WorldWideScience

Sample records for air interstate rule

  1. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... (August 8, 2011, 76 FR 48208). The Transport Rule was intended to replace the earlier Clean Air Interstate..., 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR 48208 (August 8, 2011). \\4\\ CAIR...

  2. 77 FR 44551 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... related to the evaluation of impacts of interstate transport of air pollutants. In this action, EPA is... the 2011 Transport Rule (also known as the ``Cross- State Air Pollution Rule'' or ``CSAPR'').\\5\\ In...\\ Within that submittal, Appendix B, ``Clean Air Act Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)-- Interstate Transport...

  3. 23 CFR 710.405 - Air rights on the Interstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air rights on the Interstate. 710.405 Section 710.405 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Real Property Management § 710.405 Air rights on the Interstate. (a) The FHWA...

  4. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  5. 40 CFR 81.42 - Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.42 Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia-Tennessee) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality...

  6. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) will be referred to by Washington...

  7. 40 CFR 81.35 - Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.35 Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Kentucky-Indiana) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisville Interstate Air Quality...

  8. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  10. 40 CFR 81.90 - Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.90 Section 81.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.90 Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maine-New Hampshire) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.98 - Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.98 Section 81.98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.98 Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) is revised to consist of the...

  12. 40 CFR 81.59 - Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.59 Section 81.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.59 Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland-West Virginia) has been revised to consist...

  13. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  18. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  19. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  20. 18 CFR 284.221 - General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others. 284.221 Section 284.221 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  1. 40 CFR 81.121 - Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.121 Section 81.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.121 Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Four Corners...

  2. 78 FR 40966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... a State Implementation Plan (SIP) submittal from the State of New Mexico to address Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) requirements that prohibit air emissions which will contribute significantly to...

  3. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile (Alabama...

  4. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  5. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section 91.139 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This...

  6. 76 FR 43128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Disapproval of Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... fixing some of the SIP issues, yet the correct process under the existing Clean Air Act to appropriately... the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Small... its field. After considering the economic impacts of today's final rule on small entities, I certify...

  7. 77 FR 24793 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of New York; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...- air quality environmental impacts of compliance, (3) any existing pollution control technology in use.... Implication of Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross State Air Pollution Rule II. What is the background for EPA... CAIR rule, on July 6, 2011 EPA finalized the Cross- State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR); a rule intended...

  8. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section 49.137 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa...

  9. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19 Section 129.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS: FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF ...

  10. ASSUMING REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSNATIONAL TORTS: AN INTERSTATE AFFAIR? A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE CANADIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW TORT RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Banu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Tolofson v. Jensen, the Supreme Court of Canada determined that in most cases the law of the place where the tort occurred has exclusive authority to regulate all legal aspects related to it. In developing this choice of law rule, the Supreme Court relied on an analogy between Private International Law and Public International law. This allows Private International Law to claim a structural, neutral function in the distribution of legislative authority in the international realm and to ignore both private law and public law considerations. To best reveal the way in which the Supreme Court injected these limitations into Private International Law by reference to Public International Law, I show the striking similarity between the Supreme Court’s reasoning and several Private International Law writings at the end of the 19th century in Continental Europe. In the context of the extraterritorial tortious activity of multinational corporations, these limitations make Private International Law oblivious to arguments of Corporate Social Responsibility scholars showing that a multinational corporation may legitimately be regulated by the state of its headquarters, even for extraterritorial conduct. Overall, I argue that an overemphasis on legislative authority as a symbol of state sovereignty transforms Private International Law matters generally, and transnational torts in particular, in inter-state affairs, removed from the interests and pleas of the individuals and communities affected by them.   Dans l’arrêt Tolofson c. Jensen, la Cour suprême du Canada a décidé que, dans la plupart des cas, la loi du lieu où le délit a été commis régit exclusivement tous les aspects juridiques qui s’y rapportent. Pour établir cette règle du choix de la loi applicable, la Cour suprême s’est fondée sur une analogie entre le droit international privé et le droit international public. Cela permet au droit international privé de réclamer une

  11. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA must perform environmental justice (EJ reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well.

  12. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the economic viability of existing services providing essential air transportation to any eligible... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS Freely Associated State Air... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of the...

  13. 14 CFR 93.177 - Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area. 93.177 Section 93.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Luke AFB, AZ §...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  15. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. [46 FR...

  16. 76 FR 48002 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of California; Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... things, adequate measures prohibiting emissions of air pollutants in amounts which will interfere with...://www.regulations.gov and in hard copy at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California... only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material) and some may not be available in either...

  17. Characterization of air pollutant concentrations, fleet emission factors, and dispersion near a North Carolina interstate freeway across two seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K.; Khlystov, Andrey; Snyder, Michelle G.; Grieshop, Andrew P.

    2018-03-01

    We present field measurement data and modeling of multiple traffic-related air pollutants during two seasons at a site adjoining Interstate 40, near Durham, North Carolina. We analyze spatial-temporal and seasonal trends and fleet-average pollutant emission factors and use our data to evaluate a line source dispersion model. Month-long measurement campaigns were performed in summer 2015 and winter 2016. Data were collected at a fixed near-road site located within 10 m from the highway edge, an upwind background site and, under favorable meteorological conditions, along downwind perpendicular transects. Measurements included the size distribution, chemical composition, and volatility of submicron particles, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), meteorological conditions and traffic activity data. Results show strong seasonal and diurnal differences in spatial distribution of traffic sourced pollutants. A strong signature of vehicle emissions was observed within 100-150 m from the highway edge with significantly higher concentrations during morning. Substantially higher concentrations and less-sharp near-road gradients were observed in winter for many species. Season-specific fleet-average fuel-based emission factors for NO, NOx, BC, and particle number (PN) were derived based on up- and down-wind roadside measurements. The campaign-average NOx and PN emission factors were 20% and 300% higher in winter than summer, respectively. These results suggest that the combined effect of higher emissions and their slower downwind dispersion in winter dictate the observed higher downwind concentrations and wider highway influence zone in winter for several species. Finally, measurements of traffic data, emission factors, and pollutant concentrations were integrated to evaluate a line source dispersion model (R-LINE). The dispersion model captured the general trends in the spatial and temporal patterns in near-road concentrations. However, there was a tendency for the model

  18. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near-highway neighborhoods for health

  19. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation required to be filed by §§ 221.20 and 221.30 and/or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air...

  20. 78 FR 63929 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... requirements for grandfathered facilities. The revisions will contribute to improvement in overall air quality... to contribute to improvement of air quality and attainment or maintenance of the federal air quality...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and Regulations...

  1. A Mathematical Analysis of Air Traffic Priority Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes priority rules, such as those in Part 91.113 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Such rules determine which of two aircraft should maneuver in a given conflict scenario. While the rules in 91.113 are well accepted, other concepts of operation for NextGen, such as self separation, may allow for different priority rules. A mathematical framework is presented that can be used to analyze a general set of priority rules and enables proofs of important properties. Specific properties considered in this paper include safety, effectiveness, and stability. A set of rules is said to be safe if it ensures that it is never the case that both aircraft have priority. They are effective if exactly one aircraft has priority in every situation. Finally, a set of rules is called stable if it produces compatible results even under small changes to input data.

  2. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  3. 77 FR 63242 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... notification'' to individuals who are the subject of an FAA enforcement action regarding the ``nature of the... supplemental to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) 5 (``Serving and Filing Pleadings and Other Papers'') and 7 (``Pleadings Allowed; Form of Motions and Other Papers''), respectively. Concerning sections 821...

  4. 78 FR 57602 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... currently prohibits motions to dismiss the complaint or motions for a more definite statement of the..., the Office of Management and Budget has not reviewed this rule under Executive Order 12866. Likewise... definite statement. In proceedings governed by this subpart, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this...

  5. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier... CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.45 BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air... questions about reporting a joint-service operation, contact the BTS Assistant Director—Airline Information...

  6. Colorectal injury by compressed air: the rule of conservative therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Al-Ozaibi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of colorectal injury caused by a jet of compressed air directed from a distance towards the anus. The patient mentioned that it happened accidentally while his colleague was cleaning his clothes using compressed air. The patient presented with acute abdominal pain and distension. A contrast CT study did not show any free air or leakage. The patient was treated conservatively, progressed well and was discharged from the hospital on the fourth day. Resumo: Descrevemos um caso de lesão colorretal causada por um jato de ar comprimido direcionado para o ânus, a certa distância. O paciente mencionou que o ocorrido foi acidental, enquanto um colega estava limpando suas roupas com ar comprimido. O paciente se apresentou com dores abdominais agudas e distensão. Um estudo de TC contrastado não demonstrou ar livre, nem vazamento. O paciente foi tratado conservadoramente, teve boa evolução e recebeu alta hospitalar no quarto dia. Keywords: Compressed air colon injury, Colon barotrauma, Pneumatic bowel injury, Palavras-chave: Lesão de colon por ar comprimido, Barotrauma de colon, Lesão intestinal pneumática

  7. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  8. Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; McMillen, Robert; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the influence that smokefree workplaces, restaurants and bars have on the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars, and whether there is an association with adopting smokefree rules in homes and cars. Bivariate probit models were used to jointly estimate the likelihood of living in a smokefree home and having a smokefree car as a function of law coverage and other variables. Household data were obtained from the nationally representative Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control 2001, 2002 and 2004-2009; clean indoor air law data were from the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation Tobacco Control Laws Database. 'Full coverage' and 'partial coverage' smokefree legislation is associated with an increased likelihood of having voluntary home and car smokefree rules compared with 'no coverage'. The association between 'full coverage' and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 5% and 4%, respectively, and the association between 'partial coverage' and smokefree rules in homes and cars is 3% and 4%, respectively. There is a positive association between the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Clean indoor air laws provide the additional benefit of encouraging voluntary adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. 76 FR 59087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental... manufacture, sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. This action is being... consists of Delaware's regulation for reducing VOCs from commercially-used adhesive and sealant products by...

  10. 76 FR 49303 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... during the Regional Office normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for... the obsolete AIRS database, and to remove the implied hierarchy of emission factor sources. Other... operation and monitoring. In Minn. R. 7011.0900-0922, MPCA amended the asphalt concrete plant rules by...

  11. 77 FR 21451 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules; Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... potential conflicts of interest. We are also approving the remaining portion of Colorado's January 7, 2008... or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on...

  12. A rule-based fault detection method for air handling units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, J.; Bushby, S. T.; Castro, N. S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); House, J. M. [Iowa Energy Center, Ankeny, IA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Air handling unit performance assessment rules (APAR) is a fault detection tool that uses a set of expert rules derived from mass and energy balances to detect faults in air handling units (AHUs). Control signals are used to determine the mode of operation of the AHU. A subset of the expert rules which correspond to that mode of operation are then evaluated to determine whether a fault exists. APAR is computationally simple enough that it can be embedded in commercial building automation and control systems and relies only upon the sensor data and control signals that are commonly available in these systems. APAR was tested using data sets collected from a 'hardware-in-the-loop' emulator and from several field sites. APAR was also embedded in commercial AHU controllers and tested in the emulator. (author)

  13. The environmental rules of economic development: Governing air pollution from smelters in Chuquicamata and La Oroya

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Why and how do societies transform the environmental rules of economic development, or fail to do so? This article compares the experiences of Chile and Peru in the regulation of smelting activities between 1990 and 2010. Air pollution from smelters in  Chuquicamata  and  La Oroya, each emblematic of the two countries’ mining industries, did not give rise to nationally destabilising protest. Nevertheless, despite the absence of pressing discontent with pollution, the environmental rules for m...

  14. Table - Impacts of the Proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table shows the impacts of the proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems, both with and without the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  15. 78 FR 12621 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... effective date of Direct Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within... Disease [[Page 12622

  16. 78 FR 63872 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1240 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements Correction In rule document 2013-17751 appearing on pages 44878-44881 in the issue of July 25, 2013, make the following correction: On page 44879...

  17. Forecasting Urban Air Quality via a Back-Propagation Neural Network and a Selection Sample Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on a sample selection rule and a Back Propagation (BP neural network, a new model of forecasting daily SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentration in seven sites of Guangzhou was developed using data from January 2006 to April 2012. A meteorological similarity principle was applied in the development of the sample selection rule. The key meteorological factors influencing SO2, NO2, and PM10 daily concentrations as well as weight matrices and threshold matrices were determined. A basic model was then developed based on the improved BP neural network. Improving the basic model, identification of the factor variation consistency was added in the rule, and seven sets of sensitivity experiments in one of the seven sites were conducted to obtain the selected model. A comparison of the basic model from May 2011 to April 2012 in one site showed that the selected model for PM10 displayed better forecasting performance, with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE values decreasing by 4% and R2 values increasing from 0.53 to 0.68. Evaluations conducted at the six other sites revealed a similar performance. On the whole, the analysis showed that the models presented here could provide local authorities with reliable and precise predictions and alarms about air quality if used at an operational scale.

  18. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Operators in the State of Hawaii A Appendix A to Part 136 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Appendix A to Part 136—Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii Section 1... flights conducted in the State of Hawaii under 14 CFR parts 91, 121, and 135. This appendix does not apply...

  19. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  20. 77 FR 48460 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ..., direct final rule concerning household goods consumer protection. The direct final rule amended the... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final...

  1. State enforcement of federal standards: Implications for interstate pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Emma; Kennedy, Peter W. [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    This paper explores the relationship between interstate air pollution and the division of power between federal and state agencies in setting and enforcing standards. In the context of the US Clean Air Act we argue that the EPA is able to monitor the adoption of technology-based standards more closely than it can monitor state-level enforcement, and that this causes an effective division of control between federal and state agencies. Our analysis offers three main insights into the interstate pollution problem in this setting. First, states have an incentive to enforce standards less stringently on firms located close to downwind borders, and this leads to excessive interstate pollution in equilibrium. Second, there can arise an inherent substitutability in the regulatory problem between strict standards and compliance effort, and this creates a strategic linkage between the federal policy on standards and state policies on enforcement. In particular, a tighter federal standard can induce less selective enforcement but can also lead to less enforcement overall. Third, states will attempt to neutralize the impact of location-based federal standards (that specifically target interstate pollution) in a way that actually exacerbates the underlying enforcement problem. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 52.2354 - Interstate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate transport. 52.2354 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2354 Interstate transport. CAA..., Interstate Transport, of the Utah SIP submitted by the Utah Governor on March 22, 2007, satisfies the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.352 - Interstate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate transport. 52.352 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.352 Interstate transport. Addition to the Colorado State Implementation Plan of the Colorado Interstate Transport SIP regarding the 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

  4. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...

  5. Interstate competition and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous theories of globalization have examined factor mobility’s effect on the political conflict\\ud between social classes. But factor mobility also increases competition between state rulers in provid-\\ud ing services for citizens. I ask how this interstate competition affects the process of political change.\\ud In a simple model, interstate competition substitutes for democracy, by forcing rulers to invest in pub-\\ud lic goods so as to avoid capital and labor leaving the country. As a re...

  6. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  7. 75 FR 55494 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection... purpose of the SIP is to provide the air pollution regulations, control strategies, and other means or... effect' resulting from an inversion that has a stagnant air pollution mass surrounded by the Oquirrh...

  8. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  9. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... amenable species, such as processing game meat or for busy times in their retail shops around holidays. The... Service 9 CFR Parts 321, 332, and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...

  10. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... waiver of receipt of printed copies of consumer protection materials. The direct final rule harmonized... receipt of the consumer protection publications ``Your Rights and Responsibilities When You Move,'' and... No. FMCSA-2011-0313] RIN 2126-AB41 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  11. Optimum use of air tankers in initial attack: selection, basing, and transfer rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan

    1982-01-01

    Fire managers face two interrelated problems in deciding the most efficient use of air tankers: where best to base them, and how best to reallocate them each day in anticipation of fire occurrence. A computerized model based on a mixed integer linear program can help in assigning air tankers throughout the fire season. The model was tested using information from...

  12. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... needed to implement the MATS Rule while maintaining the reliability of the electric power system.... These new standards will promote the transition to a cleaner and more efficient U.S. electric power... ensures electric reliability. Analyses conducted by the EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE) indicate...

  13. Fact Sheets: Air Toxics Rules for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 1999 fact sheet for the proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins and a September 2014 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP

  14. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  15. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  16. 76 FR 64237 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...-9480-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants... chemical production and polytetrafluoroethylene operations; from paint, resin, and adhesive manufacturing; and from adhesive and sealant application. This SIP revision also pertains to an addition of a new...

  17. 76 FR 81838 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R06-OAR-2007-0314; FRL-9613-2] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental protection...

  18. Rediscovering the Schulze-Hardy rule in competitive adsorption to an air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Patrick C; Isbell, Stephen G; St Hillaire, Debra; Zasadzinski, Joseph A

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of divalent to monovalent ion concentration necessary to displace the surface-active protein, albumin, by lung surfactant monolayers and multilayers at an air-water interface scales as 2(-6), the same concentration dependence as the critical flocculation concentration (CFC) for colloids with a high surface potential. Confirming this analogy between competitive adsorption and colloid stability, polymer-induced depletion attraction and electrostatic potentials are additive in their effects; the range of the depletion attraction, twice the polymer radius of gyration, must be greater than the Debye length to have an effect on adsorption.

  19. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  20. Discussion on miner's rule in type 304 stainless steel in air at 288degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    The effect of fluctuating stress on the fatigue strength of type 304 stainless steel in air at 288degC was examined. In any of the 2 step increasing stress, 2 step decreasing stress, repeated 2 step stress (high to low), repeated 2 step stress (low to high) and gradual increasing stress, the cumulative usage factor calculated based on the linear damage law exceeds 1. In the 2 step increasing or decreasing stress, the usage factor for the decreasing stress type is larger than the increasing stress type. On the other hand, the cumulative usage factor for the repeated 2 step stress (low to high) is larger than the repeated 2 step stress (high to law), and the usage factor increases with increasing number of cycles at the first stress. The smaller the difference between the first stress and the second stress, the larger the usage factor. In the gradual increasing stress, the usage factor increases with increasing number of cycles at each stress. (author)

  1. Fact Sheets and Questions and Answers for the Final Air Toxics Rules for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the July 1995 final rule fact sheet and the January 2015 proposed rule fact sheet that contains information on the National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, as well as a 2001 Q&A document on the rule

  2. Road Construction Safety Audit for Interstate Reconstruction. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Traffic control alternatives associated with reconstruction projects on a rural interstate have been investigated in this research. Slab replacement projects, milling/resurfacing projects, and traffic controls in the vicinity of interstate ramps were...

  3. Road Construction Safety Audit for Interstate Reconstruction. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Traffic control alternatives associated with reconstruction projects on a rural interstate have been investigated in this research. Slab replacement projects, milling/resurfacing projects, and traffic controls in the vicinity of interstate ramps were...

  4. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  5. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved interstate. (b) Livestock that have been exposed to an animal showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall...

  6. 7 CFR 301.92 - Restrictions on interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on interstate movement. 301.92 Section... Restrictions on interstate movement. (a) No person may move interstate from any quarantined area any regulated... plant that was found infected with Phytophthora ramorum, unless such movement is in accordance with part...

  7. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate commerce). (Walling v. Craig, 53 F. Supp. 479 (D. Minn). See also Engbretson v. E. J. Albrecht Co... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate commerce requirements of exemption. 782.7... HOURS PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 782.7 Interstate commerce requirements of...

  8. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm 2 , both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium

  9. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from Visual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    RULES ( IFR ) AT MOODY AIR FORCE BASE, GEORGIA September 2015 Finding of No Significant Impact Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from...Interactions with Federally- Recognized Tribes. These tribal governments were also consulted regarding impacts to Final EA for VFR- IFR in R-3008A/B/C at Moody...analysis would focus on impacts to these Final EA for VFR- IFR in R-3008A/B/C at Moody AFB September 2015 2-5 resources from proposed activities

  10. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., respectively, and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and ambient air.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Ariel Rios Building, 1200...

  11. EPA's Air Quality Rules for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) and their Application to CHP (Webinar) – June 24, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar discusses the effect of EPA's air quality regulations on CHP facilities and stationary RICE, and describes how CHP systems can comply with air quality regulations by using stationary RICE.

  12. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  13. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  14. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  15. TOURISM AS A POLITICAL INTERSTATE DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International tourism in the 21st century is an important factor in the world politics’ development. The growth of tourist flows and the worldwide scale of travels define tourism as part of the overall internationalization process of socio-economic relations. The tourism industry is developing quite stably and efficiently in many countries. National policies should be focused on obtaining the maximum benefit from international cooperation. The importance of international tourism in political discourse emphasizes the creation of international legal acts regulating the tourism industry, as well as different levels of tourist organizations. International tourism in world politics has a special advantage in resolving disagreements between states. The role of tourism in shaping the image and prestige of the country is noted. Russia’s participation in international tourism projects is a source of cultural, social and economic development. Interstate tours contribute to the development of cultural tourism into the sustainable development policies of countries and regions. A positive trend is the consent of the foreign partners on the inclusion of Russian tourist destinations in the perspective of cultural routes. Purpose. Determination of the political role of tourism in interstate relations. Methodology in article theoretical analysis and descriptive method were used. Results: international tourism in the XXI century is one of the most important factor in world politics. Practical implications. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the further development and improvement of interstate relations by means of tourism.

  16. 77 FR 77004 - Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...] Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection AGENCY: Animal and Plant... data standards required to generate an official interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI... interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The standards were developed with the National...

  17. Trading Hot-Air. The Influence of Permit Allocation Rules, Market Power and the US Withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, G.; Peterson, S.

    2005-01-01

    After the conferences in Bonn and Marrakech, it is likely that international emissions trading will be realized in the near future. Major influences on the permit market are the institutional detail, the participation structure and the treatment of hot-air. Different scenarios not only differ in their implications for the demand and supply of permits and thus the permit price, but also in their allocative effects. In this paper we discuss likely the institutional designs for permit allocation in the hot-air economies and the use of market power and quantify the resulting effects by using the computable general equilibrium model DART. It turns out that the amount of hot-air supplied will be small if hot-air economies cooperate in their decisions. Under welfare maximization, more hot-air is supplied than in the case where governments try to maximize revenues from permit sales

  18. 77 FR 28423 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... classification pursuant to this rule, nor do we believe that such an approach is reasonable. The primary trigger... argue that the EPA cites no legal or rational basis, and none exists, for finding that November 2010 is... areas, nor is there any rational basis for delaying the stronger controls in Denver that would come from...

  19. 77 FR 17344 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendment to HFO-1234yf SNAP Rule for Motor Vehicle Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks H. Executive Order 13211: Actions That.... Clarification of Scope of Requirement for Unique Fittings on Refrigerant Containers During implementation of the... filling of MVAC systems. In this direct final rule, we clarify that the requirement for the unique...

  20. 78 FR 8987 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    .... APHIS-2012-0008] RIN 0579-AD70 Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and... Hawaii quarantine regulations to allow the interstate movement of untreated Sharwil avocados from Hawaii into the continental United States. As a condition of movement, Sharwil avocados from Hawaii would have...

  1. 21 CFR 1240.62 - Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements....62 Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements. (a) Definition. As used in this section the term “turtles” includes all animals commonly known as turtles, tortoises, terrapins, and all other animals of...

  2. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  3. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... date of movement. If a group of captive cervids from a qualified herd is being moved interstate... unclassified herd. (4) Captive cervids being moved interstate for the purpose of exhibition only may be moved... being moved directly from a classified herd, the captive cervid must be isolated from all other animals...

  4. 24 CFR 30.55 - Interstate Land Sales violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate Land Sales violations... Sales violations. (a) General. The Assistant Secretary for Housing-Federal Housing Commissioner, or his... materially violates any provision of the Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure Act (15 U.S.C. 1701 et seq...

  5. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by interstate pipelines. 284.102 Section 284.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation by...

  6. 77 FR 16988 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendment to HFO-1234yf SNAP Rule for Motor Vehicle Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... procedure, Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Stratospheric ozone layer. Dated... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard, Stratospheric Protection Division, Office of Atmospheric... Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and has assigned OMB control numbers 2060-0226 (EPA ICR No. 1596.08...

  7. 5 CFR 5001.103 - Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 5001.103 Section 5001.103 Administrative Personnel INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION § 5001.103 Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A member...

  8. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  9. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  10. Use of Neuber's rule to estimate the fatigue life of notched specimens of ASME SA 106-B steel piping in 2880C air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on notched specimens of ADMESA 106-B piping steel at PWR operating temperatures (288 0 C (550 0 F)), under completely reversed loading. Fatigue limits at 10 7 cycles were estimated for smooth specimens to be 185 M Pa (26.8 ksi) at 24 0 C and 232 MPa (33.7 ksi) at 288 0 C. The higher fatigue strength observed at the PWR temperature is postulated to be caused by dynamic strain aging processes. However, a reduction in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue regime was observed in 288 0 C air environment tests, which may indicate that the current ASME Section III design curve for carbon steels is nonconservative in its positioning. Notch strain histories were estimated for the notched specimen tests using various interpretations of Neuber's rule. It was concluded that the use of the fatigue notch concentration factor (K f ) in the Neuber relation in conjunction with the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain curve provided the best correlation of notched specimen fatigue data with results obtained from smooth specimen tests. The notched specimen strain-life results derived from the application of Neuber's rule alone proved to be conservative when compared with smooth specimen test results to such an extent that Neuber-generated notch stresses and strain amplitudes cannot accurately be compared with the mean data curves derived from the ASME Section III fatigue curves for carbon steels which are based on net section stress measurements. (author)

  11. Generalized interferometry - I: theory for interstation correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Stehly, Laurent; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian

    2017-02-01

    We develop a general theory for interferometry by correlation that (i) properly accounts for heterogeneously distributed sources of continuous or transient nature, (ii) fully incorporates any type of linear and nonlinear processing, such as one-bit normalization, spectral whitening and phase-weighted stacking, (iii) operates for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media, (iv) enables the exploitation of complete correlation waveforms, including seemingly unphysical arrivals, and (v) unifies the earthquake-based two-station method and ambient noise correlations. Our central theme is not to equate interferometry with Green function retrieval, and to extract information directly from processed interstation correlations, regardless of their relation to the Green function. We demonstrate that processing transforms the actual wavefield sources and actual wave propagation physics into effective sources and effective wave propagation. This transformation is uniquely determined by the processing applied to the observed data, and can be easily computed. The effective forward model, that links effective sources and propagation to synthetic interstation correlations, may not be perfect. A forward modelling error, induced by processing, describes the extent to which processed correlations can actually be interpreted as proper correlations, that is, as resulting from some effective source and some effective wave propagation. The magnitude of the forward modelling error is controlled by the processing scheme and the temporal variability of the sources. Applying adjoint techniques to the effective forward model, we derive finite-frequency Fréchet kernels for the sources of the wavefield and Earth structure, that should be inverted jointly. The structure kernels depend on the sources of the wavefield and the processing scheme applied to the raw data. Therefore, both must be taken into account correctly in order to make accurate inferences on

  12. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 64 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, ''Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply.'' Data reported on this form are not considered to be confidential. This publication is the 29th in a series of annual reports on the total gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies since the inception of individual company reports to the Federal Power Commission (FPC) in 1964 for report year 1963

  13. Taxonomy of interstate conflicts: is South America a peaceful region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Franchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits theoretical efforts to classify interstate conflicts. It analyses South America and discuss the adequacy of influential interpretations about the intensity of interstate conflicts in the region as compared to global or other regions ones. The literature takes for granted that South America is a peaceful region. Such interpretation results from the indicators adopted. We argue that traditional indicators do not fully capture latent tensions and the actual level of conflicts in the region. The article suggests an alternative taxonomy that better fits the South America context and argues that a research agenda on the extent and nature of interstate conflics is needed.

  14. Crowdsourcing the Measurement of Interstate Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Vito; Kenwick, Michael; Lane, Matthew; Palmer, Glenn; Reitter, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the data used to measure conflict is extracted from news reports. This is typically accomplished using either expert coders to quantify the relevant information or machine coders to automatically extract data from documents. Although expert coding is costly, it produces quality data. Machine coding is fast and inexpensive, but the data are noisy. To diminish the severity of this tradeoff, we introduce a method for analyzing news documents that uses crowdsourcing, supplemented with computational approaches. The new method is tested on documents about Militarized Interstate Disputes, and its accuracy ranges between about 68 and 76 percent. This is shown to be a considerable improvement over automated coding, and to cost less and be much faster than expert coding.

  15. U.S. interstate pipelines ran more efficiently in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Regulated US interstate pipelines began 1995 under the momentum of impressive efficiency improvements in 1994. Annual reports filed with the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) show that both natural-gas and petroleum liquids pipeline companies increased their net incomes last year despite declining operating revenues. This article discusses trends in the pipeline industry and gives data on the following: pipeline revenues, incomes--1994; current pipeline costs; pipeline costs--estimated vs. actual; current compressor construction costs; compressor costs--estimated vs. actual; US interstate mileage; investment in liquids pipelines; 10-years of land construction costs; top 10 interstate liquids pipelines; top 10 interstate gas pipelines; liquids pipeline companies; and gas pipeline companies

  16. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  17. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. Interstate Economic Integration - Essential Characteristic of the Contemporary World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, the world economy became more and more characterized by an intensification of economic relations between different countries. The complex and diverse problems that faced the states, have imposed necessity for the identification of appropriate solutions to economic cooperation and economic interstate integration was considered an effective way to development and an answer to all these problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the integration process of interstate economic integration in all its essential aspects. The study begins with the definition of the concept and continues with the analysis of the forms of interstate economic integration and the main organizations of this kind that existing in the world economy nowadays.

  19. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... viremia of carp may be moved interstate only if they are being moved directly to a facility to be... to the United States, or which are cattle fever tick infested, shall not be moved interstate. (b... exist in the United States, shall not be moved interstate. (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of...

  20. 76 FR 58741 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...] Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies AGENCY: Federal Energy... the semi-annual storage reporting requirements for Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies... proposes to eliminate the semi-annual storage reporting requirements for: (1) Interstate natural gas...

  1. 77 FR 4220 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...; Order No. 757] Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies AGENCY... eliminates the semi-annual storage reporting requirements for Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies...-annual storage reporting requirements for (1) interstate natural gas companies subject to the Commission...

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated nursery stock may not be moved interstate from a...

  3. 7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 201.31 Section 201.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce, which shall be construed to include hard seed, are determined and...

  4. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is not...

  5. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study...

  6. 9 CFR 82.12 - Other interstate movements and special permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or cleaning and disinfection may be carried out. (1) For an interstate movement, the special permit... interstate; and (iv) The reason for the interstate movement. (2) For destruction or cleaning and disinfection... END, in a manner other than is specifically prescribed in this subpart, and for cleaning and...

  7. 9 CFR 82.10 - Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after being moved interstate. (c) Before moving interstate any vehicles, cages, coops, containers... other containers or equipment used by or to move pet birds moved interstate in accordance with § 82.5(a... generated by or litter used by the birds or poultry, may be moved interstate from a quarantined area only in...

  8. 18 CFR 284.265 - Cost recovery by interstate pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange Transactions... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. 284.265 Section 284.265 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  9. 78 FR 44915 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for... viable turtle eggs and turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to stop the spread of turtle...

  10. 78 FR 44878 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for... 21 CFR 1240.62 on May 23, 1975 (40 FR 22543), that ban the sale and distribution of viable turtle...

  11. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  12. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accredited herd. If a group of captive cervids from an accredited herd is being moved interstate together to... cervids is being moved together, the entire group must be isolated from all other livestock during the... from isolation; or (3) If the captive cervid to be added is not being moved directly from a classified...

  13. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... being moved interstate together to the same destination, all captive cervids in the group may be moved... to the premises of the monitored herd; or (3) If the captive cervid to be added is not being moved... captive cervids is being moved together, the entire group must be isolated from all other animals during...

  14. 15 CFR 930.151 - Interstate coastal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate coastal effect. 930.151...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities...

  15. 33 CFR 329.6 - Interstate or foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate or foreign commerce... commerce. (a) Nature of commerce: type, means, and extent of use. The types of commercial use of a waterway... transportation of commerce which is the determinative factor, and not the time, extent or manner of that use. As...

  16. Final Rule for Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA finalized findings that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from certain classes of engines used in aircraft contribute to the air pollution that causes climate change endangering public health and welfare under section 231(a) of the Clean Air Act.

  17. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Proposed Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Proposed Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule summary, CFR citations and additional resources concerning proposed new emission standards that will begin to take effect in 2007 and corresponding diesel fuel requirements that take effect in 2006.

  19. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: State Commitments to National Low Emission Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing a final rule representing the next step in establishing a voluntary nationwide program to make new cars significantly cleaner burning than today’s current cars.

  20. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE GREENE DOCTRINE: THE SHERMAN ACT, HOWELL JACKSON, AND THE INTERPRETATION OF “INTERSTATE COMMERCE”, 1890 — 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Gresham Hudspeth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution of the judicial interpretation of the term“ interstate commerce” beginning with the enactment the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 and concluding with the Supreme Court’s US. v. Darby decision some 51 years later. As may be recalled, the Fuller Court’s 1895 ruling in E.C. Knight all but destroyed Sherman and allowed most corporate monopolies free reign going into the early twentieth century. Even after Sherman’s revival in Northern Securities, however, the Court’s narrow interpretation of “interstate commerce” continued to effectively thwart federal attempts at economic regulation for the next half century. This paper examines the formulation of the so-called “Greene Doctrine” and its author, future Supreme Court Justice Howell Edmunds Jackson as well as their ultimate impact on American constitutional and economic history.

  1. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeast...

  2. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  3. 75 FR 79079 - Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at New Century AirCenter, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... to Release Airport Property at New Century AirCenter, New Century, Kansas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to... Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21). DATES...

  4. An Exploratory Note on Interstate Living-Cost Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    1985-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to identify factors that systematically influence interstate living-cost differentials. Living costs refer to the average cost of living for a four-person family in each of the 50 states. For the year 1977, the living cost level is found to be an increasing function of population density, average income, and the degree of urbanization, while being a decreasing function of the presence of right-to-work laws.

  5. Trends and fluctuations in the severity of interstate wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Since 1945, there have been relatively few large interstate wars, especially compared to the preceding 30 years, which included both World Wars. This pattern, sometimes called the long peace, is highly controversial. Does it represent an enduring trend caused by a genuine change in the underlying conflict-generating processes? Or is it consistent with a highly variable but otherwise stable system of conflict? Using the empirical distributions of interstate war sizes and onset times from 1823 to 2003, we parameterize stationary models of conflict generation that can distinguish trends from statistical fluctuations in the statistics of war. These models indicate that both the long peace and the period of great violence that preceded it are not statistically uncommon patterns in realistic but stationary conflict time series. This fact does not detract from the importance of the long peace or the proposed mechanisms that explain it. However, the models indicate that the postwar pattern of peace would need to endure at least another 100 to 140 years to become a statistically significant trend. This fact places an implicit upper bound on the magnitude of any change in the true likelihood of a large war after the end of the Second World War. The historical patterns of war thus seem to imply that the long peace may be substantially more fragile than proponents believe, despite recent efforts to identify mechanisms that reduce the likelihood of interstate wars. PMID:29507877

  6. the rules of international law that regulate the use of interstate force

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from a case of special treaty right, intervention wasn't so much a right as sanction against a, wrong or threatened wrong. Theoretically the legality of inter- vention by states acting together had to be judged by the same tests as that of intervention by a single state, but politically and morally a distinction might sometimes.

  7. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  8. 77 FR 21145 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart... Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B (formerly Subpart Q) of... convenience and necessity authorizing People Express to engage in interstate scheduled air transportation of...

  9. 14 CFR 399.40 - Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs for domestic air transportation on... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.40 Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983. The Board will not approve or accept any tariff filings for interstate of overseas air transportation...

  10. 77 FR 66398 - Partial Approval and Disapproval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...(a)(2)(J) (in part): PSD. Section 110 (a)(2)(K): Air quality modeling and submission of monitoring... fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), interstate pollution abatement, and air quality models and modeling... (``Violations; injunctive relief''), 49-463 (``Violations; civil penalties''), and 49- 465 (``Air pollution...

  11. The study of international and interstate transport of ozone in Yuma, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Sonenberg, M.; Wood, J. L.; Pearson, C. R.; Colson, H.; Malloy, J. W.; Pace, M.; Mao, F.; Paul, J.; Busby, B. R.; Parkey, B.; Drago, L.; Franquist, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2015, EPA reduced the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb. Meeting the new standard may be extremely challenging for some areas, including rural Yuma County in the State of Arizona. Yuma County faces unique air quality challenges, since it borders the Mexican states of Baja California and Sonora, and the State of California. The present study investigates the contribution of international and interstate transport of ozone and ozone precursors to episodes of elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) merged HYSPLIT modeling outputs with two years of hourly ground ozone monitor data to investigate the potential area contributions to ozone concentrations in Yuma County. This analysis found that elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma in 2014 and 2015 frequently coincided with back-trajectories over both California and Mexico, typically favoring Mexico during the spring. In May 2017, ADEQ installed a new ozone monitor in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico (Latitude: 32.4665, Longitude: -114.7688), which is 29 km south of ozone site in Yuma County. We will present the first simultaneous observations of ozone seasons in Sonora, Mexico, eastern California, and Yuma.

  12. 78 FR 18364 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Shipment Report of Theft/Loss ACTION: 60-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol... Form/Collection: Interstate Firearms Shipment Report of Theft/Loss. (3) Agency form number, if any, and... report losses or thefts of firearms from interstate shipments. ATF uses this information to ensure that...

  13. 78 FR 36580 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Shipment Report of Theft/Loss ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol... Form/Collection: Interstate Firearms Shipment Report of Theft/Loss. (3) Agency form number, if any, and... report losses or thefts of firearms from interstate shipments. ATF uses this information to ensure that...

  14. 77 FR 51792 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 7, 2012, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C. (CIG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a certificate of...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-10 - Interstate movement of regulated articles through a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... articles being moved interstate, and the date the interstate movement began. (b) The regulated article is moved through the quarantined area without being unloaded, and no regulated article, except regulated... through a quarantined area. Any regulated article not produced in a quarantined area may be moved...

  16. 77 FR 36932 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... use of energy. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 375 Advertising, Arbitration, Consumer protection...--TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  17. 75 FR 80758 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...] Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies December 16, 2010... natural gas pipelines to report semi-annually on their storage activities. This Notice of Inquiry will... reports required of interstate and intrastate natural gas companies pursuant to 18 CFR 284.13(e) and 284...

  18. 25 CFR 20.513 - Should Interstate Compacts be used for the placement of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... children? 20.513 Section 20.513 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.513 Should Interstate Compacts be used for the placement of children? Interstate compact agreements should be used when...

  19. 45 CFR 660.11 - What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Director's obligations in interstate... SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.11 What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations? (a) The Director is responsible...

  20. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... § 382.203 Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. (a) The adjusted costs of administration of...

  1. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at least...

  2. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65 Section 201.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce...

  3. 18 CFR 284.223 - Transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of shippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of shippers. 284.223 Section 284.223 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... by Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.223...

  4. 28 CFR 20.36 - Participation in the Interstate Identification Index System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation in the Interstate Identification Index System. 20.36 Section 20.36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE... in the Interstate Identification Index System. (a) In order to acquire and retain direct access to...

  5. 9 CFR 82.24 - Other interstate movements and special permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issued, and the special conditions under which the interstate movement, or cleaning and disinfection, may...; and (iv) The reason for the interstate movement. (2) For cleaning and disinfection, the special permit... prescribed by this subpart. A special permit is required for the disinfection of vehicles, premises, cages...

  6. 78 FR 34635 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Collection; Interstate Movement of Certain Land Tortoises AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for the interstate movement of certain land tortoises. DATES: We will consider all... regulations for the interstate movement of certain land tortoises, contact Dr. Christa Speekmann, Import...

  7. 75 FR 31747 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of Certain... interstate movement of certain land tortoises. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the interstate movement of certain land...

  8. 9 CFR 78.2 - Handling of certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... âSâ brand permits for interstate movement of animals. 78.2 Section 78.2 Animals and Animal Products... certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals. (a) Any certificate, permit, or “S” brand permit required by this part for the interstate movement of animals shall be delivered...

  9. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J.L.; Kolpa, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    . Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., those pipelines designed for in-plant transport of hydrogen for use as feedstock or fuel are not counted). Operational status and hydrogen purity levels are also factors in defining these ranges. Hydrogen pipelines in the United States are predominantly along the Gulf Coast and connect major hydrogen producers with well-established, long-term customers. These hydrogen transmission systems pall by comparison with the 180,000-mile natural gas transmission pipeline. Since 1939, Germany has had a 130-mile pipeline carrying 20,000 lb/hour of hydrogen in a 10-inch pipe at 290 psi gauge (psig). The longest hydrogen pipeline in Europe is owned by Air Liquide and extends 250 miles from Northern France to Belgium. In theory, a blend of up to 20% hydrogen in natural gas can be transported without modifying natural gas pipelines (Oney et al. 1994)

  10. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., those pipelines designed for in-plant transport of hydrogen for use as feedstock or fuel are not counted). Operational status and hydrogen purity levels are also factors in defining these ranges. Hydrogen pipelines in the United States are predominantly along the Gulf Coast and connect major hydrogen producers with well-established, long-term customers. These hydrogen transmission systems pall by comparison with the 180,000-mile natural gas transmission pipeline. Since 1939, Germany has had a 130-mile pipeline carrying 20,000 lb/hour of hydrogen in a 10-inch pipe at 290 psi gauge (psig). The longest hydrogen pipeline in Europe is owned by Air Liquide and extends 250 miles from Northern France to Belgium. In theory, a blend of up to 20% hydrogen in natural gas can be transported without modifying natural gas pipelines (Oney et al. 1994).

  11. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  12. Risk Management Plan (RMP) Rule Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments, this rule contains regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that use extremely hazardous substances, and aids in emergency preparedness and response.

  13. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  14. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  15. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  16. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  17. 78 FR 78809 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Competition Bureau, Pricing Policy Division, (202) 418-1520 or [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY... 1.46 of the Commission's rules provides that ``[i]t is the policy of the Commission that extensions...

  18. New Source Review (NSR) Air Permitting and Energy Efficiency for Industrial Projects, IECA Manufacturers for Energy Efficiency Coalition Meeting (Presentation) – April 18, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides information about major new source review (NSR), including recent improvement changes and court rulings, flexible air permits rule, significant deterioration rules, and energy efficiency considerations.

  19. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Interstate Highway Network for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The INTERSTATES layer contains the Interstate Highway network, using NAVTEQ Functional Class=1 for United States and Canada. This 5 layer SDC dataset represents a...

  20. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  1. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  2. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T

    2017-09-01

    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1393 - Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adoption package. In a May 10, 2007 e-mail to Domenico Mastrangelo, EPA, Debra Wolfe, of the Montana... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate Transport Declaration for... (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1393 Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. The...

  5. 75 FR 64779 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City, Cook County, and New Jersey Tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... interstate commerce. United Parcel Service, Inc. (UPS) commented that, as an interstate carrier operating in... Registration Plan under section 31704 [of title 49, United States Code]; (2) Under the International Fuel Tax Agreement under section 31705 [of title 49, United States Code]; (3) Under a State law regarding motor...

  6. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  7. 76 FR 34033 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Interstate Movement of Sheep... movement of sheep and goats to control the spread of scrapie. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the interstate movement of sheep...

  8. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific purposes. A... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific purposes. 301.75-9 Section 301.75-9 Agriculture Regulations of...

  9. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  10. Inter-state coupling and definitions of bright and dark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensik, Miroslav; Nespurek, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to a standard definition of diabatic states (i.e., those without momentum-dependent coupling), based on the construction from adiabatic ones, we defined diabatic states as bright and dark states of a given experiment. Namely, they are defined as states providing maximum, respectively, zero value of electronic transition dipole moments projected to a given polarization vector. Second, the state from (or to) which the optical transition is performed is not from the space of investigated electronic excited state manifold, but it is chosen by the observer. It is shown, for this case, that the inter-state coupling is a general function of vibrational coordinates. The explicit dependence of the inter-state coupling on vibrational coordinates is particularly important for system with strong Stokes shift. The role of exact definitions of bright and dark states as well as the inter-state coupling is discussed with respect to the coherent structure of electronic population observed in optical spectroscopy

  11. 78 FR 56129 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... rule would benefit Hawaii avocado growers, the economy of Hawaii, and consumers on the mainland... movement or layovers for shipments of Sharwil avocado to the mainland. For example, a plane carrying... by the United States are Hass. Given our limited understanding of the strength of consumers...

  12. 78 FR 2039 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... waiver of Tribal sovereignty. Tribal lands have defined borders that cannot be bisected by State borders... proposed rule implying a waiver of Tribal sovereignty, nor did the commenter cite any specific problem... than 24 hours that are needed for food, water, or rest en route if the animals are moved in any other...

  13. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  14. Fact Sheet: Proposed Rule: State Plans to Address Emissions During Startup, Shutdown, and Malfunction (SSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 12, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a rule that would ensure states have plans in place that require industrial facilities across the country to follow air pollution rules during SSM operations.

  15. 76 FR 43136 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plan; Kentucky; Disapproval of Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... resistant to exploring a legislative approach to fixing some of the SIP issues, yet the correct process... economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Small entities include small businesses, small... independently owned and operated and is not dominant in its field. After considering the economic impacts of...

  16. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  17. 76 FR 20365 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure Requirements AGENCY: Office of... Sales, Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410, telephone (202) 708... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses...

  18. 47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... filed pursuant to § 54.903(a)(4) shall reflect the transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction... transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction Interstate Common Line Support shall be subject to true up by... for transferred exchanges. 54.902 Section 54.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  19. 78 FR 22560 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives [OMB Number 1140-0004] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Interstate Firearms Shipment Report of Theft/Loss Correction In notice document 2013-06779, appearing on page 18364 in the...

  20. 18 CFR 284.266 - Rates and charges for interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange Transactions... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates and charges for interstate pipelines. 284.266 Section 284.266 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  1. 78 FR 66841 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1240 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for...

  2. 77 FR 75936 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... add more current medical terminology where appropriate. HHS/CDC has determined that this NPRM is... proposing to update the definitions for interstate quarantine regulations to reflect modern terminology and..., under section 70.1, to reflect modern terminology and plain language commonly used by private sector...

  3. 77 FR 75880 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... definitions related to the control of communicable diseases and add more current medical terminology where... definitions for interstate quarantine regulations to reflect modern terminology and plain language used by..., under section 70.1, to reflect modern terminology and plain language commonly used by private sector...

  4. Escalation and Resolution of Border Disputes and Interstate Conflicts in Africa: The Malawi-Tanzania Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    William Shakespeare , The Merchant of Venice A. INTRODUCTION Nations go to war for several reasons, among them disputes over interstate boundaries...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ...6 II. CONCEPTUALIZING BORDER CONFLICT RESOLUTION ............................7 A. INTRODUCTION

  5. 28 CFR 30.11 - What are the Attorney General's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the Attorney General's... INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 30.11 What are the Attorney General's obligations in interstate situations? (a) The Attorney General is responsible for: (1) Identifying proposed...

  6. 78 FR 54485 - Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC); a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Hostess Brands, Inc.; Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,165D] Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC); a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Hostess Brands, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Brands Corporation (IBC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Hostess Brands, Inc., operating at locations...

  7. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulated article is a soil sample being moved to a laboratory approved by the Administrator 3 to process... moving regulated articles, and to inspect the articles being moved and the means of conveyance. Articles... quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a quarantined area into or through...

  8. Case: The Ethics and Economics of Expanding Interstate 69 in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2000-01-01

    Presents and discusses a case used in a business communication class that centers on an interstate highway extension in southern Indiana. Describes the rationale for teaching the case, and student responses. Notes that, in confronting these issues, students learn to see that facts yield to different interpretations based on differing perspectives…

  9. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however, did not propose to adopt two standards it found... Wholesale Gas Quadrant of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas...

  10. 77 FR 10415 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines.\\1\\ The Commission also... Quadrant (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  11. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...; Order No. 587-V] Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. In addition, based on... (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  12. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department... Rulemaking (NPRM) that solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations...

  13. The Interstate Migration of U.S. Immigrants: Individual and Contextual Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample indicates that interstate migration during 1985-90 was less common for immigrant men than for non-Hispanic, White, native-born men. This difference was most strongly related to human capital factors (age, education, self-employment), followed by social capital factors (nativity group concentration)…

  14. 7 CFR 301.52 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Texas. (b) Regulated articles. No common carrier or other person shall move interstate from any... articles: (1) Cotton and wild cotton, including all parts of these plants. (2) Seed cotton. (3) Cottonseed...

  15. 9 CFR 72.18 - Movement interstate; specification by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services of treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement interstate; specification by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities..., Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities unavailable. (a) Tick-infested cattle...

  16. 47 CFR 61.26 - Tariffing of competitive interstate switched exchange access services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... switched exchange access services that prices those services above the higher of: (1) The rate charged for... equivalent of the ILEC interstate exchange access services typically associated with following rate elements... switched exchange access services shall mean the composite, per-minute rate for these services, including...

  17. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  18. 49 CFR 17.11 - What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate situations? 17.11 Section 17.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.11 What are the Secretary's...

  19. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... identified to its flock of origin and, for an animal born after January 1, 2002, to its flock of birth, by... without identification to flock of birth until June 1, 2003, and animals that cannot be identified to...

  20. 16 CFR 1061.9 - Information about the effect on interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the anticipated effect of the requirement on the availability or continued marketing of the product. (3) Any other information indicating the economic impact of compliance with the State or local... manufacturers, distributors, or retailers of the product) showing advertising in the interstate market...

  1. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  2. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  3. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  4. Association-rule-based tuberculosis disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.

  5. New Source Review and coal plant efficiency gains: How new and forthcoming air regulations affect outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Sarah K.; Hoppock, David C.; Monast, Jonas J.

    2014-01-01

    Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO 2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO 2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO 2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO 2 regulations for existing plants

  6. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  7. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  8. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  9. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  10. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  11. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  12. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  13. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.

    2018-01-16

    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  14. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  15. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  16. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Modification of Federal Onboard Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks; Extension of Acceptance of California OBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action finalizes modifications to the federal on-board diagnostics regulations, including: harmonizing the emission levels above which a component or system is considered malfunctioning with those of the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  17. 40 CFR 52.1780 - VOC rule deficiency correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Carolina § 52.1780 VOC rule... Region IV Air Division Director to the Chief of the Air Quality Section, North Carolina Division of... deficiency must be corrected as soon as EPA issues final guidance on Capture Efficiency regulations. (b...

  18. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  19. Regional-interstate site-review procedure: low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The attributes of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) enable it to view federal/state interface problem areas from a perspective that can be uniquely constructive. The board is sensitive to the interests of both federal and state levels of government since it is composed of member states with common regional interests and confirmed by federal legislative action. It has been most effective when exercising a leadership role in finding procedures and practices that use the resources of both levels of government that are mutually supportive and nonduplicative. SSEB began an NRC-funded effort in that direction related to nuclear power plant siting in June 1975, entitled Regional-Interstate Nuclear Facility Siting Procedure Demonstration Project. SSEB approached the problem by working with interested states to analyze various elements of the licensing process, in particular with NEPA review procedures for interstate coordination where potential impacts extend beyond a single state and where the facility serves an interstate or regional need. SSEB also served as a catalyst in the development of a region-wide nuclear facility siting procedure that could improve the effectiveness and timeliness of the regulatory process

  20. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  1. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  2. 14 CFR 91.113 - Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is on final approach to land or to... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight... pass well clear. (g) Landing. Aircraft, while on final approach to land or while landing, have the...

  3. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  4. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  5. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY... approved revisions to Ohio regulations that consolidated air quality standards in a new chapter of rules... State's air quality standards into Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) 3745-25 and modifying an assortment of...

  6. Fuzzy Rule Suram for Wood Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Zakarias

    2017-12-01

    Implemented of fuzzy rule must used a look-up table as defuzzification analysis. Look-up table is the actuator plant to doing the value of fuzzification. Rule suram based of fuzzy logic with variables of weather is temperature ambient and humidity ambient, it implemented for wood drying process. The membership function of variable of state represented in error value and change error with typical map of triangle and map of trapezium. Result of analysis to reach 4 fuzzy rule in 81 conditions to control the output system can be constructed in a number of way of weather and conditions of air. It used to minimum of the consumption of electric energy by heater. One cycle of schedule drying is a serial of condition of chamber to process as use as a wood species.

  7. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  8. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  9. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  11. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  12. Adsorption of egg phosphatidylcholine to an air/water and triolein/water bubble interface: use of the 2-dimensional phase rule to estimate the surface composition of a phospholipid/triolein/water surface as a function of surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M

    2010-03-11

    Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi.

  13. Characterizing interstate vibrational coherent dynamics of surface adsorbed catalysts by fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.

  14. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  15. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  16. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  17. Life fraction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations for lifetime estimation of high temperature loaded HTR-components under creep fatigue load had been performed. The evaluations were carried out on the basis of experimental data of strain controlled fatigue tests with respectively without hold times performed on material NiCr 22 Co 12 Mo (Inconel 617). Life prediction was made by means of the linear damage accumulation rule. Due to the high temperatures no realistic estimates of creep damage can be obtained with this rule. Therefore the rule was modified. The modifications consist in a different analysis of the relaxation curve including different calculation of the creep damage estimate resp. in an extended rule, taking into consideration the interaction between creep and fatigue. In order to reach a better result transparency and to reduce data set dependent result scattering a round robin with a given data set was carried out. The round robin yielded that for a given test temperature of T = 950deg C realistic estimate of damage can be obtained with each modification. Furthermore a reduction of resulting scatterbands in the interaction diagram can be observed, i.e. the practicability of the rule has been increased. (orig.)

  18. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET....../PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic...

  19. 9 CFR 71.17 - Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or other animals. 71.17 Section 71.17 Animals and... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.17 Interstate movement...

  20. 9 CFR 85.7 - Interstate movement of swine not vaccinated for pseudorabies and not known to be infected with or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 85.1, states the identification of the farm of origin of each swine being moved by a means of... pseudorabies shall only be moved interstate in accordance with the following provisions: (a) Movement for... pseudorabies may be moved interstate for slaughter without further restriction under this part directly to a...

  1. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  2. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  3. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  4. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  5. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  6. Comparison of daytime and night-time populations adjacent to interstate highways in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daytime and night-time population densities bordering Interstate highway routes in metropolitan areas are compared at the traffic analysis zone level. In three of the metropolitan areas studied, histograms of daytime to night-time population density ratios are peaked at 1.0. In a smaller metropolitan area, the peak of the histogram moves to values greater than 1.0 but less than 2.0. In view of the typical uncertainties in calculating radiological transport effects (∼2), this study indicates that a distinction between daytime and night-time transport is not warranted, especially since a typical route includes extensive transport outside metropolitan areas. (author)

  7. Interstate Differences on Economic Growth Rates in Australia, 1953-54 to 1990-91

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, P; Harris, D

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines interstate differences in economic growth rates in Australia over the period 1953-54 to 1990-91 using a six State classification (with ACT included in New South Wales and the Northern Territory in South Australia). The economic growth rate is measured by the increase in constant price gross state product at factor cost (GSP) per head of population over time, using three year moving averages of GSP and population to remove some of the annual fluctuations in the data. The an...

  8. Interstation phase speed and amplitude measurements of surface waves with nonlinear waveform fitting: application to USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2015-09-01

    A new method of fully nonlinear waveform fitting to measure interstation phase speeds and amplitude ratios is developed and applied to USArray. The Neighbourhood Algorithm is used as a global optimizer, which efficiently searches for model parameters that fit two observed waveforms on a common great-circle path by modulating the phase and amplitude terms of the fundamental-mode surface waves. We introduce the reliability parameter that represents how well the waveforms at two stations can be fitted in a time-frequency domain, which is used as a data selection criterion. The method is applied to observed waveforms of USArray for seismic events in the period from 2007 to 2010 with moment magnitude greater than 6.0. We collect a large number of phase speed data (about 75 000 for Rayleigh and 20 000 for Love) and amplitude ratio data (about 15 000 for Rayleigh waves) in a period range from 30 to 130 s. The majority of the interstation distances of measured dispersion data is less than 1000 km, which is much shorter than the typical average path-length of the conventional single-station measurements for source-receiver pairs. The phase speed models for Rayleigh and Love waves show good correlations on large scales with the recent tomographic maps derived from different approaches for phase speed mapping; for example, significant slow anomalies in volcanic regions in the western Unites States and fast anomalies in the cratonic region. Local-scale phase speed anomalies corresponding to the major tectonic features in the western United States, such as Snake River Plains, Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Rift have also been identified clearly in the phase speed models. The short-path information derived from our interstation measurements helps to increase the achievable horizontal resolution. We have also performed joint inversions for phase speed maps using the measured phase and amplitude ratio data of vertical component Rayleigh waves. These maps exhibit

  9. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  10. New Jersey proposes rule reducing NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy has proposed a rule requiring utility and industrial sources to significantly reduce their emission levels of nitrogen oxide (NO x ). If approved, it will be the first major rule mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to affect New Jersey's stationary sources of these air pollutants - primarily electric generating utilities and other large fossil fuel burning facilities. The proposed rule requires all facilities with the potential to emit 25 tons or more of NO x each year to install reasonably available control technology by May 30, 1995. According to Richard Sinding, the environment and energy agency's assistant commissioner for policy and planning, the rule will likely require installation of low-NO x burners or other modifications to the combustion process. Sinding says the proposed rule will reduce the State's NO x emissions by approximately 30,000 tons a year, roughly 30 percent from current levels from these stationary sources. The pollution prevention measures are estimated to cost approximately $1,000 for each ton of NO x removed. The state energy agency estimates the average residential utility customer will see an increase in the monthly electric bill of about 50 cents. The agency said the proposed regulation includes provisions to make implementation more flexible and less costly for achieving the NO x reductions. It has approved the use of natural gas during the ozone season if low-NO x burners are not available. Additionally, emissions may be averaged from all units at the same utility or company location, effectively allowing a company to select the most cost-effective method of achieving the required emissions reductions

  11. Volcanically-Induced Nile Flood Failure Promotes Internal Revolt and Suppresses Interstate Conflict in Hellenistic Egypt, 305-30 BCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Francis; Manning, Joseph; Stine, Alexander; Boos, William; Storelvmo, Trude; Sigl, Michael; Marlon, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are a primary driver of abrupt short-term climatic changes. State-of-the-art revisions to polar ice-core chronologies now allow us to track the impacts of a sequence of major and closely-recurring volcanic eruptions on the great Ptolemaic kingdom centred in Egypt, between 305-30 BCE. This was a formidable Mediterranean cultural and economic power in the efflorescent Hellenistic era of the first four centuries BCE, a period bracketed by Alexander the Great on one end and Cleopatra on the other, and known for its considerable advancement in science and material culture. In this paper we show a link between major volcanic eruptions that register through elevated sulphate deposition in the polar ice, and a suppression of the agriculturally-critical Nile summer flood, identifiable in annual Nilometer measurements from Rhoda, Cairo, between 641 and 1469 CE. This likely relates to a volcanic perturbation of the East African monsoon, responsible for the rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands that drives the annual summer flood, and the effect can also be identified in ancient papyri that indicate the quality of the Nile flood in the first several centuries BCE. Volcanic eruptions in this period are also shown to correspond in timing with the initiation of a series of hitherto poorly understood internal revolts against Ptolemaic rule in Egypt, while also corresponding in timing to the cessation of major interstate conflicts (the nine "Syrian Wars", running 274-96 BCE) between the Ptolemaic kingdom and their powerful Near Eastern rival, the Seleukid empire. Subsistence crises driven by volcanically-induced suppression of the Nile flood are likely to have played a key causal role in these events, an understanding that helps to advance our knowledge of the major historical events of the formative Hellenistic era, which set the scene for the rise of the Roman Empire. Our findings also suggest the potential of integrating human and natural archives to

  12. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  13. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  14. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  15. Rules of (Student) Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Busler, Jessica N.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of student engagement in terms of hands-on activities that get students involved in their courses. They seldom consider the larger aspects of the teaching--learning environment that often influence the extent to which students are willing to become engaged in their coursework. In this chapter, we describe five "rules of…

  16. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  17. Ten-day rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors argue against R.H. Mole's paper (Lancet, Dec. 12 1987), supporting the relaxation of ICRP recommendations and the DHSS decision to withdraw the 10 day rule in relation to diagnostic radiography for menstruating women, and draw attention to the recent refinement of estimates of the enhanced risk of childhood cancers, following diagnostic radiography during pregnancy. (U.K.)

  18. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  19. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1159...

  20. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  1. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  2. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  3. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  4. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These rules were adopted by the PCAPCD and FRAQMD to regulate the construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA is proposing to approve these SIP revisions based on the Agency's conclusion that the rules are consistent with applicable Clean Air Act (CAA) requirements, policies and guidance. Final approval of these rules would make the rules federally enforceable and correct program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011).

  5. Results of the radiological survey at Exit 4, Interstate 90, Albany, New York (AL212)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at Exit 4 between Yardboro Avenue and Interstate 90 in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated April 27, 1987. The area of survey of the property of the State of New York was the north side of the right-of-way of Interstate 90 (I-90) at Exit 4 (the Slingerlands exit) from the fence along the south side of Yardboro Avenue to the berm of the west-bound lanes of I-90. The survey, starting at the I-90 bridge over Central Avenue continued west for approximately 570 m. The width of the area ranged from /approximately/10 m to 195 m. To perform the survey, a network of sectors forming a grid was established, beginning with a series of basing points measured at /approximately/23-m intervals at the fence along Yardboro Avenue. Sectors were set by projection of lines from the basing points, perpendicular to the fence, to the berm of I-90. Then parallel lines at 23-m intervals were set. 12 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. → Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. → Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  7. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are

  8. Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    RMP implements Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, and requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a Risk Management Plan and revise/resubmit every five years. Find guidance, factsheets, training, and assistance.

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  11. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  12. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. PF12-12-000; PF12-13-000] Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Cameron Pipeline Expansion Project and Cameron LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  13. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from outside the quarantined area that are being moved in accordance with the protocols described in a... movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas. Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a quarantined area 3 only if moved under the following conditions: 3 Requirements under all other applicable...

  15. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conveyance containing any animals susceptible to tuberculosis unless all of the animals are being moved... cattle or bison may be moved interstate only if they are moved directly to slaughter at an approved... representative or moved directly to slaughter in vehicles closed with official seals. Such official seals must be...

  16. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrival of the eggs at the facility. (b) Any flats or cases intended for reuse after being used to move... part 71 of this chapter before being moved to a premises where birds or poultry are kept. [61 FR 56883... be moved interstate from a quarantined area only if: (1) The eggs are accompanied by a permit...

  17. 78 FR 63448 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From Puerto Rico Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... States of fresh sapote fruit from Puerto Rico. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we... announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the interstate... measures if: (1) No comments were received on the pest risk analysis; (2) the comments on the pest risk...

  18. 76 FR 3075 - Notice of Decision to Allow Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into the Continental United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review and comment through a previous... announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the interstate... measures if: (1) No comments were received on the pest risk analysis; (2) the comments on the pest risk...

  19. 76 FR 62339 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto Rico into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... States of fresh rambutan fruit from Puerto Rico. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we... movement of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject... pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the interstate movement of a particular...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2140 - Interstate pollutant transport provisions; What are the FIP requirements for decreases in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years. (b)(1) The owner and operator of each NOX source located within the State of South Carolina and...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2140 Interstate pollutant...) The owner and operator of each source located within the State of South Carolina and for which...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1784 - Interstate pollutant transport provisions; What are the FIP requirements for decreases in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years. (b)(1) The owner and operator of each NOX source located within the State of North Carolina and...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Carolina § 52.1784 Interstate pollutant...) The owner and operator of each source located within the State of North Carolina and for which...

  2. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... require tests in interstate markets of the advantages to and acceptance by consumers of experimental packs... Administration, or good cause shown by the applicant, may provide for a longer test market period. The Food and... determined. (c) Any person desiring a permit may file with the Team Leader, Conventional Foods Team, Division...

  3. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  4. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  5. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  6. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  7. Proof Rules for Recursive Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1993-01-01

    Four proof rules for recursive procedures in a Pascal-like language are presented. The main rule deals with total correctness and is based on results of Gries and Martin. The rule is easier to apply than Martin's. It is introduced as an extension of a specification format for Pascal-procedures, with

  8. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  9. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  10. Downwind evolution of the volatility and mixing state of near-road aerosols near a US interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K.; Khlystov, Andrey; Grieshop, Andrew P.

    2018-02-01

    We present spatial measurements of particle volatility and mixing state at a site near a North Carolina interstate highway (I-40) applying several heating (thermodenuder; TD) experimental approaches. Measurements were conducted in summer 2015 and winter 2016 in a roadside trailer (10 m from road edge) and during downwind transects at different distances from the highway under favorable wind conditions using a mobile platform. Results show that the relative abundance of semi-volatile species (SVOCs) in ultrafine particles decreases with downwind distance, which is consistent with the dilution and mixing of traffic-sourced particles with background air and evaporation of semi-volatile species during downwind transport. An evaporation kinetics model was used to derive particle volatility distributions by fitting TD data. While the TD-derived distribution apportions about 20-30 % of particle mass as semi-volatile (SVOCs; effective saturation concentration, C∗ ≥ 1µm-3) at 10 m from the road edge, approximately 10 % of particle mass is attributed to SVOCs at 220 m, showing that the particle-phase semi-volatile fraction decreases with downwind distance. The relative abundance of semi-volatile material in the particle phase increased during winter. Downwind spatial gradients of the less volatile particle fraction (that remaining after heating at 180 °C) were strongly correlated with black carbon (BC). BC size distribution and mixing state measured using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) at the roadside trailer showed that a large fraction (70-80 %) of BC particles were externally mixed. Heating experiments with a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) also showed that the nonvolatile fraction in roadside aerosols is mostly externally mixed. V-TDMA measurements at different distances downwind from the highway indicate that the mixing state of roadside aerosols does not change significantly (e.g., BC mostly remains externally mixed) within a

  11. Integrational Models and Forms of Inter-State Public-Private Partnership: Aspects of Financial Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA KULAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examined the main models and forms of public-private partnership, their role in the socio-economic development and deepening of financial convergence of countries-participants of the partnership. The attention was paid to decentralization of inter-state forms of public-private partnership as the basis of cross-border and transnational partnership. The scientific research, described in this publication, have found their practical application in the realization of the project within Euro-region “Bug”. This project has founded a joined Ukrainian – Polish institution of labor migration administration and also of granting necessary permissions for realization activities within Ukraine.

  12. Field Measurement and Calibration of HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Model on Interstate Highway in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumptions are measured by operating passenger car and tractor-trailer on two interstate roadway sites in Florida. Each site contains flexible pavement and rigid pavement with similar pavement, traffic and environmental condition. Field test reveals that the average fuel consumption differences between vehicle operating on flexible pavement and rigid pavement at given test condition are 4.04% for tractor-trailer and 2.50% for passenger car, with a fuel saving on rigid pavement. The fuel consumption differences are found statistically significant at 95% confidence level for both vehicle types. Test data are then used to calibrate the Highway Development and Management IV (HDM-4 fuel consumption model and model coefficients are obtained for three sets of observations. Field measurement and prediction by calibrated model shows generally good agreement. Nevertheless, verification and adjustment with more experiment or data sources would be expected in future studies.

  13. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges

  14. Data processing and optimization system to study prospective interstate power interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkovalnikov, Sergei; Trofimov, Ivan; Trofimov, Leonid

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents Data processing and optimization system for studying and making rational decisions on the formation of interstate electric power interconnections, with aim to increasing effectiveness of their functioning and expansion. The technologies for building and integrating a Data processing and optimization system including an object-oriented database and a predictive mathematical model for optimizing the expansion of electric power systems ORIRES, are described. The technology of collection and pre-processing of non-structured data collected from various sources and its loading to the object-oriented database, as well as processing and presentation of information in the GIS system are described. One of the approaches of graphical visualization of the results of optimization model is considered on the example of calculating the option for expansion of the South Korean electric power grid.

  15. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  16. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  17. OZI rule and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.A.; Zahed, I.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strangeness mixing in the QCD vacuum described as a quantum disordered phase of instantons and anti-instantons. We find that the constituent mass of the light quarks is a decreasing function of the current quark masses, and that its mass is almost insensitive to the value of the strange quark mass. Our results cannot account for a breach in the OZI rule in the vacuum. The relevance of this result for the amount of santi s pairs in the nucleon and the pion-nucleon sigma term is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  19. Evaluating the impacts of grades on vehicular speeds on interstate highways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Chen

    Full Text Available Grade variation on interstate highways affects the roadway geometric design, vehicle performance and driver behavior, thus possibly exerting an unexpected effect on vehicular speed. Hence, determining the internal relationship between grade and speed is important and useful for drivers, traffic regulators and other traffic participants. However, the problem with performing this research is the lack of large-scale gradient and speed data. Google Earth (GE provides an application programming interface for extracting elevation data worldwide. The elevation dataset from GE can be easily converted to grade data. In addition, our team has collected and stored speed series data for different freeways over several years. Based on the above obtainable grade and speed datasets, we conducted research on the effect of grades on free flow speeds from two perspectives. First, the influence of grades on speed was analyzed from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The analysis of the distributions of four typical types of speeds demonstrated a decreasing tendency as the speed increased. Steeper grades generated a more intense speed fluctuation in terms of the four types of speeds. Second, a model based on the Student's t-test was developed to evaluate the level of significant difference among speed series under neighboring grades. The Student's t-test demonstrated that adjacent grades do not significantly influence the speeds. In summary, speeds under different grades showed obviously different tendencies. The findings of this study can help transport authorities set more reasonable speed limits and improve the geometric design of interstates with grade variation constraints.

  20. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer continental shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting... Solvents (Adopted 10/23/78) Rule 325 Crude Oil Production and Separation (Adopted 07/19/01) Rule 326... (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 805 Air Quality Impact Analysis and Modeling (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 808 New Source...

  1. Air ions and aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4 endash 1.8 nm. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. A method of mapping sinkhole susceptibility using a geographic information system : a case study for interstates in the karst counties of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to create a susceptibility map, pinpointing : regions in the karst counties of Virginia, in particular, along interstates, most susceptible to future sinkhole : development, determi...

  3. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  4. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  5. 75 FR 54546 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... compatibility standards are already being met for handsets that operate on a variety of 2G and 3G air interfaces... the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid- Compatible Mobile Handsets AGENCY: Federal... to extend the scope of the rules beyond the current category of Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS...

  6. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  7. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of two permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 and concern construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA). Final approval of these rules makes the rules federally enforceable and corrects program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). EPA is also making a technical amendment to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to reflect this previous rulemaking, which removed an obsolete provision from the California SIP.

  8. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  9. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  10. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently......, the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within...

  11. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  13. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  14. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  15. Analyzing the Dynamics of Inter-state water peace: A study of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Water Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political conflict surrounding the interstate transfer of water in the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Aqueduct, from which about 60% of the water resources for the city of Xalapa, state capital of Veracruz, come. This interstate water transfer has eventually lead to political and social conflict based on misinformation about perceived water shortages to Xalapa. The article examines a case in which water officials from Xalapa have apparently complied with guidelines related to procedural, distributive, and ecological justice. Therefore, the article proposes a focus on «justice as responsible (and informed dialogue» as a central element of procedural justice. The analysis is based on a review of official documents, such as Mexican water laws and the water concession under which this water transfer has occurred, press reviews published in regional newspapers, a field visit and interviews with key stakeholders and researchers mostly in Veracruz state.

  16. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  17. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  18. Preparing for the Mumbai-Style Attack: Interstate Law Enforcement Mutual Aid in the Absence of a Declared Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Created after Hurricane Andrew in 1992, EMAC remedied shortfalls found in the interstate response to that hurricane. Beginning as the Southern...implemented at the lowest possible level. While amendments to EMAC or the adoption of a new compact would remedy these issues, such action would require...Security raised the threat level to orange (DHS, n.d. a). The rail attack was believed to involve hydrogen cyanide gas, and it was expected to

  19. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  20. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  1. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  2. Crossing boundaries: a comprehensive survey of medical licensing laws and guidelines regulating the interstate practice of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Leung, Stanley T; Park, Jason Y

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, recent judicial interpretation of interstate licensure laws has found pathologists guilty of malpractice and, more importantly, the criminal practice of medicine without a license. These judgments against pathologists highlight the need for a timely and comprehensive survey of licensure requirements and laws regulating the interstate practice of pathology. For all 50 states, each state medical practice act and state medical board website was reviewed. In addition, each medical board was directly contacted by electronic mail, telephone, or US registered mail for information regarding specific legislation or guidelines related to the interstate practice of pathology. On the basis of this information, states were grouped according to similarities in legislation and medical board regulations. This comprehensive survey has determined that states define the practice of pathology on the basis of the geographic location of the patient at the time of surgery or phlebotomy. The majority of states (n=32) and the District of Columbia allow for a physician with an out-of-state license to perform limited consultation to a physician with the specific state license. Several states (n=5) prohibit physicians from consultation without a license for the specific state. Overall, these results reveal the heterogeneity of licensure requirements between states. Pathologists who either practice in multiple states, send cases to out-of-state consultants, or serve as consultants themselves should familiarize themselves with the medical licensure laws of the states from which they receive or send cases.

  3. Is more better or worse? New empirics on nuclear proliferation and interstate conflict by Random Forests1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akisato Suzuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on nuclear proliferation, some argue that further proliferation decreases interstate conflict, some say that it increases interstate conflict, and others indicate a non-linear relationship between these two factors. However, there has been no systematic empirical investigation on the relationship between nuclear proliferation and a propensity for conflict at the interstate–systemic level. To fill this gap, the current paper uses the machine learning method Random Forests, which can investigate complex non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables, and which can identify important regressors from a group of all potential regressors in explaining the relationship between nuclear proliferation and the propensity for conflict. The results indicate that, on average, a larger number of nuclear states decrease the systemic propensity for interstate conflict, while the emergence of new nuclear states does not have an important effect. This paper also notes, however, that scholars should investigate other risks of proliferation to assess whether nuclear proliferation is better or worse for international peace and security in general.

  4. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Transfer of Guns in the USA, 2006-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tessa; Greenberg, Rachael; Siegel, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Cronin, Shea W; Hemenway, David

    2018-06-01

    In a cross-sectional, panel study, we examined the relationship between state firearm laws and the extent of interstate transfer of guns, as measured by the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state and traced to an in-state source (as opposed to guns recovered in a state and traced to an out-of-state source). We used 2006-2016 data on state firearm laws obtained from a search of selected state statutes and 2006-2016 crime gun trace data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. We examined the relationship between state firearm laws and interstate transfer of guns using annual data from all 50 states during the period 2006-2016 and employing a two-way fixed effects model. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state that could be traced to an original point of purchase within that state as opposed to another state. The main exposure variables were eight specific state firearm laws pertaining to dealer licensing, sales restrictions, background checks, registration, prohibitors for firearm purchase, and straw purchase of guns. Four laws were independently associated with a significantly lower percentage of in-state guns: a waiting period for handgun purchase, permits required for firearm purchase, prohibition of firearm possession by people convicted of a violent misdemeanor, and a requirement for relinquishment of firearms when a person becomes disqualified from owning them. States with a higher number of gun laws had a lower percentage of traced guns to in-state dealers, with each increase of one in the total number of laws associated with a decrease of 1.6 percentage points in the proportion of recovered guns that were traced to an in-state as opposed to an out-of-state source. Based on an examination of the movement patterns of guns across states, the overall observed pattern of gun flow was out of states with weak gun laws and into states with strong gun laws. These findings indicate that certain

  5. Spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors associated with Barn Owl mortality along an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Erin M.; Hanser, Steven E.; Regan, Tempe; Thompson, Jeremy; Lowe, Melinda; Kociolek, Angela; Belthoff, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Highway programs typically focus on reducing vehicle collisions with large mammals because of economic or safety reasons while overlooking the millions of birds that die annually from traffic. We studied wildlife‐vehicle collisions along an interstate highway in southern Idaho, USA, with among the highest reported rates of American Barn Owl Tyto furcata road mortality. Carcass data from systematic and ad hoc surveys conducted in 2004–2006 and 2013–2015 were used to explore the extent to which spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors explained Barn Owl‐vehicle collisions. Barn Owls outnumbered all other identified vertebrate species of roadkill and represented > 25% of individuals and 73.6% of road‐killed birds. At a 1‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls decreased with increasing numbers of human structures, cumulative length of secondary roads near the highway, and width of the highway median. Number of dead Barn Owls increased with higher commercial average annual daily traffic (CAADT), small mammal abundance index, and with grass rather than shrubs in the roadside verge. The small mammal abundance index was also greater in roadsides with grass versus mixed shrubs, suggesting that Barn Owls may be attracted to grassy portions of the highway with more abundant small mammals for hunting prey. When assessed at a 3‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls again increased with higher CAADT as well as with greater numbers of dairy farms. At a 5‐km scale, number of dead Barn Owls increased with greater percentage of cropland near the highway. While human conversion of the environment from natural shrub‐steppe to irrigated agriculture in this region of Idaho has likely enhanced habitat for Barns Owls, it simultaneously has increased risk for owl‐vehicle collisions where an interstate highway traverses the altered landscape. We review some approaches for highway mitigation and suggest that reducing wildlife

  6. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  7. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  8. Statistical Rules-of-Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Six best-selling introductory behavioral statistics textbooks that were published in 1982 and two well-known sampling theory textbooks were reviewed to determine the presence of rules-of-thumb--useful principles with wide application that are not intended to be strictly accurate. The relative frequency and type of rules are reported along with a…

  9. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  10. Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for miscellaneous coating manufacturing. Includes summary, rule history, compliance and implementation information, federal registry citations.

  11. Industrial Process Cooling Towers: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standards limiting discharge of chromium compound air emissions from industrial process cooling towers (IPCT's). Includes rule history, Federal Registry citations, implementation information and additional resources.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  13. 26 CFR 49.4264(c)-1 - Special rule for the payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international air transportation and such carrier shall collect the tax at the time the flight is rescheduled or... of his international air transportation between Chicago and New York became subject to tax. The... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rule for the payment of tax. 49.4264(c...

  14. 75 FR 16337 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline business practices and electronic communications to incorporate by reference into its regulations... enumerated exceptions. This rule upgrades the Commission's current business practice and communication... business practices and electronic communications) \\1\\ to incorporate by reference the most recent version...

  15. 78 FR 57527 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... pleadings, motions, and other papers; representations to the court; sanctions) to NTSB cases. The FAA states... holders who are the subject of an FAA enforcement action regarding the ``nature of the investigation.'' In... airman may submit a request for such data, which, due to its nature and volume, is on a rapid destruction...

  16. Update on the activities of the central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since its formation in 1983, the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Commission has moved at a deliberate pace to meet the responsibilities placed on the states by federal law. In addition to the normal activities associated with an agency empowered to regulate a specific industry, the Commission has conducted a number of studies designed to help it meet its responsibilities. The Phase I Site Exclusionary Study identified those areas in each of the member states that failed to meet criteria set out in 10 CFR 61. The key elements of a Management Study are: an evaluation of the region's waste stream, development of the procedures the Commission will use to select a developer for the region's waste facility, an assessment of disposal alternatives, and the development of a plan to review the results of the management plan. The Commission is conducting a Phase II Site Exclusionary Study in which a closer analysis of each area will allow the Commission to determine if there are areas in each state that are capable of being sited. The Commission is also considering the draft Request for Proposals to Develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facility within the Region

  17. Austrägalgerichtsbarkeit – Interstate Dispute Settlement in a Confederate Arrangement, 1815 to 1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Zollmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interstate dispute settlement mechanisms between member states of the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund. The question as to how disputes between German sovereigns should be decided already had a long (pre-history dating back to the Middle Ages. Article 11 IV of the German Federal Act (1815 (Bundesakte was the basic norm of the so-called Austrägal jurisdiction enacted to resolve disputes between states of the German Confederation and stipulated the manner in which the dispute was to be brought to ›court‹ (Austrägalinstanz. During the period of the German Confederation, 10 out of 25 German courts of third instance handled altogether 54 Austrägal cases. Whereas Austrägal jurisdiction was no longer present in the German Kaiserreich, Emperor William II and the professor of public law Paul Laband attempted to resurrect the idea, but failed due to the resistance of the other German princes.

  18. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  19. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  20. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  1. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1989-03-01

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  2. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents...

  3. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  4. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  5. 76 FR 55621 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...-Solano Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This... the following local rule: Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District Rule 2.41, Expandable...

  6. Decision Mining Revisited – Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; de Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  7. Decision Mining Revisited - Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; De Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Nurcan, S.; Soffer, P.; Bajec, M.; Eder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  8. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  9. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  10. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions local rules that address emission statements for AVAQMD, rule rescissions that address public records for MBUAPCD, and define terms for SBCAPCD, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  11. 'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1981-03-01

    Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt

  12. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  13. Significance of technical rules for environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Technical rules for environmental pollution control are very important in times of intensified technical progress and especially in view of the alterations of the legislative basis of the European Market in 1992. In the fields of jurisprudence, science and technology they serve as a decision-making aid for authorities, specialists in plant development and operation and the preparatory stages of international legislation. The topic is explained by the development of guidelines with the VDI-Commission on Air Pollution Prevention. (orig.) [de

  14. US refineries lament lack of final CAA rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Bush administration spokesman appeared unconvinced about the extent of the U.S. refining industry's problems at a Senate energy committee hearing. This paper reports that the oversight hearing examined various challenges facing refiners. Roger Beach, president of Unocal Refining and Marketing Division, testified for the National Petroleum Refiners Association, of which he is chairman. Beach the refineries still do not know what final Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments regulations will be, and state rules are changing, too

  15. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  16. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  17. Detonation of hydrogen-air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R.; Benedick, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The detonation of a hydrogen-air cloud subsequent to an accidental release of hydrogen into ambient surroundings cannot be totally ruled out in view of the relative sensitivity of the hydrogen-air system. The present paper investigates the key parameters involved in hydrogen-air detonations and attempts to establish quantitative correlations between those that have important practical implications. Thus, for example, the characteristic length scale lambda describing the cellular structure of a detonation front is measured for a broad range of hydrogen-air mixtures and is quantitatively correlated with the key dynamic detonation properties such as detonability, transmission and initiation

  18. 75 FR 45209 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Quality Modeling Approach and Results 1. What air quality modeling platform did EPA use? 2. How did EPA... that downwind states receive the relief from upwind emissions guaranteed under CAA section 110(a)(2)(D) For the 24-hour PM 2.5 standard, EPA's air quality modeling shows that in the areas with continuing...

  19. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  20. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  1. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  2. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Firearm Deaths From Homicide and Suicide in the United States: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Data by County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Elinore J; Morrison, Christopher N; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-03-05

    Firearm laws in one state may be associated with increased firearm death rates from homicide and suicide in neighboring states are uncertain. To determine whether counties located closer to states with lenient firearm policies have higher firearm death rates. This cross-sectional study of firearm death rates by county for January 2010 to December 2014 examined data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for firearm suicide and homicide decedents for 3108 counties in the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Each county was assigned 2 scores, a state policy score (range, 0-12) based on the strength of its state firearm laws, and an interstate policy score (range, -1.33 to 8.31) based on the sum of population-weighted and distance-decayed policy scores for all other states. Counties were divided into those with low, medium, and high home state and interstate policy scores. County-level rates of firearm, nonfirearm, and total homicide and suicide. With multilevel Bayesian spatial Poisson models, we generated incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing incidence rates between each group of counties and the reference group, counties with high home state and high interstate policy scores. Stronger firearm laws in a state were associated with lower firearm suicide rates and lower overall suicide rates regardless of the strength of the other states' laws. Counties with low state scores had the highest rates of firearm suicide. Rates were similar across levels of interstate policy score (low: IRR, 1.34; 95% credible interval [CI], 1.11-1.65; medium: IRR, 1.36, (95% CI, 1.15-1.65; and high: IRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.20-1.73). Counties with low state and low or medium interstate policy scores had the highest rates of firearm homicide. Counties with low home state and interstate scores had higher firearm homicide rates (IRR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and overall homicide rates (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67). Counties in states with low firearm policy scores had lower

  3. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Children, Media, and Merchandising, Washington, DC.

    This report supports amending the proposed Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Rule on Over-the Counter (OTC) Drug Advertising to insure better protection for children, illiterate populations, the deaf and the blind, from advertising on the air-waves. Several points are addressed: (1) the difficulties of combining the rule making schedules of the Food…

  4. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  5. 76 FR 29156 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... response, using the definition of burden provided in 44 U.S.C. 3502(2). The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S... procedures, Air pollution control, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... OCS Sources: Rule 102 Definitions (Adopted 09/20/10). Rule 103 Severability (Adopted 10/23/78). Rule...

  6. 76 FR 63251 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-9252, e- mail address: [email protected] (preferred method for registering), no later than 2... register will be October 26, 2011. If using e-mail, please provide the following information: Name, affiliation, address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers. Questions concerning the proposed rule...

  7. 75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... 28, 1975, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)'s Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety published in the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 325 [Docket...: Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule...

  8. 77 FR 10323 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... New York City and Long Island areas. See the proposal to this rule for details (76 FR 63865, October... obligation, timeline, or other requirement of the utility consent decrees. None of the restrictions in the... effective in 2017 for the purpose of unit-level allocations. EPA notes that this timeline will provide...

  9. 75 FR 33174 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... appointment for public inspection in the Region 6 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Review Room between the...\\ Id. \\4\\ In this action the expression ``CAIR'' refers to the final rule published in the May 12, 2005... in 2012.\\14\\ \\13\\ In this action the expression ``UBAQS'' refers to the ``FINAL REPORT UBAQS...

  10. 76 FR 1109 - Notice of Data Availability for Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... allocation methodologies impact the distribution of allowances within a state. This NODA only provides... MWe producing electricity for sale. The proposed Transport Rule would exclude certain cogeneration... included in emissions data reported to EPA. Specifically, IPM's National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS...

  11. 77 FR 41699 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... regulations to require HHG brokers to comply with certain consumer protection requirements. As a part of that... that rule, if an individual shipper elects to waive physical receipt of the consumer protection... receipts documenting an individual shipper's waiver of physical receipt of the consumer protection...

  12. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  13. 78 FR 27883 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-OAR- 2012-0347. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance essentially reiterated the recommendations for western... . \\6\\ The 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance stated that EPA was working on a new rule to...

  14. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  15. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  16. 78 FR 69337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0672; FRL-9902-02-Region 5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2 Air Quality Rule Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: On June 24, 2011, Ohio...

  17. 78 FR 69299 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0672; FRL-9902-03-Region 5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2 Air Quality Rule Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: On June 24, 2011, Ohio...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 60...

  19. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...

  20. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  1. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  2. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  3. Gaming the system. Dodging the rules, ruling the dodgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, E H

    1991-03-01

    Although traditional obligations of fidelity require physicians to deliver quality care to their patients, including to utilize costly technologies, physicians are steadily losing their accustomed control over the necessary resources. The "economic agents" who own the medical and monetary resources of care now impose a wide array of rules and restrictions in order to contain their costs of operation. However, physicians can still control resources indirectly through "gaming the system," employing tactics such as "fudging" that exploit resource rules' ambiguity and flexibility to bypass the rules while ostensibly honoring them. Physicians may be especially inclined to game the system where resource rules seriously underserve patients' needs, where economic agents seem to be "gaming the patient," with needless obstacles to care, or where others, such as hospitals or even physicians themselves, may be denied needed reimbursements. Though tempting, gaming is morally and medically hazardous. It can harm patients and society, offend honesty, and violate basic principles of contractual and distributive justice. It is also, in fact, usually unnecessary in securing needed resources for patients. More fundamentally, we must reconsider what physicians owe their patients. They owe what is theirs to give: their competence, care and loyalty. In light of medicine's changing economics, two new duties emerge: economic advising, whereby physicians explicitly discuss the economic as well as medical aspects of each treatment option; and economic advocacy, whereby physicians intercede actively on their patients' behalf with the economic agents who control the resources.

  4. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

  5. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  6. Efficiency and productivity analysis of the interstate bus transportation industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G.N. Novaes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity analysis is an important policy making and managerial control tool for assessing the degree to which inputs are utilized in the process of obtaining desired outputs. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a non-parametric method based on piecewise linear frontiers estimated with the aid of mathematical programming techniques and used, in this paper, to investigate technical, scale and managerial efficiencies associated with interstate bus companies in Brazil (ISBT. Data has been obtained from the web-site of the Brazilian National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT. Since production factors in the application are constrained by technical and operational reasons, weight restrictions were introduced into the DEA models. The analysis has shown three groups of non-efficient bus firms, with clear differences in productivity. The relative managerial efficiencies of the firms in the non-efficient groups were also computed and analyzed. Finally, an example of benchmarking a non-efficient firm with DEA is presented.A análise de produtividade é ferramenta importante para a tomada de decisão e para a gestão de organizações, possibilitando avaliar os efeitos dos inputs na obtenção de níveis desejados de outputs. A Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA é um método não paramétrico baseado em fronteiras lineares por partes ajustadas através de programação matemática e utilizada para analisar as eficiências técnica, de escala e de gestão de empresas de ônibus que operam nas ligações interestaduais no Brasil (ISBT. Os dados foram obtidos no web-site da Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT. Como os fatores de produção são restritos por razões técnicas e operacionais, restrições de pesos foram introduzidas nos modelos. A análise mostrou três grupos de empresas não eficientes, com claras diferenças de produtividade. Também são calculadas as eficiências de gestão relativas a esses três grupos. Finalmente

  7. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Adina UTA

    2008-01-01

    Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize...

  8. Evolving temporal association rules with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...

  9. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  10. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  11. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  12. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  13. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  14. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  15. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  16. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  17. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  18. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  19. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  20. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  2. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  3. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  4. Air traffic security act unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1 st Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  5. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  6. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  7. European Private Law: Up in the Air?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.; Bobek, M.; Prassl, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the existing rights granted to consumers when they purchase services in the EU, whether in a shop or within a distance selling scheme, with the provisions of Regulation 261/2004. While the works on the new European rules on air passengers’ rights are still ongoing it is important

  8. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in Btu...

  10. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  11. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  12. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  13. Analysis of correlation between pediatric asthma exacerbation and exposure to pollutant mixtures with association rule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toti, Giulia; Vilalta, Ricardo; Lindner, Peggy; Lefer, Barry; Macias, Charles; Price, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Traditional studies on effects of outdoor pollution on asthma have been criticized for questionable statistical validity and inefficacy in exploring the effects of multiple air pollutants, alone and in combination. Association rule mining (ARM), a method easily interpretable and suitable for the analysis of the effects of multiple exposures, could be of use, but the traditional interest metrics of support and confidence need to be substituted with metrics that focus on risk variations caused by different exposures. We present an ARM-based methodology that produces rules associated with relevant odds ratios and limits the number of final rules even at very low support levels (0.5%), thanks to post-pruning criteria that limit rule redundancy and control for statistical significance. The methodology has been applied to a case-crossover study to explore the effects of multiple air pollutants on risk of asthma in pediatric subjects. We identified 27 rules with interesting odds ratio among more than 10,000 having the required support. The only rule including only one chemical is exposure to ozone on the previous day of the reported asthma attack (OR=1.14). 26 combinatory rules highlight the limitations of air quality policies based on single pollutant thresholds and suggest that exposure to mixtures of chemicals is more harmful, with odds ratio as high as 1.54 (associated with the combination day0 SO 2 , day0 NO, day0 NO 2 , day1 PM). The proposed method can be used to analyze risk variations caused by single and multiple exposures. The method is reliable and requires fewer assumptions on the data than parametric approaches. Rules including more than one pollutant highlight interactions that deserve further investigation, while helping to limit the search field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  15. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  16. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future

  17. 76 FR 12305 - Extension of Public Comment Period for Proposed Action on Interstate Transport of Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... select ``Air'' before submitting comments. E-mail: Mr. Guy Donaldson at [email protected] . Please also send a copy by e-mail to the person listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section below... or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA...

  18. 75 FR 31306 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... courts.\\7\\ \\7\\ Michigan v. U.S. EPA, 213 F.3d 663, 674-681 (D.C. Cir. 2000); North Carolina v. EPA, 531 F.3d 896, 913-916 (D.C. Cir. 2008) (upholding EPA approach to determining threshold despite remanding... projected 4th max ozone reading for the year 2018, and as indicating that ``* * * air quality * * * will...

  19. 75 FR 53613 - Notice of Data Availability Supporting Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... information relevant to the rulemaking, including, among other things, an updated version of the power sector..., such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air and...

  20. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  1. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  2. Assessment of interstate virtual water flows embedded in agriculture to mitigate water scarcity in India (1996-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyaini, Suparana; Barua, Anamika

    2017-08-01

    India is the largest global freshwater user despite being highly water scarce. Agriculture is largest consumer of water and is most affected by water scarcity. Water scarcity is a persistent challenge in India, due to a gap in science and policy spheres. Virtual Water (VW) flows concept to mitigate water scarcity is at the science-policy interface. The paper aims to address the gap in VW research in India by first analyzing the interstate VW-flows embedded in food grains, and then linking these VW-flows with the water scarcity situation in the states, and elements of state and national water policies for the postreforms, and recovery periods of India's agriculture. There were net water savings (WS) of 207.5 PL during 1996-2014, indicating sustainable flows at the national level. WS increased from 11.2 TL/yr (1996-2005) to 25931.7 TL/yr (2005-2014), with the increase in interstate movement of food grains, and yield. However, unsustainable flows are seen at subnational scale, as VW-flows are from highly water-scarce states in North to highly water-scarce states in West and South. These flows are causing a concentration of water scarcity in water-scarce zones/states. Net VW imports were found to be driven by larger population and net VW exports by arable land. Further, the absence of state water policy cripples water management. Therefore, the paper argues that there is a need to rethink policy decisions on agriculture at the national and state level by internalizing water as a factor of production, through VW research.

  3. Private shippers' efforts to transport spent nuclear fuel and waste by rail: the Interstate Commerce Commission cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F. II

    1978-01-01

    While the nuclear industry is beset on many sides by opposition and uncertainty, notable success has been achieved to date by fighting railroads that would impose onerous restrictions on the transportation of nuclear materials on their own battleground. Regardless of how commercial spent nuclear fuel is ultimately handled, it must eventually be shipped from reactor sites. The most efficient method for doing this is generally by railroad. The railroads of the Nation have contended either that they are not common carriers for the transportation of radioactive materials, or if common carriers, that the carriage must be by the use of special trains and special operating procedures at great additional expense. The rationale for this railroad position has been principally one of concern with regard to the hazards presented and the adequacy of safety regulations and insurance-indemnity coverage. The nuclear industry, realizing that, if the railroads prevailed, the added cost per year by the mid-1980s could be about $600 million and that extensive safety precautions had been provided, challenged the railroads' positions before the Interstate Commerce Commission. This paper will describe the position of the nuclear industry in opposing unnecessary restrictions sought to be imposed by the railroads, including the uncertainties presented by the lack of published tariffs, the risks of carriage with and without added requirements, the insurance-indemnity coverage available, and the need for railroad transportation. As of this time, the Interstate Commerce Commission has concurred with the position of the nuclear shippers and has found the railroads' positions unreasonable and in violation of applicable laws. This legal battle, however, will continue until finally concluded by the ICC or by the courts if appeals are taken

  4. An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Mehryar; Sproat, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Context-dependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finite-state transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many of our applications demand the ability to compile weighted rules into weighted FST...

  5. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  6. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  7. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  8. The Rule-Assessment Approach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the rule-assessment approach to cognitive development. The basic question that motivated the rule-assessment approach is how people's existing knowledge influences their ability to learn. Research using the rule-assessment approach is summarized in terms of eight conclusions, each illustrated with empirical examples.…

  9. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  10. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  11. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  12. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Used Throughout This Statement of Basis and Purpose ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and codified at 16 CFR 436. ``ANPR'' refers to the.../bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original...

  13. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  14. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  15. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  16. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  17. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  18. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  19. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  20. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  1. FUZZY MODELING BY SUCCESSIVE ESTIMATION OF RULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically deriving fuzzy rules directly from a set of input-output data of a process for the purpose of modeling. The rules are extracted by a method termed successive estimation. This method is used to generate a model without truncating the number of fired rules, to within user ...

  2. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  3. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  4. Oxytocin modulates trait-based rule following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive

  5. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  6. Rules in School. Strategies for Teachers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah; Wood, Chip

    This book offers an approach for helping K-8 students become invested in creating and living by classroom rules. It provides techniques for: helping students articulate their hopes and dreams for school; involving students in generating classroom rules that grow out of their hopes and dreams; modeling, practicing, and role playing the rules; using…

  7. On Communication Rules from a Social Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Stuart J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses assumptions and criticisms of rule-governed approaches to interpersonal communication research and theory. Outlines a definition of rules that does not require sole reliance on interpersonal actors' statements about their behavior or assumptions of communicator self-awareness. Suggests consideration of rules-based concomitants of…

  8. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  9. 75 FR 37711 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... preamble and cross references in the preamble and rule text of that final rule. DATES: The final rule and..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas.... 21.618 to Sec. 21.609 to reflect the correct section number. The FAA also is issuing a separate...

  10. Hearing Schedule and List of Speakers for the Public Hearing on Revisions to FIPs to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone – October 28, 2011, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of Speakers and Hearing Schedule for the October 28 Public Hearing on the proposed Revisions to the Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone.

  11. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  12. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. 77 FR 26448 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), we are approving local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulation in these areas and approving a rule rescission that addresses Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur.

  14. 77 FR 26475 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions to local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulations in these areas and a rule rescission that address Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  15. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  16. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  17. Rules Versus Discretion in Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the case for rules rather than discretion in the conduct of monetary policy, from both historical and analytic perspectives. The paper starts with the rules of the game under the gold standard. These rules were ill-defined and not adhered to; active discretionary policy was pursued to defend the gold standard -- but the gold standard came closer to a regime of rules than the current system. The arguments for rules in general developed by Milton Friedman are described mo ap...

  18. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules......-hierarchical decision-making procedures enhance trust vis-à-vis other more hierarchical decision-making procedures....... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...

  19. The NSR rule: a New England state's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Blumenthal; Kimberly Massicotte

    2004-01-01

    The Attorney General and Assistant Attorney General for the State of Connecticut discuss what they believe is an illegal and fatal fall back of the US Clean Air Act exempting grandfathered power plants from the requirements to install pollution control equipment under the routine maintenance repair and replacement (RMRR) rule. 10 refs.

  20. 75 FR 55728 - Withdrawal of Proposed Rules; Discontinuing Rulemaking Efforts Listed in the Unified Agenda of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ..., Chemical Control Division (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection... stakeholders working with us to identify the most practical and effective solutions to problems and we stress... Proposed Test Rule for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RIN 2070-AC76) 1. What was proposed? In the Federal...

  1. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  2. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  3. 78 FR 53025 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...-0100; Amdt. No. 141-17A] RIN 2120-AJ67 Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air... regulations to create new certification and qualification requirements for pilots in air carrier operations..., the FAA published a final rule entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air...

  4. 76 FR 78829 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Reference (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 2005, ``New Source Review for RECLAIM...

  5. 77 FR 39181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) and Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1165, ``Glass Melting Furnaces,'' amended on August 25, 2008...

  6. 76 FR 47074 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation... Submittal A. What rule did the State submit? We are approving South Coast Air Quality Management District...

  7. 78 FR 18853 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (411) * * * (i) * * * (F) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 463, ``Organic Liquid...

  8. 77 FR 11990 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District and Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

  9. 77 FR 12493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (378) * * * (i) * * * (E) Feather River Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 3.22...

  10. 77 FR 11992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of...,'' Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, December 2000. B. Does the rule meet the evaluation...

  11. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the...

  12. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution control technology in use... relying on EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) to address these requirements. EPA is also taking...) monitoring network, show that visibility impairment caused by air pollution occurs virtually all the time at...

  13. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  14. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards for Hazardous... proposed rule titled, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...

  15. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  16. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... 30, 2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended...

  17. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  18. 76 FR 41731 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... forced out of the tank as the tank fills with liquid gasoline. Where air pollution control technology is... this action include states (typically state air pollution control agencies) and, in some cases, local governments that develop air pollution control rules that apply to areas classified as ``Serious,'' ``Severe...

  19. 77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... fills with liquid gasoline. Where air pollution control technology is not used, these vapors are emitted... states (typically state air pollution control agencies) and, in some cases, local governments that develop air pollution control rules that apply to areas classified as Serious and above for nonattainment...

  20. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...