WorldWideScience

Sample records for air infiltration

  1. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO2, CO, SO2, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  2. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  3. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  4. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h-1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h-1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  5. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  6. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  7. Indoor air quality and infiltration in multifamily naval housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of indoor air quality and air infiltration were taken in three units of a multifamily housing complex at the Naval Submarine base in Bangor, Washington, over 5 consecutive days during the heating season of 1983. Three dwelling units of identical size constructed in 1978 were monitored, each in a separate two-story four-unit complex. One unit was a downstairs unit and the other two units were upstairs units. Two of the units were occupied by smokers (one downstairs and one upstairs). None of the units had combustion appliances. Pollutants monitored indoors included radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. Indoor and outdoor temperature and windspeed were also recorded. Outdoor formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide were also measured. Air exchange was measured about three times during each 24-h period, using a perfluorocarbon tracer with automatic tracer sampling. The daily average air exchange rate ranged from 0.22 to 0.91 air changes per hour (ACH). Pollutant concentrations were generally low except for particulate matter in the units with smokers, which were two to four times higher than in the unit with nonsmokers. Levels of carbon monoxide were also slightly elevated in one of the units with a smoker compared to the unit with nonsmokers. 5 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  8. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...... using the auto-correlation function and cumulated periodogram. The proposed model which includes air-infiltration shows a significant improvement compared to previously proposed linear models. The model has subsequently been used in applications for provision of power system services, e.g. by providing...

  9. Experimental investigation of infiltration in soil with occurrence of preferential flow and air trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Cislerova, Milena

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a number of infiltration experiments have not proved the validity of standard Richards' theory of the flow in soils with wide pore size distribution. Water flow in such soils under near-saturated conditions often exhibits preferential flow and temporal instability of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. An intact sample of coarse sandy loam from Cambisol series containing naturally developed vertically connected macropore was investigated during recurrent ponding infiltration (RPI) experiments conducted during period of 30 hours. RPI experiment consisted of two ponded infiltration runs, each followed by free gravitational draining of the sample. Three-dimensional neutron tomography (NT) image of the dry sample was acquired before the infiltration begun. The dynamics of the wetting front advancement was investigated by a sequence of neutron radiography (NR) images. Analysis of NR showed that water front moved preferentially through the macropore at the approximate speed of 2 mm/sec, which was significantly faster pace than the 0.3 mm/sec wetting advancement in the surrounding soil matrix. After the water started to flow out of the sample, changes in the local water content distribution were evaluated quantitatively by subtracting the NT image of the dry sample from subsequent tomography images. As a next stage, the experiment was repeated on a composed sample packed of ceramic and coarse sand. Series of infiltration runs was conducted in the sample with different initial water contents. The neutron tomography data quantitatively showed that both in natural soil sample containing the macropore and in the composed sample air was gradually transported from the region of fine soil matrix to the macropores or to the coarser material. The accumulation of the air bubbles in the large pores affected the hydraulic conductivity of the sample reducing it up to 50% of the initial value. This supports the hypothesis on strong influence of entrapped air amount and

  10. Long Term Stability Investigation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell with Infiltrated Porous YSZ Air Electrode Under High Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Ovtar, Simona; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Küngas, Rainer

    stabilised zirconia (YSZ) backbone air electrode and Ni/YSZ cermet fuel electrode. The SOC was tested at electrolysis conditions under high current (up to -1 A/cm2). The porous YSZ electrodes was infiltrated with gadolinium-doped ceria oxide (CGO), to act as a barrier layer between the catalyst and the...

  11. Effect of air infiltration in the reactor refrigerant on the radiation measurement systems of gaseous effluents treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of treatment of gassy effluents of the CLV, well-known as the off-gas this gifted one in turn of a mensuration system and registration (monitoring) that consists of diverse established radiation monitors in the discharge point to the atmosphere and in other intermediate points of the process. The purpose of the monitoring system is to maintain continually informed to the operators about the effectiveness of the treatment system, to take registrations of the total quantity of liberated radioactive materials and to give warning by means of an alarm system of any abnormal situation that could end in an approach to the limits marked by the technical specifications. In September 1989 an event happened in the one that the high alarms corresponding to the post-treatment of the off-gas were activated. For this situation the personnel proceeded to diminish the power of the reactor to be able to investigate the causes that gave place to the event. It was observed that the alarms of the monitor were activated by significant infiltrations of air in the primary circuit of the refrigerant, for what it was proceeded to enlarge the scales of the implied monitor or to reduce the sensibility of their readings

  12. Distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air in cold zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Wen-Long; Li, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Yan; Qi, Mei-Yun; Lv, Na; Wang, Ding-Zhen; Khan, Afed Ulla

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air done in Harbin city, northeastern China. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor sampling was done to collect 264 PM2.5 samples from four sites during winter, summer, and spring. Infiltration of PAHs into indoors was estimated using Retene, Benzo [ghi]perylene and Chrysene as reference compounds, where the latter compound was suggested to be a good estimator and subsequently used for further calculation of infiltration factors (IFs). Modeling with positive matrix factorization (PMF5) and estimation of diagnostic isomeric ratios were applied for identifying sources, where coal combustion, crop residues burning and traffic being the major contributors, particularly during winter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been utilized to show the distribution patterns of individual PAH congeners. LDA showed that, the greatest seasonal variability was attributed to high molecular weight compounds (HMW PAHs). Potential health risk of PAHs exposure was assessed through relative potency factor approach (RPF). The levels of the sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs during colder months were very high, with average values of 377 ± 228 ng m(-)(3) and 102 ± 75.8 ng m(-)(3), for the outdoors and indoors, respectively. The outdoor levels reported to be 19 times higher than the outdoor concentrations during warmer months (summer + spring), while the indoor concentrations were suggested to be 9 times and 10 times higher than that for indoor summer (average 11.73 ± 4 ng m(-3)) and indoor spring (9.5 ± 3.3 ng m(-3)). During nighttime, outdoor PAHs revealed wider range of values compared to datytime which was likely due to outdoor temperature, a weather parameter with the strongest negative influence on ∑16PAHs compared to low impact of relative humidity and wind speed. PMID:27108365

  13. CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, C.R.; Sherman, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to affect the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the sensible enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Results from detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations of five wall geometries over a range of infiltration rates show that heat transfer between the infiltrating air and walls can be substantial, reducing the impact of infiltration. Factors affecting the heat recovery are leakage path length, infiltration flow rate, and wall construction. The classical method for determination of the infiltration energy load was found to over-predict the amount by as much as 95 percent and by at least 10 percent. However, the air flow paths typical of building envelopes give over-predictions at the low end of this range.

  14. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  15. Acoustic location of infiltration openings in buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-10-01

    Unnecessary air infiltration (''draftiness'') in buildings can be a major cause for excessive energy consumption. A method for using sound to locate, for subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltration leakage paths in buildings has been investigated. The results of pertinent analytical studies, laboratory experiments, and field applications of this acoustic-location method are reported; and a plan is provided to encourage national implementation of the method. Low-cost, readily available equipment and procedures are described whereby the average building contractor or homeowner can use acoustic leak location to pinpoint many of the air infiltration openings in a building.

  16. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably...... third study shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is...

  17. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  18. Intramuscular (infiltrating) Lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bina Kashyap; Ananth Naag,; P Sridhar Reddy,

    2011-01-01

    Intraoral lipomas are benign and relatively rare tumors, although they occur with higher frequencies in other areas, most especially the back, abdomen and shoulders of adults. They have no gender predilection and predominantly affect the buccal mucosa. This paper describes a case of intramuscular (infiltrating) lipoma on the buccal mucosa of a 60-year old male which is relatively rare when compared to simple lipoma of buccal mucosa, and review pertinent literature.

  19. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.; Walden, Y.; Colandini, V.; Poulsen, S.; Grotehusmann, D.; Rohlfing, R.

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants, and it is...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  20. Infiltration SuDS Georeport

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) use the storage capacity of the subsurface to attenuate rainwater. In the UK, the subsurface can provide effective and practical opportunities for infiltration, however various factors need to be considered during planning, design and installation. The British Geological Survey has developed an infiltration-to-the-ground GeoReport that provides a wealth of subsurface data to assist preliminary desk-based site assessment.

  1. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  2. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  3. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  4. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898. ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  5. CT findings of leukemic pulmonary infiltration with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the characteristic CT findings of leukemic pulmonary infiltration based on the pathologic findings. The CT findings of 11 leukemic patients with leukemic pulmonary infiltration were compared with those of 22 leukemic patients with other diseases as a control group. Evaluated pulmonary parenchymal CT findings included thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa, prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries, ground-glass opacities, air-space consolidation, and nodules. The CT-pathologic correlations for leukemic infiltration were evaluated in 7 patients. Frequent parenchymal CT findings were thickening of bronchovascular bundles (81.8%), prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries (81.8%), and non-lobular and non-segmental ground-glass opacities (90.9%). The first two findings were significantly more frequently observed in leukemic infiltration than in the control group, had good interobserver agreement, and corresponded pathologically to leukemic cell infiltration around the pulmonary arteries, bronchi, or bronchioles. Non-lobular and non-segmental ground-glass opacity corresponded to leukemic cell infiltration within alveolar spaces and septa adjacent to the pulmonary arteries or bronchi and also corresponded to hemorrhage, edema, or diffuse alveolar damage. Thickening of bronchovascular bundles and prominence of peripheral pulmonary arteries are CT findings suggestive for leukemic infiltration and correspond to peribronchovascular tumor extension. (orig.)

  6. Groundwater infiltration by herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbicides, applied in various ways, are used by Canadian utilities to control the undesirable vegetation on rights-of-way under transmission and distribution lines, and at transformer stations. Above a soil organic carbon content of 0.1% the herbicide sorption on the immobile organic phase is best described by organic carbon partitioning coefficients. Order of magnitude estimates of these partitioning coefficients were to be derived from the octanol/herbicide partitioning coefficients. At dissolved organic matter contents above 30 mg/L (in bogs and swamps) the herbicide mobility is enhanced, below 1 mg/L the effect of sorption on the immobile phase of organic matter prevails. For all herbicides in question and most of the field conditions it can be safely assumed that transformation of the infiltrated amount will occur with a half-life of more than 30 days. The degradation is temperature dependent and ceases below 0 degree C. Assuming the water movement in sandy, loamy and clay soils as 2, 1 and 0.5 m/year, the transport rate of 2,4-D is calculated to be approximately 0.92, 0.46 and 0.23 m/year, respectively. The overall evaluation of herbicide mobility showed that the potential for groundwater contamination most sensitively depends on organic carbon content of soil, herbicide half-life, deep percolation, and depth to groundwater table. It was recommended that the use of herbicides in hydrogeologically sensitive areas be restricted and fast degrading herbicides be used in other areas. For continued use of herbicides, the implementation of an operation decision-making model combined with a migration model is suggested. 44 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per; Hjelm, Johan; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Ramos, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp...... infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...... degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  8. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.;

    1994-01-01

    , and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes......Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants...

  9. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  11. Chronic cough and pulmonary infiltrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case of chronic cough and pulmonary infiltrates, in patient feminine of 66 years who she consults for scheme of cough with mucous expectoration that it increases with the exhibition to the powder and the cold

  12. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  13. Field-Measured Furrow Infiltration Functions

    OpenAIRE

    NASSERI, Abolfazl; NEYSHABORI, Mohammad Reza; FARD, Ahmad Fakheri

    2004-01-01

    Furrow infiltration varies with different variables and is a complex process for modeling infiltration over the field. This research was conducted to develop empirical relationships between field-wide furrow infiltration and independent variables such as the opportunity time, initial soil water content, flow depth, flow section area, wetted perimeter and wet bulk density. Furrow infiltration was measured by blocked furrow infiltrometers at 48 infiltration sites over a 70 x 130 m field plot. S...

  14. Using lithium glass infiltration to enhance the properties of alumina bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of an infiltration process to improve the properties of sintered materials has been widely investigated. This work describes the research carried out in the manufacturing of lithium glass-infiltrated alumina. The infiltration material consisted of a mixture of elements such as Li2O, ZrO2, SiO2 Al2O3, CaO and La2O3. Alumina specimens were sintered in air at 1400 °C for 2 hours. A number of samples were then submitted to the infiltration process at 1400 °C for 15 minutes. Sintered and infiltrated specimens were characterized by X ray diffraction, apparent density, open porosity, flexural strengths and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the infiltration process considerably improves the properties of alumina bodies.

  15. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo Jaramillo, R.; GOUTALAND, David; Letellier, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; Winiarski, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  16. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  17. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, P. (ed.); Helin, J.; Lindgren, S. (and others)

    2011-04-15

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  18. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  19. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  20. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Salve, R.

    2003-05-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  1. Infiltration patterns of multiple myeloma in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the different infiltration patterns in the spine in multiple myeloma, in correlation with histological and clinical findings. Quantitative signal evaluation with contrast media (Gd-DTPA). To compare the results in MRI with X-ray films. 61 patients with proven multiple myeloma and 50 controls were examined (1.0 Tesla, T1-w SE, opposed phase GE images). Five infiltration patterns with different clinical stages were detected: Normal bone marrow (11%) in cases of low interstitial marrow infiltration (biopsy), pure diffuse infiltration (25%), focal involvement (33%), combined diffuse/focal infiltration (23%) and a 'salt-and pepper' pattern (8%). In diffuse plasmacytoma the 40% signal intensity increase was modification of diffuse infiltration. MRI proved to be more sensitive than radiography. MRI is able to show the type and the extension of bone marrow infiltration in multiple myeloma. Diffuse involvement can be objectivated with gadopentotate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  2. Pressureless infiltration of porous Al2O3 preform in molten 6061 commercial aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an infiltration study of Al2O3 samples containing, approximately, 40% of pores with 1μ average radios. These samples were totally infiltrated with Al-6061 at 1100 deg C for 24 hs in air. Microstructural analysis showed the presence of an alumina matrix infiltrated through mechanisms that combine reactive processes and capillarity, and thus being coherent with the presence of open and closed porosity. The metallographic analysis showed open porosity infiltrated with Al-6061 by capillarity, while SEM micrographs corresponding to this system also showed closed pores filled with metal, that was transported into the ceramic matrix through a reactivate infiltration mechanism. The EDAX analysis for the Al2O3/Al 6061 system showed areas rich in silicon and copper at the metal-ceramic interface, while the ceramic phase showed the presence of Mg. XRD identified the presence of the MgAl2O4 spinel in the ceramic phase

  3. Light propagation mechanism switching in a liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, K. A.; Milenko, K.; Chojnowska, O.; Dąbrowski, R.; Woliński, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work studies on propagation properties of a microstructured polymer optical fibre infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal are presented. Specifically, the influence of an infiltration method on the LC molecular alignment inside fibre air-channels and, thus, on light guidance is discussed. Switching between propagation mechanisms, namely the transition from modified total internal reflection (mTIR) to the photonic bandgap effect obtained by varying external temperature is also demonstrated.

  4. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, William L.; Lockington, David A.; Barry, David Andrew; Parlange, Marc; Haverkamp, Randel; Parlange, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  5. Storm-water management through Infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Chahar, Bhagu Ram; Graillot, Didier; Gaur, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    International audience With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration can occur is reducing. This is resulting in much less ground-water recharge and greatly increased surface run-off. Infiltration devices, which redirect run-off waters from the surface to the sub-surface environments, are commonly adopted to mitigate the negative hydrologic effects associated with urbanization. An infiltration trench alone or in combination with other storm water...

  6. Urban stormwater infiltration and soil drainage

    OpenAIRE

    RAIMBAULT, G; Berthier, E.; MOSINI, ML; Joannis, C.

    2002-01-01

    Si l'infiltration des eaux pluviales urbaines est de plus en plus recherchée pour réduire les débits de ruissellements et les rejets polluants associés, le dimensionnement des ouvrages de rétention/infiltration doit prendre en compte la variabilité des capacités d'infiltration offertes par les sols. Dans une première partie, la variabilité temporelle de l'infiltration dans les sols urbains est mise en évidence à travers les résultats du suivi hydrologique de bassins versants urbains. Dans la ...

  7. Soil properties controlling infiltration in volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is an important process whose behaviour depends on external factors and soil properties that vary depending on the type of soil. The soil parameters affecting the infiltration capacity of six soil orders all formed on volcanic materials (andisols, vertisols, alfisols, aridisols, inceptisols, and entisols) and contribute to the differences between them were studied in this paper. A total of 108 sites were selected on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The main soil properties were analysed and the steady-state infiltration rate measured using a double-ring infiltrometer. The relationship between the soil properties and infiltration was modelled using statistical Principal Components Analysis and regressions. The research concludes that the relation between structural development and texture play a decisive role. The high structural development of non-vitric andisols, due to the high organic matter and short-range-order mineral content, leads to an extremely fast infiltration rate. The structural instability and fine texture of aridisols produce low infiltration. In less developed soils (entisols and vitric andisols) where aggregate formation is minimal or non-existent, the coarse grain size is the relevant factor determining their very fast and extremely fast infiltration. In vertisols and alfisols, which have strong aggregation but low stability, clay type and content play an important role and lead to a moderate and moderately fast steady-state infiltration rate, respectively. In the most typic inceptisols, with moderate structural development and stability, the balance of the properties is largely responsible for the intermediate infiltration rate observed.

  8. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    An emerging public issue in Denmark is passive smoking in residential environments where non-smokers are exposed to harmful smoke from their neighbours. There are various ways that smoke infiltrates one flat from another. The air infiltration rate between two flats in a multi-storey building depe...... in the source flat. The test of the air circulating ductwork showed that the removal efficiency ranged from approx. 30% to 60% after 10 minutes, i.e. when the cigarette had burned out....

  9. Dispersion engineering in nonlinear soft glass photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniewski, Jacek; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Van, Hieu Le; Long, Van Cao; Van, Lanh Chu; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Stępniewski, Grzegorz; Ramaniuk, Aleksandr; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical study of the dispersion characteristic modification of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids. A photonic crystal fiber based on the soft glass PBG-08, infiltrated with 17 different organic solvents, is proposed. The glass has a light transmission window in the visible-mid-IR range of 0.4-5 μm and has a higher refractive index than fused silica, which provides high contrast between the fiber structure and the liquids. A fiber with air holes is designed and then developed in the stack-and-draw process. Analyzing SEM images of the real fiber, we calculate numerically the refractive index, effective mode area, and dispersion of the fundamental mode for the case when the air holes are filled with liquids. The influence of the liquids on the fiber properties is discussed. Numerical simulations of supercontinuum generation for the fiber with air holes only and infiltrated with toluene are presented. PMID:27409187

  10. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  11. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  12. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  13. Sensitivity of long-term bare soil infiltration simulations to hydraulic properties in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.

    1997-04-01

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste geologic repository is currently being evaluated. Assessments of the repository performance suggest that the uncertainty in infiltration rates strongly affects predicted repository performance. Most of the ground surface over the potential repository footprint is characterized by shallow to deep colluvium/alluvium overlying densely fractured, welded tuffs. In order to identify characteristic behavior of infiltration that might be expected at the site, two idealizations of this situation are examined: an effectively semi-infinite column of alluvium and a two-layer column of alluvium over a fractured impermeable matrix. For each idealization the impact of hydraulic properties is assessed. Examining the sensitivity of bare soil simulator predictions for an effectively semi-infinite column, it is found that decreasing the air entry pressure while holding all other parameters at a fixed level tends to increase both the long-term average moisture content and the long-term average net infiltration flux for homogeneous media. In contrast, increasing the van Genuchten scale parameter (m=1 - 17sol;n) or decreasing the porosity tends to decrease the average soil moisture but increase the infiltration. Most interestingly, three regimes are found for permeability. For relatively high permeabilities, there is a trend toward increasing average infiltration and increasing average moisture content with decreasing permeability. For relatively low permeabilities, vapor transport dominates over liquid transport, runoff and evaporation overwhelm infiltration, and the soil becomes very dry with essentially no infiltration flux. Between the extreme cases of high and low permeability, there is a zone where decreasing permeability results in decreased infiltration but increased moisture content, which is explained by the capacity of more permeable media to maintain surface wetness for longer periods of

  14. Mixed artificial grasslands with more roots improved mine soil infiltration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Yang, Zheng; Cui, Zeng; Liu, Yu; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Soil water is one of the critical limiting factors in achieving sustainable revegetation. Soil infiltration capacity plays a vital role in determining the inputs from precipitation and enhancing water storage, which are important for the maintenance and survival of vegetation patches in arid and semi-arid areas. Our study investigated the effects of different artificial grasslands on soil physical properties and soil infiltration capacity. The artificial grasslands were Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Agropyron mongolicum, Lespedeza davurica, Bromus inermis, Hedysarum scoparium, A. mongolicum + Artemisia desertorum, A. adsurgens + A. desertorum and M. sativa + B. inermis. The soil infiltration capacity index (SICI), which was based on the average infiltration rate of stage I (AIRSI) and the average infiltration rate of stage III (AIRS III), was higher (indicating that the infiltration capacity was greater) under the artificial grasslands than that of the bare soil. The SICI of the A. adsurgens + A. desertorum grassland had the highest value (1.48) and bare soil (-0.59) had the lowest value. It was evident that artificial grassland could improve soil infiltration capacity. We also used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine that the main factors that affected SICI were the soil water content at a depth of 20 cm (SWC20), the below-ground root biomasses at depths of 10 and 30 cm (BGB10, BGB30), the capillary porosity at a depth of 10 cm (CP10) and the non-capillary porosity at a depth of 20 cm (NCP20). Our study suggests that the use of Legume-poaceae mixtures and Legume-shrub mixtures to create grasslands provided an effective ecological restoration approach to improve soil infiltration properties due to their greater root biomasses. Furthermore, soil water content, below-ground root biomass, soil capillary porosity and soil non-capillary porosity were the main factors that affect the soil infiltration capacity.

  15. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  16. Two-phase flow numerical simulation of infiltration and groundwater drainage in a rice field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugomela, G. V.

    Farming of rice normally uses a substantially larger amount of water than other cereal grain crops mainly due to the traditional flooding of rice fields. Flooding of the fields result in a seepage flow condition whereby infiltration occurs at a potential rate. The potential infiltration rate obstructs the free movement of pore-air through the ground surface and gradually compresses the pore-air between the infiltrating wetting front and the groundwater table under which subsurface drains are installed. The Galerkin finite element method (FEM) simulation of two-phase flow of air and water in the porous media of the rice field shows that the subsequent increase in the pore-air pressure makes the pore-air act as a link phase which transfers the effects of the processes taking place in the wetting front above and the saturated zone below the groundwater table. This phenomenon is clearly demonstrated when the results of the two-phase flow simulation are compared to the corresponding single-phase flow simulation which neglects the effect of the pore-air. It is concluded that the ‘ponding’ which appears in rice fields can partly be explained by the resistance offered by the pore-air to the percolation process. The study demonstrates that flooding of rice fields during most of its growth time is not necessary rather it is enough to keep the ground surface just saturated and the rest of the water can be saved.

  17. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A. J. Nowak; Nagel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  18. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  19. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures. PMID:19587416

  20. A pleural mass with pulmonary infiltrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ryerson, C J; Malhotra, S.; Lam, S; English, J C; Ionescu, D.N.

    2007-01-01

    This case study describes a 34-year-old woman presenting with a subacute history of dyspnoea associated with pleural based masses and pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography guided biopsy confirmed the presence of a pleural based thymoma, and a video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed the pulmonary infiltrates to be a lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). The thymomas responded successfully to chemotherapy and the LIP improved following corticosteroid therapy.

  1. Spatiotemporally‐Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution‐Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

  2. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  3. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  4. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  5. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jumadar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  7. Infiltration of SOFC Stacks: Evaluation of the Electrochemical Performance Enhancement and the Underlying Changes in the Microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Zielke, Philipp; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald;

    2016-01-01

    Experimental SOFC stacks with 10 SOFCs (LSM-YSZ/YSZ/Ni-YSZ) were infiltrated with CGO and Ni-CGO on the air and fuel side, respectively in an attempt to counter degradation and improve the output. The electrochemical performance of each cell was characterized (i) before infiltration, (ii) after...... testing the cells were characterized by SEM and TEM/EELS. A thin layer of CGO nanoparticles around the LSM-YSZ back bone structure was found after infiltration. On the anode side nano sized Ni particles were found embedded in a CGO layer formed around the Ni-YSZ structure. EELS analysis showed that the...

  8. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  9. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  10. Physical simulation of urban rainfall infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZENG Bing; WANG Yan-xia; SHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    To meet the demand of urban rainwater integrated management, we designed and complemented a physical simulation experimental system of urban rainfall infiltration regulation parameters. We discuss the feasibility of quantitative regulations of urban underlying surface rainfall infiltration conditions and a practical application of a simulated experimental system. In a comprehensive analysis of the composition of an effective rainwater harvesting system and selection of water storage material, we simulated the major parameters of an experimental area rainfall, soil moisture and water storage capacity by providing an effective regulation of the experimental area runoff coefficient, obtained from basic data.

  11. Case Report: Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a rare condition characterized by diffuse fatty infiltration of the facial soft tissues. There may be muscle involvement along with associated bony hyperplasia. It is a type of lipomatous tumor that is congenital in origin; it is rare and seen usually in childhood. We recently saw an 11-year-old girl with this condition. She presented with a swelling of the right side of the face that had been present since birth; there were typical findings on plain radiographs, CT, and MRI. The patient underwent cosmetic surgery. Histopathological examination showed mature adipocytes without any capsule

  12. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Zartman, Richard E.; Moffet, Corey A.; Wester, David B.; Ronald E. Sosebee; Fish, Ernest B.; Jaynes, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high i...

  13. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the polishing of secondary effluents. Elimination of bacteria (total and coliforms, faecal streptococci) and their relationship with the hydraulic load and the temperature were investigated. PMID:11464749

  14. Nitride and carbide preforms for infiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    A. Twardowska; Nowak, R; P. Kurtyka; B. Smuk; M. Podsiadło; L. Jaworska; N. Sobczak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Infiltration of molten metals into porous ceramic preforms is the only technique suitable for the fabrication of high volume fraction of ceramic materials in MMCs. The most popular material for porous preforms is Al2O3 because of its low cost. Infiltration process generates thermal stresses in the Al2O3 preforms. The thermal shock resistance of Al2O3 is lower than for Si3N4 or Al2O3/TiC+TiN materials. The aim of this study is to obtain the nitride and carbide base preforms material f...

  15. Laboratory evidence for enhanced infiltration of ion load during snowmelt

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lilbæk; J. W. Pomeroy

    2010-01-01

    Meltwater ion concentration and infiltration rate into frozen soil both decline rapidly as snowmelt progresses. Their temporal association is highly non-linear and a covariance term must be added in order to use time-averaged values of snowmelt ion concentration and infiltration rate to calculate chemical infiltration. The covariance is labelled enhanced ion infiltration and represents the additional ion load that infiltrates due to the timing of high meltwater concentratio...

  16. Evidence for enhanced infiltration of ion load during snowmelt

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lilbæk; J. W. Pomeroy

    2010-01-01

    Meltwater ion concentration and infiltration rate into frozen soil both decline rapidly as snowmelt progresses. Their temporal association is highly non-linear and a covariance term must be added in order to use time-averaged values of snowmelt ion concentration and infiltration rate to calculate chemical infiltration. The covariance is labelled enhanced infiltration and represents the additional ion load that infiltrates due to the timing of high meltwater concentration an...

  17. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Gui-rong Zhang; Ya-jun Qian; Zhang-chun Wang; Bo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  18. Geometrical parameters dependence towards ultra-flat dispersion square-lattice PCF with selective liquid infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Partha Sona

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a numerical analysis of the structural dependence of the PCF parameters towards ultra-flat dispersion in the C-band of communication wavelength. The technique is based on regular square-lattice PCF with all the air-hole of same uniform diameter and the effective size of the air-holes are modified with a selective infiltration of the air-holes with liquids. The dependence of the PCF structural parameters namely air-hole diameter and hole-to-hole distance along with the infiltrating liquid has been investigated in details. It is shown that the infiltrating liquid has critical influence on both the slope and value of dispersion, while pitch only changes the dispersion value whereas air-hole diameter modifies the slope of the dispersion. Our numerical investigation establishes dispersion values as small as 0+-0.58ps/(nm-km) over a bandwidth of 622nm in the communication wavelength band (C-band). The proposed design study will be very helpful in high power applications like broadband smooth super...

  19. Outdoor/indoor 1 relationships of PM1 and black carbon: 2 sources and infiltration processes in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Viana; Díez, S.; C. Reche

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air emissions of sub-micron particles infiltrate into indoor environments and play a 15 major role in indoor air quality. Discriminating between particles of indoor vs. outdoor origin is 16 therefore essential when assessing indoor air pollutant levels and characteristics. Outdoor/indoor relationships of traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates (PM1 and black carbon) were determined in a typical Mediterranean environment. Results evidenced the major impact of outdoor vehicular traff...

  20. Infiltration of Glassy Bodies with Zirconia Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconia nanoparticles (10-50 nm) were infiltrated into commercial glasses to modify their mechanical properties. The process developed allows a homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles within the glassy matrix. Differential thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping analysis where utilized to characterize the resulting composites

  1. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  2. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO2 and O2, of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in hydrological

  3. Pulmonary migratory infiltrates due to mycoplasma infection: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenjie; Chen, Bi; Li, Jing; Shou, Juan; Xue, Shan; Liu, Xueqing; Jiang, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary migratory infiltrates (PMI) are observed in a few diseases. We report here a case of PMI attributed to Mycoplasma pneumonia (Mp) infection. The patient's past medical history was characterized by fleeting and/or relapses of patchy opacification or infiltrates of parenchyma throughout the whole lung field except for left lower lobe radiographically. Serological assays revealed an elevation of IgG antibody specific to Mp and its fourfold increase in convalescent serum. Histopathological findings showed polypoid plugs of fibroblastic tissue filling and obliterating small air ways and interstitial infiltrates of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the vicinal alveolar septa. The patient was treated with azithromycin which resulted in a dramatic improvement clinically and imageologically. In spite of the increasing incidence of Mp, the possible unusual imaging manifestation and underlying mechanism haven't attracted enough attention. To our knowledge, there are rare reports of such cases. PMID:27293865

  4. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  5. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  6. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  7. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  8. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  9. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara;

    2009-01-01

    A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....

  10. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  11. INCORRECT PROPOSAL OF RUNOFF DRAINAGE THROUGH INFILTRATION FACILITY - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MARKOVIC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are permeable paved areas, unpaved areas for infiltration, vegetated swales, vegetated buffer strips, bioretention, detention ponds, dry well, infiltration basins and infiltration gallery and many more. Rainwater drainage from the bridge object in Sarisske Luky in Presov district (Slovakia, using infiltration gallery is presented in the paper. Its capacity is not efficient now, so the reconstruction or other supplement solution is needed. From the wide possibilities of solutions, one of them which full fills all criterions about the rainwater infiltration in selected building object is presented and discussed.

  12. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN AC – AlSi12 aluminum alloy. Stereological and structure investigations of obtained composite materials were made on light microscope. The mechanical properties of obtained composite material were investigated in tensile strength test and hardness test.Findings: It was proved that developed technology of manufacturing of composite materials based on the porous ceramic Al2O3 preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy ensures expected structure and strength Hardness increased about twice compared to the matrix and this process can be used in practice.Practical implications: The presented metal matrix composites fabrication technology allows to obtain locally reinforced elements and near net shape products.Originality/value: Results show the possibility of obtaining the new aluminium matrix composite materials being the cheaper alternative for other materials based on the ceramic fibers.

  13. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  14. Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal H. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

  15. Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal H. Ali; Bujang B.K. Huat; T. H. Low

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

  16. Modified design in new construction prevents infiltration of soil gas that carries radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwellings located on permeable soil with strong exhalation of radon often get a contribution to indoor radon from infiltrating soil gas carrying radon from the ground into the building. 100 dwellings have been built on radon dangerous land with different modifications in design and construction in order to prevent infiltration of radon. Tight construction, ventilated crawl space, ventilation/depressurization of the capillary breaking layer (crushed stone), and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery by air to air heat exchangers or heat pumps have been tested. Added building costs and measured concentration of radon after construction and 3-5 years later are reported. It is concluded that it is possible to build radon protective and radon safe dwellings on any land. The added costs have ranged from zero to 4% of total building costs

  17. Nitride and carbide preforms for infiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Twardowska

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Infiltration of molten metals into porous ceramic preforms is the only technique suitable for the fabrication of high volume fraction of ceramic materials in MMCs. The most popular material for porous preforms is Al2O3 because of its low cost. Infiltration process generates thermal stresses in the Al2O3 preforms. The thermal shock resistance of Al2O3 is lower than for Si3N4 or Al2O3/TiC+TiN materials. The aim of this study is to obtain the nitride and carbide base preforms material for the infiltration process of molten aluminium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The method of obtaining the silicon nitride and oxide-carbonitride porous preform for the infiltration process is the free sintering process. Some of selected properties of this material are presented. The preforms were produced by the mixing of ceramic powders with organic binders, followed by forming, drying and firing. Ceramic preforms of 65% porosity were produced. Microscopic investigations revealed good joints between the ceramic particles.Findings: The material consist of the base component (90 wt.% of α-Si3N4, 5 wt.% of Al2O3, 5 wt.% of Y2O3, which were mixed with 40 wt.% of polyethylene glycol 6000 (mixed in Turbula porosity is 25.7 %. The higher value of porosity 66.6% was obtained for material with 20 wt.% tylose. The grain size of Si3N4 and method of the mixtures preparing (mixing with or without milling have the significant influence on compacts’ porosity. For 68 wt.% Al2O3, 2 wt.% ZrO2 and 30 wt.% Ti(C,N with addition of glycol 6000, the value of porosity is 67%. α-Si3N4 material produced shows strong bonding with aluminium and AlSi11 aluminium alloy.Practical implications: Pressureless infiltration of molten metals into ceramics is the most cost-effective approach to liquid-metal processing of MMCs. Metal matrix composites are applied widely in aircraft production technologies and defence technology.Originality/value: Compared to widely used alumina

  18. Modelling and measurement of the infiltration of radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of results related to the infiltration of radon in houses are presented and should be a general interest with regard to the infiltration of other gases such as volatile organic compounds. Mathematical methods for simulating infiltration are demonstrated and explained in detail. (AB) (23 refs.)

  19. Modelling of Particulate Matter Infiltration in the Baroque Library Hall in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatoutsidou, S.E.; Mašková, Ludmila; Lazaridis, M.; Smolík, Jiří

    Prague: -, 2014, s. 40. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments /11./. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2014-16.04.2014] R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) FP7/2007-2013 Grant ostatní: EEA(NO) A/CZ0046/2/001 Keywords : infiltration * modeling * emissions * library Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  1. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be

  2. Modeling Hydrologic and Geochemical Aspects of Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, S.; Finsterle, S.; Gu, C.; Maggi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Land-based wastewater treatment is the controlled application of wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents. A Rapid Infiltration Basin (RIB) is a major land treatment technique where treated wastewater is infiltrated at high rates in shallow basins, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen compounds, there is particular concern that a RIB may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. RIBs are operated in repetitive cycles of flooding, infiltration, and drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect pollutant residence time and water table rise in shallow groundwater systems. They also alter water saturation and air content in the vadose zone, which have an impact on denitrification. Optimum values of the wetting-drying cycle ratio and the hydraulic loading rate are expected to vary with the quality of applied wastewater, soil type, treatment objective, and climate. Soil development within the basins may have an important effect on RIB performance. In this study, numerical modeling is used to obtain optimum values for the wetting-drying cycle ratio and hydraulic loading rate for different soil types and environmental conditions. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Overland flow within RIBs is coupled with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on hydraulic performance. TOUGHREACT v1.1 is used for modeling nitrogen fate and transport. Flow simulations indicate that using a long flooding cycle results in more water spreading over the basin and higher vadose zone water saturations than more frequent short-duration flooding events. Results of modeling fate and

  3. Building characterization and aerosol infiltration into a naturally ventilated three-story apartment building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, Charles E; Vanosdell, Douglas W; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Seagraves, Jeremy; Hahn, Intaek; Henkle, Stacy W; Wiener, Russell W

    2009-12-01

    Understanding infiltration of outdoor pollutants was an integral part of the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. For this reason, the structural and air exchange properties of the three-story row house in Brooklyn, NY, USA, that was used in the B-TRAPPED experiments were fully characterized. Factors investigated included representativeness of the construction and impact of building design features on the natural ventilation and infiltration of outdoor aerosol. Both blower door and perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) air exchange rate (AER) experiments showed that the ventilation rates of the building were quite typical of similar structures in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) aerosol count ratios by particle size were comparable to a similar vintage naturally ventilated building in Boston, MA, USA. I/O ratio analyses were consistent with literature findings and showed I/O ratios ranging from 0.310 to 0.601, varying across particle sizes (from 0.3 to 5.0 [corrected] mum) and between first and second floor apartments. An effort to apply the rebound method of Thatcher et al. (Aerosol Sci. Technol., 2003, 37, 847-864) in determining aerosol infiltration rates proved unsuccessful due to unexpectedly long (>60 min) equilibration times after the filtration period. Uninsulated interior wall renovations in the study house created a cavity that resulted in a large intermediate dead volume (for infiltration) that apparently could not be accommodated by a simple infiltration model. Simple two-compartment models evidently have finite application limitations for even modestly complex settings. PMID:20024015

  4. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  5. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  6. Numerical analysis of a neutron radiography-monitored infiltration experiment: Two-phase modeling using TOUGH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princ, Tomas; Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown in ponded infiltration-outflow column experiments that true steady state flow is often not reached in certain soils exhibiting preferential flow. Experiments often show a temporal change of flow rate that can, in the case of experiments conducted on saturated samples at constant head gradients, be interpreted as variations of saturated hydraulic conductivity. It has also been shown that these variations can be caused by slow redistribution of entrapped air in the sample. The experiment presented in this study was conducted on a small fabricated sample with axially symmetrical inner geometry of material distribution. In preparing the sample, areas of fine sand were surrounded by continuous preferential pathways composed of coarse sand. Ponded infiltration was performed on the sample while monitoring using neutron imaging was conducted to obtain spatiotemporal information about the water content distribution in the sample. Results of the experiment revealed that during the quasi-steady state stage of the experiment the saturated hydraulic conductivity gradually decreased due to the transfer of air bubbles from fine sand to coarse sand. Flow through the coarse sand became partially blocked by air bubbles and the overall quasi-steady flow rate consequently decreased by 30% during six hours of infiltration. In an attempt to model this behavior, we simulated ponded infiltration in two dimensional (2D) domains using the EOS3 module of the numerical simulator TOUGH2 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The main objective was to determine which types of preferential pathway patterns were prone to air entrapment and whether the air redistribution observed in the experiment could be numerically simulated. Modeling was conducted in three different 2D domains with increasing complexity of the preferential pathways' geometry. Analysis of the results confirmed that during ponded infiltration, water percolated fastest at the start of infiltration through the

  7. Liquid precursor infiltration processing of powder compacts. 1: Kinetic studies and microstructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of infiltrating a solution precursor into Si3N4 powder compacts were studied using either water or an aqueous solution of Zr-nitrate and Y-nitrate that formed a crystalline Zr(Y)O2 (3 mol% Y2O3) solid solution during pyrolysis. When the powder compact contained air, the infiltration involved two steps: (1) relatively rapid intrusion of liquid via flow due to capillary pressure and (2) diffusion of entrapped gas to the surface as its pressure became equal to the capillary pressure. The kinetics of both processes are described with different parabolic rate laws--Darcy's law and Fick's law, respectively. When the intruded precursor is converted to an inorganic during heat treatment, the void space is partially filled with pyrolyzed precursor without shrinkage of the Si3N4 powder. The movement of precursor molecules was prevented by gelling prior to drying, viz., by soaking the infiltrated bodies in an aqueous NH4OH solution. Microstructures developed during cyclic precursor infiltration and pyrolysis were characterized to show that cracklike voids are produced within the pyrolyzed precursor due to its large volume change during pyrolysis and densification; the size distribution of the cracklike voids is proportional to the size distribution of the voids within the initial powder compact

  8. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  9. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  10. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  11. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  12. Benign fracture versus malignant vertebral body infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging capabilities in differentiating marrow signal alterations seen in benign vertebral body compression fractures from those of malignant vertebral infiltration were assessed. Thirty-six patients, including 15 with posttraumatic vertebral compression fractures of known age, and 21 with malignant bone lesions, were imaged with MR. MR spine imaging (1.5 T) was performed with routine spin-echo sequences as well as inversion recovery (STIR), gradient-echo scans (GRASS), and chemical shift images (selective saturation technique) to obtain fat and water scans. Fat/water images enhanced differentiation between benign and malignant signal alterations. In general, patients with malignancy showed abnormal diffuse low signal intensity on fat images and corresponding increased signal on water images. Benign compression fractures showed variable patterns of signal alteration on fat/water images depending on fracture age. Old fractures showed persistent fat signal. Only very acute traumatic fractures showed increased signal on water images

  13. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.)

  14. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  15. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  16. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  17. INCORRECT PROPOSAL OF RUNOFF DRAINAGE THROUGH INFILTRATION FACILITY - CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, G.; V. ONDREJKA HARBULAKOVA; Martina ZELENAKOVA

    2016-01-01

    mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are per...

  18. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos; Elói Panachuki; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho; Paulo Tarso Sanches de Oliveira; Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in thre...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Infiltration Dynamics During Managed Aquifer Recharge

    OpenAIRE

    Racz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semicontrolled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific method...

  20. Improving infiltration on irrigated Mediterranean soils with polyadrilamide

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The effects of continuous (1·0 mg/l) and concentrated (10 mg/l) irrigation water-added polyacrylamide (PAM) on infiltration of a highly erodible Mediterranean soil were studied using recirculating furrow infiltrometers. Polyacrylamide avoided the seal formation observed in the wetted surface of the control furrow and helped to maintain higher infiltration rates for both PAM treatments. Mean final cumulative infiltration for the continuous and concentrated PAM experiments increased...

  1. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrač, Rožle

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  2. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  3. Congenital infiltrating lipoma with intrabony invasion into maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Lee, Hyang Ok; Lee, Seo Young; Choi, Hyung Kil; Ha, Byung Gak; Moon, Je Woon; Lee, Sam Sun [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Infiltrating lipoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that, in spite of benign nature, characteristically infiltrates adjacent tissues and tends to recur after surgery. It has a predilection for the extremities and the trunk and is extremely rare in the head and neck region. We present a case of congenital infiltrating lipoma of the face, describing the intrabony invasion and osseous dystrophy as well as the soft tissue changes seen on plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  5. Porous ceramic - metal composites obtained by infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    A. Boczkowska; Chabera, P.; Dolata, A. J.; M. Dyzia; Oziębło, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pressure-vacuum infiltration (T = 720 ºC, p = 15 MPa, t = 15 min) and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI) in an autoclave (T = 700ºC, p=4 MPa, t=5 min) were applied for infiltration of porous Al2O3 ceramics by cast aluminum alloy. Effect of the method of the infiltration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, was studied. Ceramic preforms were formed by method of copying the cellular structure of the polymer matrix. The results of the X-ray tomography prove...

  6. Model of Infiltration of Spent Automotive Catalysts by Molten Metal in Process of Platinum Metals Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model for the washing-out process of precious metals from spent catalysts by the use of molten lead in which the metal flow is caused by the rotating electromagnetic field and the Lorentz force. The model includes the coupling of the electromagnetic field with the hydrodynamic field, the flow of metal through anisotropic and porous structure of the catalyst, and the movement of the phase boundary (air-metal during infiltration of the catalyst carrier by the molten metal. The developed model enabled analysis of the impact of spacing between the catalysts and the supply current on the degree of catalyst infiltration by the molten metal. The results of calculations carried out on the basis of the model were verified experimentally.

  7. Acute ozone-induced change in airway permeability: role of infiltrating leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Hudak, B.B. (Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The role of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in acute lung injury and inflammation is still controversial. In inbred mice, acute ozone (O3) exposure induces airway inflammation that is characterized by a maximal influx of lavageable PMNs 6 h after exposure and a maximal increase in lung permeability 24 h after O3. We tested the hypothesis that O3-induced change in airway epithelial permeability of O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice is due to infiltrating PMNs. Male mice (6-8 wk) were treated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin), a chemotactic inhibitor (colchicine), or an immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide) to deplete or inhibit PMNs from infiltrating the airways. After drug or vehicle treatment, mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm O3 or filtered air, and pulmonary inflammation was assessed by inflammatory cell counts and total protein content (a marker of airway permeability) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Filtered air exposure did not affect the parameters of pulmonary inflammation at any time after exposure. Compared with vehicle controls, each of the drug treatments resulted in significant reduction of PMN influx 6 and 24 h after O3. However, total BAL protein content was not attenuated significantly by the three treatments at either 6 or 24 h postexposure. Results of these experiments suggest that the influx of PMNs and the change in total BAL protein are not mutually dependent events in this model and suggest that infiltrating PMNs do not play a major role in acute O3-induced changes in permeability of the murine lung.

  8. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  9. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Hori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in the pancreas, develop fatty infiltration of the pancreas with age. The combination of a high-fat diet and a chemical carcinogen that induces a K-ras mutation increases the severity of fatty infiltration of the pancreas. Thus, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is suggested to promote pancreatic carcinogenesis via a K-ras activating mutation. It is assumed that increased expression of adipokines and of inflammatory and proliferation-associated factors elicited by fatty infiltration of the pancreas may contribute to pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to suppression of Ras activation, methods to modulate fatty infiltration in the pancreas can be considered as a strategy for preventing pancreatic cancer.

  10. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of...

  11. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  12. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  13. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify the presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  14. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  15. The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide...... recognition of the majority of the CD8 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes remains to be identified....

  16. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  17. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  18. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices.......We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  19. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  20. MR imaging of chronic infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in chronic infiltrative lung disease (CILD) by comparison with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Twenty patients with proved CILD (six with UIP, six with sarcoidosis, two with extrinsic allergic alveolities [EAA], and six miscellaneous) underwent 1.5-T MR imaging and HRCT of the chest. Cardiac-gated T1 (TR, 800 msec; TE, 20 msec) and proton density and T2 (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 30/80 msec) sequences were performed. The MR images were reviewed by two chest radiologists, and the findings were compared with the HRCT scans. HRCT was superior to MR imaging in the anatomic assessment of the lung parenchyma and in the demonstration of mild fibrosis. However, MR images provided greater contrast between areas of airspace opacification and normal lung than did MRCT. In two patients with UIP, two with sarcoidosis, and two with EAA, MR images demonstrated airspace opacification not readily apparent on CT scans. In the two patients with EAA, the EAA had initially been missed with HRCT. HRCT is superior to MR imaging in anatomic assessment of the lung. However, the increased contrast on MR images allows better assessment of the presence and extent of airspace opacification, which has been shown to reflect disease activity. MR imaging may play an important role in the assessment of disease activity and response to treatment in patients with CILD

  1. PDT and tumour infiltrating immune cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms involved in tumor destruction following PhotoDynamic Therapy are still under investigation. Direct killing of tumor cells by phototoxic action is not the only mechanism responsible for tumor destruction. When Photofrin is used as a photosensitizer a majority of tumor cells is killed by secondary mechanisms, expressed only if tumor is left in situ for at least 6-12 hours after light treatment. The indirect mechanism of tumor destruction by PDT has been described as a massive necrosis of tumor tissue resulting from hypoxia induced by destruction of tumor vasculature. Earliest changes in tumor vasculature already occur during the course of light illumination. They include accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils), platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction followed by vascular stasis and hemorrhage. Release of mediators of inflammation (e.g. prostaglandin E2, thromboxane), cytokines, proteolytic enzymes and other substances was also demonstrated. These events are typical for inflammatory response. Nature and significance of this response has, however, not been studied in detail. Initial results on host immune cell infiltration into PDT treated murine tumor are reported here. (author). 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90o. Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  3. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  4. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  5. Characteristics of heat transport in porous media with water infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper heat and water transports in porous media with waster infiltration are discussed experimentally and theoretically. The distributions of water content and temperature were predicted for one- and tow-dimensional porous media, based on a model that there is thermal equilibrium between the water and the matrix at any specific space. The predicted temperature distributions were compared of the experimental results obtained using various glass bead sizes. A larger bead size has a faster infiltration rate and forms a wider infiltration layer, especially to the direction of gravity. But the heated layer does not extend so wide as the infiltration layer because the temperature of water infiltrating gradually drops due to heat transport at upstream

  6. ‘The air that we breathe’: assessment of laser and electrosurgical dissection devices on operating theater air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Matthew D; Stevens, Elizabeth; Taylor, S Mark; Butt, Sarah; Sun, Zhennan; Hu, Licai; Borden, Megan; Khanna, Neeraj; Kuchta, James; Trites, Jonathan; Hart, Robert; Gibson, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To measure changes in air quality during surgery. Methods Operating room (OR) and hallway air quality was continuously monitored over a 3-month period. Rooftop monitoring was used to control for environmental changes and to account for the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants. Air quality measurements were correlated with operative times and electro-dissection equipment used. Results OR air is cooler and drier compared to the adjacent hallway. Volatile organic compounds and other...

  7. Unstable infiltration fronts in porous media on laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Cindi; Neuweiler, Insa

    2014-05-01

    , while the inclusions act as a storage that is filled during the infiltration process. References: Chouke, R.L., van Meurs, P., and van der Poel, C., 1959. The instability of slow immiscible, viscous liquid-liquid displacements in permeable media, Trans. AIME. 216:188-194. Glass, R.J., Steenhuis, T.S., and Parlange J.-Y., 1989a. Mechanism for finger persistence in homogeneous, unsaturated, porous media: Theory and verification, Soil Sci. 148:60-70. Glass R.J., Parlange, J.-Y., and Steenhuis, T.S., 1991. Immiscible displacement in porous media: Stability analysis of three-dimensional, axisymmetric disturbances with application to gravity-driven wetting front instability, Water Resour. Res., 27, 1947-1956. Guarracino, L., 2007. Estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks from the van Genuchten shape parameter , Water Resour. Res., 43, W11502. Parlange, J.-Y. and Hill, D.E., 1976a. Theoretical analysis of wetting front instability in soils, Soil Sci. 122:236-239. Philip, J. 1975a. Stability analysis of infiltration, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39:1042-1049. Saffman, P.G. and Taylor, G., 1958. The penetration of a fluid into a porous medium or hele-shaw cell containing a more viscous liquid, Proc. R. Soc. London, 245:312-329. Wang Z., Feyen, J., Nielsen, D.R., and van Genuchten, M.T., 1997. Two-phase flow infiltration equations accounting for air entrapment effects, Water Resour. Res., 33:2759-2767. Wang, Z., Feyen, J., and Elrick, D.E., 1998c. Prediction of fingering in porous media, Water Resour. Res. 34(9):2183-2190. Wang Z., Wu, L., and Wu, Q.J., 2000. Water-entry value as an alternative indicator of soil water-repellency and wettability, Journal of Hydrology., 231-232, 76-83. White, I., Colombera, P.M., and Philip, J.R., 1976. Experimental studies of wetting front instability induced by sudden changes of pressure gradient, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 40:824-829.

  8. Highly durable anode supported solid oxide fuel cell with an infiltrated cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Hjalmarsson, Per; Søgaard, Martin; Hjelm, Johan; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    , consisting of a Nieyttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode support, a Niescandia-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (ScYSZ) anode, a ScYSZ electrolyte, and a CGO barrier layer. LSC was introduced into the CGO backbone by multiple infiltrations of an aqueous nitrate solution followed by firing. The cell was...... tested at 700 deg. C under a current density of 0.5 A cm-2 for 1500 h using air as oxidant and humidified hydrogen as fuel. The electrochemical performance of the cell was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and current evoltage relationships. No measurable degradation in the cell voltage or increase in...

  9. Model of Infiltration of Spent Automotive Catalysts by Molten Metal in Process of Platinum Metals Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk; Slawomir Golak; Mariola Saternus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the model for the washing-out process of precious metals from spent catalysts by the use of molten lead in which the metal flow is caused by the rotating electromagnetic field and the Lorentz force. The model includes the coupling of the electromagnetic field with the hydrodynamic field, the flow of metal through anisotropic and porous structure of the catalyst, and the movement of the phase boundary (air-metal) during infiltration of the catalyst carrier by the molten met...

  10. Determination of infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma differentiation grade in biopsy imprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović-Bokun Zorana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In patients with breast carcinoma there are many risk factors for assessment of breast carcinoma maturity and prognosis. Besides histological type of differentiation, cytologic criteria for the evaluation grade of the differentiation of infiltrative ductal breast carcinomas are very important for prognosis. The aim of this study was to define cytologic criteria for grading of infiltrative ductal carcinomas of the breast. Methods. The imprints of intraoperative biopsies from 124 patients were studied. They were air-dried and stained by May-Grünwald Giemsa method. The features assessed were: the degree and type of cell clustering, nuclear diameter and pleomorphism, chromatin structure, number and features of nucleoli, the aspect of cytoplasm, noncellular background and the variability of cells and nuclei. According to these morphologic features the infiltrative ductal carcinomas of the breast could be classified into three grades of differentiation. Results. Cytologic and histologic differentation grade revealed disagreement among 34.6% of the imprints. In 9 of total 23 histologicaly well differentiated carcinomas, cytological differentation grade was moderately differentiated. In 63 carcinomas with histologic differentiation grade II, cytologic differentiation grade was good in 12 and poor in 16 carcinomas. Conclusion. Cytologic and histologic grading were not identical in 34.6% of the imprints what points out the need to further definition of diagnostic criteria, especially for grade II of differentiation.

  11. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T; Izbicki, John A

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events. PMID:18194325

  12. User guide for the Infiltration SuDS Map : summary

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, R.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a description of the Infiltration SuDS Map: Summary developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS). The map provides screening-level data that gives an indication of the suitability of the subsurface for infiltration sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). The map does not provide any specific information about the properties of the ground; such data is included in the Infiltration SuDS Map: Detailed (Dearden, 2011). The summary map is designed to be used by those involved...

  13. BENIGN LYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATION OF SKIN: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Benign (Jessners lymphocytic infiltration of the skin is a chronic, benign T - cell infiltrative disorder, usually manifesting as erythematous papules or plaques on the face, neck and back. W e report the case of a 30 - year – old female, who presented with e rythematous papules and plaques on face, upper back, front of chest, of 4 months duration and erythematous plaque on both dorsa of hand and F ore arms of 1 month duration. S kin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of jessner’s lymphocytic infiltration of the skin . The evolution was favorable with hydroxy chloroquine.

  14. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  15. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...... commercial models: mike she for simulation of groundwater transport and mike urban (mouse) [DHI, Hørsholm, Denmark] for simulation of sewer flow. By simulating the groundwater level and calibrating infiltration coefficients against sewer flow measurements, it has been possible to estimate the average...... infiltration to the sewer system with satisfying results. The infiltration processes are indeed complicated and to a large degree heterogeneous throughout the sewer system. The paper shows contribution from both saturated and unsaturated groundwater zones, which makes the modelling process complex. Copyright...

  16. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    -sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full...... scientific and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the...... temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by...

  17. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been established for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  18. Effects of rainfall infiltration on deep slope failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JianPing; LIU QingQuan; LI JiaChun; AN Yi

    2009-01-01

    With the finite element method and the limit equilibrium method, a numerical model has been estab-lished for examining the effects of rainfall infiltration on the stability of slopes. This model is able to availably reflect the variations in pore pressure field in slopes, dead weight of soil, and the softening of soil strength caused by rainfall infiltration. As a case study, an actual landslide located at the Nongji Jixiao in Chongqing is studied to analyze the effects of rainfall infiltration on the seepage field and the slope stability. The simulated results show that a deep slope failure is prone to occur when rainfall infiltration will lead to a remarkable variation in the seepage field, in particular, for large range pore water pressure increase in slopes.

  19. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode-supported...... printed symmetrical cells. Samples with LSM/YSZ composite and YSZ backbones made with graphite+PMMA as pore formers exhibited comparable Rp values to the screen printed LSM/YSZ cathode. This route was chosen as the best to fabricate the cathode supported cells. SEM micrograph of a cathode supported cell...... with infiltrated LSM nanoparticles is shown in Fig. 1. Figure 1. Cross section of LSM infiltrated cathode supported cell. [Formula]...

  20. Thermal and microestructural characterization of epoxy-infiltrated hydroxyapatite composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barrionuevo Roese

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAp obtained from the deorganification of bovine bones using hot NaOH solution was used to synthesize a HAp/epoxy infiltrated composite. Infiltration was carried out by vacuum assisted immersion in hot epoxy resin. The resulting composite was characterized regarding polymer content, morphological aspects and flexural strength. The infiltration method used resulted in thorough infiltration of the HAp but some residual porosity remained. Although the epoxy resin showed good interaction with the HAp, high polymer content was achieved and the flexural strength of the composite was higher than that of the original resin or the HAp, composite strength was lower than that of the human cortical bone.

  1. Trajectory Networks and Their Topological Changes Induced by Geographical Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate the topological changes undergone by trajectory networks as a consequence of progressive geographical infiltration. Trajectory networks, a type of knitted network, are obtained by establishing paths between geographically distributed nodes while following an associated vector field. For instance, the nodes could correspond to neurons along the cortical surface and the vector field could correspond to the gradient of neurotrophic factors, or the nodes could represent towns while the vector fields would be given by economical and/or geographical gradients. Therefore trajectory networks are natural models of a large number of geographical structures. The geographical infiltrations correspond to the addition of new local connections between nearby existing nodes. As such, these infiltrations could be related to several real-world processes such as contaminations, diseases, attacks, parasites, etc. The way in which progressive geographical infiltrations affect trajectory networks is ...

  2. Nonlocal gap soliton in liquid infiltrated photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, F.H.; Rosberg, C.R.; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard;

    We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure.......We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure....

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  4. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion sprinkler irrigated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio; Reis, João; Martins, Olga; Castanheira, Nádia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The impacts of sprinkler irrigation on infiltration, runoff and sediment loss of ten representative soils of Southern Portugal were assessed by laboratory sprinkler irrigation simulation tests. All soils showed very low permeability to applied water. The mechanical impact of water droplets enhanced soil dispersion and further lowered their infiltration capacity, particularly for high clay plus silt content soils that showed the poorest results. As a consequence, high runoff and se...

  5. Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Aadithya B Urs; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Kumar, Priya; Arora, Shelly; Aggarwal, Neha; Sultana, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a very rare entity which is characterized by the collection of non-encapsulated mature adipocytes infiltrating local tissues, resulting in craniofacial deformities. Psychomotor development of the patients is normal, esthetics often being the primary concern to seek treatment. The presentation is always unilateral with hypertrophy of hard and soft structures on the affected side of the face. The pathogenesis of the condition is unclear. This condition sh...

  6. Modern composite materials manufactured by pressure infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; M. Drak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the technique of manufacturing the composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy and examination of the structure and corrosion resistance of those materials.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was manufactured by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used...

  7. Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma infiltrated both lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hua; Lu, Pu-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Usually Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs in the mediastinum and head and neck regions. On rare occasions, the first manifestation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma may be a disorder of an extranodal site, such as the gastrointestinal tract, nasopharyngeal region, central nervous system, kidney, or other sites. Few cases of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma with pulmonary infiltration have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma with infiltration of both lungs. Ultras...

  8. Congenital infiltrative lipomas and retroperitoneal perirenal lipomas in a calf

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; McEvoy, Fintan; Goldschmidt, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital lipocytic tumours have rarely been reported in cattle. Lipomas are benign tumours, but infiltrative lipomas have significant health implications due to their aggressive infiltrative growth pattern. Case presentation A calf was born with skeletal malformations and soft tissue proliferations, primarily on the external thoracic wall. The calf was euthanized for welfare reasons and submitted for post mortem examination. Necropsy, histopathology and post mortem computed tomog...

  9. Connection of nuclear magnetic and infiltration parameters of porous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infiltration parameters of porous rocks are determined among others by the specific pore surface. In the case of the sandostones the nuclear magnetic behaviour of the water influx is also influenced by the specific surface of the pores. On this basis the nuclear magnetic and the infiltration parameters of the rocks can be brought into connection with each other. The paper deals with the rock-physics of the nuclear magnetic logging. (author)

  10. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  11. Suturing of digital lacerations: digital block or local infiltration?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A prospective trial was carried out to assess the relative efficiency of digital block and local infiltration as methods of anaesthesia when suturing lacerations of the digits. A standard technique and questionnaire were applied to a consecutive group of 62 patients attending the Accident Department of the Bristol Royal Infirmary. Digital block was found to be a more effective technique than local infiltration for anaesthetising digital lacerations.

  12. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, B; Lüescher, P.; P. F. Germann

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Miller), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2) and recorded water content var...

  13. Comparison and reliability of different techniques for riverbed infiltration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, H; Kuráž, V.; Nachtnebel, P.; Wakonig, B.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water interaction play an important role for groundwater recharge, drought management and water quality issues. Based on a case study in Lower Austria different techniques for estimation of riverbed infiltration were applied. The aim was to assess the impact of upstream release flow directions for the downstream sections. Due to the fact of large streambed conductivities, infiltration losses considerably contribute to the water balance of the system. The applied method...

  14. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  15. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    OpenAIRE

    T Bunsri; Sivakumar, M.; D Hagare

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various...

  16. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control. PMID:26216710

  17. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  18. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils. PMID:24292460

  19. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  20. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lange

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the influence of tree roots from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectrometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to fine root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on fine root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots improve soil structure and thus infiltration.

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  3. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  4. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  5. Development of a Test Cell to Evaluate Embankment Infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) has developed and constructed a test pad to evaluate potential infiltration through the designed cover system over the low-level radioactive waste disposal embankments incorporated at the facility. The general design of the test pad follows the recommendations set forth in the Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP) that is currently funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential alternatives to conventional landfill cover designs. The bulk of the test pad is below grade with dimensions approximately 16 feet wide by 28 feet long. The base of the test pad is a lysimeter built to the same dimensions as compliance lysimeters within the disposal embankments at Envirocare. The lysimeter collects all liquids to a single low point and directs the liquids through monitoring instruments within a manhole outside the test pad. The lysimeter is constructed to simulate the ''top of waste'' condition in Envirocare's embankments; consequently, the top of the lysimeter is sloped at an angle of approximately 2.8 percent, the design top slope of the embankment. A replica of the embankment cover is constructed directly above the lysimeter. This cover is constructed exactly the same as final cover is constructed upon the waste disposal embankments, utilizing the same QA/QC measures. Permanent monitoring equipment has been placed during construction at specific intervals throughout the test pad. Monitoring equipment consists of water content reflectometers (WCRs), matric water potential sensors (heat dissipation units; HDUs), and temperature probes. The monitoring equipment provides cross-sectional data of the moisture content and temperatures throughout the constructed cover. Additionally, surface water runoff is collected through a drainage trough and measured in order to perform a water balance over the entire test pad. To aid in the assessment, data collected from the site meteorological stat ion will be used

  6. Development of a Test Cell to Evaluate Embankment Infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, T. L.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) has developed and constructed a test pad to evaluate potential infiltration through the designed cover system over the low-level radioactive waste disposal embankments incorporated at the facility. The general design of the test pad follows the recommendations set forth in the Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP) that is currently funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential alternatives to conventional landfill cover designs. The bulk of the test pad is below grade with dimensions approximately 16 feet wide by 28 feet long. The base of the test pad is a lysimeter built to the same dimensions as compliance lysimeters within the disposal embankments at Envirocare. The lysimeter collects all liquids to a single low point and directs the liquids through monitoring instruments within a manhole outside the test pad. The lysimeter is constructed to simulate the ''top of waste'' condition in Envirocare's embankments; consequently, the top of the lysimeter is sloped at an angle of approximately 2.8 percent, the design top slope of the embankment. A replica of the embankment cover is constructed directly above the lysimeter. This cover is constructed exactly the same as final cover is constructed upon the waste disposal embankments, utilizing the same QA/QC measures. Permanent monitoring equipment has been placed during construction at specific intervals throughout the test pad. Monitoring equipment consists of water content reflectometers (WCRs), matric water potential sensors (heat dissipation units; HDUs), and temperature probes. The monitoring equipment provides cross-sectional data of the moisture content and temperatures throughout the constructed cover. Additionally, surface water runoff is collected through a drainage trough and measured in order to perform a water balance over the entire test pad. To aid in the assessment, data collected from the site

  7. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Tunable photoluminescence of porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon films has been investigated as a function of the amount of liquid crystal molecules that are infiltrated into the constricted geometry of the porous silicon films. A typical nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl was employed in our experiment as the filler to modify the PL of porous silicon. It is found that the originally red PL of porous silicon films can be tuned to blue by simply adjusting the amount of liquid crystal molecules in the microchannels of the porous films. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the recorded PL spectra. The mechanism of the tunable PL is discussed. Our results have demonstrated that the luminescent properties of porous silicon films can be efficiently tuned by liquid crystal infiltration. - Highlights: → Liquid crystal infiltration can tune the photoluminescence of porous silicon. → Red emission of porous silicon can be switched to blue by the infiltration. → Chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the tuned emissions. → White emission is realized for porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration.

  9. Infiltration of molten aluminum in aluminum-nickel powder preform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown by the present author that when molten aluminum comes in contact with nickel, an exothermic reaction is initiated and both stiochiometric and non-stiochiometric phases form at the interface. For nickel powders, such reaction is expected to be much faster due to high surface area to volume ratio of the fine particles. Infiltration of molten metals in ceramics powder preforms has long been used to fabricate near or net-shaped Metal Matrix Composite components. For metallic preforms however, it is important to see if the exothermic reaction compromises the infiltration of the molten metal constituent, i.e. defective components. The current project studied the fabrication of near net-shaped Intermetallic Matrix Composites, (IMC) via molten metal infiltration and subsequent reaction with the metal powder preform. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical and SEM microscopes were used to characterize the infiltration, reaction and the resulted microstructure. It is expected that the molten metal temperature, holding time within the molten metal, the infiltration pressure, i.e. metallostatic pressure and the preform compaction pressure are all important parameters to be considered carefully to achieve sound components. The current report examined the feasibility of such fabrication technique and the resultant microstructure. (author)

  10. TiO{sub 2} based photo-catalysts prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) on micro-fibrous substrates; Photocatalyseurs a base de TiO{sub 2} prepares par infiltration chimique en phase vapeur (CVI) sur supports microfibreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantopoulos, Ch

    2007-10-15

    This thesis deals with micro-fibrous glass substrates functionalized with TiO{sub 2}. The oxide is deposited as a thin film onto the micro fibres by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), yielding a photo-catalytic material usable for cleaning polluted air. We studied the relation between the structure of the material and its photo-catalytic efficiency. TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared at low pressure, in a hot-wall CVD reactor, using Ti(O-iPr){sub 4} as a precursor. They were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and BET, and by recording the kinetics of decomposition of varied pollutants in solution (orange G, malic acid, imazapyr) and in air (toluene). The conditions favoring the growth of porous films through a columnar growth mode were established by MOCVD-depositing TiO{sub 2} thin films on flat substrates. The subsequent works with micro fibrous thick substrates showed the uniformity of infiltration to be the main factor governing the photo-catalytic efficiency. Operating parameters that optimize infiltration do not yield columnar growth mode. A compromise is necessary. Our photo-catalysts are showing high efficiency comparable, if not higher, to those actually commercialized. These promising results are opening real perspectives for the proposed process. (author)

  11. Comparing Two Methods of Determining Infiltration Rates of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W.B.Nichols; Terry Lucke; Carsten Dierkes

    2014-01-01

    Adequate infiltration through Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs) is critical to their hydraulic performance. Detected by monitoring infiltration performance, reduced infiltration rates can indicate that maintenance is required. Measurement of infiltration rates has previously been problematic on PICPs because of a lack of accepted standard methodologies and the practical difficulties in modifying existing testing methodologies. On large sites, standard methodologies necessitate...

  12. TiO2 based photo-catalysts prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) on micro-fibrous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with micro-fibrous glass substrates functionalized with TiO2. The oxide is deposited as a thin film onto the micro fibres by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), yielding a photo-catalytic material usable for cleaning polluted air. We studied the relation between the structure of the material and its photo-catalytic efficiency. TiO2 thin films were prepared at low pressure, in a hot-wall CVD reactor, using Ti(O-iPr)4 as a precursor. They were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and BET, and by recording the kinetics of decomposition of varied pollutants in solution (orange G, malic acid, imazapyr) and in air (toluene). The conditions favoring the growth of porous films through a columnar growth mode were established by MOCVD-depositing TiO2 thin films on flat substrates. The subsequent works with micro fibrous thick substrates showed the uniformity of infiltration to be the main factor governing the photo-catalytic efficiency. Operating parameters that optimize infiltration do not yield columnar growth mode. A compromise is necessary. Our photo-catalysts are showing high efficiency comparable, if not higher, to those actually commercialized. These promising results are opening real perspectives for the proposed process. (author)

  13. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Iman [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Co. Ltd., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haddadi-Asl, Vahid [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Co. Ltd., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaeijandaghi, Farshad [Department of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Co. Ltd., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud, E-mail: soleim_m@modares.ac.ir [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  14. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  15. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions is an...... indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  16. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  17. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  18. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  19. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating Ground-Penetrating Radar use for water infiltration monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Saintenoy, Albane; Schneider, Sébastien; Tucholka, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    International audience Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) was tested to monitor water infiltration in sand. Water was injected down an 81 cm long tubed hole, with a piezometer recording the depth of water and a tap valve used to adjust it to 15 cm ± 2 cm above the bottom of the tube. During the 20 minutes of infiltration a GPR system recorded a trace every second with its transmitter and receiver antennae at a fixed offset position on the surface. The signal, enhanced by differential correctio...

  1. Infiltrating lipoma of oral cavity: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wali Peeran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are rare in the oral cavity comprising less than 5% of benign neoplasms in head and neck region. Infiltrating lipomas are much less common than other variants. Case Report: We report a rare case of infiltrating/intra-muscular lipoma in the retro-molar region of a 28-year-old male. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from Libyan population and in the Middle East & North Africa region (MENA. Surgical excision is curative but, regular follow-up is needed to identify recurrences of this unusual variant.

  2. CHEMICAL VAPOUR INFILTRATION (CVI) OF SILICON CARBIDE FIBRE PREFORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, R.; Pejryd, L.; LÖÖf, G.

    1991-01-01

    An alternative fabrication technique is proposed for ceramic matrix / ceramic fibre composites involving filling a fibre fabric preform with a Si/Si3 N4 slurry and subsequently reaction bonding. For the first processing step in this process, chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) was evaluated as a means of both biding together and protecting the fibres. SiC (Nicalon) fibre preforms consisting of through-stitched 2D fabrics were infiltrated. The preform thickness was more than 4 mm and a 3 µm TiC...

  3. Melt infiltration casting of bulk metallic-glass matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dandliker, R. B.; Conner, R. D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a technique for melt infiltration casting of composites with a metallic-glass matrix. We made rods 5 cm in length and 7 mm in diameter. The samples were reinforced by continuous metal wires, tungsten powder, or silicon carbide particulate preforms. The most easily processed composites were those reinforced with tungsten and carbon steel continuous wire reinforcement. The Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 matrix was quenched to a glass after infiltrating the reinforcement. We...

  4. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  5. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminations and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. The authors have measured and analyzed these air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency. (Auth.)

  6. Electrical capacitance volume tomography of soil water infiltration in a vessel experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mukhlisin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT is a recently-developed technique for real-time, non-invasive 3-D monitoring of processes involving materials with strong contrasts in dielectric permittivity. This paper is the first application of the method to visualization of water flow in soil. We describe the principles behind the method, and then demonstrate its use with a simple laboratory infiltration experiment. 32 ECVT sensors were installed on the sides of an empty PVC column. Water was poured into the column at a constant rate, and ECVT data were collected every second. The column was then packed with dry sand and again supplied with water at a constant rate with data collected every second. Data were analyzed to give bulk average water contents, which proved consistent with the water supply rates. Data were also analyzed to give 3-D images (216 voxels allowing visualization of the water distribution during the experiments. For infiltration into the soil, wall flow, progress of the unstable wetting front, and the final water distribution showing air pockets are clearly visible. Result of this study showed that the normalized dielectric permittivity distribution of the water and the saturated soil is 1.0 and around 0.9, respectively.

  7. Forced chemical vapor infiltration of tubular geometries: Modeling, design, and scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In advanced indirectly fired coal combustion systems and externally fired combined cycle concepts, ceramic heat exchangers are required to transfer heat from the hot combustion gases to the clean air that drives the gas turbines. For high efficiencies, the temperature of the turbine inlet needs to exceed 1100{degrees}C and preferably be about 1260{degrees}C. The heat exchangers will operate under pressure and experience thermal and mechanical stresses during heating and cooling, and some transients will be severe under upset conditions. Silicon carbide-matrix composites are promising for such applications because of their high strength at elevated temperature, light weight, thermal and mechanical resistance, damage tolerance, and oxidation and corrosion resistance. Fiber-reinforced composite tubes of several fiber architectures were fabricated by forced chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) and characterized. Unfortunately, long times ({approximately}150 hours) were required to thoroughly density the tubes. An objective of the current investigation was to optimize the forced CVI process so that composite tubes could be fabricated in much shorter times. To aid in such optimization, a computer code which models the CVI process was used to identify critical process parameters. Finally, successful demonstration of the utility of composite tubes for these applications will require the testing of near-full scale components. As a result a new infiltration system was designed and constructed to prepare 10-cm diameter tubes, and is described in this report.

  8. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  9. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author)

  10. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas; Singh, Ashok; Kolditz, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface...

  11. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  12. Open-configuration MR-guided nerve root infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the procedure and evaluate the accuracy of the interventional MR-guided nerve root infiltration. Methods: Thirteen patients with intervertebral disk herniation underwent interventional MR-guided nerve root infiltration. 4 cases of the cervical and 9 cases of lumbar and sacral nerve roots were infiltration. All patients were performed under 0.23 T open MR system (Proview, Marconi medical system) with optical tracking system (iPath 200, Marconi medical system). The needle was MR-compatible (Daum, Germany, 20 G). The outcome was evaluated as effect on radiculalgia 1-2 months (mean 1.2 months) after the procedure by clinical examination. The effect on radiculalgia was graded as follows: (1) Obvious relief: obvious or complete relief of the pain at the time of outcome evaluation. (2) Temporary relief : temporary relief of pain. (3) No relief but no worsening of pain. (4) Worsening of pain. Results: 12 cases had obvious relief. 1 case had temporary relief. No patient had obvious complications. Conclusion: Interventional MR-guided nerve root infiltration is an accurate, safe, and effect technique

  13. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  14. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M;

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  15. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  16. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; Beecham, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been compar

  17. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  18. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  19. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface

  20. Immune infiltrates are prognostic factors in localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Semeraro, Michaela; Sarabi, Matthieu; Desbois, Mélanie; Locher, Clara; Mendez, Rosa; Vimond, Nadège; Concha, Angel; Garrido, Federico; Isambert, Nicolas; Chaigneau, Loic; Le Brun-Ly, Valérie; Dubreuil, Patrice; Cremer, Isabelle; Caignard, Anne; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Chaba, Kariman; Flament, Caroline; Halama, Niels; Jäger, Dirk; Eggermont, Alexander; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Commo, Frédéric; Terrier, Philippe; Opolon, Paule; Emile, Jean-François; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Kroemer, Guido; Chaput, Nathalie; Le Cesne, Axel; Blay, Jean-Yves; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2013-06-15

    Cancer immunosurveillance relies on effector/memory tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells with a T-helper cell 1 (TH1) profile. Evidence for a natural killer (NK) cell-based control of human malignancies is still largely missing. The KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate markedly prolongs the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) by direct effects on tumor cells as well as by indirect immunostimulatory effects on T and NK cells. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expressing CD3, Foxp3, or NKp46 (NCR1) in a cohort of patients with localized GIST. We found that CD3(+) TIL were highly activated in GIST and were especially enriched in areas of the tumor that conserve class I MHC expression despite imatinib mesylate treatment. High densities of CD3(+) TIL predicted progression-free survival (PFS) in multivariate analyses. Moreover, GIST were infiltrated by a homogeneous subset of cytokine-secreting CD56(bright) (NCAM1) NK cells that accumulated in tumor foci after imatinib mesylate treatment. The density of the NK infiltrate independently predicted PFS and added prognostic information to the Miettinen score, as well as to the KIT mutational status. NK and T lymphocytes preferentially distributed to distinct areas of tumor sections and probably contributed independently to GIST immunosurveillance. These findings encourage the prospective validation of immune biomarkers for optimal risk stratification of patients with GIST. PMID:23592754

  1. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  2. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bunsri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various combinations of water balance concepts, Richards’ equation, soil-physics theory and capillary height concepts were applied to mathematically model the movement of water through infiltration-redistribution system. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the developed model were evaluated for the case study. Besides the laboratory scale sand/soil columns with the inner diameter of 10.4 cm were investigated in order to provide the supporting data for model calibration. Sand/soil layers were packed with a bulk density of 1.80 and 1.25 g/cm3, respectively. The infiltration was sprayed uniformly at the soil surface with the constant rate of 66.1 and 7.18 cm3/h for sand and soil columns, respectively. The redistribution process was developed by which water arriving at the column base enter to the sand/soil column due to capillary rise. The laboratory observations were simulated using the developed model. The results indicate that the developed model could well estimate the movement of water in the infiltration-redistribution system that observed in the case study and the experiments.

  3. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  4. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  5. Simulation of infiltration and redistribution of intense rainfall using Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna; Verhoef, Anne; Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flooding from intense rainfall (FFIR) can cause widespread damage and disruption. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models provide distributed information about atmospheric conditions, such as precipitation, that can lead to a flooding event. Short duration, high intensity rainfall events are generally poorly predicted by NWP models, because of the high spatiotemporal resolution required and because of the way the convective rainfall is described in the model. The resolution of NWP models is ever increasing. Better understanding of complex hydrological processes and the effect of scale is important in order to improve the prediction of magnitude and duration of such events, in the context of disaster management. Working as part of the NERC SINATRA project, we evaluated how the Land Surface Model (LSM) components of NWP models cope with high intensity rainfall input and subsequent infiltration problems. Both in terms of the amount of water infiltrated in the soil store, as well as the timing and the amount of surface and subsurface runoff generated. The models investigated are SWAP (Soil Water Air Plant, Alterra, the Netherlands, van Dam 1997), JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator a component of Unified Model in UK Met Office, Best et al. 2011) and CHTESSEL (Carbon and Hydrology- Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land, Balsamo et al. 2009) We analysed the numerical aspects arising from discontinuities (or sharp gradients) in forcing and/or the model solution. These types of infiltration configurations were tested in the laboratory (Vachaud 1971), for some there are semi-analytical solutions (Philip 1957, Parlange 1972, Vanderborght 2005) or reference numerical solutions (Haverkamp 1977, van Dam 2000, Vanderborght 2005). The maximum infiltration by the surface, Imax, is in general dependent on atmospheric conditions, surface type, soil type, soil moisture content θ, and surface orographic factor σ. The models used differ in their approach to

  6. Novel magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Wang, Rong; Wang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong; Wang, Huali

    2014-03-01

    Novel magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids infiltrated dual-core Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) is proposed in this paper. Inside the cross-section of the designed PCFs, the two fiber cores filled with magnetic fluids (Fe3O4) are separated by an air hole, and then form two independent waveguides with mode coupling. The mode coupling under different magnetic field strength is investigated theoretically. A novel and simple magnetic field sensing system is proposed and its sensing performances have been studied numerically. The results show that the magnetic field sensor with 15-cm PCFs has a large sensing range and high sensitivity of 4.80 pm/Oe. It provides a new feasible method to design PCF-based magnetic field sensor.

  7. Effects of hydrophilic macropore fillings and coatings on the infiltration into water repellent porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, A.; Mori, Y.

    2012-12-01

    water-repellent Al-pipe (treated with HIREC1450NF, NTT AT Corp., Tokyo, Japan), 5) macropore with bamboo fiber, and 6) macropore with palm fiber. Rainfall intensity was set at 60 mm h-1 to simulate ponding water formation by a storm event. The empty macropore was made by inserting an aluminum lod (4-mm diameter) to 30-mm depth after the simulated rainfall. The WDPT (H2O) of the glass beads exceeded 16 h, while the plant fibers showed less WDPTs (15 s for the bamboo fiber, 144 s for the palm fiber). The WDPTs of the samples were prolonged by CsCl, so we focused on comparizon among the samples. The results of the infiltration experiment showed the greatest efficiency of ponding-water removal by the Al-pipe, but the water-repellent Al-pipe did not show any effect on ponding-water removal. The CT images showed air-entrapment in the water-repellent pipe. The empty macropore also had little effect on ponding-water removal, but the macropore was filled with the contrast media. Therefore, inertial force of the flow in the hydrophilic pipe would be effective in exceeding water entry pressure of the porous media. The fiber fillings gradually infiltrated the ponding water. The bamboo fiber showed higher effciency for ponding water removal than the palm fiber. These facts have shown the effectiveness of hydrophilic macropore fillings/coatings in infiltration.

  8. Problems in the differentiation of lung infiltrates following bleomycin therapy from metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, B.; Bauer, W.M.; Clemm, C.; Hartenstein, R.

    1984-10-01

    Sixty patients with malignant testicular tumours were treated with bleomycin according to the Einhorn regime. Following treatment, pulmonary infiltrates were seen on the chest X-ray of three patients and the CT of six patients. Altogether 24 infiltrates resembling metastases were seen in five patients. Five round foci were combined with infiltrates in other parts of the lung. Regression of the infiltrates after stopping bleomycin, negative tumour markers, the timing of the development of the infiltrates and the regression of the infiltrates in three patients without treatment make it extremely unlikely that the appearances were due to metastases.

  9. Problems in the differentiation of lung infiltrates following bleomycin therapy from metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty patients with malignant testicular tumours were treated with bleomycin according to the Einhorn regime. Following treatment, pulmonary infiltrates were seen on the chest X-ray of three patients and the CT of six patients. Altogether 24 infiltrates resembling metastases were seen in five patients. Five round foci were combined with infiltrates in other parts of the lung. Regression of the infiltrates after stopping bleomycin, negative tumour markers, the timing of the development of the infiltrates and the regression of the infiltrates in three patients without treatment make it extremely unlikely that the appearances were due to metastases. (orig.)

  10. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  11. Effect of Ru/CGO versus Ni/CGO Co- Infiltration on the Performance and Stability of STN-Based SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Veltzé, Sune; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy;

    2014-01-01

    /CGO infiltrated cell reached ∼0.7 W cm–2 at 850 °C, 4% H2O/H2, whereas the Ni/CGO infiltrated cell reached ∼0.3 W cm–2, with the current morphologies and loadings. Operation at 0.125 A cm–2, 850 °C, feeding 50% H2O/H2 to the anode and air to the cathode, for a period >300 h, showed superior stability for the Ru......Electrolyte supported cells (ESC), with Sc2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) electrolytes, Gd-doped ceria (CGO) or M/CGO (M = Ni, Ru) infiltrated Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3 (STN94) anodes and LSM/YSZ cathodes, were evaluated for their initial performance and long-term stability. Power density for the Ru....../CGO infiltrated cell, with ∼0.04 mV h–1 degradation rate, when compared to the Ni/CGO infiltrated cell (∼0.5 mV h–1). For the Ni/CGO case, the observed degradation has been tentatively linked to initial changes in the electrochemical active area and longterm detrimental interactions between components....

  12. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  13. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  14. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  15. Myometrial infiltration in stage I-II (FIGO) endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients with histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma were studied with MR imaging at 1.5 T. All patients were clinically diagnosed as having stage I or II disease (FIGO) and underwent abdominal hysterectomy. MR tissue characteristics and morphological features were compared with microscopic pathological findings, in all patients. The following initials were adopted for statistical comparison: M0=tumor confined to endometrium; M1=infiltration of the inner third of myometrium; M2=invasion of the central third of myometrium; M3=infiltration of the outer third of myometrium. T1-weighted (SE 600/30) and T2-weighted (SE 2000/35.90) (SE 1500/28.60) images were obtained in sagittal plane (section thickness=mm 4). Overall MR accuracy in determining the extent of myometrial invasion was 78%. Correct evaluation of myometrial invasion is essential in patients with stage I or II endometrial carcinoma who are to undergo transvaginal hysterectomy without lymphadenectomy

  16. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger;

    2006-01-01

    significant effect on water infiltration rate. Moreover, water infiltration in these soils is impeded by their hydrophobic properties. Along the experimental chronosequence of forest transformation, the thickness of the forest floor layer decreases due to enhanced decomposition and humification intensities....... By contrast, the thickness of the humous topsoil increases. Presumably, changes in soil organic matter storage and quality caused by the management practice of forest transformation affect the persistence and degree of water repellency in the soil, which in turn influences the hydraulic properties of...... the experimental soils. The results indicate clearly that soils play a crucial role for water retention and therefore, in overland flow prevention. There is a need to have more awareness on the intimate link between the land use and soil properties and their possible effects on flooding....

  17. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Santana-Ramirez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five-month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies.

  18. Rapid chemical vapor infiltration of C/C composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-yu; WANG Li-ping; HUANG Qi-zhong; CHAI Li-yuan

    2009-01-01

    With liquid petrol gas (LPG) as carbon source,carbon felt as porous perform and hydrogen as diluent,C/C composites were fast fabricated by using a multi-physics field chemical vapor infiltration (MFCVI) process in a self-made furnace.A set of orthogonal experiments were carried out to optimize parameters in terms of indices of density and graphitization degree.The results show the optimal indices can be achieved under the conditions of temperature 650 ℃,LPG concentration 80%,gas flux 60 mL/s,total pressure 20 kPa,infiltration time 15 h.The verification experiment proves the effectiveness of the orthogonal experiments.Under the optimal conditions,the graphitization degree of 75% and bulk density of 1.69 g/cm are achieved with a uniform density distribution.At the same time,a new structure is obtained.

  19. Hepatic failure caused by plasma cell infiltration in multiple Myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadi E Rahhal; Robert R Schade; Asha Nayak; Teresa A Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Although plasma cell infiltration is not rare in autopsy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), it is very rarely detected in living patients. This is because MM rarely causes significant liver dysfunction that requires further evaluation. A 49-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and was diagnosed with kappa light chain MM stage ?B. Thalidomide and dexamethasone were initiated. The patient developed a continuous increase in bilirubin that led to severe cholestasis. A liver biopsy revealed plasma cell infiltration. He then rapidly progressed to liver failure and died. Treatment options are limited in MM with significant liver dysfunction.Despite new drug therapies in MM, those patients with rapidly progressive liver failure appear to have a dismal outcome.

  20. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  1. Numerical study on rainfall infiltration in rock-soil slop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuewu; LIU Qingquan; CHEN Huixin; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; YAO Deliang; LI Lianxiang

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for the rain infiltration in the rock-soil slop has been established and solved by using the finite element method. The unsteady water infiltrating process has been simulated to get water content both in the homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The simulated results show that the rock blocks in the rock-soil slop can cause the wetting front moving fast. If the rain intensity is increased, the saturated region will be formed quickly while other conditions are the same. If the rain intensity keeps a constant, it is possible to accelerate the generation of the saturated region by properly increasing the vertical filtration rate of the rock-soil slop. However, if the vertical filtration rate is so far greater than the rain intensity, it will be difficult to form the saturated region in the rock-soil slop. The numerical method was verified by comparing the calculation results with the field test data.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of infiltration-toughened ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of zirconia pellets was subjected to surface toughening by the inclusion of alumina particles into the zirconia matrix before firing. The alumina particles were formed in the matrix by an infiltration process. Non-destructive tests were carried out to measure the density profile, the alumina distribution and the residual strains in the matrix. The density profile was measured by computed tomography, the inclusion distribution and residual strains by neutron diffraction. The density profile showed higher densities along the walls and at the ends of the pellets. This is consistent with the single-ended pressing procedure used as part of the fabrication process for the compression and axial tension. Tangential compression tends to improve the surface toughness. Residual strains, found in the cores of both infiltrated and control pellets, were attributed to the initial single-ended axial pressing of the zirconia powder that formed the matrix

  3. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  4. PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schalper, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Upon analysis of 636 primary breast carcinoma patient samples, we have found that programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Furthermore, PD-L1 expression and elevated TILs were associated with longer recurrence-free survival. Thus, our findings indicate that PD-L1 is prognostic in breast cancer and suggests a functional link between TILs and tumor PD-L1 upregulation.

  5. [A 25-year-old patient with corneal infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperlic, K; Tietz, H-J; Erhard, M; Regnath, T

    2011-05-01

    Filamentous fungal keratitis represents a serious infection of the eye. When corneal infiltrates appear, particularly in those who wear contact lenses, mycological assessment should already be performed initially so that filamentous fungal keratitis can be recognized early and treated. Keratitis caused by Fusarium responds well in most cases to topical therapy with ketoconazole or other antimycotic agents so that surgical intervention is only necessary in advanced or treatment-refractory cases. PMID:21528373

  6. Modeling Engineered Approaches to Enhance Denitrification under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Akhavan, M.; Finsterle, S.; Andres, S.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) use the controlled application of treated wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents before recharging groundwater. Because wastewater from new wastewater treatment plants is often enriched in NO3, denitrification (DNF) is the most important process for nitrogen removal. Two key requirements for DNF in the subsurface are the absence of molecular oxygen and an adequate supply of carbon to serve as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria. These requirements can be met by adjusting the wastewater application to maximize anaerobic conditions beneath the infiltration basin, and by incorporating a carbon source layer, where carbon is supplied to infiltrating wastewater by dissolution from a solid matrix, e.g., woodchips. To examine the interplay between alternative wastewater application approaches and the length and thickness of the carbon source layer on DNF, a series of simulations were conducted in two soil types using TOUGHREACT. Because RIBS are often overdesigned, basins may be only partially flooded such that overland flow within the basin controls the infiltration area. For this reason, TOUGHREACT was modified to include both overland and subsurface flow. Simulations with the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model predict uneven water distribution over the basins, a condition that significantly affects DNF. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time, i.e., shorter but more intense flooding periods, result in greater water saturations, shorter residence times and lower oxygen concentrations in the vadose zone, ultimately resulting in greater DNF. While the addition of a carbon source layer at the bottom of the RIBS is essential for supplying needed carbon, flow bypassing around this carbon layer, which is typically of lower permeability than the surrounding soil, can be problematic. These simulations demonstrate the interplay between the selection of wastewater application approach and carbon source layer design on

  7. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  8. Biliary Ascariasis Mimicking Colonic Tumor Infiltration of the Biliary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Mittal, Gyanendra; Kumar, Sushil; Manjunath, Suraj; Sharma, Navneet; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Ascariasis is a common problem in developing countries with poor hygiene and sanitation. It is endemic in India and usually seen in the northern states. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We present a case of carcinoma of hepatic flexure of colon in which the patient developed biliary ascariasis and posed a diagnostic challenge as it mimicked tumor infiltration of the biliary system. PMID:27217679

  9. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia; J. Śleziona

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37) was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Poly...

  10. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  11. Deep Infiltrating Colorectal Endometriosis Treated With Robotic-Assisted Rectosigmoidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Neme, Rosa Maria; Schraibman, Vladimir; Okazaki, Samuel; Maccapani, Gabriel; Chen, Winston Jenning; Domit, Cassia Danielle; Kaufmann, Oskar Grau; Advincula, Arnold P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis with bowel involvement is one of the most aggressive forms of endometriosis. Nowadays, robotic technology and telemanipulation systems represent the latest developments in minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study is to present our preliminary results and evaluate the feasibility of robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resection for severe endometriosis. Methods: Between September 2009 and December 2011, 10 women wit...

  12. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk; Harazuk, Jørgen; Pedersen, Niels A; Søballe, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion on...

  13. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration...... trenches using a 19. year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used...

  14. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  15. Infiltration and Bypass Flow of Cracking Puddled Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Islam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of infiltration and bypass flow was conducted in a wet soil bin with three different soils treatments (sandy loam, clay loam and clay soil to determine the swelling behaviour of cracking puddled soils by watering and its impact on bypass flow. Infiltration rate for the soils was recorded after puddling the soils. Then the puddled soils were allowed to dry for a period of up to 15 days. After that the plots were rewetted in order to observe the swelling and bypass behaviour of cracked soils. From this study it is observed that the infiltration rates of puddled soils were very low (0.03-0.05 mm h-1 mainly due to the puddling effect. The study indicates that cracks on puddled soils at 15th day�s of drying are effectively irreversible. The maximum bypass flow was recorded for the clay loam soil. During the first day, the flow rate was extremely high at 313 mm h-1. But this higher rate gradually reduced from the second day and onwards. The bypass flow rate for the clay loam and clay soil was almost same. The study reveals that it is not possible to swell up shrinkage cracks on puddled soils by watering alone. Re-working of the soil is necessary to seal the cracks.

  16. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Marios; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Shukla, Sachet A.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Cohen, Ofir; Nishihara, Reiko; Bahl, Samira; Cao, Yin; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Yamauchi, Mai; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Stewart, Chip; Rosenberg, Mara; Mima, Kosuke; Inamura, Kentaro; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Nowak, Jonathan A.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.; Ng, Kimmie; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Getz, Gad; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Wu, Catherine J.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs) and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies. PMID:27149842

  17. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine. PMID:27269664

  18. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  19. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Giannakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies.

  20. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  1. Influence of caries infiltrant contamination on shear bond strength of different adhesives to dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Liuhe; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether the contamination with a caries infiltrant system impairs the adhesive performance of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives on dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin contamination with the caries infiltrant system (Icon, DMG) was simulated by applying either hydrochloric acid (15 % HCl, Icon Etch, 15 s), the resin infiltrant (Icon infiltrant, 4 min), or both prior to the application of the respective adhesives (each group n = 10). In the control groups, th...

  2. Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ajwa, Husein A; Trout, T J

    2006-01-01

    Slow infiltration rates constrain effective and economical irrigation in some sandy loam soils in California. Polyacrylamide (PAM) has increased soil infiltration in some areas, especially in soils high in clay or silt. Field trials near Fresno, CA, with PAM failed to show improved infiltration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate PAM effect on infiltration of various quality waters in sandy loam soils. Two formulations of a high molecular weight PAM, a liquid emulsion and a ...

  3. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  4. New method for monitoring soil water infiltration rates applied to a disc infiltrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Moret-Fernández, David; González-Cebollada, César

    2009-01-01

    Disc infiltrometers commonly use low-capacity water-supply reservoirs made of small diameter tubes. This reservoir geometry allows accurate measurements of water levels, but makes it necessary to stop the infiltration measurements to refill the water-supply reservoir when long-term infiltration experiments are conducted. The purpose of this study is to determine if a double Mariotte system provides accurate infiltration rate data from disc infiltrometer. To this end, infiltration rates (Q) is...

  5. Soil water infiltration measurements using the double ring and cornell infiltrometer in a Rhodic Hapludox

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Luiz Zwirtes; Renato Beppler Spohr; Cleber Antonio Baronio; Diego Ricardo Menegol; Genesio Mario da Rosa; Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    The value of soil water infiltration is very important in several areas, such as agriculture, water resources, engineering projects. The methods to determinate the water infiltration in general is difficult and produce often unreliable results. The work aimed to evaluate the soil water infiltration rate in a Rhodic Hapludox under three management systems. The results were compared using two methods to determine the water infiltration rate. In the three management systems, the water infiltrati...

  6. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Askari; Satyanto Krido Saptomo; Budi Indra Setiawan

    2006-01-01

    Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory e...

  7. Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple

  8. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  9. Experimental design to model infiltration into a water repellent soil using a crust-type infiltration equation

    OpenAIRE

    Adnès, Cyriel; Morschel, Jean; Darboux, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of vegetation during forest fires can lead to the condensation of hydrophobic compounds on mineral matter near the soil surface. The resulting water repellent layer then inhibits water infiltration by altering soil hydraulic conductivity and the water content–soil matric suction relationship. This situation resembles that of a crust or seal capped soil, where a thin layer of reduced hydraulic conductivity overlays a more permeable soil. Although the physical processes leading t...

  10. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  11. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.;

    2000-01-01

    second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method......Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium. The...

  12. Two and three-dimensional quantitative neutron imaging of the water distribution during ponded infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira

    2016-04-01

    Information on spatial and temporal water and air distribution in a soil sample during hydrological processes is important for evaluating current and developing new water transport models. Modern imaging techniques such as neutron imaging (NI) allow relatively short acquisition times and high resolution of images. At the same time, the appropriate data processing has to be applied to obtain results free of bias and artifacts. In this study a ponded infiltration experiments were conducted on two soil samples packed into the quartz glass columns of inner diameter of 29 and 34 mm, respectively. First sample was prepared by packing of fine and coarse fractions of sand and the second sample was packed using coarse sand and disks of fine porous ceramic. Ponded infiltration experiments conducted on both samples were monitored by neutron radiography to produce two dimensional (2D) projection images during the transient phase of infiltration. During the steady state flow stage of experiments neutron tomography was utilized to obtain three-dimensional (3D) information on gradual water redistribution. The acquired radiographic images were normalized for background noise and spatial inhomogeneity of the detector, fluctuations of the neutron flux in time and for spatial inhomogeneity of the neutron beam. The radiograms of dry sample were subtracted from all subsequent radiograms to determine water thickness in the 2D projection images. All projections were corrected for beam hardening and neutron scattering by empirical method of Kang et al. (2013). Parameters of the correction method uses were identified by two different approaches. The first approach was based on fitting the NI derived water thickness representing the water filled region in the layer of water above the sample surface to actual water thickness. In the second approach the NI derived volume of water in the entire sample in given time was fitted to corresponding gravimetrically determined amount of water in the

  13. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning...

  14. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  15. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  16. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Askari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory experiment. Newton –Raphson method was esed to estimate wetting front during calculation using visual Basic for Application (VBA in MS Word. The result showed that  contributed the highest error in estimation of cumulative infiltration and was followed by K, H0, H1, and t respectively. It also showed that the calculated cumulative infiltration is always lower than both measured cumulative infiltration and volumetric soil water content.

  17. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2016-05-01

    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  18. High-temperature-pressure Polymerized Resin-infiltrated Ceramic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.F.; Ruse, D.; Phan, A.C.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental “classic” CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks wer...

  19. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  20. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole

    2009-01-01

    crystal E7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The......POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid...

  1. Morphine reduces local cytokine expression and neutrophil infiltration after incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiangqi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and nociceptive sensitization are hallmarks of tissue surrounding surgical incisions. Recent studies demonstrate that several cytokines may participate in the enhancement of nociception near these wounds. Since opioids like morphine interact with neutrophils and other immunocytes, it is possible that morphine exerts some of its antinociceptive action after surgical incision by altering the vigor of the inflammatory response. On the other hand, keratinocytes also express opioid receptors and have the capacity to produce cytokines after injury. Our studies were directed towards determining if opioids alter cytokine production near incisions and to identify cell populations responsible for producing these cytokines. Results A murine incisional model was used to measure the effects of acute morphine administration (0.1–10 mg/kg on nociceptive thresholds, neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production in hind paw skin 30 minutes and 2 hours after incision. Incised hind paws displayed profound allodynia which was reduced by morphine (0.1–10 mg/kg in the 2 hours following incision. Skin samples harvested from these mice showed enhanced levels of 5 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC. Morphine reduced these incision-stimulated levels. Separate analyses measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO and using immunohistochemistry demonstrated that morphine dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of neutrophils into the peri-incisional tissue. The dose of morphine required for reduction of cytokine accumulation, however, was below that required for inhibition of peri-incisional neutrophil infiltration. Additional immunohistochemical studies revealed wound edge keratinocytes as being an important source of cytokines in the acute phase after incision. Conclusion Acute morphine administration of doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg reduces

  2. Supercontinuum generation in fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation in a capillary tube infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal is investigated theoretically in the near infrared region. A liquid crystal with a high electronic nonlinearity is chosen, which makes it possible to generate 100 nm wide supercontinua using IO ps pulses with...... peak power 1.5 kW in a 10 cm long waveguide. The possibility of tuning the spectrum of the generated Supercontinuum by changing the dispersion of the waveguide is also considered. It is found that the broadening of the spectrum in both the normal and anomalous regime is mainly due to self phase...

  3. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  5. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-01-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26995549

  6. Infiltration of Autologous Growth Factors in Chronic Tendinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Crescibene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy are among the most frequent diagnoses in sports medicine. Therapeutic treatment of the disease is difficult, particularly in chronic cases. In literature, several studies suggest the employment of Platelet-Rich Plasma as a therapeutic alternative in tendinopathies. The choice of employing this method is based on the activity of growth factors contained in platelets which activate, amplify, and optimize the healing process. We selected 14 patients affected by Achilles tendinopathy and 7 patients affected by patellar tendinopathy, with a two-year final follow-up. These patients underwent a cycle of three tendinous infiltrations, after clinical and instrumental evaluation carried out by means of specific questionnaires and repeated ultrasound scans. Ultrasound scans of 18 patients showed signs of reduction in insertional irregularities. The result is confirmed by complete functional recovery of the patients, with painful symptomatology disappearing. The patients showed a clear pain reduction, along with an enhanced VISA score after the 24-month follow-up, equal to 84.2 points on a scale of 0 to 100. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence to suggest that PRP infiltration is a valid option to patients with chronic tendinopathy who did not benefit from other treatments.

  7. The Study of the Culture Infiltration From Perspective of Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子恒

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing Chinese and English loan words,this paper first points out that the extent of infiltration of both languages in terms of linguistics and culture.English loan words have great effect on Chinese culturally,linguistically and semantically.Many English words reflect in the latest technological and cultural development are borrowed by Chinese vocabulary.Tracing these words back in the Etymology way,we can find the influence brought by the English language culture to Chinese language culture.From another aspect,through analyzing words borrowed from Chinese in form in recent years,which are listed as new words in English dictionaries,and through exploring the Chinese tradition and culture these loan words mainly based on,this paper reflects that Chinese culture has affected English culture to a certain degree.With the rapid development of cultural communication,words borrowed are increasing and will be gradually included within the given standards.Finally the paper presents a discussion on the mutual influence of loan words and culture infiltration.

  8. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    . The sampling was most intensive in the period where the risk of VHSV breaking through the column was highest. The sensitivity of the virological examination was 13.9 TCID50/ml and no virus was isolated. A reduction of VHSV > 4 log in the outlet water was seen. This experiment suggests that infiltration can...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV....... In order to answer this question a small trial was set up. VHSV and NaCl was added to cell culture medium with 10% foetal bovine serum, in order to mimic a “dirty” environment, to obtain from 1.9% to 20.9% NaCl and kept in the dark at 4°C. Samples were titrated after 5 min, 1 h and 20 h. No reduction...

  9. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  10. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  11. Enhanced infiltration regime for treated-wastewater purification in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadav, Itamar; Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-02-01

    SummaryUtilization of treated wastewater (TWW) for agriculture is a widely accepted practice in regions suffering from freshwater (FW) shortages. Soil aquifer treatment is often employed for wastewater purification in regions with sandy soil. Infiltration rates of water through the soil can decrease as a result organic matter (OM) accumulation and the consequential water repellency. We examined several infiltration regimes with the aim of achieving lower levels of OM accumulation, reduced water repellency and increased infiltration rate in the topsoil layer of the infiltration basin. OM accumulation in the topsoil layer was found to be the main factor adversely affecting soil permeability. In measurements performed in the infiltration basins of the Tel Aviv wastewater-purification facility over a 1-year period, infiltration rates were found to differ with season, being low in the winter and high in the summer. Similar observations were made on small model infiltration ponds established to simulate the large basins. Several water-application regimes were tested for enhancement of the infiltration rates. Rapid application of TWW was the most efficient method in terms of reducing OM accumulation and water repellency in the topsoil layer. Low-rate, and spraying of TWW over the soil using sprinklers produced the highest OM accumulation and consequently, higher water repellency. Low-rate, single outlet application—the conventional infiltration method employed in the commercial infiltration basins—exhibited moderate OM accumulation and water repellency. Neither water repellency nor OM accumulation were observed in the FW-application regime. Accumulation of OM originating from the percolating TWW, at the topsoil layer was identified as dominating infiltration rate at the infiltration basins. Reduction of OM content by the means proposed and evaluated in this experiment can drastically increase infiltration rates.

  12. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  13. Local infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Agerlin, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique.......To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique....

  14. A simplified model of soakaway infiltration interaction with a shallow groundwater table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldin, Maria; Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simplified modeling concept for soakaway infiltration in the presence of a shallow groundwater table, including representation of the local groundwater mound and its effects on the infiltration rate. The soil moisture retention curve is used to represent the influence...... of the mound on infiltration rates. The model is intended to be used in situations when distributed urban drainage models with soakaways or similar infiltration devices are coupled to distributed groundwater flow models. With this new modeling concept, the local mounding from small-scale infiltration...... systems, and its effects on the infiltration rate, can be represented even if the spatial resolution of the groundwater flow model is coarser than the extent of the mound. The new model has been run for a number of scenarios and soil parameters, and the results compared to the output from a two...

  15. Concrete blocks' adverse effects on indoor air and recommended solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air infiltration through highly permeable concrete blocks can allow entry of various serious indoor air pollutants including radon. An easy approach to avoiding these pollutants is to select a less-air-permeable concrete block. Tests show that air permeability of concrete blocks can vary by a factor greater than 50 (0.63--35 standard L/min/m2 at 3 Pa). The surface texture of the blocks correlates well with air permeability; test results of smoother, closed-surface-texture blocks were usually less air-permeable. During construction, air infiltration can be minimized by capping walls and carefully sealing around openings for utilities or other penetrations. Structures with indoor air-quality problems due to soil-gas entry can be mitigated more effectively with less coating material if the blocks have a closed surface texture. All coatings evaluated--cementaceous block filler (which has the lowest applied cost and is more than 99.5% effective), surface bonding cement, water-based epoxy, polysulfide vinyl acrylic, and latex (three coats)--were highly effective (more than 98%) in reducing air permeability when adequately applied. Coating selection should be influenced by expected service life, considering surface condition and cost

  16. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water infiltration to buried waste is the prime problem of concern in designing waste disposal units for the humid areas. Conventional compacted clay layers (resistance layer barriers) have been subject to failure by subsidence and by permeability increases brought about by plant roots. A clay barrier with a rock cover sans plants is being investigated. Also a combination of a resistive layer overlying a conductive layer is being investigated. Laboratory studies indicate that this approach can be very effective and field evaluations are underway. However, it must be noted that subsidence will negate the effectiveness of any buried layer barriers. A surface barrier (bioengineering management) has been valuated in the field and found to be very effective in preventing water entry into waste disposal units. This surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence and could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions

  17. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  18. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  19. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.;

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff, and...

  20. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  1. Slug flow model for infiltration into fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for transient infiltration into a periodically fractured porous layer is presented. The fracture is treated as a permeable-walled slot and the moisture distribution is in the form of a slug being an advancing meniscus. The wicking of moisture from the fracture to the unsaturated porous matrix is a nonlinear diffusion process and is approximately by self-similar solutions. The resulting model is a nonlinear Volterra integral equation with a weakly singular kernel. Numerical analysis provides solutions over a wide range of the parameter space and reveals the asymptotic forms of the penetration of this slug in terms of dimensionless variables arising in the model. The numerical solutions corroborate asymptotic results given earlier by Nitao and Buscheck (1991), and by Martinez (1988). Some implications for the transport of liquid in fractured rock are discussed

  2. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  3. ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Kiggans, J O; Stracener, Dan

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

  4. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge. DESIGN: Open study. SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 55...... polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance....... RESULTS: Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p < 0.05), but not 60 minutes postoperatively. All but two patients were discharged shortly after the measurement at 60 minutes, because of pain in one and an attack of asthma in the other. Balance also returned to normal within an hour. CONCLUSION...

  5. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  6. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge. DESIGN: Open study. SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 55...... polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance....... RESULTS: Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p < 0.05), but not 60 minutes postoperatively. All buttwo patients were discharged shortly after the measurement at 60 minutes, because of pain in one and an attack of asthma in the other. Balance also returned to normal within an hour. CONCLUSION...

  7. Infiltration at yucca mountain, nevada, traced by 36Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, A. E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S. K.; Bentley, H. W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements of chloride and 36Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the 36Cl fallout from nuclear-weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 36Cl/Cl ratio 0.5 m below the surface. The structure of the 36Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and the quantity of 36Cl in the bomb pulse was < 1% of the 6 × 10 12 atoms {36Cl }/{m 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the 36Cl bomb-pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location.

  8. Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

    1986-09-01

    Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

  9. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different ana...

  10. Analytical determination of transition time between transient and steady state water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The hydraulic characterization of soil hydraulic properties is a prerequisite to the modelling of flow in the vadose zone. Since many years, numerous methods were developed to determine soil hydraulic properties. Many of these methods rely on water infiltration experiments and their analysis using analytical or numerical models. At the beginning, most models were developed for water infiltration at steady state. These models had the advantage to be easy to develop from a theoretical point of view. Yet, many drawbacks remain including the need to wait for a long time, leading to time-consuming experiments, the risk to infiltrate water in large volumes of soil, leading to a response affected by soil variability, and the uncertainty regarding the attainment of steady state (i.e. constant infiltration rate). More recently, infiltration models and mathematical developments addressed the case of consecutive transient and steady states. Yet, one main problem remain. In the field, the operator is never sure about the state of water infiltration data. This paper present analytical formulations for the estimation of a transition time. We consider the model developed by Haverkamp et al. (1994) linking 1D infiltration flux to cumulative infiltration and related approximated expansions. An analytical method based on scaling is proposed to define transition time values in terms of both scaled cumulative infiltration and times. Dimensional times are then calculated for a large variety of soils and initial conditions. These time database can be considered as a relevant tool for the guidance for operators who conduct water infiltration experiments and wants to know when to stop and also for modelers who want to know how to select the data to fit transient or steady state models. Haverkamp, R., Ross, P. J., Smetten, K. R. J., Parlange, J. Y. (1994), Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc infiltrometer: 2 Physically based infiltration equation. Water Resour. Res

  11. Axysimetrical water infiltration in soil imaged by non-invasive electrical resistivimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Coquet, Yves; Tucholka, Piotr; Vachier, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Axisymetrical infiltration of water in soil has been largely studied since the development of tension disc infiltrometers. Procedures have been developed to derive the hydraulic properties of soils from axisymetrical infiltration measurements but rely on some simplifying and/or a priori assumptions on the homogeneity of the soil from the point of view of its hydraulic properties and its initial water status prior to infiltration. Such assumptions are difficult to ascertain. We present here an...

  12. The Decline of Soil Infiltration Capacity Due To High Elevation Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of soil mainly depends on two factors; the particle size and the moisture content of the soil. Groundwater increases the soil moisture, not only below the water table but also within the capillary zone, above the water table. Field experiment in a high groundwater area was conducted to understand the relationship among the groundwater, soil moisture and infiltration capacity. Using a single ring infiltrometer, the effect of groundwater in the infiltration rate was observ...

  13. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduc...

  14. Ventilation and infiltration in high-rise apartment buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Feustel, H.E.; Dickerhoff, D.J.

    1996-03-01

    Air flow, air leakage measurements and numerical simulations were made on a 13-story apartment building to characterize the ventilation rates for the individual apartments. Parametric simulations were performed for specific conditions, e.g., height, orientation, outside temperature and wind speed. Our analysis of the air flow simulations suggest that the ventilation to the individual units varies considerably. With the mechanical ventilation system disabled and no wind, units at the lower level of the building have adequate ventilation only on days with high temperature differences, while units on higher floors have no ventilation at all. Units facing the windward side will be over-ventilated when the building experiences wind directions between west and north. At the same time, leeward apartments did not experience any fresh air-because, in these cases, air flows enter the apartments from the corridor and exit through the exhaust shafts and the cracks in the facade. Even with the mechanical ventilation system operating, we found wide variation in the air flows to the individual apartments. In addition to the specific case presented here, these findings have more general implications for energy retrofits and health and comfort of occupants in high-rise apartment buildings.

  15. Duodenal Hemorrhage from Pancreatic Cancer Infiltration Controlled through Combination Therapy with Gemcitabine and S-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Takada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 2.6% of pancreatic cancer patients have the primary manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is not feasible to stop the duodenal hemorrhage caused by the pancreatic cancer infiltration. A 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with multiple hepatic metastases and duodenal infiltration was administered gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy. During the chemotherapy, initially, bleeding occurred due to duodenal infiltration. However, we continued the chemotherapy and duodenal infiltration was markedly reduced in size and did not rebleed. Aggressive chemotherapy contributed to maintenance of performance status as well as improvement of quality of life for the patient.

  16. Melt Infiltration Ability and Microstructural Evolution of Fe40Al/ TiC Composites System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F; J; Oliveira; J; L; Baptista; J; M; Vieira

    2002-01-01

    Pressureless melt infiltration is an economic route f or preparation of high-density ceramic/melt composites. In this study, the Fe40 Al iron aluminide intermetallic, a low cost material of excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, was used as binder for fabricating Fe40Al/TiC composites b y pressureless melt infiltration. The wetting ability of liquid Fe40Al in porous TiC pre-form was studied by in-situ monitoring the melting and infiltration p rocess. The infiltration ability was investigated by ob...

  17. Infiltration characteristics of water in forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Meng LI; Jinhua CHENG; Bo WANG; Weili LU

    2009-01-01

    Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed coniferbroadleaf forest (0.4454)>coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950. We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.

  18. Connecting bacterial colonization to physical and biochemical changes in a sand box infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, S.; Freixa, A.; Carles-Brangarí, A.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Romaní, A. M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration through sediments is linked to complex biogeochemical processes occurring at small spatial scales, often leading to a progressive reduction in infiltration rates due to microbial growth and/or mechanical clogging. Unraveling the linkage between microbial dynamics and water infiltration in a heterogeneous medium is of concern in artificial recharge ponds and natural infiltration systems. We present an 84-day laboratory infiltration experiment that aims at studying the temporal variation of selected biogeochemical parameters at different depths along the infiltration path. The experimental setup consists of a 1.2 m high tank packed with a heterogeneous soil and instrumented with arrays of sensors as well as soil and liquid samplers. Results indicate that: (i) microbial processes are responsible for infiltration reduction, enhancing the spatially heterogeneous distribution of infiltration rates with time, (ii) bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are present at all monitored depths, indicating the potential for deep biological clogging, (iii) bacteria functioning and richness exhibit depth zonation after the system reaches a mature state and (iv) the retention curve changes towards highest saturation by the end of the experiment. The increase in water holding capacity is largest at depth, where the presence of EPS is noticeable. The reduction in time of the quantity of water infiltrating along the tank can only be accounted for with a truly interdisciplinary approach involving physical, chemical and biological processes.

  19. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  20. Development and Evaluation of a New Air Exchange Rate Algorithm for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model (ISES Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous exposure assessment panel studies have observed considerable seasonal, between-home and between-city variability in residential pollutant infiltration. This is likely a result of differences in home ventilation, or air exchange rates (AER). The Stochastic Human Exposure ...

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  2. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  3. A new symmetric solid oxide fuel cell with a samaria-doped ceria framework and a silver-infiltrated electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Su, Chao; Huang, Cheng; Kim, Ju Sik; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2012-01-01

    A new symmetric SOFC with an SDC framework and a silver-infiltrated electrocatalyst is presented for the first time in this paper. A three-electrode polarization test shows that the Ag-SDC has a low area specific resistance of 1.07 Ω cm2 at 600 °C, a low activation energy of 85 kJ mol-1 and high exchange current densities of 428.2 and 129.0 mA cm-2 at 750 and 650 °C, respectively, when it is used as an oxygen reduction electrode. It also exhibits low polarization resistance in a humidified hydrogen atmosphere. A symmetric single cell is used in real fuel cell conditions to deliver peak power densities of 200 and 84 mW cm-2 at 750 and 650 °C, respectively, when humidified hydrogen is used as a fuel and ambient air is used as the cathode atmosphere. The cell still reaches a peak power density of 81 mW cm-2 at 750 °C when operating on CO. O2-TPO analysis demonstrates that the Ag-SDC electrode has even better coking resistance than the pure SDC scaffold. The results indicate that Ag-SDC|SDC|Ag-SDC symmetric cells with an infiltrated silver electrocatalyst are a promising new type of fuel cell for use with both hydrogen fuel and carbon-containing fuels.

  4. Documentation of Computer Program INFIL3.0 - A Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model to Estimate Net Infiltration Below the Root Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the computer program INFIL3.0, which is a grid-based, distributed-parameter, deterministic water-balance watershed model that calculates the temporal and spatial distribution of daily net infiltration of water across the lower boundary of the root zone. The bottom of the root zone is the estimated maximum depth below ground surface affected by evapotranspiration. In many field applications, net infiltration below the bottom of the root zone can be assumed to equal net recharge to an underlying water-table aquifer. The daily water balance simulated by INFIL3.0 includes precipitation as either rain or snow; snowfall accumulation, sublimation, and snowmelt; infiltration into the root zone; evapotranspiration from the root zone; drainage and water-content redistribution within the root-zone profile; surface-water runoff from, and run-on to, adjacent grid cells; and net infiltration across the bottom of the root zone. The water-balance model uses daily climate records of precipitation and air temperature and a spatially distributed representation of drainage-basin characteristics defined by topography, geology, soils, and vegetation to simulate daily net infiltration at all locations, including stream channels with intermittent streamflow in response to runoff from rain and snowmelt. The model does not simulate streamflow originating as ground-water discharge. Drainage-basin characteristics are represented in the model by a set of spatially distributed input variables uniquely assigned to each grid cell of a model grid. The report provides a description of the conceptual model of net infiltration on which the INFIL3.0 computer code is based and a detailed discussion of the methods by which INFIL3.0 simulates the net-infiltration process. The report also includes instructions for preparing input files necessary for an INFIL3.0 simulation, a description of the output files that are created as part of an INFIL3.0 simulation, and a sample problem that

  5. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes

  6. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  7. Uncertainty in Climatology-Based Estimates of Soil Water Infiltration Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local climatology is often used to estimate infiltration losses at the field scale. The objective of this work was to assess the uncertainty associated with such estimates. We computed infiltration losses from the water budget of a soil layer from monitoring data on water flux values at the soil su...

  8. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  9. Subcutaneous Marcaine Infiltration and Post-Operative Pain Perception after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleblian, George E.; Leitao, Victor A.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a significant decrease in patient reported pain scores when operative incisions are infiltrated with subcutaneous local anesthetic. We hypothesize that patient reported pain and narcotic use could be further decreased for patients with post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostomy tubes if the nephrostomy tract and incision are infiltrated with local anesthetic.

  10. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Deborah A.; Moody, John A.

    2001-10-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0·017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0·15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0·38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0·38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Infiltrating Macrophages Are Immune Activated, Whereas Microglia Remain Immune Suppressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, I. D.; Vinet, J.; Brouwer, N.; Brendecke, S.; Biagini, G.; Biber, K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of micro

  12. Distinguishing the Causes of Pulmonary Infiltrates in Patients With Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marcio; Nouér, Simone A; Anaissie, Elias

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are commonly observed in patients with acute leukemia (AL), particularly acute myeloid leukemia, who undergo remission induction therapy. The mortality rate is unacceptably high and depends on 3 factors: the host (performance status, comorbidities, and frailty), the etiology of the infiltrates and the type of response to antileukemic therapy. The approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in patients with AL includes a medical history, thorough physical examination, radiologic pattern of the infiltrates (focal vs. diffuse), and timing of their appearance in relation to the start of antileukemic therapy (early, ie, within the first 2 weeks or late). Localized infiltrates are most commonly caused by bacterial (early) and fungal infections (late). Diffuse early infiltrates might be caused by leukemic infiltration of the lungs, pulmonary hemorrhage and/or edema, diffuse alveolar damage, viral pneumonia, and rarely transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or the differentiation syndrome. Similar to the early phase, pulmonary edema, viral pneumonia, and rarely TRALI might cause diffuse infiltrates during the late phase, in addition to immune reconstitution and pneumocystosis, particularly among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Diagnostic tests, invasive and noninvasive, can be particularly useful to establish the diagnosis. Early intervention is critical and is based on the most likely diagnosis with modification when the etiology is confirmed. PMID:26297289

  13. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  14. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  15. Pantoea ananatis as a Cause of Corneal Infiltrate after Rice Husk Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Geetha; Lalitha, Prajna; Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; DSilva, Sean Socrates; Prajna, N. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an agricultural worker presenting with corneal infiltrate following ocular injury with a rice husk. On examination, a superficial corneal foreign body was removed and sent for culture, which grew Pantoea ananatis. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical case report of Pantoea ananatis causing corneal infiltrate.

  16. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  17. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  18. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  19. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict cutaneous melanoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Mannooranparampil, Thomas J; Passarelli, Francesca; Zappalà, Alba; Annessi, Giorgio; Marino, Claudia; Caggiati, Alessio; Russo, Nicoletta; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Understanding differences in survival across distinct subgroups of melanoma patients may help with the choice of types of therapy. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are considered a manifestation of the host immune response to tumor, but the role of TILs in melanoma mortality is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate independent prognostic factors for melanoma mortality. We carried out a 10-year cohort study on 4133 melanoma patients from the same geographic area (Lazio) with primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between January 1998 and December 2008. The probability of survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods and prognostic factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). The 10-year survival rate for melanoma decreased with increasing Breslow thickness (Pfor trendhazard ratio 0.32; 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.82) after controlling for sex, age, Breslow thickness, histological type, mitotic rate, and ulceration. After including lymph node status in the multivariate analysis, the protective effect of marked TILs on melanoma mortality remained (hazard ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.94). The results of this study suggest that the immune microenvironment affects melanoma survival. PMID:25933208

  20. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian ZHANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  1. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission. PMID:23248972

  2. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xian ZHANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Kang WANG

    2009-01-01

    Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation) into the underlying waste.This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers) and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM).Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers.Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers.In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover,the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm,respectively.The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil.The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow.Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration,thus reducing percolation.

  3. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  4. Muscle wasting and aging: Experimental models, fatty infiltrations, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioche, Thomas; Pagano, Allan F; Py, Guillaume; Chopard, Angèle

    2016-08-01

    Identification of cost-effective interventions to maintain muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance during muscle wasting and aging is an important public health challenge. It requires understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Muscle-deconditioning processes have been deciphered by means of several experimental models, bringing together the opportunities to devise comprehensive analysis of muscle wasting. Studies have increasingly recognized the importance of fatty infiltrations or intermuscular adipose tissue for the age-mediated loss of skeletal-muscle function and emphasized that this new important factor is closely linked to inactivity. The present review aims to address three main points. We first mainly focus on available experimental models involving cell, animal, or human experiments on muscle wasting. We next point out the role of intermuscular adipose tissue in muscle wasting and aging and try to highlight new findings concerning aging and muscle-resident mesenchymal stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors by linking some cellular players implicated in both FAP fate modulation and advancing age. In the last part, we review the main data on the efficiency and molecular and cellular mechanisms by which exercise, replacement hormone therapies, and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate prevent muscle wasting and sarcopenia. Finally, we will discuss a potential therapeutic target of sarcopenia: glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. PMID:27106402

  5. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  8. Testing the goodness of fit of selected infiltration models on soils with different land use histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six infiltration models, some obtained by reformulating the fitting parameters of the classical Kostiakov (1932) and Philip (1957) equations, were investigated for their ability to describe water infiltration into highly permeable sandy soils from the Nsukka plains of SE Nigeria. The models were Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Modified Kostiakov (B), Philip, Modified Philip (A) and Modified Philip (B). Infiltration data were obtained from double ring infiltrometers on field plots established on a Knadic Paleustult (Nkpologu series) to investigate the effects of land use on soil properties and maize yield. The treatments were; (i) tilled-mulched (TM), (ii) tilled-unmulched (TU), (iii) untilled-mulched (UM), (iv) untilled-unmulched (UU) and (v) continuous pasture (CP). Cumulative infiltration was highest on the TM and lowest on the CP plots. All estimated model parameters obtained by the best fit of measured data differed significantly among the treatments. Based on the magnitude of R2 values, the Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Philip and Modified Philip (A) models provided best predictions of cumulative infiltration as a function of time. Comparing experimental with model-predicted cumulative infiltration showed, however, that on all treatments the values predicted by the classical Kostiakov, Philip and Modified Philip (A) models deviated most from experimental data. The other models produced values that agreed very well with measured data. Considering the eases of determining the fitting parameters it is proposed that on soils with high infiltration rates, either Modified Kostiakov model (I = Kta + Ict) or Modified Philip model (I St1/2 + Ict), (where I is cumulative infiltration, K, the time coefficient, t, time elapsed, 'a' the time exponent, Ic the equilibrium infiltration rate and S, the soil water sorptivity), be used for routine characterization of the infiltration process. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs 6 tabs

  9. Fabrication and characterization of protonic-ceramic fuel cells and electrolysis cells utilizing infiltrated lanthanum nickelate electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiniec, Sean M.

    High-temperature protonic ceramics (HTPCs) have gained interest as fuel cell and electrolysis cell electrolytes, as well as hydrogen separation membranes. The transport of hydrogen as opposed to oxygen results in several benefits and applications, including higher fuel efficiency, dehydrogenation of fuel streams, and hydrogen-based chemical synthesis. However, limited work has been done in the development of air/steam electrodes for these devices. This work presents the characterization of lanthanum nickelate, La 2NiO4+delta (LN), as a potential air/steam electrode material for use with BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3-delta (BCZY27) HTPC electrolytes fabricated by the solid-state reactive sintering technique. Two types of devices were made; a symmetric cell used for electrode characterization, and a full fuel cell/electrolysis cell used for device performance characterization. The symmetric cell consists of a 1 mm thick BCZY27 substrate with identical air/steam electrodes on both sides. Air/steam electrodes were made by infiltrating ˜ 50 nm lanthanum nickelate nanoparticles into a BCZY27 porous backbone. The fuel cell/electrolysis cell consists of a 1mm thick Ni/BCZY27 anode support, a 25 mum thick BCZY27 electrolyte, and a 50 mum thick porous BCZY27 backbone infiltrated with lanthanum nickelate. Through symmetric cell testing, it was found that the electrode polarization resistance decreases with increasing oxygen content, indicating good oxygen reduction reaction characteristics. A minimum polarization resistance was found as 2.58 Ohm-cm2 in 3% humidied oxygen at 700 °C. Full cell testing revealed a peak power density of 27 mW-cm-2 at 700 °C. Hydrogen flux measurements were also taken in the both galvanic/post-galvanic and electrolytic operation. Galvanic/post-galvanic fluxes exhibit a very high faradaic efficiency. However, electrolytic hydrogen fluxes were much lower than the calculated hydrogen faradaic flux, indicating a different charge carrier other than protons is

  10. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  11. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  13. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  14. Uranium infiltration from a river to shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infiltration of uranium from the polluted River Glatt (Switzerland) into a hydraulically connected saturated aquifer was investigated during a period of almost five years. The uranium concentrations and the 234U/238U activity ratios (ARs) were analysed monthly in the water of the river and of four groundwater sampling wells. The speciation of uranium and its relation to other aqueous and solid components were investigated experimentally and in model calculations. The uranium concentration and the ARs in the river varied seasonally with a maximum and a minimum, respectively, in summer. Processes, such as photo-reductive dissolution of iron-oxyhydroxides or the enhanced decomposition of organic matter and calcite in the upstream, eutrophic Lake Greifen may have caused these variations. Laboratory experiments confirmed a possible release of uranium by photochemical reactions. The concentration maximum of uranium was also detected in the shallow groundwater, but with a delay of about six months to the maximum in the river. Under the assumption that the maxima in the river and the groundwater were related, an in situ distribution coefficient (KD) for uranium of ∼7 mL g-1 can be calculated for this Quaternary gravel aquifer. Uranium was present predominantly as UO2-carbonate complexes, whereas the formation of phosphate and organic complexes (e.g., UO2-humates/EDTA/NTA) was negligible. Particles and colloids played a minor role for the transport of uranium in this aquifer. In the course of this study, we observed an ongoing general decrease of the uranium concentrations and a disappearance of its summerly maxima in the River Glatt. We relate this unexpected effect to a better control of the phosphate concentration in surface waters, which diminished the growth of aquatic biota. This, in turn, led to changes in the redox conditions of lake and river sediments, and herewith to a reduced release of heavy metals

  15. Napropamide residues in runoff and infiltration water from pepper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Patterson, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted on a Lowell silty loam soil of 2.7% organic matter at the Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, Kentucky. Eighteen universal soil loss equation (USLE) standard plots (22 x 3.7 m each) were established on a 10% slope. Three soil management practices were used: (i) class-A biosolids (sewage sludge), (ii) yard waste compost, each mixed with native soil at a rate of 50 ton acre(-1) on a dry-weight basis, and (iii) a no-mulch (NM) treatment (rototilled bare soil), used for comparison purposes. Devrinol 50-DF "napropamide" [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy) propionamide] was applied as a preemergent herbicide, incorporated into the soil surface, and the plots were planted with 60-day-old sweet bell pepper seedlings. Napropamide residues one hour following spraying averaged 0.8, 0.4, and 0.3 microg g(-1) dry soil in sewage sludge, yard waste compost, and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Surface runoff water, runoff sediment, and napropamide residues in runoff were significantly reduced by the compost and biosolid treatments. Yard waste compost treatments increased water infiltration and napropamide residues in the vadose zone compared to sewage sludge and NM treatments. Total pepper yields from yard waste compost amended soils (9187 lbs acre(-1)) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than yield from either the soil amended with class-A biosolids (6984 lbs acre(-1)) or the no-mulch soil (7162 lbs acre(-1)). PMID:15913012

  16. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T.; Andres, A. Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO3 removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO3 removal.

  18. RAGE regulates immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis in choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD. METHODS: RAGE null (RAGE-/- mice and age-matched wild type (WT control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs towards S100B was investigated. RESULTS: RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001. RAGE-/- mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05. S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE-/- retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE-/- mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE-/- mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001. A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05-0.01 but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology.

  19. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air

  20. Wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating on copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gui-rong; Ma, Ying; Hao, Yuan [Lanzhou University of Technology, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals; Song, Wen-ming [Lanzhou University of Technology, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals; Lanzhou Petroleum Machinery Institute, Gansu (China); Li, Jian [Wuhan Research Institute of Materials Protection (China); Lu, Jin-jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication

    2016-01-15

    Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was fabricated on copper alloy substrate through vacuum infiltration casting using Ni-based alloying powder and with different WC particle contents as raw materials. The wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was investigated using a block-on-ring tester at different loads and sliding speeds at room temperature. Results show that the wear rate of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating decreased to approximately one-sixth of the wear rate of the Ni-based alloy infiltrated coating. This phenomenon resulted from the supporting function of WC particles under varying loads applied on the specimen surface and the antifriction effect of the transformation layer. Wear rate was reduced by the Ni/WC-infiltrated composite coating with increasing load, especially when the load exceeded 100 N. The friction coefficient decreased with increasing sliding speed for all infiltrated coatings at any load condition. The reduction in the friction coefficient at high sliding speed was larger than that at low sliding speed with increasing load. The wear mechanism was dominated by oxidation under all experimental conditions and accompanied by adhesion and abrasion mechanisms at high load and high sliding speed.

  1. Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Adria-Mora, B.

    2015-12-01

    Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during refueling of customer vehicles has received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments in order to assess the processes of evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete samples. Changes in mass of both spilled diesel and gasoline droplets as a function of time have been analyzed. The infiltrated mass is affected by variations in humidity, among other parameters, which influence the amount of water condensed onto the concrete. Therefore, we used a humidity data logger and statistical tools to predict the evolution of the real mass of infiltrated fuel. The infiltrated mass roughly decreases exponentially, but the difference in behavior between both fuel types is important. The percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. Also, the percentage of infiltrated liquid depends on the initial droplet mass. We also developed a multiphysics model, which couples pore-scale infiltration to turbulent atmospheric transport, to explain the experimental data. In conclusion, a substantial amount of fuel could both seep into the ground to contaminate groundwater and be released to the atmosphere. More studies are needed to quantify the public health implications of the released pollutants.

  2. Wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating on copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was fabricated on copper alloy substrate through vacuum infiltration casting using Ni-based alloying powder and with different WC particle contents as raw materials. The wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was investigated using a block-on-ring tester at different loads and sliding speeds at room temperature. Results show that the wear rate of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating decreased to approximately one-sixth of the wear rate of the Ni-based alloy infiltrated coating. This phenomenon resulted from the supporting function of WC particles under varying loads applied on the specimen surface and the antifriction effect of the transformation layer. Wear rate was reduced by the Ni/WC-infiltrated composite coating with increasing load, especially when the load exceeded 100 N. The friction coefficient decreased with increasing sliding speed for all infiltrated coatings at any load condition. The reduction in the friction coefficient at high sliding speed was larger than that at low sliding speed with increasing load. The wear mechanism was dominated by oxidation under all experimental conditions and accompanied by adhesion and abrasion mechanisms at high load and high sliding speed.

  3. Predictive value of neutrophil infiltration as a marker of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Xu; Zhen-Hua Wang; Jing-Xian Liao; Xiao-Yu Chen; Wen-Zhong Liu; Shu-Dong Xiao; Hong Lu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the predictive value of neutrophil infiltration as a marker of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection.METHODS:A total of 315 patients with dyspepsia symptoms who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study.Biopsies were evaluated using the updated Sydney system.The medication history of all patients in the preceding 4 wk was recorded.The diagnosis of H.pylori infection was based on 13C-urea breath test at least 4 wk after withdrawal of antisecretory drugs,antibiotics and related drugs.For the patients with subtotal gastrectomy,the diagnosis of H.pylori infection was based on anti-H.pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody.Serum anti-H.pylori IgG antibody was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biohit,Finland).RESULTS:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of neutrophil infiltration in the diagnosis of H.pylori infection were 92.3%,83.5%,77.4% and 94.7%,respectively.Neutrophil infiltration of gastric mucosa in the histological analysis was strongly associated with H.pylori infection (77.4% vs 5.3% in the neutrophil infiltration negative group,P =0.000).Moderate neutrophil infiltration was more frequent in H.pylori infection when compared to mild infiltration (81.8% and 75%,respectively),but did not reach statistical significance.For those patients with negative rapid urease test,H.pylori was detected in 73.2% of patients with positive neutrophil infiltration on histology.In patients with subtotal gastrectomy,the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil infiltration in H.pylori infection was 50%.CONCLUSION:Neutrophil infiltration is closely associated with H.pylori and may be recognized as a sign of this infection.

  4. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Allocca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in southern Apennines (Italy, the estimation of the mean annual effective infiltration coefficient (AEIC was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. We studied a large part of the southern Apennines that is covered by a meteorological network and containing 40 principal karst aquifers. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926–2012, the annual effective precipitation (AEP was estimated, and its distribution was modelled, by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennines chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AEIC by means of the hydrological budget equation. The resulting AEIC values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst-rock, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A simple correlation relationship between AEIC, lithology and the summit flat and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model has been used to estimate AEIC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The estimated AEIC values ranged between 48% and 78%, thus matching intervals estimated for other karst aquifers in European and Mediterranean countries. These results represent a deeper understanding of an aspect of groundwater hydrology in karst aquifers which is fundamental for the formulation of appropriate management models of groundwater resources, also taking into account mitigation strategies for climate change impacts. Finally, the proposed hydrological characterisations are also perceived as useful for the assessment of mean annual runoff over carbonate mountains, which is

  5. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2013-08-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual effective infiltration coefficient (AEIC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. We studied a large part of the southern Apennines that is covered by a meteorological network and containing 40 principal karst aquifers. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the annual effective precipitation (AEP) was estimated, and its distribution was modelled, by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennines chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AEIC by means of the hydrological budget equation. The resulting AEIC values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst-rock, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A simple correlation relationship between AEIC, lithology and the summit flat and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model has been used to estimate AEIC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The estimated AEIC values ranged between 48% and 78%, thus matching intervals estimated for other karst aquifers in European and Mediterranean countries. These results represent a deeper understanding of an aspect of groundwater hydrology in karst aquifers which is fundamental for the formulation of appropriate management models of groundwater resources, also taking into account mitigation strategies for climate change impacts. Finally, the proposed hydrological characterisations are also perceived as useful for the assessment of mean annual runoff over carbonate mountains, which is another important

  6. Evaluation of a new experimental test procedure to more accurately determine the surface infiltration rate of permeable pavement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucke, T.; Boogaard, F.; Van den Ven, F.

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are specifically designed to promote the infiltration of stormwater through the paving surface in order to reduce run-off volumes and to improve water quality by removing sediment and other pollutants. However, research has shown that permeable pavements can become clogged over time and this reduces their infiltration capacity. In order to assess the infiltration of permeable pavements, a variety of infiltration test procedures have been utilised in the past. However, the ...

  7. Factors affecting the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS in clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, B.; Klint, K.E.S.; Locatelli, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    The influence of small scale soil heterogeneity on the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS was studied using field data from a clayey glacial till and groundwater simulations with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. Simulations of homogeneous soil blocks...... with hydraulic properties ranging from sand to clay showed that infiltration capacities vary greatly for the different soil types observed in glacial till. The inclusion of heterogeneities dramatically increased infiltration volume by a factor of 22 for a soil with structural changes above and below...

  8. Regeneration of the liver at different periods of mononuclear infiltration induced by zymosan granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to discover how the liver,with areas of mononuclear infiltration, developing in response to activation of Kupffer cells (KC) by zymosan granules (ZG), regenerates. In the experiments, an intraperitoneal injection of 1 microCi of 3H-thymidine/g body weight was given to the mice 1 h before sacrifice. Proliferation of hepatocytes and regeneration of the liver were intensified most when partial resection of the liver (PRL) was performed at the peak of mononuclear infiltration of the liver, namely five days after injection of ZG. The data indicate that not only activated KC, but also areas of mononuclear infiltration potentiate hepatocyte regeneration

  9. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of the infiltration of tertiary treated wastewater in a dune area, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Wallis, I.; Van Houtte, E.; Van RANST, E.

    2013-01-01

    Managed artificial recharge (MAR) is a well-established practice for augmentation of depleted groundwater resources or for environmental benefit. At the St-André MAR site in the Belgian dune area, groundwater resources are optimised through re-use of highly treated wastewater by means of infiltration ponds. The very high quality of the infiltration water sets this system apart from other MAR systems. The low total dissolved solid (TDS) content in the infiltration water (less than 50 mg/L) com...

  10. Point estimation of soil water infiltration process using Artificial Neural Networks for some calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchami-Araghi, Farzin; Mirlatifi, Seyed Majid; Ghorbani Dashtaki, Shoja; Mahdian, Mohmmad Hossein

    2013-02-01

    SummaryInfiltration process is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle. The direct measurement of infiltration is laborious, time consuming, expensive, and often involves large spatial and temporal variability. Thus, any indirect estimation of this process is quite helpful. The main objective of this study was to predict the cumulative infiltration at specific time steps, using readily available soil data and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). 210 double ring infiltration data were collected from different regions of Iran. Basic soil properties of the two upper pedogenic layers (A and B horizons) including initial soil water content, soil water contents at field capacity (-33 kPa) and permanent wilting point (-1500 kPa), bulk density, particle-size distributions, organic carbon, gravel content (>2 mm size), and CaCO3 content were determined. The feedforward multilayer perceptron ANN model was used to predict the cumulative infiltration at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 270 min after the start of the infiltration experiment and at the time of the basic infiltration rate. The developed ANN models were categorized to type I and type II ANN models. The basic soil properties of the first upper soil horizon were hierarchically used as inputs to develop type I ANN models. In contrast, the type II ANN models were developed while the available soil properties of the two upper soil horizons were implemented as inputs using principal component analysis technique. Results of the reliability test for the developed ANN models indicated that type I ANN models with a RMSE of 1.136-9.312 cm had the best performance in estimating the cumulative infiltration. Type I ANN models with the mean RMSD of 6.307 cm had the best performance in estimating the cumulative infiltration curve (CIC). Results indicated that at the 1% probability level, ANNs-derived CIC can be accepted as one of the replications of a reliable infiltration experiment

  11. The influence of liquid metal infiltration on the superconducting characteristics of niobium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared a fully stabilized, multifilamentary, NbN superconductor using a combination of physical vapor deposition of NbN on graphite fibers followed by liquid metal infiltration using copper or aluminum. The resulting superconductor is in a finely divided multifilamentary form, embedded in a matrix of conductive copper or aluminum. The geometry provides high stability to flux jumps and high quench protection. The effects of liquid metal infiltration and process variables on the electrical properties of NbN have been investigated. Critical current vs field, and stabilizer residual resistivity ratio are discussed as well as the effect of liquid metal infiltration on NbN layer performance

  12. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  13. Study of a new hybrid process combining slurry infiltration and Reactive Chemical Vapour Infiltration for the realisation of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic matrix composites were originally developed for aerospace,military aeronautics or energy applications thanks to their good properties at high temperature. They are generally made by Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI). A new short hybrid process combining fiber preform slurry impregnation of ceramic powders with an innovative Reactive CVI (RCVI) route is proposed to reduce the production time. This route is based on the combination of Reactive Chemical Vapour Deposition (RCVD), which is often used to deposit coatings on fibres, with the Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI).In RCVD, the absence of one element of the deposited carbide in the initial gas phase involves the consumption/conversion of the solid substrate. In this work, the RCVD growth and the associated consumption were studied with different parameters in the Ti-H-Cl-C chemical system. The study has been completed with the chemical products analysis, combining XRD, XPS and FTIR. Then, the partial conversion of sub-micrometer carbon powders into titanium carbide and the consolidation of green bodies by RCVI from H2/TiCl4 gaseous infiltration were studied. The residual porosity and the final TiC content were measured in the bulk of the infiltrated powders by image analysis from scanning electron microscopy. Depending on temperature, few hundred micrometers-depth infiltrations are obtained.Finally, the results have been transposed to the RCVI into CMC-type pre-forms. Despite a minimal TiC content of 25% in the overall preform, the results shown a bad homogeneity of the infiltration and a poor cohesion of fibres with RCVI consolidated powder of their environment. (author)

  14. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  15. MONITORING DAERAH RESAPAN AIR DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK STUDI KASUS KELURAHAN SEKARAN, KECAMATAN GUNUNGPATI, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Millah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Gunungpati merupakan salah satu wilayah konservasi di Kota Semarang yang mengalami perkembangan sejakdidirikannya Kampus Unnes di Kelurahan Sekaran. Pesatnya pembangunan yang ada saat ini telah mengakibatkan terjadinyaperubahan tata guna lahan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap fungsi daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran makadilakukan pengukuran dengan metode geolistrik konfigurasi Schlumberger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuistatus daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kawasan Kampus Unnes Sekaran dan sekitarnyadalam 2 tahap, yaitu bulan Nopember 2010 dan Januari 2011. Hasil pengolahan data dengan software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 diketahuibahwa untuk TS 01, TS 02, TS 04, TS 05 resapan air paling banyak terjadi pada bulan Nopember 2010, untuk TS 03 pada bulanJanuari 2011. Lapisan batuan penyusun yang ada umumnya terdiri dari lempung dan batu pasir. Lapisan batu pasir inilah yangdiharapkan dapat berfungsi sebagai penyimpan air hujan yang meresap dan teridentifikasi sebagai air tanah dangkal. Simpulandari penelitian ini yaitu Kelurahan Sekaran masih berfungsi sebagai daerah resapan air dengan ditemukannya air tanah dangkal dilokasi penelitian. This research aims to study the influence of development of Sekaran into the function of its water infiltration area by using a methodof Schlumberger configuration. There were two steps of research conducted in November 2010 and January 2011. The result ofdata processing using software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 shows that the most water infiltration happened in Nopember 2010 forTS 01,TS02, TS 04, TS 05 points, while those for TS 03 happened in January 2011. In general, the composing layers are clay and sand. Thesand is supposed to have the function of infiltrated rain water keeper and identified as shalow soil water. Based on the identifiedshalow soil water, the research concluded that Sekaran still has a function of water infiltration

  16. Air Leakage of U.S. Homes: Model Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses a model developed from that database in conjunction with US Census Bureau data for estimating air leakage as a function of location throughout the US.

  17. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  18. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ˜1019 cm-3 carrier density, and ˜0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.

  19. An Analytical Solution for One-Dimensional Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Unsaturated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quan-Jiu; R. HORTON; FAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    Soil infiltration and redistribution are important processes in field water cycle, and it is necessary to develop a simple model to describe the processes. In this study, an algebraic solution for one-dimensional water infiltration and redistribution without evaporation in unsaturated soil was developed based on Richards equation. The algebraic solution had three parameters, namely, the saturated water conductivity, the comprehensive shape coefficient of the soil water content distribution, and the soil suction allocation coefficient. To analyze the physical features of these parameters, a relationship between the Green-Ampt model and the algebraic solution was established. The three parameters were estimated based on experimental observations, whereas the soil water content and the water infiltration duration were calculated using the algebraic solution. The calculated soil water content and infiltration duration were compared with the experimental observations, and the results indicated that the algebraic solution accurately described the unsaturated soil water flow processes.

  20. Pulmonary leukemia in a child presenting with infiltrative and nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A leukemic child developed a pulmonary leukemic infiltration, confirmed by open lung biopsy. His radiograph showed a mixed interstitial and nodular pattern. Nodular lung lesions are rare in pediatric patients and exceptionally may represent leukemic invasion. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of isothermal water infiltration into fired clay brick by scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on neutron scattering was proposed to investigate isothermal water infiltration in porous media. Two different kinds of fired clay bricks were investigated. While the sample absorb water, scattered neutrons from the different wetted regions, along the flow direction were continuously recorded. The results were discussed in terms of the theory of water infiltration in unsaturated porous media as well as by an anomalous diffusion approach. It was shown that the infiltration process in the Canadian clay brick (CCB) is Fickian and the water diffusivity was analytically determined, while it is non-Fickian in the Egyptian clay brick (ECB). The infiltration process in ECB can be modeled as a two stage Fickian process, at the low and high absorption times. The anomalous diffusion approach failed to describe the diffusion process in the ECB at all water contents. (author)

  2. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Chang-Yong, E-mail: cynam@bnl.gov; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.

  3. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼1019 cm−3 carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices

  4. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byager, N; Hansen, Mads; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, J B

    2014-01-01

    -operative pain after breast surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery......BACKGROUND: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post...... statistically significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however...

  5. Ventilation- and infiltration measurements in a dwelling in view of the problems with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of continuous ventilation measurements, with N2O as tracer gas, of infiltration streams in seven spaces in a dwelling. The results are compared with ventilation model calculations; good agreement was obtained. (Auth.)

  6. Identification and Charaterization of Genes Encoding Melanoma Antigens Recognized by Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-FuWang; StevenA.Rosenberg

    1995-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) into the autologous patient with melanoma resulted in the objective regression of tumor, suggesting that these TILs recognize tumor rejection antigens on the tumor cells.

  7. Parameterization of Macropore Flow Using Dye-Tracer Infiltration Patterns in the SWAP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, N.L.M.B.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Dam, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Preferential flow is known to influence infiltration, soil moisture content distribution, groundwater response, and runoff generation. Various model concepts are used to simulate preferential flow. Preferential flow parameters are often determined by indirect optimization using outflow or discharge

  8. Samples of uranium infiltration deposits development by in situ leaching. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic of infiltration uranium deposits of the Tien Shan mega-province including Shu-Sarysu, Syr-Darya, Kyzylkum and Ili uranium provinces is given in chapter 2. In these 4 ore-provinces there are known 40 deposits of stratum-infiltration type. Resources of separate deposits are varying from 330 thousands tons (Inkaj, Mynkudyk in Kazakhstan) up 10 thousands tons (Zhalpak, Kazakhstan) and less (Lyavlyakan-Bishkek, Uzbekistan). It is noted, that total forecast resources of the Tien Shan province can be estimated within limits of 1.5-2.0 million tons. Also general characteristic of regions of ground-infiltration type deposits (3 ones in Russia - Vitim, Zabaikal and Zaural, 1 - in Ukraine, 1 - in Mongolia (Chojren)) is given. It is noted, that the Vitim uranium ore region is one of largest in the world accumulation of uranium deposits of ground-infiltration type with total resources of 13,5 thousands tons. 3 tabs, 31 figs

  9. Adhesive performance of a caries infiltrant on sound and demineralised enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, A.; Stawarczyk, B; Kolakovic, M; Hämmerle, C H F; Attin, T.; Schmidlin, P R

    2011-01-01

    The use of a caries infiltrant before application of a conventional adhesive did not impair bonding to sound and demineralised enamel and might be beneficial as a pretreatment in demineralised enamel.

  10. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Claesson, Mogens H

    2013-01-01

    Immune cells often infiltrate testicular germ cell neoplasms, including pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The composition and distribution of infiltrating immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in testis samples with CIS and...... overt seminoma, in comparison to biopsies from infertile men without neoplasia. The composition of immune cells was similar across all the groups studied. Macrophages, CD8(+) and CD45R0(+) T lymphocytes constituted the majority of infiltrates, B lymphocytes were present in an intermediate proportion and...... very few CD4(+) and FoxP3(+) T cells were detected. HLA-I antigen was more abundant in Sertoli cells in tubules containing CIS than in those with normal spermatogenesis. This study showed a phenotypically comparable composition of infiltrating immune cells independently of the presence of neoplasia...

  11. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds infiltrated with thermally crosslinked polycaprolactone fumarate and polycaprolactone itaconate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Shafieyan, Yousef; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Imani, Mohammad; Atai, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Hatampoor, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this work, two unsaturated derivatives of polycaprolactone (PCL), polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF), and polycaprolactone itaconate (PCLI), have been synthesized and used as an infiltrating polymer to improve the mechanical properties of brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. PCLF and PCLI were fi

  12. Infiltration-excess overland flow estimated by TOPMODEL for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 5-kilometer resolution raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States represents the average percentage of infiltration-excess overland flow in total...

  13. Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Surface Ground-Penetrating Radar Monitoring of Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Léger, Emmanuel; Coquet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used Hydrus-1D to simulate water infiltration from a ring infiltrometer. We generated water content profiles at each time step of infiltration, based on a particular value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity while knowing the other van Genuchten parameters. Water content profiles were converted to dielectric permittivity profiles using the Complex Refractive Index Method relation. We then used the GprMax suite of programs to generate radargrams and to follow the wetting front using arrival time of electromagnetic waves recorded by a Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Theoretically, the depth of the inflection point of the water content profile simulated at any infiltration time step is related to the peak of the reflected amplitude recorded in the corresponding trace in the radargram. We used this relationship to invert the saturated hydraulic conductivity for constant and falling head infiltrations. We present our method on synthetic examples and on two experiments carried out on sand. We f...

  14. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  15. Secondary Emission From Synthetic Opal Infiltrated by Colloidal Gold and Glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, the infiltration of PC by colloidal gold and colloidal gold with glycine suppresses the PC emission band near 375-450 nm and enhances the shoulder of the stop-zone band of PC in the region of 470-510 nm. The shape of the observed PC emission band connected with defects in synthetic opal is determined by the type of infiltrates and the excitation wavelength. Possible mechanisms of the effects are discussed.

  16. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%. PMID:24701379

  17. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to large bowel infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, J.; Cachia, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    A 66 year old woman with a 9 year history of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developed intermittent rectal bleeding for 9 months; sigmoidoscopic biopsy proved that this was due to large bowel infiltration by leukaemia. This is a very rare occurrence.

  18. Secondary emission from synthetic opal infiltrated by colloidal gold and glycine

    CERN Document Server

    Dovbeshko, G; Boyko, V; Romanyuk, V; Gorelik, V; Moiseyenko, V; Sobolev, V; Shvalagin, V

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, the infiltration of PC by colloidal gold and colloidal gold with glycine suppresses the PC emission band near 375-450 nm and enhances the shoulder of the stop-zone band of PC in the region of 470-510 nm. The shape of the observed PC emission band connected with defects in synthetic opal is determined by the type of infiltrates and the excitation wavelength. Possible mechanisms of the effects are discussed.

  19. Distributed optical fibre devices based on liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes; Hermann, D.S.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new class of hybrid photonic crystal fibers, which are liquid crystal infiltrated fibers. Using these fibers, we demonstrate 'distributed' tunable filter and switching functionalities operating by the photonic bandgap effect.

  20. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical properties of alumina–zirconia composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Balakrishnan; B B Panigrahi; K P Sanosh; Min-Cheol Chu; T N Kim; Seong-Jai Cho

    2009-08-01

    This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high temperature. This could be attributed to the drastic drop in the coefficient of thermal expansion due to the compositional change in the soda lime glass during infiltration. There was a significant improvement in the Weibull modulus after glass infiltration. Glass infiltrated samples showed better thermal shock resistance. The magnitude of strength increment was found to be in the order of the surface residual stress generated by thermo-elastic properties mismatch between the composite and the penetrated glass.

  1. Studies on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-molybdenum alloys in porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at percent molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms have been carried out by process modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the initial pore volume fraction of the porous carbon preform is a critical parameter in determining the final composition of the raction-formed silicon carbide and other residual phases. The pore size of the carbon preform is very detrimental to the exotherm temperatures due to liquid silicon-carbon reactions encountered during the reactive melt infiltration process. A possible mechanism for the liquid silicon-porous (glassy) carbon reaction has been proposed. The composition and microstructure of the reaction-formed silicon carbide has been discussed in terms of carbon preform microstructures, infiltration materials, and temperatures.

  2. Development of a Large Scale Infiltration Tank for Determination of the Hydraulic Properties of Expansive Clays

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Anh Minh; Ta, An-Ninh; Cui, Yu-Jun; THIRIAT, Jérémy

    2009-01-01

    International audience A large-scale infiltration tank was developed to study the water transfer in compacted expansive clay. Volumetric water content sensors were buried in a soil column for water content monitoring during infiltration. In addition to water content, soil suction and temperature at various locations and the heave at the soil surface were also monitored. Emphasis was put in minimizing the effect of sensors installation on water transfer and soil deformation. The results obt...

  3. MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration therapy. A cost comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the costs of MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration for the minimally invasive treatment of radicular neck pain. Materials and Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, 22 patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age: 48.2 years) underwent MRI-guided (1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips) single-site periradicular cervical nerve root infiltration with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. A further 64 patients (34 men, 30 women; mean age: 50.3 years) were treated under CT fluoroscopic guidance (Somatom Definition 64, Siemens). The mean overall costs were calculated as the sum of the prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, maintenance, and energy costs), personnel costs and expenditure for disposables that were identified for MRI- and CT-guided procedures. Additionally, the cost of ultrasound guidance was calculated. Results: The mean intervention time was 24.9 min. (range: 12-36 min.) for MRI-guided infiltration and 19.7 min. (range: 5-54 min.) for CT-guided infiltration. The average total costs per patient were EUR 240 for MRI-guided interventions and EUR 124 for CT-guided interventions. These were (MRI/CT guidance) EUR 150/60 for equipment use, EUR 46/40 for personnel, and EUR 44/25 for disposables. The mean overall cost of ultrasound guidance was EUR 76. Conclusion: Cervical nerve root infiltration using MRI guidance is still about twice as expensive as infiltration using CT guidance. However, since it does not involve radiation exposure for patients and personnel, MRI-guided nerve root infiltration may become a promising alternative to the CT-guided procedure, especially since a further price decrease is expected for MRI devices and MR-compatible disposables. In contrast, ultrasound remains the less expensive method for nerve root infiltration guidance. (orig.)

  4. MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration therapy. A cost comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Froeling, V.; Roettgen, R.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bretschneider, T. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Hartwig, T.; Disch, A.C. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the costs of MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration for the minimally invasive treatment of radicular neck pain. Materials and Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, 22 patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age: 48.2 years) underwent MRI-guided (1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips) single-site periradicular cervical nerve root infiltration with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. A further 64 patients (34 men, 30 women; mean age: 50.3 years) were treated under CT fluoroscopic guidance (Somatom Definition 64, Siemens). The mean overall costs were calculated as the sum of the prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, maintenance, and energy costs), personnel costs and expenditure for disposables that were identified for MRI- and CT-guided procedures. Additionally, the cost of ultrasound guidance was calculated. Results: The mean intervention time was 24.9 min. (range: 12-36 min.) for MRI-guided infiltration and 19.7 min. (range: 5-54 min.) for CT-guided infiltration. The average total costs per patient were EUR 240 for MRI-guided interventions and EUR 124 for CT-guided interventions. These were (MRI/CT guidance) EUR 150/60 for equipment use, EUR 46/40 for personnel, and EUR 44/25 for disposables. The mean overall cost of ultrasound guidance was EUR 76. Conclusion: Cervical nerve root infiltration using MRI guidance is still about twice as expensive as infiltration using CT guidance. However, since it does not involve radiation exposure for patients and personnel, MRI-guided nerve root infiltration may become a promising alternative to the CT-guided procedure, especially since a further price decrease is expected for MRI devices and MR-compatible disposables. In contrast, ultrasound remains the less expensive method for nerve root infiltration guidance. (orig.)

  5. DESIGN JUSTIFICATION DRAINAGE PROTECTION AT ELEVATED GROUNDWATER LEVELS GROUNDWATER DUE TO INFILTRATION MINE WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtchenko A. V.; Kosichenko Y. M.; Baev O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the design study for construction of a drainage system on the territory of gardening association «Zarya» in the region of Gukovo in Krasnosulinsky district of Rostov region. Construction of a drainage system is a prerequisite for reducing the groundwater level caused by the infiltration of the drainage complex mine called Burgustinskaya. The results of the calculations determined the value of the total infiltration groundwater feeding; inflow rate to each of the 6 drains ...

  6. PD-L1 and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes as Prognostic Markers in Resected NSCLC

    OpenAIRE

    Ameratunga, Malaka; Asadi, Khashayar; Lin, Xihui; Walkiewicz, Marzena; Murone, Carmel; Knight, Simon; Mitchell, Paul; Boutros, Paul; John, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immune checkpoint inhibition has shifted treatment paradigms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the immune infiltrate and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a prognostic marker. We correlated the immune infiltrate and PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic characteristics in a cohort of resected NSCLC. Methods A tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate cores from consecutive resected NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was...

  7. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Jun-lin; Li, Kun-cheng; DU Xiang-ying; LIU Qi-wang; GUO Dao-de; Zhang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Methods Forty-three patients with pathologically proven diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas were collected, and underwent preoperative MRI conventional sequences (including axial T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR) and axial SWI. The ability of showing intratumoral small vessels and hemorrhagic focuses were compared between SWI and conventional techniques. The signal intens...

  8. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; Gude, M.; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  9. Upper-lip laser frenectomy without infiltrated anaesthesia in a paediatric patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kafas, Panagiotis; Stavrianos, Christos; Jerjes, Waseem; Upile, Tahwinder; Vourvachis, Michael; Theodoridis, Marios; Stavrianou, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Labial frenectomy is a common surgical procedure in the field of oral surgery. Labial frenectomy is a procedure usually done for orthodontic reasons. The role of laser surgery in the oral cavity is well established. The use of diode laser frenectomy without infiltrated anaesthesia is currently under investigation. Needle-less oral surgery, without infiltrated anaesthesia, is a novel situation in paediatrics with paramount importance.

  10. On the estimation of threshold pressures in infiltration of liquid metals into particle preforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threshold pressures for infiltration of different metals into preforms of ceramic particles of various nature and morphology were experimentally determined and the results compared with those estimated by using the specific particle surface areas derived from laser diffraction and gas adsorption. Whilst laser diffraction provides an under estimation of the areas involved in the infiltration experiments, and thus of threshold pressures, gas adsorption offers reasonable values for particles that are regular and free of nanostructured surfaces

  11. Natural laws of precipitation, great cycle, infiltration overland and groundwater runoff with a new formulas

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dj. Valjarevic; D. J. Valjarevic

    2011-01-01

    All the elements of water balance including precipitation are connected with soil. Some natural laws, which are a result of external (climate, relief) and internal (geological structure, thickness) natural factors, influence the leachate water to be transformed into surface outflow, infiltration, evaporation and subsurface runoff. M. I. Ljvovic has found dependencies between infiltration, evaporation and subsurface runoff. His method is a six component are. In this work, there has been...

  12. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadsden J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gadsden,1 Sabry Ayad,2 Jeffrey J Gonzales,3 Jaideep Mehta,4 Jan Boublik,5 Jacob Hutchins6,7 1Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, 4Department of Anesthesiology, UT Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 5Department of Anesthesiology, NYU Langone Medical Center – Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY, 6Department of Anesthesiology, 7Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by

  13. Evaluation of MR diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel may be difficult to differentiate from colorectal carcinoma in cases that present with non-specific clinical and imaging features. The aim of this study is to assess the value of MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: In 66 patients, MR DWI was added to the standard imaging protocol in patients visiting our outdoor MR clinic for the analysis of suspected or known deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). In patients diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging, high b-value diffusion-weighted images were qualitatively assessed by two readers in consensus and compared to high b-value diffusion weighted images in 15 patients evaluated for colorectal carcinoma. In addition, ADC values of lesions were calculated, using b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm2. Results: A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging. Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel showed low signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients, whereas colorectal carcinoma showed high signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients. Mean ADC value in endometriosis infiltrating the bowel (0.80 ± 0.06 × 10−3 mm2/s) was significantly lower compared to mean ADC value in colorectal carcinoma (0.86 ± 0.06 × 10−3 mm2/s), but with considerable overlap between ADC values. Conclusion: Only qualitative assessment of MR DWI may be valuable to facilitate differentiation between endometriosis infiltrating the bowel and colorectal carcinoma.

  14. Wound infiltration with local anesthetics for post-operative pain relief in lumbar spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, M; Møiniche, S; Olsen, K S

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery.......In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery....

  15. Response of infiltration capacity to thinning treatment in Japanese cypress plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M.; Onda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Forest management practice such as thinning treatment changes the physical structure of stands and canopy and ecohydrology in the forest system, resulting in the change of runoff and hydrological processes in watershed scale. Understory vegetation is a major factor controlling infiltration rate in a forested hillslope because it can reduce the raindrop impact to surface soil, trap the litter, and form the macropore in surface soil. In unmanaged Japanese cypress forest, understory vegetation has decreased because of high stand density and low light conditions, resulting in low infiltration due to surface sealing and crusting and overland flow generation. In such forest, improvement of infiltration capacity is expected by the recovery of understory vegetation after a thinning treatment, but the effect of the practice on infiltration has never been evaluated due to the lack of infiltration measurement in situ. The objective of this study is to elucidate the response of infiltration capacity to thinning treatment in Japanese cypress plantation. Rainfall simulation experiments on a plot-scale were conducted on 21 forested hillslopes experienced by various thinning treatments in Japanese cypress plantation in Yamaguchi Prefecture, western Japan. The average values of infiltration capacity in the unthinned and thinned plots were 51 and 152 mm/h, respectively. The relative light intensity of the thinned plots was higher than that of the unthinned plots. The cover percentages and dry weights of understory vegetation and litter of the thinned plots were greater than those of the unthinned plots. The organic matter content, bulk density, and soil particle size distribution of surface soil (4-cm in depth) had little difference between the unthinned and thinned plots, indicating that the physical properties of surface soil were less likely to change after a thinning treatment. These results suggest that above-ground biomass can increase with the light condition of forest floor

  16. Effects of conservation tillage on water infiltration in two soils in south-eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bissett, M.J.; G.J. O'Leary

    1996-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper reports on a study in Southeast Australia comparing water infiltration on two soil types (gray cracking clay and sandy loam) under two tillage systems - conservation tillage (zero and sub-soil, residues retained) and conventional tillage (frequently tined tillage, no surface residues). The objective of the study is to determine if conservation tillage increases the water infiltration rate on two different soils, with the hope of better explaining the mechani...

  17. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  18. The recent similarity hypotheses to describe water infiltration into homogeneous soils

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Reichardt; Luís Carlos Timm; Durval Dourado-Neto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A similarity hypothesis recently presented to describe horizontal infiltration into homogeneous soils, developed for coarse-textured soils like sieved marine sand, implies that the soil water retention function θ(h) is the mirror image of an extended Boltzmann transform function θ(λ2). A second hypothesis applicable to vertical infiltration suggests that the soil water retention function θ(h) is also the mirror image of the soil water profile θ(z). Using previously published infiltra...

  19. Atomistic modeling of water infiltration in defective zeolite for thermal storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asinari, Pietro; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Bevilacqua, Alessio; Fasano, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the impact that zeolite materials may have in the near future in loss-free, more compact and efficient thermal storage systems is numerically investigated. Water infiltration within MFI zeolite presenting different concentrations of hydrophilic defects is studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Results show that the characteristic infiltration pressure of water in the considered zeolite framework is reduced with increased hydrophilicity. Dubinin-Astakhov model is then...

  20. Estimation of Infiltration Parameters and the Irrigation Coefficients with the Surface Irrigation Advance Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Beibei; Wang Quanjiu; Tan Shuai

    2014-01-01

    A theory based on Manning roughness equation, Philip equation and water balance equation was developed which only employed the advance distance in the calculation of the infiltration parameters and irrigation coefficients in both the border irrigation and the surge irrigation. The improved procedure was validated with both the border irrigation and surge irrigation experiments. The main results are shown as follows. Infiltration parameters of the Philip equation could be calculated accurately...

  1. Land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Noguez, I.; R. Hinkelmann

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays several parts of the world suffer from land subsidence. This setting of the earth surface occurs due to different factors such as earth quakes, mining activities, and gas, oil and water withdrawal. This research presents a numerical study of the influence of land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration into structural soil discontinuities. The numerical simulation of the infiltration was based on a two-phase flow-model for po...

  2. New analytical model for cumulative infiltration into dual-permeability soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Yilmaz, Deniz; PEYRARD, Xavier; PEYNEAU, Pierre Emmanuel; Lenoir, Thomas,; Simunek, Jiri; Angulo Jaramillo, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new analytical approach is proposed to describe water infiltration into dual-permeability soils. The proposed model, validated in our study against numerical and experimental data, can be used to design devices and procedures for detecting dual-permeability behavior using water infiltration experiments. In the vadose zone, preferential flow and transport are much more common than uniform water flow and solute transport. In recent decades, several models have been developed for preferenti...

  3. Water infiltration rate in Yellow Latosol under different soil management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge L. X. L. Cunha; Maria E. H. Coelho; Abel W. de Albuquerque; Cicero A. Silva; Antônio B. da Silva Júnior; Islan D. E. de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe management systems affect soil structure, causing changes in porosity that can influence soil water infiltration. In order to study the water infiltration rate in a Yellow Latosol under different tillage systems and different mathematical models, an experiment was conducted from October to December 2012, at the Center for Agricultural Sciences at the Federal University of Alagoas, using a randomized block design with five replicates, in a split-plot scheme. In the plots, the manag...

  4. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography of a water infiltration test on Johannishus Esker, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Inan; Dahlin, Torleif; Bergman, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an efficient way to remove organic matter from raw water and, at the same time, reduce temperature variation. Two MAR sites were constructed by Karlskrona municipality on Johannishus Esker in Sweden. One of these sites, Vång, was monitored for electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography - ERT) during a 9-week tracer infiltration test. The aim of the monitoring was to map the pathways of the infiltrated water,...

  5. Soil infiltration based on bp neural network and grey relational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Juan; Wu Pute; Zhao Xining

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall...

  6. Diffuse Interstitial Infiltrative Lung Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Na young; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Ah Hyun; Shim, Hyo Sub; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A diffuse interstitial infiltrative pattern of lung metastasis in a patient with malignant melanoma is rare and can be confused with benign conditions such as pulmonary edema or drug-induced pneumonitis. We experienced a case of diffuse interstitial infiltrative lung metastasis in malignant melanoma in a 37-year-old man. This case was confirmed by a transbronchial lung biopsy. We herein describe the findings on CT and positron emission tomography scan

  7. Secondary emission from synthetic opal infiltrated by colloidal gold and glycine

    OpenAIRE

    Dovbeshko, G.; Fesenko, O.; Boyko, V; Romanyuk, V.; Gorelik, V.; Moiseyenko, V; Sobolev, V.; Shvalagin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, ...

  8. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo Fontaneda, Luis Ángel; Rodríguez Hernández, Jorge; Vega Zamanillo, Angel; Castro Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (RSL) and surface slope (SS). This paper s...

  9. Soil physical properties influencing the fitting parameters in Philip and Kostiakov infiltration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many models developed for monitoring the infiltration process those of Philip and Kostiakov have been studied in detail because of their simplicity and the ease of estimating their fitting parameters. The important soil physical factors influencing the fitting parameters in these infiltration models are reported in this study. The results of the study show that the single most important soil property affecting the fitting parameters in these models is the effective porosity. 36 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Experimental study of water fluxes in a residential area: 2. Road infiltration, runoff and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Rosier, P.; Dixon, A.; Bromley, J.; Cooper, J. D.

    2003-08-01

    Lack of accurate data has led some hydrologists and city planners to assume that urban infiltration is zero and runoff is 100% of the rainfall. These assumptions lead to an over estimation of road runoff volume and an underestimation of direct recharge to groundwater, which is already rising under some UK cities. This study investigates infiltration and runoff processes and quantifies the percentage of rainfall that contributes to storm drainage, and that which infiltrates through different types of road surface. Access tubes were installed for measuring soil water content using a neutron probe in three car parks, a road and a grass site at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford. Storm drainage was recorded at the exit of the Thamesmead Estate in Crowmarsh Gifford, just before the drain joins the River Thames at Wallingford. Rainfall and water table depth were also recorded. Weekly measurements of soil moisture content indicated that the top 40 cm layer is not influenced by water-table fluctuations and, therefore, positive changes in soil moisture could be attributed to infiltration of rainfall through the surface. Depending on the nature of the surface, subsurface layers, level of traffic, etc., between 6 and 9% of rainfall was found to infiltrate through the road surfaces studied. The storm drainage generated by road runoff revealed a flow pattern similar to that of the receiving watercourse (River Thames) and increased with the increase of infiltration and soil water content below the road surface. The ratio of runoff to rainfall was 0·7, 0·9 and 0·5 for annual, winter (October-March) and summer (April-September) respectively. As the results of the infiltration indicated that 6 to 9% of annual rainfall infiltrates through the road surface, this means that evaporation represents, 21-24% of annual rainfall, with more evaporation taking place during summer than winter.

  11. Evaluation of Net Infiltration Uncertainty for Multiple Uncertain Input Parameters Using Latin Hypercube Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; McCurley, R. D.; Wang, J. Y.

    2004-12-01

    To assess, via numerical simulation, the effect of 12 uncertain input parameters (characterizing soil and rock properties and boundary [meteorological] conditions), on net infiltration uncertainty, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique (a modified Monte Carlo approach using a form of stratified sampling) was used. Each uncertain input parameter is presented using a probability distribution function, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty (which arises from the lack of knowledge about parameters-an uncertainty that can be reduced as new information becomes available). One hundred LHS realizations (using the code LHS V2.50 developed at Sandia National Laboratories) of the uncertain input parameters were used to simulate the net infiltration over the Yucca Mountain repository footprint. Simulations were carried out using the code INFIL VA-2.a1 (a modified USGS code INFIL V2.0). The results of simulations were then used to determine the net infiltration probability distribution function. According to theoretical considerations, for 12 uncertain input parameters, from 15 to 36 realizations using the LHS technique should be sufficient to get meaningful results. In this presentation, we will show that the theoretical considerations may significantly underestimate the required number of realizations for the evaluation of the correlation between the net infiltration and uncertain input parameters. We will demonstrate that the calculated net infiltration rate (presented as a probability distribution function) oscillates as a function of simulation runs, and that the correlation between net infiltration rate and the uncertain input parameters depends on the number of simulation runs. For example, the correlation coefficient between the soil (or rock) permeability and net infiltration stabilizes only after 60-80 realizations. The results of the correlation analysis show that the correlation to net infiltration is highest for precipitation, bedrock permeability

  12. Vertical Patterns of Nitrogen Transformations during Infiltration in Two Wetland Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, T. E.; Stepanauskas, R.; Leonardson, L.

    1997-01-01

    The (sup15)N isotope dilution and pairing methods were applied to investigate the vertical distribution of nitrogen transformations during infiltration in one peaty soil and one sandy soil. Water containing (sup15)N-nitrate (99.9%; 200 (mu)M) as the only nitrogen fraction was infiltrated through cores containing homogenized soil, with lengths varying from 5.5 to 38 cm. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics were investigated by measuring inflowing and outflowing water. The experimental design allowed d...

  13. Soil infiltration based on bp neural network and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Juan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall and different underlying surfaces. We established a six factor-model of soil cumulative infiltration by the improved back propagation (BP-based artificial neural network algorithm with a momentum term and self-adjusting learning rate. Compared to the multiple nonlinear regression method, the stability and accuracy of the improved BP algorithm was better. Based on the improved BP model, the sensitive index of these six factors on soil cumulative infiltration was investigated. Secondly, the grey relational analysis method was used to individually study grey correlations among these six factors and soil cumulative infiltration. The results of the two methods were very similar. Rainfall duration was the most influential factor, followed by vegetation cover, vegetation type, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture. The effect of slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was not significant.

  14. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides

  15. Application of a water balance model for estimating deep infiltration in a karstic watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of water scarcity evidences the need for an adequate management of water resources. In karstic regions, the water flow through fractures significantly increases the water infiltration rate, which explains the small number of rivers and the importance of groundwater for urban supply. Therefore, the water balance is necessary since it may aid decision making processes and guide water management projects. The objective of this paper was to perform the water balance of a watershed situated in a karstic region quantifying infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration. The study area is located near the Tancredo Neves International Airport in Confins, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Most of the area consists of forest formations (40.9%, and pastures (34.5%. In order to estimate deep infiltration, the BALSEQ model was used. BALSEQ is a numeric model of sequential water balance in which deep infiltration at the end of the day is given by the difference between daily precipitation and the sum of surface runoff, evapotranspiration and the variation of the amount of water stored in the soil. The results show that approximately 60% of total annual precipitation result in deep infiltration, considering the recharge period from September to March. After the dry period, the areas with no vegetal cover present higher deep infiltration. However, over the months, the contribution of the vegetated areas becomes greater, showing the importance of these areas to aquifer recharge.

  16. Soil cultivation for enhanced wastewater infiltration in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadav, Itamar; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-11-01

    SummarySoil aquifer treatment is often employed as a tertiary treatment component of reclamation proceeding of wastewater for irrigation in agriculture. Reductions in infiltration rates due to increase in water repellency have been reported to be associated with organic matter (OM) accumulation in the soil (mainly in the top soil layer) as a result of treated wastewater (TWW) infiltration. Our aim was to reduce OM content in soils extensively loaded with TWW. Four model infiltration ponds were built to simulate large infiltration basins: three for TWW infiltration using different application regimes, and the fourth for freshwater (FW) infiltration (control). We examined changes in OM content, hydraulic conductivity (HC) and water repellency in these model ponds as a result of soil plowing. In field experiment, four soil-plowing events were performed. Reduced OM content and water repellency, and increased HC were found in all TWW-applied ponds following each soil plowing. These changes were attributed to OM burial in deeper soil layers elimination of the continuity of the OM based crust, and surface exposure of soil with low OM content. An overall reduction in OM content was found at the end of the experiment in all soil layers as a consequence of plowing. No changes in OM content, water repellency or HC were found in the FW-applied pond as a result of soil plowing.

  17. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  18. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  19. Clinical Presentation and Genetic Paradigm of Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traine, Peter G; Schedler, Katharina J; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood cancer. Thanks to modern technology and good medical access, mortality in Europe has decreased to about 5%. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a very rare subtype of this neoplasm and is characterized by its atypical growth pattern. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may mimic other more innocuous diseases and may therefore be misdiagnosed. The purpose of this paper was to provide a short review of the main symptoms of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma presenting to the ophthalmologist and give a comparison to typical retinoblastoma. The second purpose was to set up a discussion of the genetic paradigm of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. It has often been described to occur sporadically; however, in the last years, it has been shown that it might be heritable. A literature search concerning diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma considering English, German and Spanish cases and case series identified 77 patients. Moreover, an overview of general data, main symptoms, clinical findings and initial working diagnoses or referral diagnoses is given. Males were significantly more often affected than females. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can be heritable. Genetic analysis should be offered to the patient and relatives. Interdisciplinary medical follow-up care is needed to detect associated cancers. PMID:27239450

  20. Rainfall and net infiltration probabilities for future climate conditions at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment of repository integrity is a task rendered difficult because it requires predicting the future. This challenge has occupied many scientists who realize that the best assessments are required to maximize the probability of successful repository sitting and design. As part of a performance assessment effort directed by the EPRI, the authors have used probabilistic methods to assess the magnitude and timing of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. A mathematical model for net infiltration previously published incorporated a probabilistic treatment of climate, surface hydrologic processes and a mathematical model of the infiltration process. In this paper, we present the details of the climatological analysis. The precipitation model is event-based, simulating characteristics of modern rainfall near Yucca Mountain, then extending the model to most likely values for different degrees of pluvial climates. Next the precipitation event model is fed into a process-based infiltration model that considers spatial variability in parameters relevant to net infiltration of Yucca Mountain. The model predicts that average annual net infiltration at Yucca Mountain will range from a mean of about 1 mm under present climatic conditions to a mean of at least 2.4 mm under full glacial (pluvial) conditions. Considerable variations about these means are expected to occur from year-to-year

  1. Melt infiltration: an emerging technique for the preparation of novel functional nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Petra E; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M

    2013-12-10

    The rapidly expanding toolbox for design and preparation is a major driving force for the advances in nanomaterials science and technology. Melt infiltration originates from the field of ceramic nanomaterials and is based on the infiltration of porous matrices with the melt of an active phase or precursor. In recent years, it has become a technique for the preparation of advanced materials: nanocomposites, pore-confined nanoparticles, ordered mesoporous and nanostructured materials. Although certain restrictions apply, mostly related to the melting behavior of the infiltrate and its interaction with the matrix, this review illustrates that it is applicable to a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and metal hydrides and oxides. Melt infiltration provides an alternative to classical gas-phase and solution-based preparation methods, facilitating in several cases extended control over the nanostructure of the materials. This review starts with a concise discussion on the physical and chemical principles for melt infiltration, and the practical aspects. In the second part of this contribution, specific examples are discussed of nanostructured functional materials with applications in energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and as optical and structural materials and emerging materials with interesting new physical and chemical properties. Melt infiltration is a useful preparation route for material scientists from different fields, and we hope this review may inspire the search and discovery of novel nanostructured materials. PMID:24014262

  2. Validation of three infiltration models on purple soil under simulated rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    So as to find models suitable for the prediction of water infiltration in purple soil, infiltration rates simulated by three popular empirical infiltration models, Horton model, Kostiakov model, and the modified Kostiakov model, were compared by using those observed results on slope in purple soil under rainfall simulation. 28 sets of infiltration data were divided into two parts for parameter estimation and validation independently. The performance of the three infiltration models was evaluated with the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency criterion. The results show that the percent for Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.7 is about 69.7% for the Horton model, and 48.48%, and 54.55% for the Kostiakov model and the modified Kostiakov model, respectively. Horton model is better than Kostiakov model and the modified Kostiakov model in most rain events in the field. However, Kostiakov model is still suitable for reasonable prediction of the infiltration in purple soil sloping farmland because fewer parameters are needed. Furthermore, rainfall intensity has significant effects on the parameter values used in the simulation models. The simulation results can be improved by choosing suitable parameters according to the rainfall intensity.

  3. Testing of evaluation methods applied to raw infiltration data measured at very heterogeneous mountain forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Lukas; Pavlasek, Jirka; Pech, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain infiltration parameters and analytical expressions of the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate, raw infiltration data are often evaluated using various infiltration equations. Knowledge about the evaluation variability of these equations in the specific case of extremely heterogeneous soils provides important information for many hydrological and engineering applications. This contribution presents an evaluation of measured data using five well-established physically-based equations and empirical equations, and makes a comparison of these procedures. Evaluation procedures were applied to datasets measured on three different sites of hydrologically important mountain podzols. A total of 47 single ring infiltration experiments were evaluated using these procedures. From the quality-of-fit perspective, all of the tested equations characterized most of the raw datasets properly. In a few cases, some of the physically-based equations led to poor fits of the datasets measured on the most heterogeneous site (characterized by the lowest depth of the organic horizon, and more bleached eluvial horizon than on the other tested sites). For the parameters evaluated on this site, the sorptivity estimates and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) estimates were distinctly different between the tested procedures.

  4. Development and implementation of a Variable Infiltration Capacity model of surface hydrology into the General Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is described for the representation of land surface hydrology in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The VIC model computes runoff as a function of the distribution of soil moisture capacity within a GCM grid cell. The major distinguishing feature of the VIC model relative to the bucket model currently used to represent the land surface in many GCMs is that it parameterizes the nonlinearity of the fraction of precipitation that infiltrates over a large area (hence the production of direct runoff) as a function of spatial average soil moisture storage, and that it models subsurface runoff between storms via a simple recession mechanism. The VIC model was incorporated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) GCM at R15 resolution (roughly 4.5 degrees latitude by 7.5 degrees longitude). Ten-year simulations of global climate were produced using the GFDL GCM with both VIC land surface hydrology, and, for comparison purposes, the standard bucket representation. Comparison of the ten year runs using the VIC model with those using bucket hydrology showed that for the VIC run, global average runoff increased, soil moisture decreased, evaporation decreased, land surface temperature increased, and precipitation decreased. As expected, changes in precipitation occurred primarily over the continents, especially in the northern hemisphere. Changes in the surface water balance for Africa, Australia, and South America were much less than for North American and Eurasia. Both VIC and bucket simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation were compared with gridded monthly average observation fields. These comparisons indicated that the VIC hydrology reproduced winter temperatures better, and summer temperatures worse, than the bucket model. The VIC hydrology better represented global precipitation, primarily as a result of partially reducing the upward bias in precipitation associated with the GFDL R15 bucket runs

  5. Modelling infiltration and geostatistical analysis of spatial variability of sorptivity and transmissivity in a flood spreading area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi-Fashi, F.; Sharifi, F.; Kamali, K.

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of infiltration characteristics is useful in hydrological studies of agricultural soils. Soil hydraulic parameters such as steady infiltration rate, sorptivity, and transmissivity can exhibit appreciable spatial variability. The main objectives of this study were to examine several mathematical models of infiltration and to analyze the spatial variability of observed final infiltration rate, estimated sorptivity and estimated transmissivity in flood spreading and control areas in Ilam province, Iran. The suitability of geostatistics to describe such spatial variability was assessed using data from 30 infiltration measurements sampled along three lines. The Horton model provided the most accurate simulation of infiltration considering all measurements and the Philips two-term model provided less accurate simulation. A comparison of the measured values and the estimated final infiltration rates showed that the Kostiakov- Lewis, Kostiakov, and SCS models could not estimate the final infiltration rate as well as Horton model. Estimated sorptivity and transmissivity parameters of the Philips two-term model and final infiltration rate had spatial structure, and were considered to be structural variables over the transect pattern. The Gaussian model provided the best-fit theoretical variogram for these three parameters. Variogram values ranged from 99 and 88 m for sorptivity and final infiltration rate to 686 (spherical) and 384 m (Gaussian) for transmissivity. Sorptivity, transmissivity and final infiltration attributes showed a high degree of spatial dependence, being 0.99, 0.81 and 1, respectively. Results showed that kriging could be used to predict the studied parameters in the study area. (Author)

  6. Thermal aging stability of infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell electrode microstructures: A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Ni, Meng; Yan, Mufu; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured electrodes are widely used for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells, due to their remarkably high activity. However, the industrial applications of the infiltrated electrodes are hindered by the durability issues, such as the microstructure stability against thermal aging. Few strategies are available to overcome this challenge due to the limited knowledge about the coarsening kinetics of the infiltrated electrodes and how the potentially important factors affect the stability. In this work, the generic thermal aging kinetics of the three-dimensional microstructures of the infiltrate electrodes is investigated by a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation model considering surface diffusion mechanism. Effects of temperature, infiltration loading, wettability, and electrode configuration are studied and the key geometric parameters are calculated such as the infiltrate particle size, the total and percolated quantities of three-phase boundary length and infiltrate surface area, and the tortuosity factor of infiltrate network. Through parametric study, several strategies to improve the thermal aging stability are proposed.

  7. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  8. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  9. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  11. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Impacts of fractal features of soil on moisture infiltration capacity of typical stands in Jinyun mountain of Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi

    2007-01-01

    The soil structure was expressed with fractal dimensions of particle size distribution (PSD),aggregate size distribution (ASD),and soil pore size distribution (SPD).The effect of soil fractal features on soil infiltration velocity and process was studied.The result of the fractal feature shows that fractal dimensions of PSD are obviously greater than those of ASD and SPD,and in different soil genetic horizons,the fractal dimension of ASD has the greatest variability,and shows a downtrend on the top-to-bottom genetic horizon.According to the soil infiltration process curve,the infiltration process was divided into three phases:(1) the initial phase (0-5 rain),(2) the transition phase (5-30 min),and (3)the stable phase (30-180 min).In the initial phase of infiltration,the soil structure of soil genetic horizon A was the major influencing factor;in the transition phase of infiltration,the pore distribution of soil horizon AB and soil structure of horizon B were the major influencing factors;in the stable phase of infiltration,the soil structure of horizon C was the major influencing factor to the infiltration velocity.Soil infiltration process is influenced comprehensively by soil PSD,ASD,and SPD.In the overall soil water infiltration,the infiltration in shrub forest land was much faster than that in other land uses,and in the initial infiltration phase,arable land soil infiltration was much faster than that in forest land,and in the stable infiltration phase,the infiltration velocity in forest land was faster than that in arable land.

  13. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process of the hydrological cycle. Infiltration also controls the soil water resources, and the development of the vegetation, and moreover, in the Mediterranean, determines the runoff generation (Cerdà, 1996; 1997; 2001). In the Mediterranean, the infiltration in forest soils shows high spatial variability and seasonal and temporal changes (Cerdà, 1999; Bodí and Cerdà, 2009) and is being affected by forest fires (Cerdà, 1998), which introduce a new temporal change in the seasonality of the infiltration rates. Although the forest soils are well assessed, there is no information about the infiltration in urban areas in Mediterranean cities. The Mediterranean dense urban systems use to be treated as impermeable areas. However, the cities show areas covered by vegetation and with soils that allow the rainfall to infiltrate. Those areas are mainly the parks. In order to shed some light on the infiltration capacity of the soils of the urban area of Valencia city 30 rainfall simulations experiments (Cerdà, 1996) and 90 ring infiltrometer (10 cm diameter) measurements were carried out in January 2011, and they were repeated in July 2011, to compare wet (19.4 % of soil moisture) and dry (5.98 % of soil moisture) soils. The infiltration curves where fitted to the Horton (1933) equation and they lasted for 1 hour. The results show that the infiltration is 11 times higher when measured with ring infiltrometer than with the simulated rainfall at 55 mmh-1, and that the infiltration rates where higher in summer than in winter: 2.01 higher for the ring infiltrometer, and 1.45 higher when measured with the rainfall simulator. In comparison to the soils from the forest areas, the infiltration rate in the gardens were lower, with values of 10.23 and 21.65 mm h-1 in average for winter and summer when measured with the rainfall simulator. Similar results were found with the ring infiltrometer. It was also found a clear relationship between the vegetation

  14. Water and entrapped air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample: Quantitative neutron imaging of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sobotkova, Martina; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Saturated flow in soil with the occurrence of preferential flow often exhibits temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity even during the time scale of a single infiltration event. These effects, observed in a number of experiments done mainly on heterogeneous soils, are often attributed to the changing distribution of water and air in the sample. We have measured the variation of the flow rates during the steady state stage of the constant head ponded infiltration experiment conducted on a packed sample composed of three different grades of sand. The experiment was monitored by quantitative neutron imaging, which provided information about the spatial distribution of water in the sample. Measurements were taken during (i) the initial stages of infiltration by neutron radiography and (ii) during the steady state flow by neutron tomography. A gradual decrease of the hydraulic conductivity has been observed during the first 4 h of the infiltration event. A series of neutron tomography images taken during the quasi-steady state stage showed the trapping of air bubbles in coarser sand. Furthermore, the water content in the coarse sand decreased even more while the water content in the embedded fine sand blocks gradually increased. The experimental results support the hypothesis that the effect of the gradual hydraulic conductivity decrease is caused by entrapped air redistribution and the build up of bubbles in preferential pathways. The trapped air thus restricts the preferential flow pathways and causes lower hydraulic conductivity.

  15. The analysis and improvement of the humidity problem on air-condition system of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, efforts were made to solve the problem of high relative humidity in some areas of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Based on data analysis, theoretical demonstration and field tests, we found that the problem of high humidity was caused by two factors. The high humidity problem was solved by appropriate measures of keeping the actual operation load match to the design load of the air-conditioning systems and minimizing the outdoor air infiltration. (authors)

  16. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík Jan; Dlouhý Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures ...

  17. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. → The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. → The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  18. Bone marrow infiltration by multiple myeloma causes anemia by reversible disruption of erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchnita, Anass; Eymard, Nathalie; Moyo, Tamara K; Koury, Mark J; Volpert, Vitaly

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) infiltrates bone marrow and causes anemia by disrupting erythropoiesis, but the effects of marrow infiltration on anemia are difficult to quantify. Marrow biopsies of newly diagnosed MM patients were analyzed before and after four 28-day cycles of nonerythrotoxic remission induction chemotherapy. Complete blood cell counts and serum paraprotein concentrations were measured at diagnosis and before each chemotherapy cycle. At diagnosis, marrow area infiltrated by myeloma correlated negatively with hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and marrow erythroid cells. After successful chemotherapy, patients with less than 30% myeloma infiltration at diagnosis had no change in these parameters, whereas patients with more than 30% myeloma infiltration at diagnosis increased all three parameters. Clinical data were used to develop mathematical models of the effects of myeloma infiltration on the marrow niches of terminal erythropoiesis, the erythroblastic islands (EBIs). A hybrid discrete-continuous model of erythropoiesis based on EBI structure/function was extended to sections of marrow containing multiple EBIs. In the model, myeloma cells can kill erythroid cells by physically destroying EBIs and by producing proapoptotic cytokines. Following chemotherapy, changes in serum paraproteins as measures of myeloma cells and changes in erythrocyte numbers as measures of marrow erythroid cells allowed modeling of myeloma cell death and erythroid cell recovery, respectively. Simulations of marrow infiltration by myeloma and treatment with nonerythrotoxic chemotherapy demonstrate that myeloma-mediated destruction and subsequent reestablishment of EBIs and expansion of erythroid cell populations in EBIs following chemotherapy provide explanations for anemia development and its therapy-mediated recovery in MM patients. Am. J. Hematol. 91:371-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749142

  19. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  20. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  1. SiC/SiC composites by preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanxide Corporation has been developing fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites using the technique of preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis, commonly referred to as the PIP-process. In this method, liquid CERASETTM preceramic polymer is being infiltrated into lay-ups of ceramic fibers, thermoset, and pyrolized at elevated temperatures for conversion into a SiC matrix. Several cycles of reinfiltration and pyrolysis must be performed to build up the SiC matrix because of the increase in density during pyrolysis from 1.0 g/cm3 for the liquid polymer to between 2.2 and 3.2 g/cm3 for the ceramic matrix. Composites have been fabricated using three different approaches: first, polymer infiltration of free-standing fiber preforms in which the fiber plies are being held together with a C/SiC duplex coating applied by chemical vapor infiltration; second, infiltration of individually coated fiber plies contained in a mold using the resin transfer molding method; and third, infiltration of vacuum-bagged, individually coated fiber plies using the vacuum assisted resin infiltration technique. Very good mechanical properties of NicalonTM/SiC and Hi-NicalonTM/SiC composites have been obtained, with four-point flexural strengths exceeding 400 MPa and toughnesses in the 20 to 30 MPa·m1/2 range. The thermal conductivity of the fabricated composites is low (below 5 W/m·K) and must be improved substantially to meet the requirements for fusion structural applications. The fabricated components are relatively dense and impermeable to nitrogen, however, are readily permeated by helium. Chemical analysis has indicated the presence of a small amount of nitrogen (ca. 1 wt%) in the SiC material after pyrolysis of the CERASET preceramic polymer at 1600degC. (author)

  2. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds infiltrated with thermally crosslinked polycaprolactone fumarate and polycaprolactone itaconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Shafieyan, Yousef; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Imani, Mohammad; Atai, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Hatampoor, Ali

    2011-08-01

    In this work, two unsaturated derivatives of polycaprolactone (PCL), polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF), and polycaprolactone itaconate (PCLI), have been synthesized and used as an infiltrating polymer to improve the mechanical properties of brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. PCLF and PCLI were first synthesized through polyesterification of the low molecular weight PCL diols with fumaryl chloride and itaconyl chloride respectively, and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. HA scaffolds were sintered using a foam replication technique, with porosity of about 60%. Polymer-HA composites were obtained by infiltrating the HA scaffolds with PCLF and PCLI solution (12.5 and 30 w/v in dichloromethane) followed by thermal crosslinking. The polymer infiltrated HA scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry, and gravimetrical analysis. The polyesterification reaction of PCL diols with fumarate chloride was more efficient than itaconyl chloride and dependent upon the molecular weight of the initial PCL precursor; the resultant PCLF demonstrated a degree of substitution of 1.2, 4.2, and 2.7 times higher than PCLIs. Polymer infiltration improved the compressive strength of the HA scaffolds, and based upon the type of macromer (PCLF or PCLI) and also their concentration in infiltrating solution (12.5 or 30 w/v %) compressive strength increased about 14-328%. In all studied samples, the reinforcement effect of PCLF infiltration was higher than PCLI. The macromers and their corresponding infiltrated HA scaffolds did not show any significant cytotoxicity toward human primary osteogenic sarcoma cell (G92 cell lines), in vitro. PMID:21626657

  3. Land cover effects on infiltration and preferential flow pathways in the high rainfall zone of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwartendijk, Bob; van Meerveld, Ilja; Ravelona, Maafaka; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitohaina; Ghimire, Chandra; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno; Jones, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Shortened slash-and-burn cycles exhaust agricultural land and have resulted in extensive tracts of highly degraded land across the tropics. Land degradation typically results in decreased rainfall infiltration due to a reduced field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil because of a progressive decline in soil organic matter, exposure to raindrop impact, surface sealing and compaction. This results, in turn, in enhanced surface runoff and erosion, and consequently less subsurface flow and groundwater recharge. On the other hand, natural vegetation regrowth or active reforestation can lead to a renewed accumulation of soil organic matter, macropore development and increased infiltration rates. As part of the P4GES project (Can Paying 4 Global Ecosystem Services values reduce poverty?; www.p4ges.org), we study the effects of land use change and reforestation on water resources in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ) in eastern Madagascar. In this poster, we present the results of infiltration and preferential flow measurements in four different land uses in the southern part of the CAZ: (i) closed canopy forest, (ii) 3-14 year-old regrowth on fallow land (savokas), (iii) exhausted and severely degraded land (tany maty), and (iv) recently reforested sites (6-8 years old). The results show that infiltrability increases significantly after several years of forest regrowth after land abandonment, but it remains unclear whether active replanting decreases the time required for restoration of soil hydrological functioning. Preferential flow pathways differed strikingly between the respective land cover types: infiltration in mature forests was predominantly characterized by macropore flow (preferential flow pathways), whereas infiltration in exhausted agricultural land was dominated by matrix flow (few preferential flow pathways). Occurrence of preferential flow pathways in reforestation and fallow sites varied considerably. These results suggest that land

  4. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is 'to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site' (p. 1-1). The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (1) the net infiltration estimates, (2) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (3) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they oversimplify a complex

  5. Importance of moisture determination in studies of infiltration and surface runoff for long periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fulginiti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the natural soil moisture is essential to solve problems related to irrigation water requirements, environmental considerations, and determination of surplus water. For the determination of runoff one can adopt models that consider exclusively the infiltration as a loss or one could use computational models of infiltration to model the infiltrated water. Models based on the infiltration calculation consider well the interaction between infiltration - runoff processes and provide additional information on the phenomenon of infiltration which establishes the existing conditions of moisture in the soil before the occurrence of a new event (simulation for long periods. These models require solving Richards’s equation and for this purpose it is necessary to determine the relation between the soil moisture - suction and hydraulic conductivity - suction which require the determination of the hydraulic properties that can be obtained by measuring the water content by moisture profiles. The aim of this study was the verification of these moisture curves in loessic soils in the south of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. To do this, measurements were done and compared with results of infiltration models based on the determined hydraulic functions. The measurements were done using three probes installed at different depths. The results showed that the values obtained with NETRAIN adequately represent the behavior of wetting and drying conditions of the studied soil.The determination of these curves provided a basis for future studies that include the advancement of agricultural chemicals in the soil and its potential capacity to pollute groundwater, fundamental issue to define environmental management policies.

  6. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, ic = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, ic = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, ic 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where ic is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm3/cm3). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Influence of Lithology and Slope Gradient to Infiltration of the Mount Malabar, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, A.; Irawan, D. E.; Susanto, A.; Ardi, R. D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Volcano is an area which serves as a catchment area for the lowlands. Ability of rock or weathered-soil to absorb the rain water depends on several things, such as lithology and large of slope. Different lithology has different characteristics, including in terms of porosity which is directly related to the ability of rock to store water. Characteristics of lithology in volcanic area can change rapidly, both vertically and laterally. Large of slope in volcanic area that change significantly also can affect the infiltration rate (the seepage of rain) in rock or weathered-soil. Therefore, the influence of lithology and large of slope to the infiltration rate should be proven to predict the infiltration zone in volcanic area. Observations has been conducted on the eastern slopes of Mount Malabar with an area 78 km2, at coordinates 7003'28.04" LS - 7010'32.05" LS and 107038'37.64" BT - 107041'50.6" BT. The infiltration rate observed on the weathered-soil using simple single infiltrometer made of PVC pipe 50 cm long, on March-April 2015. The measurement is carried out at several points where the weathered-rock result has been known, as much two times for different slope in each point. 26 measurement points have been obtained from different slopes and weathered-soil of different five-lithology. The results showed that the infiltration rate proportional to the percentage of rock porosity and large of slope. Infiltration rate sequence from the smallest to the greatest are weathered-soil andesites, basaltic andesite, laharic breccias, alteration of dacite, and pyroclastic breccias. The greatest infiltration rate obtained is 10.11 cm/minute in pyroclastic breccia with 25o slope, while the smallest is 0.0437 cm/minute in pyroclastic breccias with 4o slope.

  8. High myeloperoxidase positive cell infiltration in colorectal cancer is an independent favorable prognostic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul A Droeser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC infiltration by adaptive immune system cells correlates with favorable prognosis. The role of the innate immune system is still debated. Here we addressed the prognostic impact of CRC infiltration by neutrophil granulocytes (NG. METHODS: A TMA including healthy mucosa and clinically annotated CRC specimens (n = 1491 was stained with MPO and CD15 specific antibodies. MPO+ and CD15+ positive immune cells were counted by three independent observers. Phenotypic profiles of CRC infiltrating MPO+ and CD15+ cells were validated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions derived from enzymatically digested surgical specimens. Survival analysis was performed by splitting randomized data in training and validation subsets. RESULTS: MPO+ and CD15+ cell infiltration were significantly correlated (p<0.0001; r = 0.76. However, only high density of MPO+ cell infiltration was associated with significantly improved survival in training (P = 0.038 and validation (P = 0.002 sets. In multivariate analysis including T and N stage, vascular invasion, tumor border configuration and microsatellite instability status, MPO+ cell infiltration proved an independent prognostic marker overall (P = 0.004; HR = 0.65; CI:±0.15 and in both training (P = 0.048 and validation (P = 0.036 sets. Flow-cytometry analysis of CRC cell suspensions derived from clinical specimens showed that while MPO+ cells were largely CD15+/CD66b+, sizeable percentages of CD15+ and CD66b+ cells were MPO-. CONCLUSIONS: High density MPO+ cell infiltration is a novel independent favorable prognostic factor in CRC.

  9. Uncertainty and variability of infiltration at Yucca Mountain: Part 1. Numerical model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission investigated climate and infiltration at Yucca Mountain to (i) understand important controls and uncertainties influencing percolation through the unsaturated zone on multimillennial time scales and (ii) provide flux boundary conditions for up to 1 million years in performance assessment models of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. This first part of a two-part series describes a procedure for abstracting the results from detailed numerical simulations of local-scale infiltration into a site-scale model considering uncertainty and variability in distributed net infiltration. Part 2 describes site-scale model results and corroboration. A detailed one-dimensional numerical model was used to estimate bare-soil net infiltration at the scales of hours and meters for 442 soil, bedrock, and climate combinations. The set of results are abstracted into three parametric response functions for decadal-average bare-soil infiltration given hydraulic and climatic parameters. The three abstractions describe deep soil, shallow soil over a coarser layer, and shallow soil over a finer layer. The site-scale model considers spatial variability and uncertainty of the input parameters on a 30 m grid, using the abstractions independently in each cell. Two additional abstractions account for overland flow and vegetation. The model uses Monte Carlo simulation, with all input parameters uncertain and spatially variable, to calculate the mean and standard deviation of net infiltration in each grid cell for selected climate states. Using abstractions rather than detailed simulations speeds calculation of infiltration realizations by many orders of magnitude relative to a detailed simulation.

  10. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process of the hydrological cycle. Infiltration also controls the soil water resources, and the development of the vegetation, and moreover, in the Mediterranean, determines the runoff generation (Cerdà, 1996; 1997; 2001). In the Mediterranean, the infiltration in forest soils shows high spatial variability and seasonal and temporal changes (Cerdà, 1999; Bodí and Cerdà, 2009) and is being affected by forest fires (Cerdà, 1998), which introduce a new temporal change in the seasonality of the infiltration rates. Although the forest soils are well assessed, there is no information about the infiltration in urban areas in Mediterranean cities. The Mediterranean dense urban systems use to be treated as impermeable areas. However, the cities show areas covered by vegetation and with soils that allow the rainfall to infiltrate. Those areas are mainly the parks. In order to shed some light on the infiltration capacity of the soils of the urban area of Valencia city 30 rainfall simulations experiments (Cerdà, 1996) and 90 ring infiltrometer (10 cm diameter) measurements were carried out in January 2011, and they were repeated in July 2011, to compare wet (19.4 % of soil moisture) and dry (5.98 % of soil moisture) soils. The infiltration curves where fitted to the Horton (1933) equation and they lasted for 1 hour. The results show that the infiltration is 11 times higher when measured with ring infiltrometer than with the simulated rainfall at 55 mmh-1, and that the infiltration rates where higher in summer than in winter: 2.01 higher for the ring infiltrometer, and 1.45 higher when measured with the rainfall simulator. In comparison to the soils from the forest areas, the infiltration rate in the gardens were lower, with values of 10.23 and 21.65 mm h-1 in average for winter and summer when measured with the rainfall simulator. Similar results were found with the ring infiltrometer. It was also found a clear relationship between the vegetation

  11. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  12. A simulation of rainfall infiltration based on two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xi, Niannian; Liu, Gang; Hao, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration in slope usually is one of major reasons cause landslide, which involves multiphase flow coupling with soil, water and gas. In order to study the mechanism of landslide caused by rainfall infiltration, a simulation of rainfall infiltration of DaPing slope, which locates in the Three Gorges Region of China, is presented based on the numerical solution of governing equations of two-phase flow in this paper. The results of this research suggest that there are two sections can be divided in the surface of slope, one is inflow area and the other is overflow area, according to where it is infiltration and discharge. The general inflow area is on the upside of slope, while the overflow area is on the underside. The middle section of slope is on a fluctuant position between inflow and overflow area, which is dramatically affected by the water content inside of slope. Moreover, the average rate of infiltration is more stable in both inflow and overflow area, whose numerical value is depend on the geometry and transmission characteristics of slope. And the factors of rainfall characteristics, surface flow and temperature have little effect on them. Furthermore, in the inflow area, when rainfall intensity is higher than infiltration the rain on the surface of slope will run off, otherwise water and gas will completely infiltrate through soil. The situation is different in the overflow area whose overland flow condition is depended on whether it is saturated or not inside of slope. When it is saturated in the slope, there is no infiltration in the overflow area. But when it is unsaturated, the infiltration intensity will equal to rainfall intensity. In a summary, the difference from inflow and overflow area is the evidence that the landslide may likely to happen on the slope of overflow area when it comes to a rainfall. It is disadvantageous for slope stability when transmitting the pressure of saturated water weight at the top of slope through the pore

  13. Infiltration and quality of water for two arroyo channels, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1988-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole L.

    1995-01-01

    Selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were studied to collect information about the amount and quality of infiltration through arroyo channels. Infiltration rate was calculated for selected reaches of Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo based on instantaneous streamflow-loss volumes, wetted channel area, and instantaneous evaporation rates measured during 1988-92. Infiltration rates at Grant Line Arroyo ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 foot per day, and at Tijeras Arroyo from 2.28 to 30 feet per day. The evaporation rate ranged from one-tenth of 1 percent to 2 percent of the infiltration rate. Infiltration rates differed with the location of the reach isolated for measurement and with the time of day of the infiltration-rate measurement. Differences in intrinsic permeability of the sediments may be the most important factor affecting spatial variations in infiltration. The most important factor affecting temporal variations in infiltration may be the temperature of the water and sediment where infiltration occurs. Annual evaporation rates were greatest over saturated stream sediments and ranged from 802 to 1,025 millimeters per year or from 31.57 to 40.35 inches per year. Annual evaporation rates were least over unsaturated, unvegetated soil and ranged from 174 to 291 millimeters per year or from 6.85 to 11.46 inches per year. Annual evapotranspiration rates over grasses or shrubs or both were about one-half the rates over saturated stream sediments. Rates were similar for Grant Line and Tijeras Arroyos. The land- surface vegetation, availability of water at the land surface, availability of energy to enable a change of state from water to vapor, existence of a vapor concentration gradient, and a turbulent atmosphere to carry the vapor away may be the factors that determine the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Water in Grant Line Arroyo and Tijeras Arroyo met U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking

  14. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  15. Characterization of human γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating primary malignant melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cordova

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are often induced naturally in melanoma patients and infiltrate tumors. Given that γδ T cells mediate antigen-specific killing of tumor cells, we studied the representation and the in vitro cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of tumor infiltrating γδ T cells from 74 patients with primary melanoma. We found that γδ T cells represent the major lymphocyte population infiltrating melanoma, and both Vδ1(+ and Vδ2(+ cells are involved. The majority of melanoma-infiltrating γδ cells showed effector memory and terminally-differentiated phenotypes and, accordingly, polyclonal γδ T cell lines obtained from tumor-infiltrating immune cells produced IFN-γ and TNF-α and were capable of killing melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 cell lines was further improved by pre-treatment of tumor target cells with zoledronate. Moreover, higher rate of γδ T cells isolation and percentages of Vδ2 cells correlate with early stage of development of melanoma and absence of metastasis. Altogether, our results suggest that a natural immune response mediated by γδ T lymphocytes may contribute to the immunosurveillance of melanoma.

  16. High coercivity in rare-earth lean nanocomposite magnets by grain boundary infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugundo, Rajasekhar; Salazar-Jaramillo, Daniel; Manuel Barandiaran, Jose; Hadjipanayis, George C.

    2016-02-01

    A significant enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification through low temperature infiltration of Pr75(Cu0.25Co0.75)25 eutectic alloy in rare-earth lean (Pr/Nd)-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. The infiltration procedure was carried out on ribbons and hot-deformed magnets at 600-650 °C for different time durations. In Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe ribbons, the coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe on infiltration for 4 h. The Pr2Fe14B/α-Fe hot-deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe on infiltration for 6 h. The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of both the hard Nd2Fe14B and soft α-Fe phases. A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration.

  17. Adipose tissue infiltration in normal-weight subjects and its impact on metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Omiste, Antonio; Castellano-Castillo, Daniel; Lhamyani, Said; Camargo, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Discordant phenotypes, metabolically healthy obese and unhealthy normal-weight individuals, are always interesting to provide important insights into the mechanistic link between adipose tissue dysfunction and associated metabolic alterations. Macrophages can release factors that impair the proper activity of the adipose tissue. Thus, studying subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, we investigated for the first time the differences in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, inflammation, and adipogenesis of normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. The study included 92 normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. RNA from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues was isolated, and mRNA expression of monocyte/macrophage infiltration (CD68, CD33, ITGAM, CD163, EMR-1, CD206, MerTK, CD64, ITGAX), inflammation (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], IL-10, IL-1b, CCL2, CCL3), and adipogenic and lipogenic capacity markers (PPARgamma, FABP4) were measured. Taken together, our data provide evidence of a different degree of macrophage infiltration between the adipose tissues, with a higher monocyte/macrophage infiltration in subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight subjects, whereas visceral adipose tissue remained almost unaffected. An increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and its consequences, such as a decrease in adipogenesis function, may explain why both the obese and normal-weight subjects can develop metabolic diseases or remain healthy. PMID:26829067

  18. Determination of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C. [Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Permoserstr, Leipzig (Germany). Centre for Environmental Research; Dehnert, J.; Nestler, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresrden, Dresden (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the {sup 222}Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and {alpha}/{beta} separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is <{+-}10%. Infiltration processes are studied with {sup 222}Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs {sup 222}Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique`s possibilities and limitations are discussed 12 refs., 3 figs.

  19. ECM hydrogel for the treatment of stroke: Characterization of the host cell infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Harmanvir; Massensini, Andre R; Donnelly, Julia; Kim, Sung-Min; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F; Modo, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Brain tissue loss following stroke is irreversible with current treatment modalities. The use of an acellular extracellular matrix (ECM), formulated to produce a hydrogel in situ within the cavity formed by a stroke, was investigated as a method to replace necrotic debris and promote the infiltration of host brain cells. Based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of lesion location and volume, different concentrations of ECM (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 mg/mL) were injected at a volume equal to that of the cavity (14 days post-stroke). Retention of ECM within the cavity occurred at concentrations >3 mg/mL. A significant cell infiltration into the ECM material in the lesion cavity occurred with an average of ∼36,000 cells in the 8 mg/mL concentration within 24 h. An infiltration of cells with distances of >1500 μm into the ECM hydrogel was observed, but the majority of cells were at the tissue/hydrogel boundary. Cells were typically of a microglia, macrophage, or neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor phenotype. At the 8 mg/mL concentration, ∼60% of infiltrating cells were brain-derived phenotypes and 30% being infiltrating peripheral macrophages, polarizing toward an M2-like anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that an 8 mg/mL ECM concentration promotes a significant acute endogenous repair response that could potentially be exploited to treat stroke. PMID:27031811

  20. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependent evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters

  1. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application

  2. Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (soils and with the geomorphological units named poorly drained plain, channelized drainage plain and, dunes and beaches. PMID:27042973

  3. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.;

    1997-01-01

    A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soil...... systems may act as effective pollution traps and on the other, they may pose a potential solid waste disposal problem that future stormwater management based on local infiltration will have to face. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.......A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... groundwater contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration...

  4. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

  5. Comparison of tritium concentrations in rainwater, simulated infiltrating water, and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium concentration in initial groundwater(i.e., freshly infiltrating rainwater) is necessary for groundwater dating. We collected simulated infiltrating water as the initial groundwater and examined its characteristics for tritium concentration. First, in Tokyo, the tritium concentration of simulated infiltrating water was compared with that of rainwater, atmospheric moisture, groundwater, spring water, and sap water. While rainwater, atmospheric moisture, and simulated infiltrating water remarkably changed month-to-month or with every rainfall event, groundwater and spring water were nearly constant throughout the year. Second, we collected the simulated infiltrating water monthly at four sampling sites widely dispersed across Japan(i.e., Sapporo, Niigata, Tokyo, and Matsuyama) from 2004 to 2010. Sapporo and Niigata showed high tritium concentrations as compared with the relatively low concentrations in Tokyo and Matsuyama. These results indicate that we can obtain annual maximum and minimum concentrations at each site, and that we can estimate the tritium concentration in initial groundwater at each site by using a mixing model composed of these maximum and minimum concentrations. (author)

  6. Reactive Melt Infiltration of Silicon-Niobium Alloys in Microporous Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-niobium alloys in microporous carbon preforms prepared by the pyrolysis of a polymer precursor have been carried out using modeling, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration. Mercury porosimetry results indicate a very narrow pore size distribution with virtually all the porosity within the carbon preforms open to infiltrants. The morphology and amount of the residual phases (niobium disilicide and silicon) in the infiltrated material can be tailored according to requirements by careful control of the properties (pore size and pore volume) of the porous carbon preforms and alloy composition. The average room temperature four-point flexural strength of a reaction-formed silicon carbide material (made by the infiltration of medium pore size carbon preform with Si - 5 at. % Nb alloy) is 290 +/- 40 MPa (42 +/- 6 ksi) and the fracture toughness is 3.7 +/- 0.3 MPa square root of m. The flexural strength decreases at high temperatures due to relaxation of residual thermal stresses and the presence of free silicon in the material.

  7. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependant evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1 992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters

  8. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  10. Surficial Stability Analysis of Unsaturated Loess Slopes Subjected to Rainfall Infiltration Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinpo; WANG Chenghua; XU Jun

    2006-01-01

    According to theory of unsaturated soil strength and Green-Ampt model, an analysis method based on limit equilibrium theory is introduced to consider rainfall infiltration effects in loess slope stability analysis. The relationships between wetting band depth and surficial stability of slopes are analyzed. It is found that the infiltration adds to the weight of the soil and at the same time reduces the shear strength provided by matric suction of the soil. The wetting band depth plays a key role in the stability of slopes. The minimum rainfall intensity and the minimum rainfall duration needed to infiltrate to the wetting front depth are calculated based on the Green-Ampt model. The method in this paper will contribute to the predication of slope stability considering rainfall characteristics.

  11. Nickel sulfide nanotubes formed by a directional infiltration self-assembly route in AAO templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel sulfide nanotube was successfully synthesized by a directional infiltration self-assembly route in AAO templates. The self-assembly process mainly involves infiltration, decomposition and crystal growth in nanochannels, in which dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) first acts as both sulfur source and unique infiltrator. For increasing S atom content in nickel sulfides thiourea was also used as additional sulfur source. Scanning electron microscope images (SEM) revealed that the nanotubes have uniform length distributions, several tens micrometers lengths and ultrathin tube-walls of 20 nm thickness. The nanotubes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, showing hexagonal Ni3S2, α-NiS and cubic NiS2, respectively. The magnetic hysteresis scan of NiS2 NTs showed weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. Its growth mechanism was discussed and proposed as well

  12. Preparation of AlN/Cu composites through a reactive infiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ching Hsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The wetting of copper (Cu melt on aluminum nitride (AlN is very poor. In the present study, a reactive infiltration process is developed to prepare AlN/Cu composites. With the help of a sulfur-containing atmosphere, the Cu–S and Cu–O compounds are formed at elevated temperatures. Due to the presence of these reaction phases, the infiltration of copper melt into a powder compact of aluminum nitride and yttrium oxide becomes possible. After infiltration, the sulfur within the powder compact is absorbed by the yttrium oxide. Dense AlN/Cu composite with a thermal conductivity of 100 W/m K can be prepared at a temperature as low as 1400 °C.

  13. Bupivacaine in microcapsules prolongs analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration in humans: a dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Juri L; Lillesø, Jesper; Hammer, Niels A;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the onset and duration of local analgesic effects of bupivacaine incorporated into biodegradable microcapsules (extended-duration local anesthetic; EDLA) administered as subcutaneous infiltrations in different doses in humans. In 18 volunteers, the skin on the medial calf...... was infiltrated with 10 mL of EDLA, and the opposite calf was infiltrated with 10 mL of aqueous bupivacaine (5.0 mg/mL) in a double-blinded, randomized manner. Three different concentrations of EDLA were tested (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/mL), with 6 subjects in each group. Pain responses to mechanical and...... heat stimuli and sensory thresholds (touch, warm, and cold detection thresholds) were examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes. Assessments were made before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h after the injections. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 wk, 6...

  14. Improving the Hydraulic Performance of Stormwater Infiltration Systems in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, Britta

    Many cities of the Northern Hemisphere are covered by low permeable clay tills, which pose a challenge for stormwater infiltration practices. However, clay tills are amongst the most heterogeneous types of sediments and hydraulic conductivities can vary by several orders of magnitude. This Ph......D study was initiated with the objective to test and evaluate if the hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems can be significantly improved if the site-specific geological heterogeneity is incorporated into the design and siting of such systems. The assessment is based on different field...... investigations on two typical Danish clay till sites, and one modeling study with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is the most critical soil physical parameter when it comes to sizing stormwater infiltration systems. In the first study...

  15. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE FLOW IN FRACTURED ROCK MASS DUE TO SURFACE INFILTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Seepage flow in fractured rock mass due to surface infiltration is a saturated-unsaturated seepage process. Aimed at rock mass with large fracture density, which can be equivalent to continuum, a mathematical model for saturated-unsaturated seepage flow in fractured rock mass due to surface infiltration was established in this paper. The Galerkin finite element method was used in numerical simulation and a finite element program used to calculate saturated-unsaturated seepage flow due to surface infiltration was worked out. A model experiment was employed examine the reasonableness of the program. The results show that the proposed model and program are reasonable. The application of the analysis method in this paper in an engineering project shows that the method is reliable and feasible.

  16. SPLIT SKIN GRAFT HARVESTING UNDER LOCAL ANESTHESIA INFILTRATION VERSUS TOPICAL LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream versus local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline in harvesting split skin graft. METHODS: A prospective study of 58 patients requiring split skin graft was carried. One group comprising 29 patients underwent harvesting of split skin graft under topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream while the other group had local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of operating time, per operative pain, post-operative pain and post-operative requirement of analgesia. There was significant difference in time and pain during administration of local anesthesia and patient’s acceptability/ satisfaction with method of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream can be used effectively for harvesting of split skin graft and is good alternative to local anesthesia infiltration.

  17. Permeability parameter as a function of population density in classical infiltration equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nor Hafizah; Ahmad, Rohanin; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of urban areas has caused many problems especially related to water issues. The increase in urban development also means the increase in impervious surfaces due to expansion of buildings, roads, parking lots to name a few. Impervious surfaces have low water permeability compared to pervious surfaces. Also, infiltration capacity is dependent on the permeability of the area and subsequently permeability is dependent on the surface conditions. In this paper, we study the infiltration capacity with the assumption that permeability parameter can be described in the term of the population density of the area. The modified model is based on the original form of Green-Ampt equation. The new model with population density is able to describe permeability, hence the infiltration capacity of an area.

  18. On the sensitivity of directions which support Voigt wave propagation in infiltrated biaxial dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2013-01-01

    Voigt wave propagation (VWP) was considered in a porous biaxial dielectric material which was infiltrated with a material of refractive index $n_a$. The infiltrated material was regarded as a homogenized composite material in the long-wavelength regime and its constitutive parameters were estimated using the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism. In our numerical studies, the directions which support VWP were found to vary by as much as $300^\\circ$ per RIU as the refractive index $n_a$ was varied. The sensitivities achieved were acutely dependent upon the refractive index $n_a$ and the degrees of anisotropy and dissipation of the porous biaxial material. The orientations, shapes and sizes of the particles which constitute the infiltrating material and the porous biaxial material exerted only a secondary influence on the maximum sensitivities achieved. Also, for the parameter ranges considered, the degree of porosity of the biaxial material had little effect on the maximum sensitivities achieved. These n...

  19. Local infiltration analgesia in joint replacement: the evidence and recommendations for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Andersen, L Ø

    2011-01-01

    Relief of acute pain after hip and knee replacement represents a major therapeutic challenge as post-operative pain hinders early mobilisation and rehabilitation with subsequent consequences on mobility, duration of hospitalisation and overall recovery. In recent years, there has been increased...... interest in high-volume local wound infiltration/infusion techniques in these operations with a combined administration of local anaesthetics, NSAIDs and epinephrine. This review provides an update of the current knowledge of the efficacy of the high-volume wound infiltration technique based on randomised...... either intraoperatively or with a post-operative wound infusion catheter technique, provided that multimodal, oral non-opioid analgesia is given. In knee replacement, the data support the intraoperative use of the local infiltration technique but not the post-operative use of wound catheter...

  20. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M; Hughes, Andrew D; Rojas-Canales, Darling M; Nakao, A; Shufesky, William J; Williams, Amanda L; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Shlomchik, Warren D; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H; Lakkis, Fadi G; Morelli, Adrian E

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. PMID:27554168