and to use these methods for the study of some molecules of combustion interest.

  7. Ionization versus indirect effects of ionizing radiation on cellular DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, Jean; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Douki, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed in the last decade on the elucidation of the main degradation pathways of isolated DNA mediated by hydroxyl radical (OH) and one-electron oxidation reactions as the result of indirect and direct effects of ionizing radiation respectively. This has led to the isolation and characterization of about 100 oxidized purine and pyrimidine nucleosides if hydroperoxide precursors and diastereomers are included. However, far less information is available on the mechanisms of radiation-induced degradation of bases in cellular DNA mostly due partly to analytical difficulties. It may be reminded that the measurement of oxidized nucleosides and bases in nuclear DNA is still a challenging issue which until recently has been hampered by the use of inappropriate methods such as the GC-MS that have led to overestimated values of the lesions by factors varying between two and three orders of magnitude. At the present, using the accurate and sensitive HPLC/MS/MS assay, 11 single modified nucleosides and bases were found to be generated in cellular DNA upon exposure to gamma rays and heavy ions. This validates several of the OH-mediated oxidation pathways of thymine, guanine and adenine that were previously inferred from model studies. The concomitant decrease in the yields of oxidized bases with the increase in the LET of heavy ions is accounted for by the preponderance of indirect effects in the damaging action of ionizing radiation on DNA. Further evidence for the major role played by .OH was provided by the results of exposure of cells to high intensity 266 nm laser pulses. Under these conditions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine is mostly produced by biphotonic ionization of DNA nucleobases and subsequent hole migration to guanine bases. It is likely that some of the oxidized bases that have been isolated as single lesions are in fact involved in clustered damage. Interestingly it was recently shown that a single oxidation hit is capable of generating complex

  8. Weakly Ionized Plasmas in Hypersonics: Fundamental Kinetics and Flight Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macheret, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the recent studies of applications of weakly ionized plasmas to supersonic/hypersonic flight. Plasmas can be used simply as means of delivering energy (heating) to the flow, and also for electromagnetic flow control and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. Plasma and MHD control can be especially effective in transient off-design flight regimes. In cold air flow, nonequilibrium plasmas must be created, and the ionization power budget determines design, performance envelope, and the very practicality of plasma/MHD devices. The minimum power budget is provided by electron beams and repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses, and the paper describes theoretical and computational modeling of plasmas created by the beams and repetitive pulses. The models include coupled equations for non-local and unsteady electron energy distribution function (modeled in forward-back approximation), plasma kinetics, and electric field. Recent experimental studies at Princeton University have successfully demonstrated stable diffuse plasmas sustained by repetitive nanosecond pulses in supersonic air flow, and for the first time have demonstrated the existence of MHD effects in such plasmas. Cold-air hypersonic MHD devices are shown to permit optimization of scramjet inlets at Mach numbers higher than the design value, while operating in self-powered regime. Plasma energy addition upstream of the inlet throat can increase the thrust by capturing more air (Virtual Cowl), or it can reduce the flow Mach number and thus eliminate the need for an isolator duct. In the latter two cases, the power that needs to be supplied to the plasma would be generated by an MHD generator downstream of the combustor, thus forming the 'reverse energy bypass' scheme. MHD power generation on board reentry vehicles is also discussed

  9. Ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation in educational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Takao; Otsubo, Tomonobu; Ikke, Satoshi; Taguchi, Noriko; Takeda, Rie

    2005-01-01

    By chance, we measured gamma dose rates in our school, and around the JCO Tokai Plant during the criticality on September 30 in 1999, with our GM survey meter. At that time, we made sure to estimate the position of criticality reaction (source point), and the source intensity of criticality reaction, with our own data, measured along the public roads, route 6 and local road 62. The intensity of gamma dose rates along the road was analyzed as Lorentz functions. At the time, there were no environmental radiation data about the criticality accident, or all the data, especially radioactivity and dose rates around the JCO Tokai Plant, was closed to the public. Recently, we are interested in the intensity of non-ionizing radiation, especially extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field, and electric field, in our environment. We adopted the same method to analyze the source position and source intensity of an ELF magnetic field and electric behind a wall. (author)

  10. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  11. Development of a standard operating procedure for mammography equipment used in calibration of ionized chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Yklys Santos; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is one widely used technique in the detection of breast cancer. In order to optimize the results achieving better images with lower dose rates, a quality assurance programme must be applied to the equipment. Some control tests use ionization chambers to measure air kerma and other quantities. These tests can only be reliable if the ionization chambers used on them are correctly calibrated. In the present work, it was developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for quality control tests in a commercial mammography equipment installed in the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at IPEN - Brazilian Institute for energy and nuclear research). Seven tests were performed in the equipment: Tube voltage and exposition time accuracy and reproducibility, linearity and reproducibility of Air kerma and Half Value Layer (HVL). Then, it was made a measurement of the air kerma in the mammography equipment, using a reference ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory in Germany (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB), that was later compared with the air kerma measured in an industrial irradiator. This industrial X-ray generator was recently used in the implementation of X-radiation Standards beams, mammography level, following the Standard IEC 61267. The HVL values varied from 0.36 (25kV) to 0.41 mmA1 (35kV), and the measured air kerma rates were between 9.78 and 17.97 mGy/min. (author)

  12. Heating and ionization in MHD shock waves propagating into partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Watson-Munro, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    A model of the structure of MHD switch-on shocks propagating in a partially ionized plasma, in which the primary dissipation mechanism is friction between ions and neutrals, is here compared favourably with experimental results. Four degrees of upstream ionization were studied, ranging from almost complete to very small ionization. (author)

  13. Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses ionization phenomena in helium, both photoionization and electron ionization. In particular he compares double ionization cross sections with total cross sections, as a function of electron energy, and photon energy. Data is discussed over the energy range up to 10 keV

  14. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D G

    2007-01-01

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained

  15. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-15

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained.

  16. Heating and ionization in MHD shock wave propagating into partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Watson-Munro, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    A model of the structure of MHD switch-on shocks propagating in a partially ionized plasma, in which the primary dissipation mechanism is friction between ions and neutrals, is here compared favourably with experimental results. Four degrees of upstream ionization were studied, ranging from almost complete to very small ionization. (author)

  17. Assessment of dose level of ionizing radiation in army scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Hamid, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy radiation. Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine. Any human activity of nuclear technologies should be linked to the foundation of scientific methodology and baseline radiation culture to avoid risk of radiation and should be working with radioactive materials and expertise to understand, control practices in order to avoid risks that could cause harm to human and environment. The study was conducted in warehouses and building of Sudan air force Khartoum basic air force during September 2010. The goal of this study to estimate the radiation dose and measurement of radioactive contamination of aircraft scrap equipment and increase the culture of radiological safety as well as the concept of radiation protection. The results showed that there is no pollution observed in the contents of the aircraft and the spire part stores outside, levels of radiation dose for the all contents of the aircraft and spire part within the excitable level, except temperature sensors estimated radiation dose about 43 μSv/h outside of the shielding and 12 μSv/h inside the shielding that exceeded the internationally recommended dose level. One of the most important of the identification of eighteen (18) radiation sources used in temperature and fuel level sensors. These are separated from the scrap, collected and stored in safe place. (Author)

  18. Sensitivity of clostridium acetobutylicum to oxygen and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.C.; Adler, H.I.; Machanoff, R.; Haney, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors are studying the sensitivity of four strains of the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, to oxygen and ionizing radiation. Anaerobic bacteria are useful for such studies because of the absence of elaborate oxygen detoxification mechanisms that are found in aerobes. Their experiments make use of sterile membrane fragments from Escherichia coli that rapidly remove molecular oxygen from media and permit growth of anaerobes without the use of reducing agents or anaerobic chambers. Of the four strains examined for sensitivity to ionizing radiation under anaerobic conditions, one has an LD/sub 50/ of -- 25 krads and the others have an LD/sub 50/ of -- 7 krads. The radiation resistant strain is also relatively resistant to oxygen exposure. Sensitivity to oxygen was determined by diluting cells in buffer at 28 0 and bubbling with air. An exposure to air for 40 min induced only slight inactivation in the radiation resistant strain. All strains are capable of removing oxygen from complex media but there is no apparent correlation between this oxygen consuming reaction and inactivation by either oxygen or radiation

  19. Development of special ionization chambers for a quality control program in mammography; Desenvolvimento de camaras de ionizacao especiais para controle de qualidade em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonas Oliveira da

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is an imaging method that uses X-rays. The use of ionization chambers in mammography quality control programs presents an essential role which is to verify whether the parameters of the patient exposure are correct. However, the commercial ionization chambers for dosimetry in mammography represent a high cost for small and medium size clinics that wish to have this equipment or for professionals that work with quality control programs. The innovative feature of this work was to develop ionization chambers for this purpose. In this work ionization chambers for X radiation beams in the mammography energy range were designed, constructed and characterized. The ionization chambers were tested in standard X radiation beams at the LCI/IPEN. The main characterization tests performed with the ionization chambers were: saturation curve, linearity of response, angular and energy dependence. The response stability tests of the ionization chambers were also conducted at the LCI, presenting results within 2.0 % for long-term stability. The results of the remaining tests are in accordance with international standards. These ionization chambers were also submitted to quality control tests of mammography equipment: linearity of the air kerma rates, determination of half-value layers and mean glandular doses. The results for air kerma rate linearity were less than 10 %, as recommended in international standards. The mean glandular dose obtained with the developed chambers presented values comparable to those of commercial ionization chambers tested, with an estimated variation within international standards. (author)

  20. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadd, E. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  1. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, E.

    2002-01-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  2. Ionization efficiency calculations for cavity thermoionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, M.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Sielanko, J.; Maczka, D.; Yuskevich, Yu.V.; Vaganov, Yu.A.

    2009-01-01

    The numerical model of ionization in a thermoionization ion source is presented. The review of ion source ionization efficiency calculation results for various kinds of extraction field is given. The dependence of ionization efficiency on working parameters like ionizer length and extraction voltage is discussed. Numerical simulations results are compared to theoretical predictions obtained from a simplified ionization model

  3. INVESTIGATION OF THE HUMIDITY EFFECT ON THE FAC-IR-300 IONIZATION CHAMBER RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa; Tavakoli-Anbaran, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    The free-air ionization chamber is communicating with the ambient air, therefore, the atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and humidity effect on the ionization chamber performance. The free-air ionization chamber, entitled as FAC-IR-300, that design at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, is required the atmospheric correction factors for correct the chamber reading. In this article, the effect of humidity on the ionization chamber response was investigated. For this reason, was introduced the humidity correction factor, kh. In this article, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the kh factor. The simulation results show in relative humidities between 30% to 80%, the kh factor is equal 0.9970 at 20°C and 0.9975 at 22°C. From the simulation results, at low energy the energy dependence of the kh factor is significant and with increasing energy this dependence is negligible. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Performance tests of a special ionization chamber for X-rays in mammography energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    A special mammography homemade ionization chamber was developed to be applied for mammography energy range dosimetry. This chamber has a total sensitive volume of 6 cm{sup 3} and is made of a PMMA body and graphite coated collecting electrode. Performance tests as saturation, ion collection efficiency, linearity of chamber response versus air kerma rate and energy dependence were determined. The results obtained with this special homemade ionization chamber are within the limits stated in international recommendations. This chamber can be used in quality control programs of mammography energy range. All measurements were carried out at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. (author)

  5. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  6. Ionizing radiation and water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Cherbakian, Eloisa Helena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to point out the possibility of including ionizing radiation for wastewater treatment and reuse. Radiation processing is an efficient technology which can be useful for water reuse once the process can reduce not only the biological contamination but also organic substances, promoting an important acute toxicity removal from aquatic resources. Final secondary effluents from three different wastewater treatment plant were submitted to electron beam radiation and the process efficacy was evaluated. Concerning disinfection, relatively low radiation doses (2,0 - 4,0 kGy) accounted for 4 to 6 cycle log reduction for total coliforms. When radiation was applied for general wastewater improvement related to the chemical contamination, radiation process reduced from 78% up to 100% the total acute toxicity, measured for crustaceans, D. similis, and for V. fiscehri bacteria. (author)

  7. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  8. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... barriers, an ability classical particles do not possess. Tunnelling is a fundamental quantum mechanical process, a process that is distinctly non-classical, so solving this tunnelling problem is not only relevant for molecular physics, but also for quantum theory in general. In this dissertation the theory...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  9. Device for detecting ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon

  10. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  11. Ionization by a pulsed plasma surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloyet, E.; Leprince, P.; Marec, J.; Llamas Blasco, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization mechanism is studied of a pulsed surface wave generating a microwave discharge. When the plasma is dominated by collisions, it is found that the velocity of the ionization front depends on the ponderomotive force due to the field gradient in the front. (orig.)

  12. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  13. Basic symbol for ionizing radiations (second revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Includes a detailed description of basic symbol for ionizing radiations to be used to prevent about the presence, or possibility of presence, of ionizing radiations (X-ray, gamma radiation, particles, electrons, neutrons and protons), as well as to identify radioactive devices and materials

  14. Gas ionization by focused laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of line broadening by focusing may considerably contribute to the observed laser-induced ionization of gases when the ionization energy of the gas molecules is well above the mean photon energy of the laser radiation. (Author) [pt

  15. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Neutron accelerator tube having improved ionization section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron accelerator tube is described having a target section, an ionization section, and a replenisher section for supplying accelerator gas to the ionization section. The ionization section is located between the target and the replenisher section and includes an ionization chamber adapted to receive accelerator gas from the replenisher section. The ionization section further includes spaced cathodes having opposed active surfaces exposed to the interior of the ionization chamber. An anode is located intermediate the cathodes whereby in response to an applied positive voltage, electrons created by field emission are transmitted between the opposed active surfaces of the cathodes and produce the emission of secondary electrons. The active surface of at least one of the cathodes is formulated of a material having a secondary electron emission factor of at least one cathode member located in the tube adjacent to th replenisher section may have a protuberant portion extending axially into the ionization chamber. The other cathode spaced from the first cathode member in the direction of the target has an aperture therein along the axis of the protuberant portion. An annular magnet extends around the exterior of the ionization chamber and envelops the anode member. Means are provided to establish a high permeability magnetic flux path extending outwardly from the opposed poles from the magnet to the active surfaces of the cathode members

  17. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, John B. [Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases

    2017-01-17

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, the analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational exposures.

  18. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, John B.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, the analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational exposures.

  19. Probing background ionization: positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Wormeester, G

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. A streamer can supply these electrons by itself through photo-ionization, or the electrons can be present due to external background ionization. Here we investigate the effects of background ionization on streamer propagation and morphology by changing the gas composition and the repetition rate of the voltage pulses, and by adding a small amount of radioactive 85 Kr. We find that the general morphology of a positive streamer discharge in high-purity nitrogen depends on background ionization: at lower background ionization levels the streamers branch more and have a more feather-like appearance. This is observed both when varying the repetition rate and when adding 85 Kr, though side branches are longer with the radioactive admixture. But velocities and minimal diameters of streamers are virtually independent of the background ionization level. In air, the inception cloud breaks up into streamers at a smaller radius when the repetition rate and therefore the background ionization level is higher. When measuring the effects of the pulse repetition rate and of the radioactive admixture on the discharge morphology, we found that our estimates of background ionization levels are consistent with these observations; this gives confidence in the estimates. Streamer channels generally do not follow the paths of previous discharge channels for repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. We estimate the effect of recombination and diffusion of ions and free electrons from the previous discharge and conclude that the old trail has largely disappeared at the moment of the next voltage pulse; therefore the next streamers indeed cannot follow the old trail.

  20. Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Explore the interactive, virtual ... can do Where to learn more About Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Microwave Oven. Microwave ovens ...

  1. Experimental comparison of models for ultrafast impact ionization is silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    We compare experimentally the exponential and quadratic (Keldysh formula) impact ionization models using THz induced impact ionization in silicon. We demonstrate that the exponential model offers the best description of impact ionization process for ultrashort electric filed pulses.......We compare experimentally the exponential and quadratic (Keldysh formula) impact ionization models using THz induced impact ionization in silicon. We demonstrate that the exponential model offers the best description of impact ionization process for ultrashort electric filed pulses....

  2. Initial recombination of ions in gases (Air). Anfangsrekombination von Ionen in gasen (Luft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booz, J.; Ebert, H. G.

    1962-08-15

    The dependence of the initial recombination coefficients on the ion density, the ionization length, and the recombination time was theoretically and experimentally investigated for the case of ionization of air with x rays. The experiments were carried out at initial ion densities between 5 x 10/sup 4/ and 2 x 10/sup 6/ ion pairs/cm/sup 3/ and at ionization lengths between 100 mu sec and 3 msec. There was satisfactory agreement with the theoretically derived formula. (tr-auth)

  3. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  4. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  5. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na 2 + ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na 2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na 2 D 1 PIμ Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na 2 + ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na 2 + through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na 2 molecules

  6. Neutron accelerator tube having improved ionization section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron accelerator tube having a target section, an ionization section, and a replenisher section for supplying accelerator gas to the ionization section. The ionization section is located between the target and the replenisher section and includes an ionization chamber adapted to receive accelerator gas from the replenisher section. The ionization section further includes spaced cathodes having opposed active surfaces exposed to the interior of the ionization chamber. An anode is located intermediate the cathodes whereby in response to an applied positive voltage, electrons created by field emmission are transmitted between the opposed active surfaces of the cathodes and produce the emission of secondary electrons. The active surface of at least one of the cathodes is formulated of a material having a secondary electron emission factor of at least 2. One cathode member located in the tube adjacent to the replenisher section may have a protuberant portion extending axially into the ioization chamber. The other cathode spaced from the first cathode member in the direction of the target has an aperture therein along the axis of the protuberant portion. An annular magnet extends around the exterior of the ionization chamber and envelops the anode member. Means are provided to establish a high permeability magnetic flux path extending outwardly from the opposed poles from the magnet to the active surfaces of the cathode members

  7. Characterization of ionization chambers in double face for X-ray detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro M. da; Caldas, Linda V.O.

    2000-01-01

    Two identical parallel-plate ionization chambers with collecting electrodes of different materials (in order to obtain different energy dependences), developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, were tested in low energy X-radiation beams, simulating a special ionization chamber, of double face, in a Tandem system. The purpose of this work is to justify a project of a double face detection system utilizing ionization chambers in Tandem. In relation to conventional methods, this kind of system will provide more efficient and precise absorbed dose in air measurements and radiation effective energy determinations. The results obtained in relation to characteristics of short- and long-term stabilities and angular and energy dependence show that the project is feasible and very appropriate. (author)

  8. Development of a spatially uniform fast ionization wave in a large-volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, D.V.; Starikovskaya, S.M.; Starikovskii, A.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    A study is made of a high-voltage nanosecond breakdown in the form of a fast ionization wave produced in a large-volume (401) discharge chamber. The propagation speed of the wave front and the integral energy deposition in a plasma are measured for various regimes of the air discharge at pressures of 10 -2 -4 Torr. A high degree of both the spatial uniformity of the discharge and the reproducibility of the discharge parameters is obtained. The possibility of the development of a fast ionization wave in an electrodeless system is demonstrated. A transition of the breakdown occurring in the form of a fast ionization wave into the streamer breakdown is observed. It is shown that such discharges are promising for technological applications

  9. Air ionizatio at X-ray departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesela, O.; Mosatova, A.; Kubova, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in electroionic microclimate are dealt with at X-ray workplaces and their dynamics in the course of the day during normal operation. Following exposure to X-ray radiation the specific concentration of light air ions of both polarities increases due to increased input of ionization energy. Within the first minutes following the termination of exposure a sharp decline takes place in the specific concentration of light air ions with subsequent well of positive ions in the air. (author). 1 tab., 19 refs

  10. Regulation on protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This regulation has as the objective to establish the criteria tending toward protecting the health of the population of the radiologic risks that can be derive from the employment of the ionizing radiations and similar activities. It establishes the requirements to comply with the radiactive installations, equipment transmitters of ionizing radiations, personal that works in them, operate the equipment and carry out any another similar activity such as: production, importation, exportation, transportation, transference of radioactive material or equipment generators of radiations ionizing. (S. Grainger) [es

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    Radiobiology in the last years was able to find detailed explanations for the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. But it is still impossible to make exact statements concerning the damages by radiation. Even now, science has to content itself with probability data. Moreover no typical damages of ionizing radiation can be identified. Therefore, the risks of ionizing radiation can only be determined by comparison with the spontaneous rate of cancerous or genetic defects. The article describes the interaction of high-energy radiation with the molecules of the organism and their consequences for radiation protection. (orig.)

  12. Ionization of atoms by bare ion projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    The double differential cross sections (DDCS) for low energy electron emission can provide stringent tests to the theoretical models for ionization in ion-atom collision. The two-center effects and the post collision interactions play a major role in ionization by highly charged, high Z projectiles. We close-quote ll review the recent developments in this field and describe our efforts to study the energy and angular distributions of the low energy electrons emitted in ion-atom ionization. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs

  14. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  15. Exposure to non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, L.; Dragone, R.; Pastorelli, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the last years the exposure levels to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields of workers and citizens have dramatically increased due to the technological development as in the exemplar case of cellular phones. The object of this research concerns the biological evaluation of the risk from exposure to non ionizing radiations (NIR) by an opportunely designed biosensor based on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and by an amperometric transducer (Clark oxygen electrode). The results have been obtained by comparing the respiratory activities of exposed and not exposed yeast cells to NIR (at 900 MHz, frequency of the first generation cellular phones). The measurements have been performed by irradiation of the cells in a G-TEM chamber. The obtained results clearly show a decrease of the respiration activity of the irradiation cells in comparison with blank. This variation results to be proportional to the exposure time. Concerning reversibility of the damage it seems that the recovery of the initial conditions begins after 4 hours since the end of exposition and is complete within the following 48 hrs [it

  16. Neutron-sensitive ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, W.

    1978-01-01

    The neutron-sensitive ionization chamber which is to be applied for BWRs consists of a cylindrical outer electrode, closed at the ends, and a concentrically arranged inner electrode. It is designed as a hollow tube and coated with uranium on the outside. The reaction space lies between the two electrodes. The electrical connection is obtained through a coaxial cable whose nickel helix is properly intorduced into the inner electrode made of titanium or nickel. The sheathing respectively external conductor of the cable has got the same diameter as the outer electrode and is butt-welded to it. Between the cable helix and the sheathing there is filled Al 2 O 3 powder. The reaction space is sealed against the cable by means of a little tube pushed over the internal conductor resp. the helix. It consists of Ni resp. Al 2 O 3 which is coated on the outside at first by a layer of Al 2 O 3 and a layer of Ni resp. by a metal layer on the inside and on the outside. (DG) [de

  17. Ionizing radiation and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Holm, L.E. (Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data source on cancer risk in man after exposure to ionizing radiation. The present paper discusses methodological difficulties in epidemiological studies and reviews current epidemiological knowledge on radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Most studies of radiation-induced cancer are of a ''historical observational'' type and are also non-experimental in design. Seldom is there an opportunity to consider other factors playing on cancer risk. Since many of the study subjects were exposed a long time ago there could also be difficulties in calculating the radiation doses, and to identify and follow the exposed subjects. Short exposure to low doses of gamma radiation can induce thyroid cancer in children, whereas a relationship between protracted low-dose exposure and thyroid cancer has not been established so far. The most important future issues concerning radiation-induced thyroid cancer are the risks following low radiation doses and/or protracted radiation exposure and cancer risks after [sup 131]I exposure in childhood. (authors). 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  19. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  20. RILIS-ionized mercury and tellurium beams at ISOLDE CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day Goodacre, T., E-mail: thomas.day.goodacre@cern.ch [CERN (Switzerland); Billowes, J. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Chrysalidis, K. [CERN (Switzerland); Fedorov, D. V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Molkanov, P. L. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Wendt, K. D. A. [Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents the results of ionization scheme development for application at the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). Two new ionization schemes for mercury are presented: a three-step three-resonance ionization scheme, ionizing via an excitation to a Rydberg level and a three-step two-resonance ionization scheme, with a non-resonant final step to the ionization continuum that corresponded to a factor of four higher ionization efficiency. The efficiency of the optimal mercury ionization scheme was measured, together with the efficiency of a new three-step three resonance ionization scheme for tellurium. The efficiencies of the mercury and tellurium ionization schemes were determined to be 6 % and >18 % respectively.

  1. Analysis of ionization wave dynamics in low-temperature plasma jets from fluid modeling supported by experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Merbahi, N.; Jomaa, N.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to fluid modeling based on experimental investigations of a classical setup of a low-temperature plasma jet. The latter is generated at atmospheric pressure using a quartz tube of small diameter crossed by helium gas flow and surrounded by an electrode system powered by a mono-polar high-voltage pulse. The streamer-like behavior of the fast plasma bullets or ionization waves launched in ambient air for every high-voltage pulse, already emphasized in the literature from experimental or analytical considerations or recent preliminary fluid models, is confirmed by a numerical one-moment fluid model for the simulation of the ionization wave dynamics. The dominant interactions between electron and the main ions present in He-air mixtures with their associated basic data are taken into account. The gradual dilution of helium in air outside the tube along the axis is also considered using a gas hydrodynamics model based on the Navier-Stokes equation assuming a laminar flow. Due to the low magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N (not exceeding 15 Td), it is first shown that consideration of the stepwise ionization of helium metastables is required to reach the critical size of the electron avalanches in order to initiate the formation of ionization waves. It is also shown that a gas pre-ionization ahead of the wave front of about 109 cm-3 (coming from Penning ionization without considering the gas photo-ionization) is required for the propagation. Furthermore, the second ionization wave experimentally observed during the falling time of the voltage pulse, between the powered electrode and the tube exit, is correlated with the electric field increase inside the ionized channel in the whole region between the electrode and the tube exit. The propagation velocity and the distance traveled by the front of the ionization wave outside the tube in the downstream side are consistent with the present experimental measurements. In comparison with the

  2. Surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry studies of nonequilibrium surface ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blashenkov, Nikolai M; Lavrent'ev, Gennadii Ya

    2007-01-01

    The ionization of polyatomic molecules on tungsten and tungsten oxide surfaces is considered for quasiequilibrium or essentially nonequilibrium conditions (in the latter case, the term nonequilibrium surface ionization is used for adsorbate ionization). Heterogeneous reactions are supposed to proceed through monomolecular decay of polyatomic molecules or fragments of multimolecular complexes. The nonequilibrium nature of these reactions is established. The dependences of the current density of disordered ions on the surface temperature, electric field strength, and ionized particle energy distribution are obtained in analytical form. Heterogeneous dissociation energies, the ionization potentials of radicals, and the magnitude of reaction departure from equilibrium are determined from experimental data, as are energy exchange times between reaction products and surfaces, the number of molecules in molecular complexes, and the number of effective degrees of freedom in molecules and complexes. In collecting the data a new technique relying on surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry was applied. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  3. Characteristics of ionization chambers for intense pulsed x-rays and Co-60 #betta#-rays, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Okabe, Shigeru; Fukuda, Kyue; Furuta, Junichiro; Fujino, Takahiro

    1981-01-01

    Mean ionization currents and pulse figures of parallel plate ionization chambers enclosed with various gases were measured when they were exposed to intense pulsed X-rays and continuous #betta#-rays. Relation between the measured ionization current and the intensity of X-rays was obtained at the applied voltage of 1000 V. In the case of intense pulsed X-rays, ionization current was smaller in comparison with the case of continuous #betta#-rays, under the X-rays of equal intensity. Pulse figures were observed with chambers which were filled with the gases of air and O 2 and they are considered to be caused by the free electrons of these gases. In these cases, polarity effects of the electric field on the pulse figures were not recognized. Various figures and their changes were also observed from chambers filled with He, Ne, N 2 , Ar, kr, and Xe, respectively. Polarity effects were recognized on those pulse figures. (author)

  4. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  5. Multiple ionization of atoms by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In order to model the energy deposition of fast ions as they slow down in gaseous media, information about the ionization occurring in collisions between ions and target atoms/molecules is required. Our measurements of doubly differential electron emission cross sections provide detailed information about the ionization process but do not provide any information about the final states of the target. They also do not distinguish between the emission of one or more target electrons in a single collision. It is important to know the relative importance of multiple-, with respect to single-, target ionization in order to accurately model the energy deposition. To date, multiple ionization of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe targets has been studied. Primarily, H and He ions were used, although some data for heavier ions (C,N and O) have also been obtained

  6. Experiments on Coulomb ionization by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.U.; Laegsgaard, E.; Lund, M.

    1978-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization by light projectiles, i.e., in very asymmetric collisions, is often denoted 'Coulomb ionization' because it is caused by the Coulomb interaction between the electron and the projectile. Although with little justification, the term is also used to distinquish such processes, in which the projectile Coulomb field is a small perturbation, from ionization in more violent, nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions. A discussion of Coulomb ionization of atomic K shells is given, with emphasis on experimental methods and results. The discussion is not intended as a review of the field but rather as a progress report on the anthor's work on the subject. A more detailed account was recently presented at the ICPEAC meeting in Paris. (Auth.)

  7. New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

  8. Specification for symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Malaysia Standard specification specifies a symbol recommended for use only to signify the actual or potential presence of ionizing radiation (#betta#, α, #betta# only) and to identify objects, devices, materials or combinations of materials which emit such radiation. (author)

  9. Electron impact ionization of large krypton clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shao-Hui; Li Ru-Xin; Ni Guo-Quan; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We show that the detection of ionization of very large van der Waals clusters in a pulsed jet or a beam can be realized by using a fast ion gauge. Rapid positive feedback electron impact ionization and fragmentation processes,which are initially ignited by electron impact ionization of the krypton clusters with the electron current of the ion gauge, result in the appearance of a progressional oscillation-like ion spectrum, or just of a single fast event under critical conditions. Each line in the spectrum represents a correlated explosion or avalanche ionization of the clusters.The phenomena have been analysed qualitatively along with a Rayleigh scattering experiment of the corresponding cluster jet.

  10. Tachyonic ionization cross sections of hydrogenic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschitz, Roman [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagami-yama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2005-03-11

    Transition rates for induced and spontaneous tachyon radiation in hydrogenic systems as well as the transversal and longitudinal ionization cross sections are derived. We investigate the interaction of the superluminal radiation field with matter in atomic bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Estimates are given for Ly-{alpha} transitions effected by superluminal quanta in hydrogen-like ions. The tachyonic photoelectric effect is scrutinized, in the Born approximation and at the ionization threshold. The angular maxima occur at different scattering angles in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, which can be used to sift out longitudinal tachyonic quanta in a photon flux. We calculate the tachyonic ionization and recombination cross sections for Rydberg states and study their asymptotic scaling with respect to the principal quantum number. At the ionization threshold of highly excited states of order n {approx} 10{sup 4}, the longitudinal cross section starts to compete with photoionization, in recombination even at lower levels.

  11. Genetic effects of ionizing radiations in Eucaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    The litterature on the genetic effects of ionizing radiations is reviewed, especially as concerns specific loci or chromosome mutations. Extrapolation from one species to another is considered as well as extra-nuclear mutations [fr

  12. The critical ionization velocity - a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M.A.

    1982-12-01

    A list of all relevant contributions, known to the authors, concerning the critical ionization velocity phenomena is presented. The contributions are classified and described in a few sentences. (Authors)

  13. The effect of ionizing radiation on cyanophyta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, N.V.; Shevchenko, T.F.; Golubkova, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Publication data on the effect of ionizing radiation on cyanophyta are generalized. The conclusion about the presence of premises for forming cyanophyta radiobiology as special direction of procaryotic algae investigation is made

  14. Penning ionization processes studied by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of measuring the kinetic energy of electrons ejected from atomic or molecular species as a result of collisional energy transfer between a metastable excited rare gas atom and an atom or molecule is known as Penning ionization spectroscopy. Like the analogous photoionization process of photoelectron spectroscopy, a considerable amount of information has been gained about the ionization potentials of numerous molecular systems. It is, in fact, through the combined analyses of photoelectron and Penning electron spectra that affords a probe of the particle-particle interactions that occur in the Penning process. In this paper a short survey of the phenomenon of Penning ionization, as studied by electron spectroscopy, will be presented as it pertains to the ionization processes of simple molecules by metastable excited atoms. (author)

  15. Methods for Creation and Detection of Ultra-Strong Artificial Ionization in the Upper Atmosphere (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kendall, E. A.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter in Alaska has been used to produce localized regions of artificial ionization at altitudes between 150 and 250 km. High power radio waves tuned near harmonics of the electron gyro frequency were discovered by Todd Pederson of the Air Force Research Laboratory to produce ionosonde traces that looked like artificial ionization layers below the natural F-region. The initial regions of artificial ionization (AI) were not stable but had moved down in altitude over a period of 15 minutes. Recently, artificial ionization has been produced by the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th harmonics transmissions by the HAARP. In march 2013, the artificial ionization clouds were sustained for more the 5 hours using HAARP tuned to the 4 fce at the full power of 3.6 Mega-Watts with a twisted-beam antenna pattern. Frequency selection with narrow-band sweeps and antenna pattern shaping has been employed for optimal generation of AI. Recent research at HAARP has produced the longest lived and denser artificial ionization clouds using HF transmissions at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency and ring-shaped radio beams tailored to prevent the descent of the clouds. Detection of artificial ionization employs (1) ionosonde echoes, (2) coherent backscatter from the Kodiak SuperDARN radar, (3) enhanced ion and plasma line echoes from the HAARP MUIR radar at 400 MHz, (4) high resolution optical image from ground sites, and (5) unique stimulated electromagnetic emissions, and (6) strong UHF and L-Band scintillation induced into trans-ionospheric signals from satellite radio beacons. Future HAARP experiments will determine the uses of long-sustained AI for enhanced HF communications.

  16. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    masses collide, they form a supercritical mass . Criticality refers to the neutron population within the system. A critical system is one that can...Spectrometry, no. 242, pp. 161–168, 2005. [9] S. Raeder, “Trace analysis of actinides in the environment by means of resonance ionization mass ...first ionization potential of actinide elements by resonance ionization mass spectrometry.” Spectrochimica Acta part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. vol. 52

  17. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1996-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  18. Radiation hormesis: an outcome of exposure to low level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a benign environmental agent at background levels. Human population is always exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. Important sources are cosmic rays which come from outer space and from the surface of the sun, terrestrial radionuclides which occur in the earths crust in various geological formations in soils, rocks, building materials, plants, water, food, air and in the human body itself. With the increasing use of radiation in health facilities, scientific research, industry and agriculture, the study of impact of low-level ionizing radiation on environment and possible health effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. As regards the effects, it is established fact that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health, there exists, however, a substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (LLIR). In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports on stimulation by low-dose irradiation and recent data supporting radiation hormesis. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to the Indian population. This overview summarizes various reports

  19. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Cellular Structures, Induced Instability, and Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resat, Marianne S.; Arthurs, Benjamin J.; Estes, Brian J.; Morgan, william F.

    2006-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, the United States can expect 1,368,030 new cases of cancer in 2004 [1]. Among the many carcinogens Americans are exposed to, ionizing radiation will contribute to this statistic. Humans live in a radiation environment. Ionizing radiation is in the air we breathe, the earth we live on, and the food we eat. Man-made radiation adds to this naturally occurring radiation level thereby increasing the chance for human exposure. For many decades the scientific community, governmental regulatory bodies, and concerned citizens have struggled to estimate health risks associated with radiation exposures, particularly at low doses. While cancer induction is the primary concern and the most important somatic effect of exposure to ionizing radiation, potential health risks do not involve neoplastic diseases exclusively but also include somatic mutations that might contribute to birth defects and ocular maladies, and heritable mutations that might impact on disease risks in future generations. Consequently it is important we understand the effect of ionizing radiation on cellular structures and the subsequent long-term health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation

  20. Characterization of a Distributed Plasma Ionization Source (DPIS) for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltman, Melanie J.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert; Blanchard, William C.; Ewing, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.

  1. A magnetically levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontact measurement type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber with levitated electrode has been developed. In this ionization chamber, an ion-collection electrode levitates in the air without getting any physical support from the insulator. The electrode is charged by an electrostatic charger without physical contact. The charge of the electrode is read out at a Faraday cage periodically at a given time interval without physical contact. Because its electrode levitates, the ionization chamber produces no background current caused by leaks or piezo current. In addition, as the charging of its electrode and the read-out of its charge are carried out without physical contact, no irregular charge or contact potential difference due to the chattering between electrode and contact point occurs. Through experiments, it was found that this ionization chamber was able to measure the γ-ray dose such as the environmental radiation with a high degree of sensitivity. The minimum detectable value of ionization current when accumulated for 1 h is about 1.3x10 -17 A

  2. A magnetically levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontact measurement type

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    2002-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber with levitated electrode has been developed. In this ionization chamber, an ion-collection electrode levitates in the air without getting any physical support from the insulator. The electrode is charged by an electrostatic charger without physical contact. The charge of the electrode is read out at a Faraday cage periodically at a given time interval without physical contact. Because its electrode levitates, the ionization chamber produces no background current caused by leaks or piezo current. In addition, as the charging of its electrode and the read-out of its charge are carried out without physical contact, no irregular charge or contact potential difference due to the chattering between electrode and contact point occurs. Through experiments, it was found that this ionization chamber was able to measure the gamma-ray dose such as the environmental radiation with a high degree of sensitivity. The minimum detectable value of ionization current when accumulated for 1 h is a...

  3. Ionization chamber correction factors for MR-linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojtinger, Stefan; Dohm, Oliver Steffen; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Thorwarth, Daniela

    2018-06-07

    Previously, readings of air-filled ionization chambers have been described as being influenced by magnetic fields. To use these chambers for dosimetry in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy (MRgRT), this effect must be taken into account by introducing a correction factor k B . The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate k B for a typical reference setup for commercially available ionization chambers with different magnetic field strengths. The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of 0-2.5 T. To validate the simulation, the influence of the magnetic field was experimentally determined for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber for magnetic flux densities between 0 and 1.425 T. Changes in the detector response of up to 8% depending on the magnetic flux density, on the chamber geometry and on the chamber orientation were obtained. In the experimental setup, a maximum deviation of less than 2% was observed when comparing measured values with simulated values. Dedicated values for two MR-linac systems (ViewRay MRIdian, ViewRay Inc, Cleveland, United States, 0.35 T/ 6 MV and Elekta Unity, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden, 1.5 T/7 MV) were determined for future use in reference dosimetry. Simulated values for thimble-type chambers are in good agreement with experiments as well as with the results of previous publications. After further experimental validation, the results can be considered for definition of standard protocols for purposes of reference dosimetry in MRgRT.

  4. Ionization chamber correction factors for MR-linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojtinger, Stefan; Steffen Dohm, Oliver; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Thorwarth, Daniela

    2018-06-01

    Previously, readings of air-filled ionization chambers have been described as being influenced by magnetic fields. To use these chambers for dosimetry in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy (MRgRT), this effect must be taken into account by introducing a correction factor k B. The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate k B for a typical reference setup for commercially available ionization chambers with different magnetic field strengths. The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of 0–2.5 T. To validate the simulation, the influence of the magnetic field was experimentally determined for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber for magnetic flux densities between 0 and 1.425 T. Changes in the detector response of up to 8% depending on the magnetic flux density, on the chamber geometry and on the chamber orientation were obtained. In the experimental setup, a maximum deviation of less than 2% was observed when comparing measured values with simulated values. Dedicated values for two MR-linac systems (ViewRay MRIdian, ViewRay Inc, Cleveland, United States, 0.35 T/ 6 MV and Elekta Unity, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden, 1.5 T/7 MV) were determined for future use in reference dosimetry. Simulated values for thimble-type chambers are in good agreement with experiments as well as with the results of previous publications. After further experimental validation, the results can be considered for definition of standard protocols for purposes of reference dosimetry in MRgRT.

  5. Conception of CTMSP ionizing radiation calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the implantation process of an ionizing radiation calibration laboratory in a preexistent installation in CTMSP (bunker) approved by CNEN to operate with gamma-ray for non destructive testing. This laboratory will extend and improve the current metrological capacity for the attendance to the increasing demand for services of calibration of ionizing radiation measuring instruments. Statutory and regulatory requirements for the licensing of the installation are presented and deeply reviewed. (author)

  6. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  7. Bound electron nonlinearity beyond the ionization threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Although high field laser-induced ionization is a fundamental process underlying many applications, there have been no absolute measurements of the nonlinear polarizability of atoms and molecules in the presence of ionization. Such information is crucial, for example, for understanding the propagation of high intensity ultrashort pulses in matter. Here, we present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, ni...

  8. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  9. 100 years of ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z.; Musialowicz, T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

  10. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  11. Simulation of the saturation curve of the ionization chamber in overlapping pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Han Soo; Kang, Sang Mook; Ha, Jang Ho

    2006-01-01

    Procedures for determination of collection efficiency in ionization chambers have been studied by numerous investigators. If the theoretical approach for air-filled ionization chambers exposed to continuous radiation is considered, the result in the near-saturation region is a linear relationship between ) (1/I(V) vs 1/V 2 , where I(V) is the current measured with the ionization chamber at a given polarization voltage V . For pulsed radiation beams, Boag developed a model and the resulted in a linear relationship between ) (1/I(V) and 1/V when the collection efficiency, f , is larger than 0.9. The assumption of the linear relationship of ) (1/I(V) with 1/V or 1/V 2 in the near-saturation region makes the determination of the saturation current simple, since the linear relationship may be determined with only two measured data points. The above discussion of the collection efficiency of the ionization chamber exposed to the pulsed radiation is valid only if each pulse is cleared before the next one occurs. The transit times of the ions in the chamber must be shorter than the time interval between the radiation pulses. Most of the previous works concerning the characteristics of the saturation curve of an ionization chamber in the pulsed beam were done for the case where the transit times of the ions were shorter than the interval between the radiation pulses. However, the experimental data for the intermediate case, where the ion transit time was comparable to the interval between the radiation pulses or the ion transit time was slightly longer than the interval between the radiation pulses, were rare. The saturation curves of the ionization chambers in the pulsed radiation were measured with the pulse beamed electron accelerator at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), where the ion transit times in the ionization chambers were longer than the time interval between the radiation pulses. We used two ionization chambers: one was a commercial thimble

  12. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ∼30 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.

    2007-01-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of ± 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations

  13. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis

    1994-01-01

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.)

  14. Resonantly enhanced collisional ionization measurements of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed a new laser technique to analyze for radionuclides at extremely low levels. The technique, called resonantly enhanced collisional ionization (RECI), uses two nitrogen-laser pumped dye lasers to excite the target isotope to a high-energy Rydberg state. Atoms in these Rydberg states (within a few hundred wavenumbers in energy from the ionization threshold) efficiently ionize upon colliding with an inert gas and the ions can be detected by conventional means. The principal advantage of resonantly-enhanced collisional ionization is the extreme sensitivity coupled with its relative simplicity and low cost. Actinides typically have an ionization potential of about 6eV (uranium I.P. = 6.2 eV, plutonium I.P. = 5.7 eV). Two-step laser excitation to a state just below threshold requires wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. They showed that when both steps in the excitation process are resonant steps, relatively low-power lasers can populate the Rydberg state with almost unit efficiency. This is because the resonant excitations have much larger cross-sections than do photoionization processes. They also demonstrated that a few torr of a buffer gas will cause most of the excited-state atoms to be ionized

  15. Comparison among different CT ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maysa C. de; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-01-01

    The dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is carried out by the use of a pencil type ionization-chamber, because it has a uniform response at all angles relative to the incident beam of radiation, which is essential for CT equipment since the X-ray tube executes a circular movement around the table during irradiation. The commercial ionization chamber used to perform quality control procedures of this kind of equipment has a length of the sensitive volume of 10 cm. In the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the IPEN there were already developed some prototypes with small differences in construction, when compared to commercially available ionization chambers. They have been used in previous studies and showed results within internationally acceptable limits. The ionization chambers tested in this study present the sensitive volume lengths of 1 cm, 3 cm and 10 cm. The objective of this study was to present results on the stability test of the three homemade ionization chambers and a commercial chamber, as well to obtain the calibration coefficients for each of them in CT standard X radiation beams. The obtained results for both characterization tests are within the recommended limits, except for the homemade ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 3 cm and 1 cm in the case of the stability test. (author)

  16. Inner shell ionization accompanying nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Selected phenomena leading to inner shell ionization and being of relevance for nuclear physics are discussed. The selection emphasizes the K-shell ionization induced in head-on collisions by fast light and medium-heavy ions. Cross-sections are reviewed. Effects of multiple inner shell ionization on the K X-ray spectra are illustrated with recent results. Implications for nuclear experiments are noted. Use of atomic observables as clocks for proton induced nuclear reactions is reviewed. Prospects for H.I. reactions are discussed. Preliminary experimental results on the direct K-shell ionization accompanying H.I. fusion reactions are presented. The post-collisional K-shell ionization due to internal conversion of γ-rays is discussed as the dominating contribution to the ionization for residues of dissipative nuclear reactions with Z > 40. Systematics of the corresponding K X-ray multiplicities are presented for rotational nuclei. These multiplicity values can be used for determining cross-sections for e.g. incomplete fusion reactions. Examples of such applications are given. Also discussed is the use of target K X-rays for normalization purposes and of the post-collisional, residue K X-rays in the studies of high spin phenomena. 96 references, 35 figures, 3 tables

  17. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the labor safety and health law and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. The enterpriser shall try to reduce to the minimum doses of ionizing radiation received by workers. Ionizing radiation hereunder includes such rays as deutron, proton, beta, electron, neutron, gamma and X-ray. The enterpriser engaged in radiation business shall indicate by marks the area whose radiation dose may exceed 30 mili-rem per week by exterior radiation or radioactive materials in the air. Doses of the workers regularly engaged in radiation business in the controlled area shall not surpass the accumulative dose calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means limit of accumulative dose (unit rem) and N number of the age of the worker concerned. Doses of the workers entering into the controlled area on business shall not go over 1.5 rem for a year. The maximum permissible dose is 12 rem for the urgent work. Measures for prevention from exterior radiation are designated, including irradiation tubes, filter plates, signals, shelters and alarms, etc. Independent regular inspection, record, measurement and others are particularly essential. Prevention of contamination, emergent measures, appointment of the head of X or gamma rays business, measurement of working environment, health examination and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  18. Activities of Protection against Ionizing Radiation in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando Hamadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Niger, sahelian country of Western Africa, is limited to North by Libya and Algeria, to the South by Nigeria and the Benin, to the East by Chad and the West by Mali and Burkina Faso. It covers a surface of 1 267 000 km2 and has a population of approximately 12 000 000 inhabitants. Niger is a large uranium producer with two extraction and treatment development companies of uranium ore which are the company of the mines of Air (SOMAIR) created in 1971 and the mining company of Akouta (COMINAK) created in 1978. Beyond the mining sector, ionizing radiation sources are used in the fields of industry, health, teaching and research. The first lawful text of protection against ionizing radiation was signed on December 5, 1979 and specifically related to the mining activities of uranium. With the multiform assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) protection against radiation knew a significant evolution. A national centre of protection against radiation was created in 1998, two laws relating to the field were adopted in June 2006 and three lawful texts of application of these laws are in the process of finalization

  19. Microwave ionization of hydrogen atoms below the classical chaos border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, R; Smilansky, U

    1987-01-01

    We present and discuss theoretical predictions for the occurrence of radiation induced ionization of hydrogen atoms in fields which are well below the classical ionization threshold. Strong ionization occurs due to enhanced population of a band of high n states which ionize easily. This enhancement happens only at rather narrowly defined field values, and is explained in terms of avoided crossings of Floquet levels.

  20. Development of soft ionization using direct current pulse glow discharge plasma source in mass spectrometry for volatile organic compounds analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Yoko; Kodama, Kenji; Ueki, Yasuaki; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    This study describes an ionization source for mass analysis, consisting of glow discharge plasma driven by a pulsed direct-current voltage for soft plasma ionization, to detect toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) rapidly and easily. The novelty of this work is that a molecular adduct ion, in which the parent molecule attaches with an NO+ radical, [M + NO]+, can be dominantly detected as a base peak with little or no fragmentation of them in an ambient air plasma at a pressure of several kPa. Use of ambient air as the discharge plasma gas is suitable for practical applications. The higher pressure in an ambient air discharge provided a stable glow discharge plasma, contributing to the soft ionization of organic molecules. Typical mass spectra of VOCs toluene, benzene, o-xylene, chlorobenzene and n-hexane were observed as [M + NO]+ adduct ion whose peaks were detected at m/z 122, 108, 136, 142 and 116, respectively. The NO generation was also confirmed by emission bands of NO γ-system. The ionization reactions were suggested, such that NO+ radical formed in an ambient air discharge could attach with the analyte molecule.

  1. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms by which children respond to exposures to physical and chemical agents present in the environment, has significantly increased. Results of recent projects and programmes focused on children's health underline a specific vulnerability of chil...... and efficient preventive measures, by means of a better knowledge of the early and delayed health effects in children resulting from radiation exposure....... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...... after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  2. Advisory Committee for the calibration standards of ionizing radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The meeting consisted exceptionally of two sessions (in May and December 1977). The members discussed the comparisons of absorbed dose standards and exposure standards which had taken place since 1975 and suggested improvements for future comparisons. A recommendation was made concerning the humidity correction factor to be applied when using cavity chambers and free-air chambers. Further studies were requested concerning the effective point of measurement of ionization chambers. No method was recommended for the statement of uncertainty in calibration certificates. The exposure standards and calibrations in terms of exposure were maintained but it was agreed that other possibilities should be explored. Finally, progress reports of the national laboratories and a description of the recent work carried out at BIPM were presented and appear as appendices to the report [fr

  3. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  4. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. V. ALFVÉN IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Rimmer, P. B.; Diver, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvén ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (≥10 –7 ) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvén ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvén ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10 –6 -1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvén ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H 2 , or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvén ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks

  5. Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordinary matter (ionization). If this is the case, radiation is called ionizing. It is known that ionizing radiation can be far more harmful to living beings than non-ionizing radiation. In this dissertation, we are concerned with ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring ionizing radiation in the form of radioactivity is a most natural phenomenon. Almost everything is radioactive: there is radiation emerging from the soil, it is in the air, and the whole planet is constantly undergoing streams of energetic cosmic radiation. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, we are also able to artificially create radioactive matter. This has opened a lot of interesting technological opportunities, but has also given a tremendous responsibility to humanity, as the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, and various accidents in the medical world have made clear. This has led to the elaboration of a radiological protection system. In practice, the radiological protection system is mostly implemented using a methodology that is indicated with the acronym ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable. This methodology consists of justifying, optimizing and limiting the radiation dose received. This methodology is applied in conjunction with the legal limits. The word 'reasonably' means that the optimization of radiation exposure has to be seen in context. The optimization is constrained by the fact that the positive effects of an operation might surpass the negative effects caused by the

  6. Tissue macrophage activation: a shared sign of exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenyov, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    The features of oxidative metabolism of peritoneal macrophages were studied in rats exposed to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. An increased RNS and ROS production reported in animals exposed to both source of radiation showing non-specific response of organism. (authors)

  7. Ionization mechanisms in capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, R.J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Ionization mechanisms have been studied for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. One of the problems associated with SFC-MS is the interference of mobile phase constituents in the ionization process, which complicates the interpretation of the resulting

  8. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  9. Efficient ionizer for polarized H- formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An ionizer is under development for a polarized H - source based on the resonant charge exchange reaction polarized H 0 + D - → polarized H - + D 0 . The polarized H 0 beam passes through the center of a magnetron surface-plasma source having an annular geometry, where it crosses a high current (approx.0.5 A), 200 eV D - beam. Calculations predict an H 0 → H - ionization efficiency of approx.7%, more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained on present ground state atomic beam sources. In initial experiments using an unpolarized H 0 beam, H - currents in excess of 100 μA have been measured. While the ionization efficiency is now only about the same as other methods (Cs beam, for example), the results are encouraging since it appears that by injecting positive ions to improve the space-charge neutralization, and by improving the extraction optics, considerable gains in intensity will be made. We will then use this ionizer with a polarized H 0 beam, and measure the polarization of the resulting H - beam. If no depolarization is observed this ionizer will be combined with an atomic beam, cooled to 5 to 6 K, to give a polarized H - beam expected to be in the milliampere range for use in the AGS

  10. Pressing problems of measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.I.; Yudin, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current system for ensuring the unity of measurements in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union ensures a high quality of dosimetric, radiometric, and spectrometric measurements in accordance with the recommendations of the Consulative Committee on Standards for Measurements of Ionizing Radiations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM), International Organization on Radiological Units (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Organization on Legislative Metrology (IOLM), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), etc. Frequent collation of the national primary and secondary standards of Russia with those of IBWM and the leading national laboratories of the world facilitate mutual verification of the measurements of ionizing radiations. The scope of scientific and scientific-technical problems that can be solved by using ionizing radiations has expanded significantly in recent years. In this paper the authors consider some pressing problems of the metrology of ionizing radiations which have arisen as a result of this expansion. These include the need for unity and reliability of measurements involved in radiation protection, the measurement of low doses involving low dose rates, ensuring the unity of measurements when monitoring the radiological security of the population, the need for more uniformity on an international scale regarding the basic physical quantities and their units for characterizing radiation fields, determination of the accuracy of measurement of the radiation dose absorbed by an irradiated tissue or organ, and the development of complex standards for ionizing radiations. 5 refs., 1 tab

  11. The GBT Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Matteo; Anderson, Loren Dean; Liu, Bin; Bania, Thomas; Balser, Dana; Wenger, Trey; Haffner, Lawrence Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse ionized gas in the Galactic mid-plane known as the "Warm Ionized Medium" (WIM) makes up ~20% of the gas mass of the Milky Way and >90% of its ionized gas. It is the last major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) that has not yet been studied at high spatial and spectral resolution, and therefore many of its fundamental properties remain unclear. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS) is a new large survey of the Milky Way disk at C-band (4-8 GHz). The main goals of GDIGS are to investigate the properties of the WIM and to determine the connection between the WIM and high-mass star formation over the Galactic longitude and latitude range of 32 deg > l > -5 deg, |b| resolution of 0.5 km/s and rms sensitivities of ~3 mJy per beam. GDIGS observations are currently underway and are expected to be completed by late 2018. These data will allow us to: 1) Study for the first time the inner-Galaxy WIM unaffected by confusion from discrete HII regions, 2) determine the distribution of the inner Galaxy WIM, 3) investigate the ionization state of the WIM, 4) explore the connection between the WIM and HII regions, and 5) analyze the effect of leaked photons from HII regions on ISM dust temperatures.

  12. Surface ionization ion source with high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Lin Zhizhou; Yu Lihua; Zhan Rongan; Huang Guojun; Wu Jianhua

    1986-04-01

    The working principle and structure of a surface ionization ion source with high current is described systematically. Some technological keypoints of the ion source are given in more detail, mainly including: choosing and shaping of the material of the surface ionizer, heating of the ionizer, distributing of working vapour on the ionizer surface, the flow control, the cooling problem at the non-ionization surface and the ion optics, etc. This ion source has been used since 1972 in the electromagnetic isotope separator with 180 deg angle. It is suitable for separating isotopes of alkali metals and rare earth metals. For instance, in the case of separating Rubidium, the maximum ion current of Rbsup(+) extracted from the ion source is about 120 mA, the maximum ion current accepted by the receiver is about 66 mA, the average ion current is more than 25 mA. The results show that our ion source have advantages of high ion current, good characteristics of focusing ion beam, working stability and structure reliability etc. It may be extended to other fields. Finally, some interesting phenomena in the experiment are disccused briefly. Some problems which should be investigated are further pointed out

  13. Conceptual basis of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.

    1984-04-01

    Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) can b defined as a state-selective detection process in which tunable lasers are used to promote transitions from the selected state of the atoms or molecules in question to higher states, one of which will be ionized by the absorption of another photon. At least one resonance step is used in the stepwise ionization process, and it has been shown that the ionization probability of the spectroscopically selected species can nearly always be made close to unity. Since measurements of the number of photoelectrons or ions can be made very precisely and even one electron (or under vacuum conditions, one ion) can be detected, the technique can be used to make quantitative measurements of very small populations of the state-selected species. Counting of individual atoms has special meaning for detection of rare events. The ability to make saturated RIS measurements opens up a wide variety of applications to both basic and applied research. We view RIS as a specific type of multi-photon ionization in which the goal is to make quantitative measurements of quantum-selected populations in atomic or molecular systems. 16 references

  14. Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N.; Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias; Keller, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The attoclock measures time by electron streaking with elliptically polarized light. ► Precision measurements reveal details about the laser-induced tunneling current flow. ► Multielectron effects play an important role when the polarizability is large. ► Double ionization experiments show evidence of novel electron correlation mechanisms. - Abstract: The attoclock is a powerful, new, and unconventional experimental tool to study fundamental attosecond dynamics on an atomic scale. We have demonstrated the first attoclock with the goal to measure the tunneling delay time in laser-induced ionization of helium and argon atoms, with surprising results. It was found that the time delay in tunneling is zero for helium and argon atoms within the experimental uncertainties of a few 10’s of attoseconds. Furthermore we showed that the single active electron approximation is not sufficient even for atoms such as argon and the parent-ion interaction is much more complex than normally assumed. For double ionization of argon we found again surprising results because the ionization time of the first electron is in good agreement with the predictions, whereas the ionization of the second electron occurs significantly earlier than predicted and the two electrons exhibit some unexpected correlation

  15. Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N., E-mail: apfeiff@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias; Keller, Ursula [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► The attoclock measures time by electron streaking with elliptically polarized light. ► Precision measurements reveal details about the laser-induced tunneling current flow. ► Multielectron effects play an important role when the polarizability is large. ► Double ionization experiments show evidence of novel electron correlation mechanisms. - Abstract: The attoclock is a powerful, new, and unconventional experimental tool to study fundamental attosecond dynamics on an atomic scale. We have demonstrated the first attoclock with the goal to measure the tunneling delay time in laser-induced ionization of helium and argon atoms, with surprising results. It was found that the time delay in tunneling is zero for helium and argon atoms within the experimental uncertainties of a few 10’s of attoseconds. Furthermore we showed that the single active electron approximation is not sufficient even for atoms such as argon and the parent-ion interaction is much more complex than normally assumed. For double ionization of argon we found again surprising results because the ionization time of the first electron is in good agreement with the predictions, whereas the ionization of the second electron occurs significantly earlier than predicted and the two electrons exhibit some unexpected correlation.

  16. Deep-down ionization of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Lizano, S.; Galli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The possible occurrence of dead zones in protoplanetary discs subject to the magneto-rotational instability highlights the importance of disc ionization. We present a closed-form theory for the deep-down ionization by X-rays at depths below the disc surface dominated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Simple analytic solutions are given for the major ion classes, electrons, atomic ions, molecular ions and negatively charged grains. In addition to the formation of molecular ions by X-ray ionization of H2 and their destruction by dissociative recombination, several key processes that operate in this region are included, e.g. charge exchange of molecular ions and neutral atoms and destruction of ions by grains. Over much of the inner disc, the vertical decrease in ionization with depth into the disc is described by simple power laws, which can easily be included in more detailed modelling of magnetized discs. The new ionization theory is used to illustrate the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects of Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusion for a magnetic model of a T Tauri star disc using the appropriate Elsasser numbers.

  17. Electron-impact ionization of Mo+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, J.A.; Loch, S.D.; Pindzola, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The electron-impact direct ionization cross section for Mo + is calculated using both nonperturbative close-coupling and perturbative distorted-wave methods. When distorted-wave calculations for 4d 5 →4d 4 direct ionization are added to distorted-wave calculations for 4p→nl excitation-autoionization, the experimental measurements are found to be 60% lower than the theoretical predictions. Inclusion of nonperturbative three-body Coulomb effects, present in time-dependent close-coupling calculations, are found to reduce the distorted-wave 4d 5 →4d 4 direct ionization cross section by 25%. This is by far the largest reduction yet seen when comparing the two methods for direct subshell ionization of an atomic positive ion in the ground state. However, when the close-coupling calculations for 4d 5 →4d 4 direct ionization are added to distorted-wave calculations for 4p→nl excitation-autoionization, the experimental measurements are still 45% lower than the theoretical predictions. Although we further investigate correlation effects in the initial target state and term-dependent potential effects in the ejected electron state in an attempt to understand the small magnitude of the experimental measurements, the discrepancy between theory and experiment remains unexplained

  18. Examination on Impact of Air Ions toward Human Social Disorder Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesha-Tri-Chandrasa

    2000-01-01

    Air ions are something that people can not see and feel. However, they exist surrounding human life. Imbalance inhalation of air ions can affect central nervous system, and physically it will affect human activities and create social disorder behavior. Some investigations have proved the relation above and devices for anticipating ionization have been innovated and available on the market. Furthermore, it has been found that individual resistance against ionization is different between genders. Therefore it is important to study character and to anticipate effects of ions and ionization, in order to build more comfortable environment. (author)

  19. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Banas, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czyzewski, T.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4-70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved Lα 1,2 , Lγ 1 , and Lγ 2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the ''coupled-subshell model'' (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms

  20. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaranarayanan, K. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Sylvius Laboratories, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: sankaran@lumc.nl; Wassom, J.S. [YAHSGS, LLC, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Recent estimates of genetic risks from exposure of human populations to ionizing radiation are those presented in the 2001 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). These estimates incorporate two important concepts, namely, the following: (1) most radiation-induced mutations are DNA deletions, often encompassing multiple genes, but only a small proportion of the induced deletions is compatible with offspring viability; and (2) the viability-compatible deletions induced in germ cells are more likely to manifest themselves as multi-system developmental anomalies rather than as single gene disorders. This paper: (a) pursues these concepts further in the light of knowledge of mechanisms of origin of deletions and other rearrangements from two fields of contemporary research: repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian somatic cells and human molecular genetics; and (b) extends them to deletions induced in the germ cell stages of importance for radiation risk estimation, namely, stem cell spermatogonia in males and oocytes in females. DSB repair studies in somatic cells have elucidated the roles of two mechanistically distinct pathways, namely, homologous recombination repair (HRR) that utilizes extensive sequence homology and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) that requires little or no homology at the junctions. A third process, single-strand annealing (SSA), which utilizes short direct repeat sequences, is considered a variant of HRR. HRR is most efficient in late S and G{sub 2} phases of the cell cycle and is a high fidelity mechanism. NHEJ operates in all cell cycle phases, but is especially important in G{sub 1}. In the context of radiation-induced DSBs, NHEJ is error-prone. SSA is also an error-prone mechanism and its role is presumably similar to that of HRR. Studies in human molecular genetics have demonstrated that the occurrence of large deletions, duplications or other

  1. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.; Wassom, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent estimates of genetic risks from exposure of human populations to ionizing radiation are those presented in the 2001 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). These estimates incorporate two important concepts, namely, the following: (1) most radiation-induced mutations are DNA deletions, often encompassing multiple genes, but only a small proportion of the induced deletions is compatible with offspring viability; and (2) the viability-compatible deletions induced in germ cells are more likely to manifest themselves as multi-system developmental anomalies rather than as single gene disorders. This paper: (a) pursues these concepts further in the light of knowledge of mechanisms of origin of deletions and other rearrangements from two fields of contemporary research: repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian somatic cells and human molecular genetics; and (b) extends them to deletions induced in the germ cell stages of importance for radiation risk estimation, namely, stem cell spermatogonia in males and oocytes in females. DSB repair studies in somatic cells have elucidated the roles of two mechanistically distinct pathways, namely, homologous recombination repair (HRR) that utilizes extensive sequence homology and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) that requires little or no homology at the junctions. A third process, single-strand annealing (SSA), which utilizes short direct repeat sequences, is considered a variant of HRR. HRR is most efficient in late S and G 2 phases of the cell cycle and is a high fidelity mechanism. NHEJ operates in all cell cycle phases, but is especially important in G 1 . In the context of radiation-induced DSBs, NHEJ is error-prone. SSA is also an error-prone mechanism and its role is presumably similar to that of HRR. Studies in human molecular genetics have demonstrated that the occurrence of large deletions, duplications or other rearrangements

  2. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Luo Guanghong; Diao Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-01-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3xω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF 6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ∼2 μm in SF 6 gas and to ∼5 μm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (∼10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits

  3. Application of the two-dose-rate method for general recombination correction for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jonas; Toelli, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    A method to correct for the general recombination losses for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams has been developed. The proposed method has been derived from Greening's theory for continuous beams and is based on measuring the signal from a liquid ionization chamber and an air filled monitor ionization chamber at two different dose rates. The method has been tested with two plane parallel liquid ionization chambers in a continuous radiation x-ray beam with a tube voltage of 120 kV and with dose rates between 2 and 13 Gy min -1 . The liquids used as sensitive media in the chambers were isooctane (C 8 H 18 ) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH 3 ) 4 ). The general recombination effect was studied using chamber polarizing voltages of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 V for both liquids. The relative standard deviation of the results for the collection efficiency with respect to general recombination was found to be a maximum of 0.7% for isooctane and 2.4% for tetramethylsilane. The results are in excellent agreement with Greening's theory for collection efficiencies over 90%. The measured and corrected signals from the liquid ionization chambers used in this work are in very good agreement with the air filled monitor chamber with respect to signal to dose linearity.

  4. Code of practice for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo Boo Huat

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the use of ionizing radiation in Malaysia was governed by the Radioactive Substances Act of 1968. After 1984, its use came under the control of Act 304, called the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984. Under powers vested by the Act, the Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standards) Regulations 1988 were formulated to regulate its use. These Acts do not provide information on proper working procedures. With the publication of the codes of Practice by The Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), the users are now able to follow proper guidelines and use ionizing radiation safely and beneficially. This paper discusses the relevant sections in the following codes: 1. Code of Practice for Radiation Protection (Medical X-ray Diagnosis) MS 838:1983. 2. Code of Practice for Safety in Laboratories Part 4: Ionizing radiation MS 1042: Part 4: 1992. (author)

  5. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, B.J.; Hall, R.C.; Thiede, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  6. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  7. Radiation ionization is an underestimated industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial radiation ionization requires electron beams coming from an accelerator or gamma radiation from a radioactive source (Co 60 ). The energy deposed in the irradiated material modifies its chemical bounds or kills micro-organisms. This process is used in medical material sterilization, in disinfestation of stored and packaged food products, in the production of plastic, in the coloring of glass, in the hardening of electronic components and in the modification of the properties of semi-conductors. For 40 years radiation ionization has been investigated, UNO (United Nations Organization) and WHO (World Health Organisation) recommend it for food processing. With a growing rate of 15% per year for the last 15 years, radiation ionization is now widely used. More than 170 gamma irradiation facilities are operating throughout the world. (A.C.)

  8. Multiphoton ionization/dissociation of osmium tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, D.; Puretzky, A.A.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to laser multiphoton ionization and dissociation (MPI/MPD) of osmium tetroxide (OsO 4 ) have been investigated from measurements of the kinetic energies of product ions (Os + , Os 2+ , OsO + , O 2 + , O + ) and photoelectrons as a function of the laser wavelength. Neutral channels, intermediate to the dominant Os + ionization channel, such as OsO 4 →OsO 4-n +nO are examined using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of the fast O atoms. Equipartition of the available photon energy among the fragments is observed. The wavelength dependence of the Os + ion signal suggests that one or more of the steps leading to Os + ions involve molecular ions and/or excited neutral atoms. The observed preponderance of very slow ( 2+ is shown to result primarily from REMPI of Os +

  9. Ionizing radiation effects on floating gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Floating gate (FG) memories, and in particular Flash, are the dominant among modern nonvolatile memory technologies. Their performance under ionizing radiation was traditionally studied for the use in space, but has become of general interest in recent years. We are showing results on the charge loss from programmed FG arrays after 10 keV x-rays exposure. Exposure to ionizing radiation results in progressive discharge of the FG. More advanced devices, featuring smaller FG, are less sensitive to ionizing radiation that older ones. The reason is identified in the photoemission of electrons from FG, since at high doses it dominates over charge loss deriving from electron/hole pairs generation in the oxides

  10. Memory in Nonlinear Ionization of Transparent Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeev, P. P.; Simova, E.; Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R. S.; Rayner, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Gertsvolf, M.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a shot-to-shot reduction in the threshold laser intensity for ionization of bulk glasses illuminated by intense femtosecond pulses. For SiO 2 the threshold change serves as positive feedback reenforcing the process that produced it. This constitutes a memory in nonlinear ionization of the material. The threshold change saturates with the number of pulses incident at a given spot. Irrespective of the pulse energy, the magnitude of the saturated threshold change is constant (∼20%). However, the number of shots required to reach saturation does depend on the pulse energy. Recognition of a memory in ionization is vital to understand multishot optical or electrical breakdown phenomena in dielectrics

  11. Progress in zirconium resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.H.; Dropinski, S.C.; Worden, E.F.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have examined the stepwise-resonant three-photon-ionization spectrum of neutral zirconium atoms using three separately-tunable pulsed visible dye lasers. The ground-level (first-step) transitions were chosen on the basis of demonstrated 91 Zr selectivity. Lifetimes of even-parity levels around 36,000 cm -1 , measured with the delayed-photoionization technique, range from 10 to 100 nsec. Direct ionization cross sections appear to be less than 10 -17 cm 2 ; newly-detected autoionizing levels give peak ionization cross sections (inferred from saturation fluences) up to 10 -15 cm 2 . Portions of Rydberg series converging to the 315 and 763 cm -1 levels of Zr + were identified. Clumps of autoionizing levels are thought to be due to Rydberg-valence mixing

  12. Protection policies for ionizing and UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic, B.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Although ultraviolet radiation is generally considered as being part of non-ionizing radiation, the existing similarities with ionizing radiation are too striking to be overseen. A comparison of these two agents is becoming important in view of the increasing awareness of various environmental and health risks and the tendency to develop more uniform risk management policies with respect to the different physical and chemical agents. This paper explores the similarities and differences of UV and ionizing radiation from the point of view of policies either adopted or in development. Policy determinants include, among others, the following factors: biological effects, dosimetric quantities, relative contribution to exposure from different sources, hazard potential of different sources, quantification of detrimental consequences, public perception of the radiation hazards and regulation developments. These factors are discussed

  13. Ionizing radiation interactions with DNA: nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bug, Marion; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The metrology of ionizing radiation is based on measuring values that are averaged over macroscopic volume elements, for instance the energy dose is defined as ratio of the energy deposited on the absorber and the absorber mass. For biological or medical radiation effects the stochastic nature of radiation interaction id of main importance, esp. the interaction of ionizing radiation with the DNA as the genetic information carrier. For radiotherapy and risk evaluation purposes a comprehensive system of radiation weighing factors and other characteristics, like radiation quality or relative biological efficacy was developed. The nanodosimetry is aimed to develop a metrological basis relying on physical characteristics of the microscopic structure of ionizing radiation tracks. The article includes the development of experimental nanodosimetric methods, the respective calibration techniques, Monte-Carlo simulation of the particle track microstructure and the correlation nanodosimetry and biological efficiency.

  14. Stability of reference class ionization chambers used for radiotherapy dosimetry: IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czap, L.; Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.; Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA calibrates ionization chambers, used in radiotherapy, for its Member States. The calibrations are either for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) or hospitals from countries without a SSDL. For that purpose, the IAEA calibrates mainly reference class instruments that are in turn used to cross-calibrate field class instruments at the hospital. Typically, the IAEA calibrates about 30-40 ionization chambers per year, of which about half are new chambers purchased by the IAEA for its Member States using Technical Cooperation funds. The IAEA database includes the calibration coefficients of 189 reference class ionization chambers of the following types: NE-2561/2611, NE-2571, W-30001/W-30010. The results of the calibrations and recalibrations of the ionization chambers in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water are presented and discussed. The ratio of 60 Co calibration coefficients N D,w /N K , labelled C K , was determined for all chambers. The use of C K as a chamber dependent parameter and quality control indicator to check the results of the routine IAEA calibrations is discussed. In the process of its routine calibrations, the IAEA identified a specific problem related to the W- 30001 ionization chambers. The stability of these chambers was found to exceed the 0.5% tolerance limit set by the International IEC standard. Other SSDLs reported similar findings. The manufacturer stopped the production of these W-30001 chambers to investigate the reasons for this anomalous behaviour. After identifying and correcting the problem, the manufacturer produced a new type of ionization chamber. Five of these chambers were tested at the IAEA and found to be within the tolerance limit

  15. Evaluation of a plane-parallel ionization chamber for low-energy radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    A plane-parallel ionization chamber, with a sensitive volume of 6.3 cm 3 , developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI), was utilized to verify the possibility of its application in low-energy X-ray beam qualities for radiotherapy (T-qualities). This homemade ion chamber was manufactured using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) coated with graphite, and co-axial cables. In order to evaluate the performance of this ionization chamber, some characterization tests were performed: short- and medium-term stability, leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect and linearity of response. The maximum value obtained in the short-term stability test was 0.2%, in accordance with the limit value of 0.3% provided by the IEC 60731 standard. The saturation curve was obtained varying the applied voltage from -400 V to +400 V, in steps of 50 V, using the charge collecting time of 20 s. From the saturation curve two other characteristics were analyzed: the polarity effect and the ion collection efficiency, with results within the international recommendations. The leakage current of the ionization chamber was measured in time intervals of 20 minutes, before and after its irradiations, and all the results obtained were in agreement with the IEC 60731 standard. The linearity of response was verified utilizing the T-50(b) radiation quality, and the ionization chamber was exposed to different air kerma rates. The response of the ionization chamber presented a linear behavior. Therefore, all results were considered satisfactory, within international recommendations, indicating that this homemade ionization chamber presents potential routine use in dosimetry of low-energy radiotherapy beams. (author)

  16. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  17. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM's). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests

  18. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  19. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment User Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, A.; Rajaram, D.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to demonstrate muon ionization cooling for the first time. MICE is currently on Step IV of its data taking programme, where transverse emittance reduction will be demonstrated. The MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) is the reconstruction, simulation and analysis framework for the MICE experiment. MAUS is used for both offline data analysis and fast online data reconstruction and visualization to serve MICE data taking. This paper provides an introduction to MAUS, describing the central Python and C++ based framework, the data structure and and the code management and testing procedures.

  20. Generalized Bessel functions in tunnelling ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H R; Krainov, V P

    2003-01-01

    We develop two new approximations for the generalized Bessel function that frequently arises in the analytical treatment of strong-field processes, especially in non-perturbative multiphoton ionization theories. Both these new forms are applicable to the tunnelling environment in atomic ionization, and are analytically much simpler than the currently used low-frequency asymptotic approximation for the generalized Bessel function. The second of the new forms is an approximation to the first, and it is the second new form that exhibits the well-known tunnelling exponential

  1. Electron Impact Ionization of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenser, B.; Lezius, M.; Scheier, P.; Deutsch, H.; Maerk, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute partial and total cross sections for the electron impact ionization of C 60 have been measured using a novel approach for the absolute calibration. The results obtained reveal not only an anomalous large parent ion cross section (as compared to the other ionization channels), but also anomalies for the production of multiply charged parent and fragment ions. This special behavior has its origin in the specific electronic and geometric structure of C 60 . Semiclassical calculations for singly charged ions support the measured data

  2. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of cosmic or terrestrial origin is part of the environment in which all living things have evolved since the creation of the universe. The artificial radioactivity generated by medical diagnostic and treatment techniques, some industrial activities, radioactive fallout, etc. has now been added to this natural radioactivity. This article reviews the biological effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation to which the population is thus exposed. Their carcinogenic risk cannot simply be extrapolated from what we know about high-dose exposure. (author)

  3. Electron induced atomic inner-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    The current status of cross section measurements for atomic inner-shell ionization by electron bombardment is reviewed. Inner shell ionization studies using electrons as projectiles compliment the similar studies being done with heavy particles, and in addition can provide tests of the theory in those cases when relativistic effects and exchange effects are expected to be important. Both total cross sections and recently measured differential cross sections will be discussed and compared with existing theories where possible. Prospects for further experimental and theoretical work in this area of atomic physics using small electron accelerators will also be discussed

  4. Ionization of atoms by high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies

  5. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  6. Direct Simulation of Reentry Flows with Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Hassan, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is applied in this paper to the study of rarefied, hypersonic, reentry flows. The assumptions and simplifications involved with the treatment of ionization, free electrons and the electric field are investigated. A new method is presented for the calculation of the electric field and handling of charged particles with DSMC. In addition, a two-step model for electron impact ionization is implemented. The flow field representing a 10 km/sec shock at an altitude of 65 km is calculated. The effects of the new modeling techniques on the calculation results are presented and discussed.

  7. Saha's ionization equation for high Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwal, B.K.; Sikka, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Saha's ionization equation has been solved for high Z elements with the aim of providing input for opacity calculations. Results are presented for two elements, tungsten and uranium. The ionization potentials have been evaluated using the simple Bhor's formula with suitable effective charges for ions. The reliability of the free electron density, ion concentrations, etc., obtained from the Saha's equation solutions has been checked by comparing the P and E computed from them with those given by the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac equation of state. The agreement between the two is good from temperatures above 0.2 keV. (author)

  8. A statistical mechanical model for equilibrium ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, N.; Martin, P.A.; Pule, J.

    1990-01-01

    A quantum electron interacts with a classical gas of hard spheres and is in thermal equilibrium with it. The interaction is attractive and the electron can form a bound state with the classical particles. It is rigorously shown that in a well defined low density and low temperature limit, the ionization probability for the electron tends to the value predicted by the Saha formula for thermal ionization. In this regime, the electron is found to be in a statistical mixture of a bound and a free state. (orig.)

  9. Surface ionization mass spectrometry of opiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanov, D.T.

    2009-07-01

    Key words: surface ionization, adsorption, heterogeneous reactions, surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy, thermoemitter, opiates, extracts of biosamples. Subjects of study. The mass - spectrometric study of thermal - ion emission: surface ionization of opiates by on the surface of oxidized refractory metals. Purpose of work is to establish the regularities of surface ionization (SI) of multi-atomic molecule opiates and their mixtures develop the scientific base of SI methods for high sensitive and selective detection and analysis of these substances in the different objects, including biosamples. Methods of study: surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy. The results obtained and their novelty. For the first time, SI of molecule opiates on the oxidized tungsten surface has been studied and their SI mass-spectra and temperature dependences of ion currents have been obtained, the characteristic heterogeneous reactions of an adsorbed molecules and the channels of monomolecular decays vibrationally-excited ions on their way in mass-spectrometry have been revealed, sublimation energy has been defined, the activation energy of E act , of these decays has been estimated for given period of time. Additivity of the SI mass-spectra of opiate mixtures of has been established under conditions of joint opiate adsorption. High selectivity of SI allows the extracts of biosamples to be analyzed without their preliminary chromatographic separation. The opiates are ionized by SI with high efficiency (from 34 C/mol to 112 C/mol), which provides high sensitivity of opiate detection by SI/MS and APTDSIS methods from - 10 -11 g in the samples under analysis. Practical value. The results of these studies create the scientific base for novel SI methods of high sensitive detection and analysis of the trace amounts of opiates in complicated mixtures, including biosamples without their preliminary

  10. The situation of knowledge on ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation occurs: during sources use, during the use of matter including radioactivity used for other properties than their radioactivity, in presence of natural radioactivity on the working area, following an accident during an industrial process. to protect man taken into account the incurred risk, goes by the risk evaluation, in taking into account the industrial process and exposure conditions of persons, then by the application of prevention measures that aim to control the contamination risks by radioactive matters as well as the exposure risks to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  11. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  12. Ionization smoke detector and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

  13. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  14. Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C.K.; Lu, G.

    1988-01-01

    Simulations of the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field are made. We treat a low-β plasma and use a 2-1/2 D electrostatic code linked with our Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (PANIC). Our study is focused on the understanding of the interface between the neutral gas cloud and the surrounding plasma where the strong interaction takes place. We assume the existence of some hot electrons in the ambient plasma to provide a seed ionization for CIV. When the ionization starts a sheath-like structure is formed at the surface of the neutral gas (Ionizing Front). In that region the crossfield component of the electric field causes the electron to E x B drift with a velocity of the order of the neutral gas velocity times the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Thus the kinetic energy of the drifting electrons can be large enough for electron impact ionization. In addition a diamagnetic drift of the electron occurs due to the number density and temperature inhomogeneity in the ionization front. These drift currents excite the lower-hybrid waves with the wave k-vectors almost perpendicular to the neutral flow and magnetic field again resulting in electron heating and additional ionization. The overall structure is studied by developing a simple analytic model as well as making simulation runs. (author)

  15. Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological effects of air ions have been reported for more than 80 years in the media and scientific literature. This study summarizes a qualitative literature review and quantitative meta-analysis, where applicable, that examines the potential effects of exposure to negative and positive air ions on psychological measures of mood and emotional state. Methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify human experimental studies published through August, 2012. Thirty-three studies (1957–2012) evaluating the effects of air ionization on depression, anxiety, mood states, and subjective feelings of mental well-being in humans were included. Five studies on negative ionization and depression (measured using a structured interview guide) were evaluated by level of exposure intensity (high vs. low) using meta-analysis. Results Consistent ionization effects were not observed for anxiety, mood, relaxation/sleep, and personal comfort. In contrast, meta-analysis results showed that negative ionization, overall, was significantly associated with lower depression ratings, with a stronger association observed at high levels of negative ion exposure (mean summary effect and 95% confidence interval (CI) following high- and low-density exposure: 14.28 (95% CI: 12.93-15.62) and 7.23 (95% CI: 2.62-11.83), respectively). The response to high-density ionization was observed in patients with seasonal or chronic depression, but an effect of low-density ionization was observed only in patients with seasonal depression. However, no relationship between the duration or frequency of ionization treatment on depression ratings was evident. Conclusions No consistent influence of positive or negative air ionization on anxiety, mood, relaxation, sleep, and personal comfort measures was observed. Negative air ionization was associated with lower depression scores particularly at the highest exposure level. Future research is needed to evaluate the biological

  16. A novel micro liquid ionization chamber for clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.J.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Absorbed-dose-based protocols recommend calibration of clinical linear accelerators using airfilled ionization chambers for which an absorbed-dose to water calibration factor has been established in a 60 Co beam. The factor k Q in these protocols involves the ratio of the mean restricted collision mass stopping power water-to-air, which is energy dependent. For high-energy clinical photon beams, the stopping power ratio water-to-air varies by up to 4%, whereas for electron beams the variation is even larger. For certain insulating liquids, however, the stopping power ratio water-to-liquid shows very little energy dependence, making a liquid-filled ionization chamber a potentially attractive dosimeter for clinical reference dosimetry. In this work some properties of two liquid-filled ionization chambers are investigated including ion recombination and variation of response as a function of energy for photon beams. In this work we used an Exradin A14P planar microchamber with chamber body and electrodes composed of C552 plastic. This chamber was modified, reducing the gap between the cap and collecting electrode to 0.5 mm. The diameter of the collecting electrode is 1.5 mm and the nominal sensitive volume of 1.12 mm 3 was filled with isooctane. This chamber will be referred to as the MicroLIC. The energy response of the MicroLIC was compared to previous results measured using the LIC 9902-mix chamber, developed by G. Wickman of Umea University, Sweden. The sensitive volume of this chamber has a diameter of 2.5 mm, thickness of 0.35 mm and is filled with 60% isooctane, 40% tetramethylsilane by weight. The linear accelerator used was a Varian Clinac 21EX with nominal photon beam energies of 6 and 18 MV. Measurements were done in a 20x20x20 cm 3 RMI Solid Water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 10x10 cm 2 field at the phantom surface. Absorbed dose was determined using an Exradin A12 chamber with an absorbed-dose to water calibration factor for 60 Co established at a

  17. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  18. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  19. Chemical data on ionizing and non-ionizing angiographic contrast materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonati, F.

    1980-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of ionizing and non-ionizing contrast media are compared in experimental animals and in isolated heart preparations. The following parameters were recorded: peripheric arterial diastolic pressure, heart rate, duration of asystolic period, respiratory rate, contractility of the myocardium (dp/dt, LVSP, Vsub(max), EDV, ESV, SV). The observed changes are mainly due to the higher osmotic activity of the contrast media, as similar alterations were recorded after the injection of hyperosmotic glucose solution. It is concluded that administration of non-ionizing contrast media results in significantly less cardiovascular side effects. (L.E.)

  20. New ionization fractions for the lithium- and helium-like ionization stages of calcium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.G.; Raymond, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The high resolution X-ray spectra of Ca XIX and Fe XXV observed during a solar flare on 1979 March 25 have been re-interpreted using new ionization fractions for Ca XVIII, Ca XIX, Fe XXIV and Fe XXV. These new calculations substantially change the interpretation of the spectra, implying the flare to be ionizing during the rise phase and recombining during the decay phase. The results favour the ECIP ionization rates over those of Lotz, though other interpretations are possible. (author)

  1. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  2. Free radical production by high energy shock waves--comparison with ionizing irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T R; Laudone, V P; Heston, W D; Zeitz, L; Fair, W R

    1988-01-01

    Fricke chemical dosimetry is used as an indirect measure of the free radical production of ionizing irradiation. We adapted the Fricke ferrous sulfate radiation dosimeter to examine the chemical effects of high energy shock waves. Significant free radical production was documented. The reaction was dose dependent, predictably increased by acoustic impedance, but curvilinear. A thousand shocks at 18 kilovolts induced the same free radical oxidation as 1100 rad cobalt-60 gamma ionizing irradiation, increasing to 2900 rad in the presence of an air-fluid zone of acoustic impedance. The biological effect of these free radicals was compared to that of cobalt-60 ionizing irradiation by measuring the affect on Chinese hamster cells by clonogenic assay. While cobalt-60 irradiation produced a marked decrease in clonogenic survivors, little effect was noted with high energy shock waves. This suggested that the chemical effects produced by shock waves were either absent or attenuated in the cells, or were inherently less toxic than those of ionizing irradiation.

  3. Ionization of selected elements of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmore, J. E.

    1978-07-01

    Three most common methods of ionizing the actinides using thermal ionization are discussed. The first and most commonly used technique involves evaporating the oxide from a side filament and ionizing it on a hot rhenium center filament. The second method, which is used almost as frequently as the first, involves loading the sample onto a rhenium single filament and reducing the sample. This method gives excellent sensitivity for small samples using a multiplier as the detector, but is less suitable for large samples and Faraday cup detectors. The first method is well suited for large samples on instruments with Faraday cup detectors. The third technique involves loading the sample onto a single tantalum filament, flashing to red heat in the air, and analyzing the oxide or dioxide ion beam. This technique gives reasonably stable ion beams for the lighter actinides and all of the lanthanides. It is not as sensitive as the other methods and is mentioned mainly for historical interest as it was widely used 25 years ago. The suitability of these methods for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium, as well as for the lanthanides and other fission product elements are covered in detail. Besides these three methods, the resin bead technique and the silica gel technique are mentioned. The conclusion is that there is a great deal of work which needs to be carried out before a complete understanding of these ionization processes are understood.

  4. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  5. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...... is presented encompassing protein characterization prior to and after cloning of the corresponding gene....

  6. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L; Baltanas, J P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster

  7. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Baltanas, J P [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-21

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster.

  8. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  9. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  10. Inner shell ionization by incident nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1974-10-01

    The atomic Coulomb excitation process induced by impinging heavy charged particles such as protons, deuterons, α-particles and complex heavy ions is reviewed. Recent experimental and theoretical efforts have led toimproved understanding of the atomic Coulomb excitation as well as to discovery of new types of ionization mechanisms. The following models are mentioned: the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA); theeeeeeeeeeeee modified PWBA model; the Binary Encounter Approximation (BEA); the Semi-Classical Approximation (SCA); the Perturbed-Stationary-State model (PSS). The structure of the SCA model is more thoroughly treated. Experimental results on single Coulomb ionizations of the K-, L-, and M-shells, and of the connected sub-shells by protons are compared with predictions. Most calculations are based on straight line projectile paths and non-relativistic hydrogen-like target electron wave functions. The BEA model and the SCA model seem to work reasonably well for multiple Coulomb ionizations by stripped light ions. Background effects in ion-atom collisions are commented upon. Future aspects of atomic Coulomb excitation by incident nuclei and ions are discussed. The interplay between Coulomb induced processes and united atom phenomena is especially mentioned. The simple ionization models have yielded valuable insights but it is suggested that this branch of collision physics has reached a turning point where new and more advanced and unifying models are needed. (JIW)

  11. Electron impact ionization of Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrance, P.; Rachafi, S.; Jureta, J.; Meyer, F.; Chantrenne, S.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute electron impact ionization cross-sections have been measured for the Neon-like Ar 8+ in the energy range from below the threshold for the metastable state to 2500 eV. No contribution of metastable states is observed. The results are well reproduced by the Distorted Wave Born Approximation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  12. Management in the protection from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Nikolic, Krsto; Rakic, Goran

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

  13. Fast Atom Ionization in Strong Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Goeppert-Mayer and Kramers-Henneberger transformations are examined for bound charges placed in electromagnetic radiation in the non-relativistic approximation. The consistent inclusion of the interaction with the radiation field provides the time evolution of the wavefunction with both structural interaction (which ensures the bound state) and electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in a short time after switching on the high-intensity radiation the bound charges are set free. In these conditions, a statistical criterion is used to estimate the rate of atom ionization. The results correspond to a sudden application of the electromagnetic interaction, in contrast with the well-known ionization probability obtained by quasi-classical tunneling through classically unavailable non-stationary states, or other equivalent methods, where the interaction is introduced adiabatically. For low-intensity radiation the charges oscillate and emit higher-order harmonics, the charge configuration is re-arranged and the process is resumed. Tunneling ionization may appear in these circumstances. Extension of the approach to other applications involving radiation-induced charge emission from bound states is discussed, like ionization of molecules, atomic clusters or proton emission from atomic nuclei. Also, results for a static electric field are included.

  14. An analytical excitation for an ionizing plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sijde, van der B.; Schram, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    From an analytical model for the population of high-lying excited levels in ionizing plasmas it appears that the distribution is a superposition of the equilibrium (Saha) value and an overpopulation. This overpopulation takes the form of a Maxwell distribution for free electrons. Experiments for He

  15. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. Notes on photon assisted field ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, B.H.C.; Bryant, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    A response to comments by Viswanathan et al (2) on a previous publication(1) by the authors is given. It is contended that the original hypothesis of photon assisted field ionization at metal surfaces correctly explains the results reported in Ref. 1

  17. Propagating discontinuities in ionized porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, F.

    2009-01-01

    Ionized porous media swell or shrink under changing osmotic conditions. Examples of such materials are shales, clays, hydrogels and tissues. The materials are represented as a multi-phase material consisting of a solid part and a fluid part with fixed charges embedded in the solid matrix and counter

  18. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to review practical aspects of dosimetry. The work describes basic units which are used in dosimetry and natural as well as industrial sources of ionizing radiation. Information given in the monograph help in assessment of the radiation risk. 8 refs, 15 tabs

  19. Ionization model for nickel-like gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1986-04-01

    Before we build an extensive population model for gold ionized 49 to 52 times, we have studied with a more simple model the effect of accounting for cascades (or dielectronic recombination) and Δn = 0 transitions. These transitions allow some understanding of typical feature of experimental gold spectra

  20. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  1. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references

  2. Several versions of forward gas ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Rodnov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of several versions of a gas ionization calorimeter are analyzed by means of the simulation with the GEANT code. The jet energy and coordinate resolutions are evaluated. Some versions of the forward calorimeter meet the ATLAS requirements. 13 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Albright, N.W.; Yang, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures

  4. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  5. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  6. Alanine-polymer dosemeter of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasinski, Z.; Mirkowski, K.; Panta, P.; Stachowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    The method of chemical preparation of alanine-copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate has been worked out. The material has been in a form of rods. The content of alanine has not exceeded 30%. The ESR signal of alanine radicals has been detected after exposition to ionizing radiation. The dose-response relationship has been presented

  7. The industrial applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report presents all industrial applications of ionizing radiations in France, for food preservation, radiosterilization of drugs, medical materials and cosmetic products, for radiation chemistry of polymers. This report also describes the industrial plants of irradiation (electron, cobalt 60). Finally, it explains the legal and safety aspects

  8. Historical survey of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    We have recently celebrated the 10th birthday of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS), and this seems an appropriate time to review the history of its development. Basically, RIS is a photophysics process in which tunable light sources are used to remove a valence electron from an atom of selected atomic number, Z. If appropriate lasers are used as the light source, one electron can be removed from each atom of the selected Z in the laser pulse. This implies that RIS can be a very efficient, as well as selective, ionization process. In what we normally call RIS, laser schemes are employed which preserve both of these features. In contrast, multiphoton ionization (MPI) is more general, although not necessarily Z selective or very efficient because resonances are often not used. Early research completed in the USSR and described as selective two-step photoionization, employed resonances to ionize the rubidium atom and served to guide work on laser isotope separation. 29 references, 8 figures

  9. Preservation of almonds by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, M.

    1997-01-01

    During two months, a series of experiments was carried out to highlight the effects of preservation by ionizing radiation of a variety of Tunisian almonds. This technique was proved correct for doses less than 1 KGy. Nevertheless, this technique may be harmful to proteins.(author)

  10. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  11. Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    Definition of ionizing radiation,interaction of electrons with matter,physical model of collision,elastic and inelastic collisions,range of electron in matter,interaction of photon with matter.Photoelectric effect , Compton effect,pair production,consideration of interaction of various radiations with soft tissue

  12. Ionization Energy: Implications of Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    The results from a study to explore pre-service teachers' understanding of ionization energy, a topic that features in A-level (grade 11 and 12) chemistry courses. in Singapore , is described. A previous study using a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic test has shown that Singapore A-level students have considerable difficulty understanding the…

  13. Theory of multiphoton ionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoeke, A.

    1986-03-01

    A non-perturbative approach to the theory of multiphoton ionization is reviewed. Adiabatic Floquet theory is its first approximation. It explains qualitatively the energy and angular distribution of photoelectrons. In many-electron atoms it predicts collective and inner shell excitation. 14 refs

  14. Dynamics of tunneling ionization using Bohmian mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douguet, Nicolas; Bartschat, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Recent attoclock experiments and theoretical studies regarding the strong-field ionization of atoms by few-cycle infrared pulses revealed features that have attracted much attention. Here we investigate tunneling ionization and the dynamics of the electron probability using Bohmian mechanics. We consider a one-dimensional problem to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of the ionization process. It is revealed that in the major part of the below-the-barrier ionization regime, in an intense and short infrared pulse, the electron does not tunnel through the entire barrier, but rather starts already from the classically forbidden region. Moreover, we highlight the correspondence between the probability of locating the electron at a particular initial position and its asymptotic momentum. Bohmian mechanics also provides a natural definition of mean tunneling time and exit position, taking account of the time dependence of the barrier. Finally, we find that the electron can exit the barrier with significant kinetic energy, thereby corroborating the results of a recent study [N. Camus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 023201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.023201].

  15. Ionizing radiation in the education of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.

    2016-01-01

    Physics is a fundamental science that finds its applications in all areas of our lives. Its application in modern medicine is undeniable. In today’s medical practice special attention is dedicated to the use of ionizing radiation. The wide range of modern science and technology offers enormous possibilities for creation and implementation of new equipment using adequate doses of ionizing radiation. For accurate medical diagnostics and effective treatment of patients, this type of equipment must provide the necessary information to the physicians. On the other hand, the physicians should possess enough knowledge in the relative field of medicine. This paper contains information about the knowledge communicated to the students of the graduate program Medical Physics and Biophysics in the discipline Medicine in the first year of graduate study at the Medical University “Prof. Dr. Paraskev Stoyanov” of Varna. Firstly, we discuss the topics in the lectures of these two disciplines, concerning knowledge about ionizing radiation. Secondly, the respective laboratory exercises are described that illustrate the lectures in the graduate programs Medical Physics and Biophysics. Keywords: ionizing radiation, education, medicine, medical physics, biophysics

  16. Circuit for current measures from ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, F.L.V. de; Oliveira, A.H. de; Rezende, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design and the specifications of an ammeters of low cost for small current, IOE-14 Ampere, from ionization chambers or others transducers used in nuclear instrumentation are described. Special attention is given to the integrated electronic components, available in the brazilian market. (C.G.C.)

  17. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  18. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  19. Electron Impact Excitation-Ionization of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Esam Abobakr A.

    In the last few decades, the study of atomic collisions by electron-impact has made significant advances. The most difficult case to study is electron impact ionization of molecules for which many approximations have to be made and the validity of these approximations can only be checked by comparing with experiment. In this thesis, I have examined the Molecular three-body distorted wave (M3DW) or Molecular four-body distorted wave (M4DW) approximations for electron-impact ionization. These models use a fully quantum mechanical approach where all particles are treated quantum mechanically and the post collision interaction (PCI) is treated to all orders of perturbation. These electron impact ionization collisions play central roles in the physics and chemistry of upper atmosphere, biofuel, the operation of discharges and lasers, radiation induced damage in biological material like damage to DNA by secondary electrons, and plasma etching processes. For the M3DW model, I will present results for electron impact single ionization of small molecules such as Water, Ethane, and Carbon Dioxide and the much larger molecules Tetrahydrofuran, phenol, furfural, 1-4 Benzoquinone. I will also present results for the four-body problem in which there are two target electrons involved in the collision. M4DW results will be presented for dissociative excitation-ionization of orientated D2. I will show that M4DW calculations using a variational wave function for the ground state that included s- and p- orbital states give better agreement to the experimental measurements than a ground state approximated as a product of two 1s-type Dyson orbitals.

  20. Detoxification of snake venom using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally recognized that energy absorbed by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) can inactivate biological material in tow ways. A direct effects occurs when the primary event, i.e., ionization, is produced in the molecule itself. This is the case when a compound is irradiated in dry state. When a compound is irradiated in a solution, the indirect effect joins the direct. Since water is the most abundant constituent of biological material, it is important to consider the species produced by excitation and ionization of water itself, and the reaction of these species with the target molecules of biological importance. This indirect effect results from the reactions among the studied molecules and the products of radiation interaction with water or other solvents. Highly reactive compounds, the so-called free radicals, which are formed many reactions among themselves, with the dissolved gas, and with other molecules in the solution. With water, the excitation is less important than ionization which is followed within picosecond by the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons. Alexander and Hamilton showed that irradiation of proteins has revealed damage to aminoacid side chains, production of new groups, splitting of peptide bonds and formation of intramolecular and intermolecular cross-links. With these results it would be possible to use ionizing radiation to change those proteins molecules in order to improve some of their properties according to the necessity. On the other hand, it is recognized that venoms in general are poorly immunogenic, yet fairly toxic. This cause problems because serotherapy is the treatment of choice in snakebite envenomations, and horse antivenom availability is dependent upon. (author)