WorldWideScience

Sample records for air film calculo

  1. Calculation of the temperature distribution and thermal stresses in a gas turbine nozzle cooled by air film; Calculo de la distribucion de temperaturas y esfuerzos termicos en una tobera de turbina de gas enfriada por pelicula de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, Alejandro; Garcia I, Rafael; Mazur C, Zdislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    temperaturas. Con las temperaturas correctamente importadas, se realizaron las simulaciones para el calculo de los esfuerzos termicos en la tobera.

  2. Measurement and calculation of dynamic coefficients in hydrodynamic bearings of gas films; Medicion y calculo de coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de peliculas de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Rafael O.; Di Liscia, Marcelo H.; Diaz, Sergio E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartendejas, Baruta (Venezuela)

    2007-11-15

    The identification of the dynamic coefficients in air bearings is fundamental for a suitable roto-dynamic analysis. The present paper shows the development of an algorithm that allows the direct obtaining of the dynamic coefficients in hydrodynamic air bearings as much of numerical form as experimental. The testing bench used consists of two magnetic bearings, which support the rotor in their ends and work as well as actuators allowing inducing controlled orbits in the rotor. The test bearing is located between the magnetic bearings. The dynamic forces generated in the air bearing are registered from three load cells. The algorithm was developed in a commercial code of graphical programming, through which the signals can be collected, controlled and processed. The nonlinear behavior of this type of bearings makes difficult the calculation of the dynamic coefficients, therefore the processing of the signals in frequencial space facilitates, in a certain way, its handling. On the other hand, the numerical model was compared with the experimental results obtaining acceptable approaches in magnitude as well as in behavior. The numerical dynamic coefficients calculation was realized solving the Reynolds differential equation for a compressible fluid in the thickness of the gas film, taking into consideration the fluid mass flow that is introduced, as well as the pressure loss suffered by the same in passing through the feeding orifices. The numerical methods utilized include the solution of the differential equation of Reynolds for finite differences, the calculation of the profile realizing successive iterations and the calculation of the hydrodynamics forces through the Simpson numerical integration. The numerical dynamic coefficients were found applying a minimum squared technique to the hydrodynamic stresses generated in simulating an orbit of the rotor at a determined frequency and velocity, allowing in this way the calculation of the synchronous and asynchronous

  3. Calculation of the backscattering in water and compared to the values in air; Calculo del factor de retrodispersion en agua y comparativa con los valores en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minano Herrero, J. A.; Sarasa Rubio, A.; Roldan Arjona, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to calculate values of BSF in water and comparison with data on air 11SF found in the literature. For this simulations have been performed by the Monte Carlo method for calculating values ??kerma water in the presence of a manikin of this material and in the absence thereof. The simulations were performed for monoenergetic beams in order to facilitate the calculation of the BSF for any spectral distribution of those found in the field of radiology.

  4. Air-Lubricated Thermal Processor For Dry Silver Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryj, B. W.

    1980-09-01

    Since dry silver film is processed by heat, it may be viewed on a light table only seconds after exposure. On the other hand, wet films require both bulky chemicals and substantial time before an image can be analyzed. Processing of dry silver film, although simple in concept, is not so simple when reduced to practice. The main concern is the effect of film temperature gradients on uniformity of optical film density. RCA has developed two thermal processors, different in implementation but based on the same philosophy. Pressurized air is directed to both sides of the film to support the film and to conduct the heat to the film. Porous graphite is used as the medium through which heat and air are introduced. The initial thermal processor was designed to process 9.5-inch-wide film moving at speeds ranging from 0.0034 to 0.008 inch per second. The processor configuration was curved to match the plane generated by the laser recording beam. The second thermal processor was configured to process 5-inch-wide film moving at a continuously variable rate ranging from 0.15 to 3.5 inches per second. Due to field flattening optics used in this laser recorder, the required film processing area was plane. In addition, this processor was sectioned in the direction of film motion, giving the processor the capability of varying both temperature and effective processing area.

  5. Droplet Impacting on Liquid Film: Evolution of Entrapped Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we experimentally studied the dynamics of droplet impacting films of various thicknesses within a range of h / R <= 1 (h: film thickness; R: droplet radius). High speed imaging and color interferometry enabled the investigation of the evolution of the air layer trapped between two surfaces, which plays a critical role in determining the collision outcome. Globally, two distinct regimes of impaction outcome, namely bouncing and merging, are observed at low and high impact inertia, respectively. Impaction with high inertia depletes the air layer before the droplet significantly deforms, resulting in permanent merging. At low impact inertia, however, color interferometry shows the existence of three phases prior to bouncing. Upon impaction, droplet endures significant deformation trapping the air layer between the interfaces, hence increasing the resistance force. This phase is characterized by fast deformation of the air film, followed by a period of pseudo equilibrium, with minimal changes in the interfacial air-film profile. The droplet also lacks kinetic energy to penetrate further into the film, resulting in a temporary balance between the droplet weight and air-film pressure. The deformed droplet eventually relaxes towards spherical shape to destroy the equilibrium. Fast change occurs in air-layer and pressure distribution favoring the droplet bouncing.

  6. Ftir study of gamma irradiation LDPE film in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Silva, Andre L.A.; Gouvea, Paulo H.D.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e; Gouvea, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo H.R.; Wiebeck, Helio; Kawano, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation for application in plastic packaging, to improve some of properties and for radiation sterilization, has been gaining popularity in the packaging industry. As a consequence of the irradiation, plastic packaging materials can undergo some chemical and physical alterations in their basic function, mainly concerning the protection characteristics. Since changes in physical properties of irradiated packaging films reflect radiation-induced chemical changes in molecular structure, in this work, an investigation was performed by Ftir analysis of LDPE film before and after radiation. Film samples were irradiated with doses between 0 Gy and 100 kGy, at room temperature and in the presence of air. The results showed alterations in the molecular structure, according to the absorbed radiation dose. (author)

  7. Falling drops skating on a film of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2012-02-01

    When a raindrop hits a window, the surface immediately becomes wet as the water spreads. Indeed, this common observation of a drop impacting a surface is ubiquitous in our everyday experience. I will show that the impact of a drop on a surface is a much richer, more complex phenomenon than our simple experience may suggests: To completely wet the surface the drop must first expel all the air beneath it; however, this does not happened instantaneously. Instead, a very thin film of air, only a few tens of nanometers thick, remains trapped between the falling drop and the surface as the fluid spreads. The thin film of air serves to lubricate the drop enabling the fluid to skate laterally outward at strikingly high velocities. Simultaneously, the wetting fluid spreads inward at a much slower velocity, trapping a bubble of air within the drop. However, these events occur at diminutive length scales and fleeting time scales; therefore, to visualize them we develop new imaging modalities that are sensitive to the behavior right at the surface and that have time resolution superior to even the very fastest cameras. These imaging techniques reveal that the ultimate wetting of the surface occurs through a completely new mechanism, the breakup of the thin film of air through a spinodal like dewetting process that breaks the cylindrical symmetry of the impact and drives an anomalously rapid spreading of a wetting front. These results are in accord with recent theoretical predictions and challenge the prevailing paradigm in which contact between the liquid and solid occurs immediately, and spreading is dominated by the dynamics of a single contact line.

  8. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  9. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  10. Hot-film anemometry in air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Local measurements of void fraction and liquid velocity in a steady-state air-water bubbly flow at atmospheric pressure are presented. Use was made of a constant temperature anemometer and of a conical hot-film probe. The signal was processed with a multi-channel analyzer. Void fraction and liquid velocities are determined from the amplitude histogram of the signal. The integrated void fraction over a diameter is compared with the average void fraction along the same diameter obtained with a γ-ray absorption method. The liquid volumetric flow-rate is calculated from the void fraction and liquid velocity profiles and compared with the indication given by a turbine flowmeter [fr

  11. The value of radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities: experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paelinck, L; Reynaert, N; Thierens, H; Wagter, C de; Neve, W de

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigate radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities with particular focus on the perturbation of the dose distribution by the film when the film is parallel to the beam axis. We considered a layered polystyrene phantom containing an air cavity as a model for the air-soft tissue geometry that may occur after surgical resection of a paranasal sinus tumour. A radiochromic film type MD-55 was positioned within the phantom so that it intersected the cavity. Two phantom set-ups were examined. In the first case, the air cavity is at the centre of the phantom, thus the film is lying along the central beam axis. In the second case, the cavity and film are located 2 cm offset from the phantom centre and the central beam axis. In order to examine the influence of the film on the dose distribution and to interpret the film-measured results, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The film was modelled rigorously to incorporate the composition and structure of the film. Two field configurations, a 1 x 10 cm 2 field and a 10 x 10 cm 2 field, were examined. The dose behind the air cavity is reduced by 6 to 7% for both field configurations when a film that intersects the cavity contains the central beam axis. This is due to the attenuation exerted by the film when photons cross the cavity. Offsetting the beam to the cavity and the film by 2 cm removes the dose reduction behind the air cavity completely. Another result was that the rebuild-up behind the cavity for the 10 x 10 cm 2 field, albeit less significant than for the 1 x 10 cm 2 field, could only be measured by the film that was placed offset with respect to the central beam axis. Although radiochromic film is approximately soft-tissue equivalent and energy independent as compared to radiographic films, care should be taken in the case of inhomogeneous phantoms when the film intersects air cavities and contains the beam central axis. Errors in dose measurement can be expected distal to the air cavity

  12. Intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films: effect of vapour chopping and air ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R B; Puri, R K; Puri, V

    2008-01-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films of thickness 1000 A 0 have been prepared by thermal oxidation (in air) of vacuum evaporated bismuth thin films (on glass substrate) at different oxidation temperatures and duration. Both the vapour chopped and nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films showed polycrystalline and polymorphic structure. The monoclinic bismuth oxide was found to be predominant in both the cases. The effect of vapour chopping and air exposure for 40 days on the intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films has been studied. The vapour chopped films showed low (3.92 - 4.80 x 10 9 N/m 2 ) intrinsic stress than those of nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films (5.77 - 6.74 x 10 9 N/m 2 ). Intrinsic stress was found to increase due to air ageing. The effect of air ageing on the vapour chopped films was found low. The vapour chopped films showed higher packing density. Higher the packing density, lower the film will age. The process of chopping vapour flow creates films with less inhomogenety i.e. a low concentration of flaws and non-planar defects which results in lower intrinsic stress

  13. Skating on a Film of Air: Drops Impacting on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, John M.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.; Mandre, Shreyas; Brenner, Michael P.; Weitz, David A.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    The commonly accepted description of drops impacting on a surface typically ignores the essential role of the air that is trapped between the impacting drop and the surface. Here we describe a new imaging modality that is sensitive to the behavior right at the surface. We show that a very thin film of air, only a few tens of nanometers thick, remains trapped between the falling drop and the surface as the drop spreads. The thin film of air serves to lubricate the drop enabling the fluid to skate on the air film laterally outward at surprisingly high velocities, consistent with theoretical predictions. Eventually this thin film of air breaks down as the fluid wets the surface via a spinodal-like mechanism. Our results show that the dynamics of impacting drops are much more complex than previously thought, with a rich array of unexpected phenomena that require rethinking classic paradigms.

  14. Erosion behavior of soft, amorphous deuterated carbon films by heat treatment in air and under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.

    1999-01-01

    The erosion of soft a-C:D films by heat treatment in air and under vacuum is studied by ion-beam analysis. When the films are heated in air above 500 K, the film thickness and the areal densities of C and especially D decrease, and oxygen is incorporated in the films. The initial atomic loss rates of carbon and deuterium from the films are 2.6 x 10 17 C atoms cm -2 h -1 and 4.8 x 10 17 D atoms cm -2 h -1 at 550 K. However, after D depletion the films show a resistivity against further erosion due to annealing in air. When the films are heated under vacuum erosion starts at about 600 K and all components including D decrease proportionally to the film thickness. Thermal desorption spectroscopy of the films reveals the evolution of C x D y type hydrocarbons. Infrared analysis shows that the incorporated oxygen is chemically bonded to carbon. The thermally-activated decomposition of the soft a-C:D films is compared to that of hard a-C:D films and a reaction scheme is suggested. (orig.)

  15. Influence of air flow rate on structural and electrical properties of undoped indium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzapour, S.; Rozati, S.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Marathe, B.R.; Bhide, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the spray pyrolysis technique thin films of indium oxide were prepared on Corning glass (7059) at a substrate temperature of 425 C at different flow rates. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The Hall measurements at room temperature showed that the films prepared in an air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 have the highest mobility of 47 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a minimum resistivity of 1.125 x 10 -3 Ω cm. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films have a preferred orientation of [400] which peaks at the air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 . (orig.)

  16. Calculation of uncertainties; Calculo de incertidumbres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, Misael [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    metodologico para la obtencion de informacion (mesurando) de un sistema material (poblacion). Ello supone la necesidad de la definicion del problema, la eleccion de los metodos de muestreo y medicion adecuados y la ejecucion de estas actividades para la obtencion de la informacion. El resultado de una medicion solo es una aproximacion o estimacion del valor del mesurando, el cual se completa solo cuando va acompanado por una estimacion de la incertidumbre del proceso analitico. Segun el 'Vocabulario de Terminos Basicos y Generales de Metrologia' la incertidumbre de medicion 'es el parametro asociado con el resultado de la medicion que caracteriza la dispersion de los valores que razonablemente pudiera ser atribuida al mensurando (o magnitud). Este parametro podria ser una desviacion estandar o un intervalo de confianza'. La evaluacion de la incertidumbre exige que observemos detalladamente todas sus posibles fuentes, pero no de forma desproporcionada. Podemos realizar una buena estimacion de la incertidumbre concentrando el esfuerzo en las mayores contribuciones. Los pasos fundamentales del proceso de determinacion de la incertidumbre en las mediciones son: - la especificacion del mesurando; - la identificacion de las fuentes de incertidumbre; - la cuantificacion de las componentes individuales de la incertidumbre; - el calculo de la incertidumbre estandar combinada; - informe de la incertidumbre.

  17. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  18. Calculation of conversion factor of Kerma in the air for ambient dose equivalent in radiotherapy; Calculo dos fatores de conversao de Kerma no ar para equivalente de dose ambiental em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Antonio Frota

    2000-03-01

    This work aims to estimate the average conversion factor of Kerma in air to H {sup *} (10) using photon beams coming from clinic linear accelerators, transmitted through concrete walls of a radiotherapic treatment room. The transmitted photon spectra by both 1 meter and 2 meters concrete walls, in an area of 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}, were calculated when the primary beam impart in an angle of 0 deg. The (secondary) photon beams transmitted respectively by 0,5 meter, 1,0 meter, 1,0 meter and 2,0 meter concrete walls, after they scattered by an angle of 90 deg in a cylindric phantom inside the room, were also determined. Generally, 50 millions of histories were computed for each simulation made for the primary beam. For the 90 deg spread, the number of histories was 100 millions. The computational code used on this work was the MCNP4B. The most common clinic accelerators used on radiotheraphic treatments were used on this work CLINAC-4, CLINAC-6, CLINAC-18 and CLINAC-2500. From the spectra analysis obtained in this work, it was possible to dispose the conversion factor for realistic beams found in radiotherapeutic establishment. (author)

  19. Phase transition of LB films of mixed diblock copolymer at the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y. S.; Kim, K. S.; Samuilov, V.; Rafailovich, M. H.; Sokolov, J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Vancso, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    We have studied the morphology of Langmuir blodgett films at the air/water interface of mixed diblock copolymer films. Solutions of poly(styrene-b-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) and PS-b-P2VP mixed in a ratio of 20/80 in chloroform were spread at the air/water interface. The morphology of the films was studied with AFM as a function of the surface pressure and the diblock copolymer molecular weight. The results show that the two diblock copolymers can be induced to mix at the air/water interface with increasing surface pressure. A reversible transition from spherical to cylindrical morphologies is induced in the mixture which can not be observed in films formed of the two components separately. The effective surface phase diagram as a function of block copolymer composition and pressure will be presented.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of air-sensitive hydride epitaxial thin films: LiH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oguchi@nanosys.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Micro System Integration Center (muSIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Isobe, Shigehito [Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kuwano, Hiroki [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro [Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    We report on the epitaxial thin film growth of an air-sensitive hydride, lithium hydride (LiH), using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We first synthesized a dense LiH target, which is key for PLD growth of high-quality hydride films. Then, we obtained epitaxial thin films of [100]-oriented LiH on a MgO(100) substrate at 250 °C under a hydrogen pressure of 1.3 × 10{sup −2} Pa. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the film demonstrates a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and that the film with a thickness of ∼10 nm has a good surface flatness, with root-mean-square roughness R{sub RMS} of ∼0.4 nm.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of air-sensitive hydride epitaxial thin films: LiH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Shigehito; Kuwano, Hiroki; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We report on the epitaxial thin film growth of an air-sensitive hydride, lithium hydride (LiH), using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We first synthesized a dense LiH target, which is key for PLD growth of high-quality hydride films. Then, we obtained epitaxial thin films of [100]-oriented LiH on a MgO(100) substrate at 250 °C under a hydrogen pressure of 1.3 × 10 −2 Pa. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the film demonstrates a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and that the film with a thickness of ∼10 nm has a good surface flatness, with root-mean-square roughness R RMS of ∼0.4 nm

  2. Presence and absence of a water film between moving air bubbles and a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyik, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of water films between an inclined Lucite plate submerged in water and air bubbles moving beneath it was measured with a small impedance probe. The instrument was calibrated with a laser interferometer built for this purpose. The bubbles released beneath the plate varied in size from 10 cc to 100 cc. At a plate inclination angle of 0.98 degree, and in tap water, an uninterrupted water film covered most of the bubbles. Some bubbles, however, dewetted the plate, and the water film covered only a forward part of the bubble. When the film was uninterrupted, its thickness was very uniform from front to rear. When the bubble dewetted the plate, a large forward section of the film had the same uniform thickness, but this was followed by a hump on the film the rear slope of which ended at the plate surface. For some of the experiments, the surface tension of the water was reduced by admixing a detergent. In these experiments, dewetting was not observed. In a second set of experiments, a hand held transparent container filled with water and a 1.3 cm3 air bubble was used to observe visually the behavior of the moving bubble and its associated water film

  3. Squeeze-Film Air Damping of a Five-Axis Electrostatic Bearing for Rotary Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunyue; Han, Fengtian; Sun, Boqian; Li, Haixia

    2017-05-13

    Air-film damping, which dominates over other losses, plays a significant role in the dynamic response of many micro-fabricated devices with a movable mass suspended by various bearing mechanisms. Modeling the damping characteristics accurately will be greatly helpful to the bearing design, control, and test in various micromotor devices. This paper presents the simulated and experimental squeeze-film air damping results of an electrostatic bearing for use in a rotary high-speed micromotor. It is shown that the boundary condition to solve the three-dimensional Reynolds equation, which governs the squeeze-film damping in the air gap between the rotor and its surrounding stator sealed in a three-layer evacuated cavity, behaves with strong cross-axis coupling characteristics. To accurately characterize the damping effect, a set of multiphysics finite-element simulations are performed by computing both the rotor velocity and the distribution of the viscous damping force acting on the rotor. The damping characteristics varying with several key structure parameters are simulated and discussed to optimize the device structure for desirable rotor dynamics. An electrical measurement method is also proposed and applied to validate the numerical results of the damping coefficients experimentally. Given that the frequency response of the electric bearing is critically dependent on the damping coefficients at atmospheric pressure, a solution to the air-film damping measurement problem is presented by taking approximate curve fitting of multi-axis experimental frequency responses. The measured squeeze-film damping coefficients for the five-axis electric bearing agrees well with the numerical solutions. This indicates that numerical multiphysics simulation is an effective method to accurately examine the air-film damping effect for complex device geometry and arbitrary boundary condition. The accurate damping coefficients obtained by FEM simulation will greatly simplify the design

  4. A macromodel for squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang; Ye, Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo(MC) simulation approach is developed for the accurate prediction of the squeeze-film air damping on microresonators in the free-molecule gas regime. Based on the MC simulations and the analytical traveling

  5. An airbag for drops: high speed interferometry studies of air film lubrication in drop impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, J.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of droplets on solid surfaces is of wide-spread relevance in for example pesticide spraying, fluid coating, and ink-jet printing. The impact process includes the formation and spreading of an air film between the droplet and the surface before the droplet actually touches the surface.

  6. Effect of oscillation mode on the free-molecule squeeze-film air damping

    KAUST Repository

    Gang Hong,; Wenjing Ye,

    2010-01-01

    A 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach is developed and employed to study the effect of the oscillation mode on the squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime. By tracking individual gas molecule's motion and its interaction

  7. The Evolution of Alq3 Films Exposure to Air

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Yan; Hark, Sui Kong; Zhu, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Small molecular solar cell becomes more stable when a thin tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) buffer layer instead of bathocuproine (BCP) is inserted between the active layer and electrode. In this work, we introduce a single layer device (ITO / Alq3 / Au) exposure to air to investigate the role of Alq3 in organic solar cells. The large PL intensity and undetectable Raman peaks of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Hq), a degradation product of Alq3 through chemical reaction, indicate that the degr...

  8. Localized etching of polymer films using an atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Honglei; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    A direct-write process device based on the atmospheric pressure air microplasma jet (AμPJ) has been developed for the localized etching of polymer films. The plasma was generated by the air discharge ejected out through a tip-nozzle (inner diameter of 100 μm), forming the microplasma jet. The AμPJ was capable of reacting with the polymer surface since it contains a high concentration of oxygen reactive species and thus resulted in the selective removal of polymer films. The experimental results demonstrated that the AμPJ could fabricate different microstructures on a parylene-C film without using any masks or causing any heat damage. The etch rate of parylene-C reached 5.1 μm min −1 and microstructures of different depth and width could also be realized by controlling two process parameters, namely, the etching time and the distance between the nozzle and the substrate. In addition, combining XPS analysis and oxygen-induced chemical etching principles, the potential etching mechanism of parylene-C by the AμPJ was investigated. Aside from the etching of parylene-C, micro-holes on the photoresist and polyimide film were successfully created by the AμPJ. In summary, maskless pattern etching of polymer films could be achieved using this AμPJ. (paper)

  9. Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor System Supported on Squeeze Film Damper with Air Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Bingbing; Zhang, Kunpeng; Ding, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are widely used in compressors and turbines to suppress the vibration while traversing critical speeds. In practical applications, air ingestion from the outside environment and cavitation may lead to a foamy lubricant that weakens oil film damping and dynamic performance of rotor system. In this paper, a rigid rotor model is established considering both lateral and pitching vibration under different imbalance excitations to evaluate the effect of air entrainment on rotor system. Tests with three different imbalances are carried out on a rotor-SFD apparatus. Volume controlled air in mixture ranging from pure oil to all air are supplied to the SFD. The transient response of rotor is measured in the experiments. The results show that two-phase flow produces significant influence on the system stability and dynamical response. The damping properties are weakened by entrained air, such as the damping on high frequency components of rolling ball bearing. Super-harmonic resonance and bifurcation are observed, as well as the low frequency components due to air entrainment.

  10. Improving the Validity of Squeeze Film Air-Damping Model of MEMS Devices with Border Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of squeezed film air damping is critical in the design and control of dynamic MEMS devices. The published squeezed film air damping models are generally derived from the analytical solutions of Reynolds equation or its other modified forms under the supposition of trivial pressure boundary conditions on the peripheral borders. These treatments ignoring the border effect can not give faithful result for structure with smaller air venting gap or the double-gimbaled structure in which the inner frame and outer one affect the air venting. In this paper, we use Green’s function to solve the nonlinear Reynolds equation with inhomogeneous boundary conditions. For two typical normal motion cases of parallel plate, the analytical models of squeeze film damping force with border effect are established. The viscous and inertial losses with real values and image values acoustic impedance are all included in the model. These models reduced the time consumption while giving satisfactory result. Without multifield coupling analysis, the estimation of the dynamic behavior of MEMS device is also allowed, and the simulation of the system performance is more convenient.

  11. The effect of air entrapment on the performance of squeeze film dampers: Experiments and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Briceno, Sergio Enrique

    Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are an effective means to introduce the required damping in rotor-bearing systems. They are a standard application in jet engines and are commonly used in industrial compressors. Yet, lack of understanding of their operation has confined the design of SFDs to a costly trial and error process based on prior experience. The main factor deterring the success of analytical models for the prediction of SFDs' performance lays on the modeling of the dynamic film rupture. Usually, the cavitation models developed for journal bearings are applied to SFDs. Yet, the characteristic motion of the SFD results in the entrapment of air into the oil film, thus producing a bubbly mixture that can not be represented by these models. In this work, an extensive experimental study establishes qualitatively and---for the first time---quantitatively the differences between operation with vapor cavitation and with air entrainment. The experiments show that most operating conditions lead to air entrainment and demonstrate the paramount effect it has on the performance of SFDs, evidencing the limitation of currently available models. Further experiments address the operation of SFDs with controlled bubbly mixtures. These experiments bolster the possibility of modeling air entrapment by representing the lubricant as a homogeneous mixture of air and oil and provide a reliable data base for benchmarking such a model. An analytical model is developed based on a homogeneous mixture assumption and where the bubbles are described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Good agreement is obtained between this model and the measurements performed in the SFD operating with controlled mixtures. A complementary analytical model is devised to estimate the amount of air entrained from the balance of axial flows in the film. A combination of the analytical models for prediction of the air volume fraction and of the hydrodynamic pressures renders promising results for prediction of the

  12. Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth

    2017-01-23

    A drop impacting on a solid surface must push away the intervening gas layer before making contact. This entails a large lubricating air pressure which can deform the bottom of the drop, thus entrapping a bubble under its centre. For a millimetric water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a central dimple, but its outer edge is surrounded by an extended thin air film, without contacting the solid. This is in sharp contrast with impacts of lower-viscosity drops where a kink in the drop surface forms at the edge of the central disc and makes a circular contact with the solid. Larger drop viscosities make the central air dimple thinner. The thin outer air film subsequently ruptures at numerous random locations around the periphery, when it reaches below 150 nm thickness. This thickness we measure using high-speed two-colour interferometry. The wetted circular contacts expand rapidly, at orders of magnitude larger velocities than would be predicted by a capillary-viscous balance. The spreading velocity of the wetting spots is independent of the liquid viscosity. This may suggest enhanced slip of the contact line, assisted by rarefied-gas effects, or van der Waals forces in what we call extreme wetting. Myriads of micro-bubbles are captured between the local wetting spots.

  13. Human exhaled air energy harvesting with specific reference to PVDF film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Rajesh Mhetre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirometer is a medical equipment used to measure lung capacity of a human being. It leads to diagnosis of several diseases. The researchers worked on harvesting energy from human exhalation while carrying out measurements using spirometer. A prototype has been developed using piezoelectric material i.e. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride film as sensor. This paper presents the methodology and experimentation carried out for exhaled air energy harvesting using PVDF film. Experimental results obtained are encouraging. Measurements are also carried out on various subjects having different height, weight, age and gender. Data analysis shows variation in the energy harvested with different physical parameters and gender. Experimentation shows that voltage generated due to exhaled air is promising for harvesting.

  14. Effect of oscillation mode on the free-molecule squeeze-film air damping

    KAUST Repository

    Gang Hong,

    2010-01-01

    A 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach is developed and employed to study the effect of the oscillation mode on the squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime. By tracking individual gas molecule\\'s motion and its interaction with the resonator, the MC approach is by far the most accurate modeling approach for the modeling of squeeze-film damping in the free-molecule regime. The accuracy of this approach is demonstrated on several cases in which either analytical solutions or experimental measurements are available. It has been found that unlike the case when resonators oscillate in an unbounded domain, squeeze film damping is very sensitive to the mode shape, which implies that some of the existing modeling approaches based on rigid-resonator assumption may not be accurate when applied to model resonators oscillating at their deformed shape. ©2010 IEEE.

  15. Formation of nanoparticles from thin silver films irradiated by laser pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Smirnov, N. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Busleev, N. I.; Rudenko, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Some specific features of the transport of silver nanoparticles onto a SiO2 substrate under focused nanosecond IR laser pulses is experimentally investigated. A possibility of obtaining silver coatings is demonstrated. The formation of silver nanostructures as a result of pulsed laser ablation in air is studied. Nanoparticles are formed by exposing a silver film to radiation of an HTF MARK (Bulat) laser marker (λ = 1064 nm). The thus prepared nanoparticles are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy.

  16. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis for a Jeffcott Rotor with Seal and Air-Film Bearing Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear coupling vibration and bifurcation of a high-speed centrifugal compressor with a labyrinth seal and two air-film journal bearings are presented in this paper. The rotary shaft and disk are modeled as a rigid Jeffcott rotor. Muszynska's model is used to express the seal force with multiple parameters. For air-film journal bearings, the model proposed by Zhang et al. is adopted to express unsteady bearing forces. The Runge-Kutta method is used to numerically determine the vibration responses of the disk center and the bearings. Bifurcation diagrams for transverse motion of the rotor are presented with parameters of rotation speed and pressure drop of the seal. Multiple subharmonic, periodic, and quasiperiodic motions are presented with two seal-pressure drops. The bifurcation characteristics show inherent interactions between forces of the air-film bearings and the seal, presenting more complicated rotor dynamics than the one with either of the forces alone. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained with parameters of pressure drop and seal length determined for the sake of operation safety.

  17. Heat transfer from a plate cooled by a water film with countercurrent air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Manfredini, A.; Mariotti, F.; Oriolo, F.; Vigni, P.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental program at the University of Pisa provides specific data for the evaluation of heat and mass transfer by falling film evaporation. The problem is addressed primarily because of its relevance to the study of the behavior of passive containment cooling systems in simplified pressurized water reactors. In these plants, after an accident that releases vapor from the primary circuit, the steel containment envelope is cooled either by an ascending stream of air in natural circulation or by the combination of air flow and falling film evaporation. To qualify models for the prediction of the heat transfer capabilities in postulated accident conditions, researchers have built an experimental facility consisting of a flat heated plate with water sprays and a fan to simulate a countercurrent air stream. The range of relevant parameters to be investigated has been determined on the basis of integral calculations performed for the AP600 reactor containment. The facility has enabled the collection of data that confirm the adequacy of the classical heat and mass transfer analogy in predicting evaporation phenomena. Further developments in the research are needed to confirm the first results and to extend the experimental database by considering more subtle aspects of the phenomenon such as the characteristics of surface waviness of the water film and its effect on heat transfer

  18. RA-0 reactor. New neutronic calculations; Reactor RA-0. Nuevos calculos neutronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumis, D; Leszczynski, F

    1991-12-31

    An updating of the neutronic calculations performed at the RA-0 reactor, located at the Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences Faculty of Cordoba National University, are herein described. The techniques used for the calculation of a reactor like the RA-0 allows prediction in detail of the flux behaviour in the core`s interior and in the reflector, which will be helpful for experiments design. In particular, the use of WIMSD4 code to make calculations on the reactor implies a novelty in the possible applications of this code to solve the problems that arise in practice. (Author). [Espanol] En este trabajo se actualizan los calculos neutronicos realizados para el reactor RA-0, instalado en la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Se describen los calculos realizados hasta la fecha y los resultados obtenidos. Las tecnicas incorporadas al calculo de un reactor como el RA-0 permiten predecir en detalle el comportamiento del flujo en el interior del nucleo y en el reflector, lo que sera una importante ayuda en el diseno de experimentos. En particular, el empleo del codigo WIMSD4 para calculos del reactor completo constituye una novedad en las posibles aplicaciones de ese codigo para resolver problemas que se presentan en la practica. (Autor).

  19. The effects of a flow obstacle on liquid film flowing concurrently with air in a horizontal rectangular duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Tohru; Tominaga, Akira; Morikawa, Kengo.

    1986-01-01

    The aspect of a liquid film flowing near a flat plate type obstacle was observed, and the liquid film thickness and the entrainment were measured under a wide range of gas and liquid flow rates. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The configurations of film flows near the obstacle are classified according to whether (a) the liquid film climbs over the obstacle or not, (b) the air flows under the obstacle or not, or (c) the liquid film swells or sinks just upstream or downstream of the obstacle. (2) The lower the liquid flow rate, the larger the effect of the obstacle on the film thickness. (3) The generation of entrainment is regulated by the obstacle when the air volumetric flux is high and by the disturbance wave when it is low. (author)

  20. Cathodic reduction of the duplex oxide films formed on copper in air with high relative humidity at 60 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kodaira, M.; Sugimoto, A.; Nakayama, S.; Watanabe, M.; Furuya, S.; Minamitani, R.; Miyata, Y.; Nishikata, A.; Notoya, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cathodic reduction of duplex air-formed oxide film on copper was performed at a constant current density of i c = -50 μA cm -2 in deaerated 0.1 M KCl solution to investigate the sequence of cathodic reduction of each oxide layer and its mechanism. The single-phase thick CuO film on copper was also cathodically reduced at i c = -50 μA cm -2 or -2.5 mA cm -2 . The surface characterizations of the air-formed oxide film and single-phase CuO film before cathodic reduction and after partial or complete cathodic reduction were performed by XPS and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The two plateau regions appeared in the potential vs. time curve during cathodic reduction of the duplex air-formed oxide film on copper, while one plateau region was observed in the potential-time curve during cathodic reduction of the single-phase CuO film on copper. The potential in the first plateau region for the air-formed film coincided with that in the plateau region for the CuO film. The results of XPS and X-ray diffraction suggested that in the first plateau region, the outer CuO layer is directly reduced to metallic Cu, while in the second plateau region, the inner Cu 2 O layer is reduced to metallic Cu

  1. Correlation between mechanical behavior of protein films at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of protein molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bos, M.A.; Vliet, T. van

    2005-01-01

    The relation between mechanical film properties of various adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of the corresponding proteins is discussed. Mechanical film properties were determined by surface deformation in shear and dilation. In shear, fracture stress, σf,

  2. Air purification by heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation with multi-doped thin film titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, Cormac, E-mail: cormac.okeeffe@theta.ie [Theta Chemicals Ltd., Station Road, Ballindine, Claremorris, Mayo (Ireland); Gannon, Paul; Gilson, Paul [Theta Chemicals Ltd., Station Road, Ballindine, Claremorris, Mayo (Ireland); Kafizas, Andreas; Parkin, Ivan P. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell [School of Engineering and Materials Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-30

    Multi element-doped titania films (F, S-TiO{sub 2}) were produced via sol–gel techniques and deposited on glass and ceramic substrates with an annealing temperature of 500 °C. The films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum showed the films to have an anatase TiO{sub 2} structure with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirming the presence of sulphur, fluorine and carbon doping. The titania coated glass and ceramic substrates were compared against two commercially available TiO{sub 2} coated products for the photo-destruction of NO{sub 2(g)}. The study included both equivalent indoor and outdoor test conditions. The multi-doped titania films were shown to provide a genuine method of air purification under both visible (room lighting) and UVA lighting with photo-destruction rates as high as 72%. - Highlights: • Synthesis of multi-doped titania films • Excellent NO{sub 2} conversion rates for coated ceramic tiles • Excellent NO{sub 2} conversion rates for coated glass substrates • Significantly better conversion rates for existing commercial products.

  3. Air-stable n-type doping of graphene from overlying Si3N4 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zegao; Li, Pingjian; Chen, Yuanfu; Liu, Jingbo; Qi, Fei; Tian, Hongjun; Zheng, Binjie; Zhou, Jinhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report a facile method to obtain air-stable n-type graphene by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor depositing Si 3 N 4 film on the surface of graphene. We have demonstrated that the overlying Si 3 N 4 film can not only act as the penetration-barrier against H 2 O and O 2 adsorbed on the graphene surface, but also cause an effective n-type doping due to the amine groups at the interface of graphene/Si 3 N 4 . Furthermore, the studies reveal that the Dirac point of graphene can be modulated by the thickness of Si 3 N 4 film, which is due to competing effects of Si 3 N 4 -induced doping (n-type) and penetrating H 2 O (O 2 )-induced doping (p-type). We expect this method to be used for obtaining stable n-type graphene field-effect transistors in air, which will be widely used in graphene electronic devices.

  4. Biodegradable polyester films from renewable aleuritic acid: surface modifications induced by melt-polycondensation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez, José Jesús; De Vargas-Parody, María Inmaculada; Cruz-Carrillo, Miguel Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Morales-Flórez, Victor; De la Rosa-Fox, Nicolás; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Good water barrier properties and biocompatibility of long-chain biopolyesters like cutin and suberin have inspired the design of synthetic mimetic materials. Most of these biopolymers are made from esterified mid-chain functionalized ω-long chain hydroxyacids. Aleuritic (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic) acid is such a polyhydroxylated fatty acid and is also the major constituent of natural lac resin, a relatively abundant and renewable resource. Insoluble and thermostable films have been prepared from aleuritic acid by melt-condensation polymerization in air without catalysts, an easy and attractive procedure for large scale production. Intended to be used as a protective coating, the barrier's performance is expected to be conditioned by physical and chemical modifications induced by oxygen on the air-exposed side. Hence, the chemical composition, texture, mechanical behavior, hydrophobicity, chemical resistance and biodegradation of the film surface have been studied by attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation and water contact angle (WCA). It has been demonstrated that the occurrence of side oxidation reactions conditions the surface physical and chemical properties of these polyhydroxyester films. Additionally, the addition of palmitic acid to reduce the presence of hydrophilic free hydroxyl groups was found to have a strong influence on these parameters. (paper)

  5. Experimental study of film media used for evaporative pre-cooling of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Suoying; Guan, Zhiqiang; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel; Lu, Yuanshen; Alkhedhair, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two film media were experimentally studied in a low-speed wind tunnel. • Correlations for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were developed. • Cellulose media provide higher cooling efficiency and pressure drop than PVC media. • Water entrainment of PVC media happens even at relatively low air velocities. - Abstract: An open-circuit low-speed wind tunnel was used to study the performance of evaporative cooling with cellulose and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) corrugated media. These two film media were selected as part of a broader investigation on pre-cooling the entering air of natural draft dry cooling towers. The heat and mass transfer and pressure drop across the two media with three thicknesses (i.e., 100, 200 and 300 mm) were experimentally studied in the wind tunnel. The test data were non-dimensionalized and curve fitted to yield a set of correlations. It was found that the pressure drop range of the cellulose media is 1.5–101.7 Pa while the pressure drops of the PVC media are much lower with the range of 0.9–49.2 Pa, depending on the medium thickness, air velocity and water flow rate. The cooling efficiencies of the cellulose media vary from 43% to 90% while the cooling efficiencies of the PVC media are 8% to 65%, depending on the medium thickness and air velocity. The water entrainment off the media was detected by water sensitive papers, and found that the cellulose media have negligible water entrainment under the studied conditions while care must be taken in the use of PVC media as water entrainment happens even at relatively low air velocities

  6. A Macro Model of Squeeze-Film Air Damping in the Free-Molecule Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang; Ye, Wenjing

    2009-01-01

    An accurate macro model for free‐molecule squeeze‐film air damping on micro plate resonators is present. This model relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters and therefore provides an efficient tool for the design of high‐performance micro resonators. The construction of the macro model is based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical traveling‐time distribution. Its accuracy is validated via the comparison between the calculated quality factors of several micro resonators and the available experimental measurements and full MD simulation results. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7% respectively. The agreements between the macro model results and MD simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  7. A macromodel for squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang

    2010-01-07

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo(MC) simulation approach is developed for the accurate prediction of the squeeze-film air damping on microresonators in the free-molecule gas regime. Based on the MC simulations and the analytical traveling-time distribution, a macromodel, which relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters, is constructed. This model provides an efficient tool for the design of high-performance microresonators. The accuracy of the macromodel is validated through the modeling of the quality factors of several microresonators. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7%, respectively. The agreements between the macromodel results and MC simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  8. A Macro Model of Squeeze-Film Air Damping in the Free-Molecule Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang

    2009-11-30

    An accurate macro model for free‐molecule squeeze‐film air damping on micro plate resonators is present. This model relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters and therefore provides an efficient tool for the design of high‐performance micro resonators. The construction of the macro model is based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical traveling‐time distribution. Its accuracy is validated via the comparison between the calculated quality factors of several micro resonators and the available experimental measurements and full MD simulation results. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7% respectively. The agreements between the macro model results and MD simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  9. Thin porous indium tin oxide nanoparticle films: effects of annealing in vacuum and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederth, J.; Hultaaker, A.; Niklasson, G.A.; Granqvist, C.G.; Heszler, P.; Doorn, A.R. van; Jongerius, M.J.; Burgard, D.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties were investigated in porous thin films consisting of In 2 O 3 :Sn (indium tin oxide; ITO) nanoparticles. The temperature-dependent resistivity was successfully described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicating a sample morphology dominated by clusters of ITO nanoparticles separated by insulating barriers. An effective-medium model, including the effect of ionized impurity scattering, was successfully fitted to measured reflectance and transmittance. Post-deposition treatments were carried out at 773 K for 2 h in both air and vacuum. It is shown that vacuum annealing increases either the barrier width or the area between two conducting clusters in the samples and, furthermore, an extra optical absorption occurs close to the band gap. A subsequent air annealing then reduces the effect of the barriers on the electrical properties and diminishes the absorption close to the band gap. (orig.)

  10. Air-driven viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrosky, H. Reed; Camassa, Roberto; Olander, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    We discuss a model for the flow of a viscous liquid film coating the interior of a vertical tube when the film is driven upwards against gravity by airflow through the center of the tube. The model consists of two components: (i) a nonlinear model, exploiting the slowly-varying liquid-air interface, for the interfacial stresses created by the airflow, and (ii) a long-wave asymptotic model for the air-liquid interface. The stability of small interfacial disturbances is studied analytically, and it is shown that the modeled free surface stresses contribute to both an increased upwards disturbance velocity and a more rapid instability growth than those of a previously developed model. Numerical solutions to the long-wave model exhibit saturated waves whose profiles and velocities show improvement, with respect to the previous model, in matching experiments. The model results are then compared with additional experiments for a slightly modified version of the problem. We gratefully acknowledge funding from NSF DMS-0509423, DMS-0908423, DMS-1009750, DMS-1517879, RTG DMS-0943851, CMG ARC-1025523 and NIEHS 534197-3411.

  11. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  12. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-10

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely "suspense" or "comedy" caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  13. Phase transformations in sputter-deposited W-doped TiO2 films during annealing in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladukhin, I. A.; Abadias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Pure and tungsten-doped TiO 2 films are characterized as amorphous in the as-deposited state by XRD. A crystallization of titanium dioxide occurs during their annealing in air. Depending on the tungsten and nitrogen doping level, anatase or rutile phase formation is observed. Both of these phases are thermally stable in all interval of the temperatures used during annealing. Phase composition and lattice parameter analysis indicates on the formation of substitutional Ti 1 -xW x O 2 films. N-doped Ti 0 .75W 0 .25O 2 film is more resistant against high-temperature oxidation as compared to Ti 0 .74W 0 .26O 2 film and, especially, as compared to Ti 0 .60W 0 .40O 2 film. (authors)

  14. Bifurcation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Externally Pressurized Double Air Films Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the chaotic and nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a rigid rotor supported by externally pressurized double air films (EPDAF bearing system. A hybrid numerical method combining the differential transformation method and the finite difference method is used to calculate pressure distribution of EPDAF bearing system and bifurcation phenomenon of rotor center orbits. The results obtained for the orbits of the rotor center are in good agreement with those obtained using the traditional finite difference approach. The results presented summarize the changes which take place in the dynamic behavior of the EPDAF bearing system as the rotor mass and bearing number are increased and therefore provide a useful guideline for the bearing system.

  15. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  16. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  17. Ftir study of gamma irradiation LDPE film in air; Estudo por FTIR de filme de polietileno de baixa densidade submetido a radiacao gama na presenca de oxigenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Silva, Andre L.A.; Gouvea, Paulo H.D.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.br, andrebarra@mackenzie.com.br, paulohdg@hotmail.com, lgasilva@ipen.br; Ortiz, Angel V. [Unipac Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: angelv@unipac-pack.com.br; Gouvea, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo H.R.; Wiebeck, Helio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mails: dgouvea@usp.br; rhrcastro@hotmail.com; hwiebeck@usp.br; Rossini, Edvaldo L. [Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: didirossini@yahoo.com.br; Kawano, Yoshio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation for application in plastic packaging, to improve some of properties and for radiation sterilization, has been gaining popularity in the packaging industry. As a consequence of the irradiation, plastic packaging materials can undergo some chemical and physical alterations in their basic function, mainly concerning the protection characteristics. Since changes in physical properties of irradiated packaging films reflect radiation-induced chemical changes in molecular structure, in this work, an investigation was performed by Ftir analysis of LDPE film before and after radiation. Film samples were irradiated with doses between 0 Gy and 100 kGy, at room temperature and in the presence of air. The results showed alterations in the molecular structure, according to the absorbed radiation dose. (author)

  18. Multistep building of a soft plant protein film at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Alexandre; Banc, Amélie; Stocco, Antonio; In, Martin; Ramos, Laurence

    2018-09-15

    Gliadins are edible wheat storage proteins well known for their surface active properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on the interfacial properties of acidic solutions of gliadin studied over 5 decades of concentrations, from 0.001 to 110 g/L. Dynamic pendant drop tensiometry reveals that the surface pressure Π of gliadin solutions builds up in a multistep process. The series of curves of the time evolution of Π collected at different bulk protein concentrations C can be merged onto a single master curve when Π is plotted as a function of αt where t is the time elapsed since the formation of the air/water interface and α is a shift parameter that varies with C as a power law with an exponent 2. The existence of such time-concentration superposition, which we evidence for the first time, indicates that the same mechanisms govern the surface tension evolution at all concentrations and are accelerated by an increase of the bulk concentration. The scaling of α with C is consistent with a kinetic of adsorption controlled by the diffusion of the proteins in the bulk. Moreover, we show that the proteins adsorption at the air/water interface is kinetically irreversible. Correlated evolutions of the optical and elastic properties of the interfaces, as probed by ellipsometry and surface dilatational rheology respectively, provide a consistent physical picture of the building up of the protein interfacial layer. A progressive coverage of the interface by the proteins occurs at low Π. This stage is followed, at higher Π, by conformational rearrangements of the protein film, which are identified by a strong increase of the dissipative viscoelastic properties of the film concomitantly with a peculiar evolution of its optical profile that we have rationalized. In the last stage, at even higher surface pressure, the adsorption is arrested; the optical profile is not modified while the elasticity of the interfacial layer dramatically increases with the

  19. On film quality in barium-air double contrast colon study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhu, Sang Hyung; Rhee, Jae Ho; Kim, Hai Sung; Cheung, Hwan

    1984-01-01

    The colon double contrast study provides valuable diagnostic information by means of appropriate control of Kvp and mAa when making double contrast image by injecting air into the colon after coating the colon wall by appropriately diluted Barium solution. The following experiments were performed the results of which allowed to improve the quality of film in barium-air double contrast colon study: (1) Do the pictures have uniform density when measured with a densitometer from three measuring points established in the picture by changing Kvp and mAs depending on the thickness of the patient? (2) Is the quality of the picture improved by being compensated from the adjacent area when using a wedge filter in routine check lateral decubitus and erect view? (3) What is the optimum dilution of barium solution which gives the best result for colon wall coating? The above experiments revealed that as the patient's thickness increased, it should be considered to increase mAs as well as Kvp and a wedge filter could give diagnostically very informative pictures in routine-check lateral decubitus and erect view. And 70-80% solution of Barium-water mixture provided the best quality of double contrast image

  20. Properties of CuS thin films treated in air plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Martinez, H.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Nunez Rodriguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Copper sulfide thin films were grown by chemical deposition and post treated in air plasma during 20 min. Air plasma was generated by alternating current discharge at a pressure of 4 x 10 2 Pa. The power discharge was maintained at an output of 220 V and a current of 0.2 A. Thermal annealing at 300 o C was performed for comparison. X-ray diffraction shows that plasma treatment results in phase transformation of Cu 39 S 28 (as grown) to CuS (treated by plasma). The copper lost is confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. No significant change in the optical band gap was observed due to plasma action. In addition, the electrical conductivity increases in one order of magnitude. On the other hand, the samples under plasma condition show a parallel growth to the substrate and an increase in the surface uniformity. The plasma etching removes copper due to its affinity with oxygen to form CuO, as is corroborated by optical emission spectroscopy.

  1. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-04-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. The catalytic layer has maximum power density of 67 mW cm-2 and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V when current densities increased up to 100 mA cm-2 in the Ag50Cu50-based primary zinc-air battery. The resulting rechargeable zinc-air battery exhibits low charge-discharge voltage polarization of 1.1 V at 20 mAcm-2 and high durability over 100 cycles in natural air.

  2. Perbaikan Sifat Laju Transmisi Uap Air dan Antibakteri Edible Film dengan Menggunakan Minyak Sawit dan Jeruk Kunci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to improve water vapor transmission rate and antibacterial properties of edible film by using red palm oil and Citrus mitis. The research design was factorial completely randomized design with three replications. There were three studies: the addition of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil concentration, and pH value at the concentration 0, 1.5, and 3 (% w/v; 0, 1.5, and 3 (% v/v; and 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The results showed that interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and palm oil had significant effected on thickness, percentage of elongation and solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Characteristic of edible film was produced thickness 0.15 to 0.28 mm, percentage of elongation 23.33 to 87.78%, solubility 33.9 to 49.16%, water vapor transmission rate 3.43 to 8.52 g.m-2.d-1, and inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus 0.2 to 8.2 mm. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk memperbaiki laju transmisi uap air dan sifat antibakteri edible film dengan menggunakan minyak sawit dan jeruk kunci. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas konsentrasi ekstrak gambir; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% b/v, konsentrasi minyak sawit; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% v/v, dan pH (3, 4, 5, dan 6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi ekstrak gambir, minyak sawit, dan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan minyak sawit berpengaruh nyata terhadap ketebalan, persen pemanjangan, dan kelarutan edible film. Interaksi minyak sawit dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan derajat keasaman (pH berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film

  3. Distribution and congener profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor/outdoor glass window surface films and their film-air partitioning in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of n-alkanes with carbon chain length of 10-13. In this work, paired indoor/outdoor samples of organic films on window glass surfaces from urban buildings in Beijing, China, were collected to measure the concentrations and congener distributions of SCCPs. The total SCCP levels ranged from 337 ng/m(2) to 114 μg/m(2), with total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of 365 μg/m(2)-365 mg/m(2). Overall, the concentrations of SCCPs on the interior films were higher than the concentrations on the exterior films, suggesting an important indoor environmental exposure of SCCPs to the general public. A significant linear relationship was found between the SCCP concentrations and TOC, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.34 (p film-air partitioning model suggests that the indoor gas-phase SCCPs are related to their corresponding window film levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calibration of cellulose nitrate film for measurement of time-integrated concentration of radon-222 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, G.; Raghavayya, M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air by using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) is finding increasing application in such diverse fields as radiation protection, exploration of radioactive minerals, prediction of earthquakes etc. While there are several types of SSNTDs sensitive to specific types of particulate radiation, films made from cellulose nitrate (CN) are found to be the best suited for quick and quantitative measurement of alpha radiation. This is because CN films are available in small thicknesses, of the order of 10-12 μm, which can be suitably evaluated by spark counting technique. This report describes the use of a sensitive thin film of CN (Kodak LR 115, Type II) for quantitative estimation of 222 Rn. The film (along with the base is exposed in a cylindrical plastic cup closed at one end with a special rubber membrane which permits discrimination of 222 Rn against 220 Rn, which is also present in air to varying extents. The calibration procedure, including etching and evaluation of track registration efficiency, are described in detail. The mean track registration efficiency works out to 41.9 per cent and the sensitivity of the system is found to be 58.92 tracks cm -2 per (Bq.litre -1 ) day. The report lists the advantages and limitations of the system for measurement of time-integrated concentration of 222 Rn in air. (author)

  5. The film tells the story: Physical-chemical characteristics of IgG at the liquid-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Ellen; Schroeder, Rudolf; Brezesinski, Gerald; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of liquid-air interfaces in protein pharmaceuticals is known to negatively impact product stability. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind interface-related protein aggregation are not yet fully understood. Little is known about the physical-chemical behavior of proteins adsorbed to the interface. Therefore, the combinatorial use of appropriate surface-sensitive analytical methods such as Langmuir trough experiments, Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is highly expedient to uncover structures and events at the liquid-air interface directly. Concentration-dependent adsorption of a human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and characteristic surface-pressure/area isotherms substantiated the amphiphilic nature of the protein molecules as well as the formation of a compressible protein film at the liquid-air interface. Upon compression, the IgG molecules do not readily desorb but form a highly compressible interfacial film. IRRA spectra proved not only the presence of the protein at the interface, but also showed that the secondary structure does not change considerably during adsorption or compression. IRRAS experiments at different angles of incidence indicated that the film thickness and/or packing density increases upon compression. Furthermore, BAM images exposed the presence of a coherent but heterogeneous distribution of the protein at the interface. Topographical differences within the protein film after adsorption, compression and decompression were revealed using underwater AFM. The combinatorial use of physical-chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic methods provided useful insights into the liquid-air interfacial protein behavior and revealed the formation of a continuous but inhomogeneous film of native-like protein molecules whose topographical appearance is affected by compressive forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of the correction factors for the primary standard of kerma in the air at the LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Calculo de fatores de correcao para o padrao primario em kerma no ar do LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da, E-mail: cosme@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    In order to determine the primary standardization in terms of kerma in the air, a graphite ionization chamber is used for calculation some correction factors. A program was elaborated, using the Monte Carlo Penelope for simulate the CC01-110 at the LNMRI/IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  7. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  8. Metal ion modulated ultrathin films and nanostructures of tyrosine-based bolaamphiphile at the air/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Tifeng; Cheng Caixia; Xi Fu; Liu Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies at the air/water interface from a newly designed tyrosine-based bolaamphiphile, 1,10-bis(O-L-tyrosine)-decane (C10BT), were investigated. The compound could be spread on water surface and form organized ultrathin film. It was interesting to find that metal ions such as Ag + and Cu 2+ in the subphase can greatly modulate the molecular packing of C10BT and the morphology of the subsequently deposited Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. Atomic force microscopic measurements revealed that C10BT LB film from the subphase containing Ag + ion showed well-ordered layered nanofibers, while Cu 2+ ion coordinated C10BT film demonstrated dense cross-linked network. It was suggested that both the strong chelating property to the carboxylate and the different packing mode of hydrocarbon chain resulted in the distinct nanostructures. Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal the difference between the Ag-C10BT complex film and that of Cu 2+ ion, and the mechanism of the packing mode of hydrocarbon chain was discussed. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra also verified the orderly layer structure and the relative molar ratios compared with different metal ions. While many efforts have been devoted to manipulation of the nanostructures and functions of sophisticated bolaform amphiphiles, we provided a simple method of modulating the organization and morphology of C10BT films through metal ions

  9. Low Pressure DC Glow Discharge Air Plasma Surface Treatment of Polyethylene (PE) Film for Improvement of Adhesive Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyaraj, Krishnasamy Navaneetha; Yoganand, Paramasivam; Selvarajan, Vengatasamy; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing R.; Balasubramanian, Suresh; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the change in surface properties of polyethylene (PE) film using DC low pressure glow discharge air plasma and makes it useful for technical applications. The change in hydrophilicity of the modified PE film surface was investigated by measuring contact angle and surface energy as a function of exposure time. Changes in the morphological and chemical composition of PE films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel and lap-shear strength. The results show that the wettability and surface energy of the PE film has been improved due to the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups and an increase in surface roughness. The XPS result clearly shows the increase in concentration of oxygen content and the formation of polar groups on the polymer surface. The AFM observation on PE film shows that the roughness of the surface increased due to plasma treatment. The above morphological and chemical changes enhanced the adhesive properties of the PE film surfaces, which was confirmed by T-peel and lap-shear tests.

  10. Nanocrystalline SnO2-Pt Thick Film Gas Sensor for Air Pollution Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Shahrokh Abadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of xSnO2(1-xPt nanopowder (x = 1, 0.995, 0.99, 0.985, 0.98 was calcinated at 950 °C, mixed with an organic vehicle, printed on premade silver electrodes, and fired at 650 °C. Microstructural, morphological, and elemental properties of the mixed powders and films were determined by using XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDX. Samples were exposed to ethyl alcohol, xylene, methanol, isopropanol, acetone, isobutane, and truck exhaust fumes, at wide range of operating temperature, and sensitivity as well as response time of the samples were measured and compared with Taguchi Gas Sensors of TGS2602 (air contaminants, TGS3870 (CO, and TGS4160 (CO2. It was discovered that crystallite sizes of SnO2 powder and response times of samples are decreased with increasing Pt contents, whilst sensitivity is increased. Measurements are shown that 1 wt.% Pt loaded sensor, operating at 300 °C, can detect exhaust gas with high differentiating between the applied gases.

  11. Liquid film and interfacial wave behavior in air-water countercurrent flow through vertical short multi-tube geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinzhao; Giot, M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on air-water countercurrent flow through short multi-tube geometries (tube number n = 3, diameter d = 36mm, length I = 2d, 10d and 20d). The time-varying thicknesses of the liquid films trickling down the individual tubes are measured by means of conductance probes mounted flush at different locations of the inner wall surfaces. Detailed time series analyses of the measured film thicknesses provide some useful information about the film flow behavior as well as the interfacial wave characteristics in individual tubes, which can be used as some guidelines for developing more general predictive flooding models. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tabs

  12. Influence of the evaporation rate and the evaporation mode on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of air-exposed magnesium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Knystautas, E.J.; Huot, J.; Schulz, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that the hydrogen sorption properties of air-exposed magnesium films are influenced by the deposition parameters such as the evaporation rate or the evaporation mode used during their preparation. As the evaporation rate increases, the structure of the film tends to be highly oriented along the [002] direction and the kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption are faster. Moreover, the hydrogen sorption kinetics of magnesium films prepared with an electron beam source under a high vacuum are faster by almost a factor of two compared to those prepared using resistive heating under low vacuum. These two parameters reduce drastically the activation and the incubation period during hydrogen absorption and desorption, respectively

  13. Hetero-Colloidal Metal Particle Multilayer Films Grown Using Electrostatic Interactions at the Air-water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Murali; Mayya, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticle multilayer films by electrostatic immobilization of surface-modified colloidal particles at the air-water interface has been recently demonstrated by us. In this paper, we extend our study to show that multilayer assemblies consisting of metal particles of different chemical nature (hetero-colloidal particle superlattices) and size can be deposited by the versatile Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Multilayer films consisting of a different number of bilayers of gold and silver colloidal particles have been deposited and characterized using quartz crystal microgravimetry and UV-visible spectroscopy measurements. It is observed that while layer-by-layer deposition of the different colloidal particle assemblies is possible by this technique without a detectable variation in the cluster density in the different layers, a degree of post-deposition reorganization of the clusters occurs in the film. In addition to this aging behavior, the effect of different organic solvents on the reorganization process has also been studied

  14. Calculo de la Barra Antivuelco de un Vehículo Automotor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García de la Figal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata acerca del calculo de la barra antivuelco del FORD modelo A, desarrollado por elInstituto de Desarrollo Automotriz, IDA, teniendo en cuenta las fuerzas que la cinta de seguridad de losautomovilistas, ejerce sobre la citada barra, ante un choque que provoca una aceleración de 20 g en elvehículo. El calculo se hace mediante la confección de un modelo de elementos finitos de la barra y lacarrocería, para lo cual se hace uso de un programa profesional de elementos finitos.Se determinan los esfuerzos máximos y los equivalentes, tanto de las partes metálicas del sistema, queson fundamentalmente tubos de acero, como de las partes de material compuesto (poliéster con fibras devidrio E, propios de la carrocería del vehículo. Todo lo cual permite hacer los cálculos y comprobacionesa resistencia de todo el conjunto. Así mismo, se determinan los desplazamientos en todos los sentidos detodos las partes del sistema, para poder realizar los correspondientes análisis de rigidez.El objetivo final de todos los análisis es determinar lo adecuado o no de las soluciones y materialespropuestos para el sistema, bajo la acción de la citada carga de impacto.

  15. Destabilization and dry-spot nucleation in thin liquid films on partially wetting substrates using a low-pressure air-jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The rupture of a thin liquid film on a partially wetting substrate can be initiated by external forces. In this manuscript we present experiments and numerical simulations of the effects of a laminar axisymmetric air-jet impinging on triethylene glycol films. We numerically calculate stagnation

  16. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step solution processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. A high-temperature thermal annealing treatment was applied to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into a compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. However, thermal annealing for extended periods led to degraded device performance owing to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. A controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method was used to grow "bilayer" CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple air exposure at room temperature for making well-oriented, highly crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ca. 800 nm and a high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to values reported for thermally annealed perovskite films. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Interface air-mer : aspects écologiques du microneuston dans le film de surface

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza Lima, Yolanda

    1982-01-01

    The sea surface microlayer (upper 100 pm) was sampled using Harvey's rotating drum collector. Greater amounts of nutrients, particulate organic carbon and living material occurred in the surface film than in samples taken at 0,50m. Neuston displayed a greater level of absolute production, but assimilation numbers were usually lower in the films than at a depth of 0,50m. Algal phytoplankton also occurred in much higher densities in sea-surface films than in subsurface waters. Individual specie...

  18. Soil solarization in open air with experimental and biodegradable plastic films [Apulia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Frisullo, S.

    2004-01-01

    The use of biodegradable materials is a sustainable solution to the problem of high amounts of plastic films that must be disposed for soil solarization, since biodegradable films can be degraded directly in soil. The comparison of Mater-B biodegradable film with EVA and Polydac film for soil solarization and phythopatological tests in field is the aim of the present research. Experimental field tests were carried out in Borgo Cervaro (FG) in June and July 2002. A data logger connected with sensors was used to measure and collect climatic parameters. During field tests, climatic parameters and soil temperatures at different depth for soil under the different materials were evaluated. The performances of plastic materials were investigated measuring laceration and tensile strength and radiometric properties every 15 days. Soil samples were analysed in order to verify the reduction of infesting load of soilborne pathogens during soil solarization. The tests, although affected by adverse climatic conditions, show the capacity of the biodegradable film to obtain similar performances compared to traditional films. The traditional films produced higher temperatures in soil, longer duration and a higher number of hours with temperature higher than 40 deg C. Phytopathological results showed a higher sterilising effect for EVA and Polydac films in comparison to the Mater-B one [it

  19. PERBAIKAN SIFAT MEKANIK DAN LAJU TRANSMISI UAP AIR EDIBLE FILM DARI PATI GANYONG TERMODIFIKASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LILIN LEBAH DAN SURFAKTAN Improving the Mechanical and Water Vapour Transmission Rate Properties of Edible Film from Modified Ganyong Starc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Edible film from ganyong starch without and with modification were incorporated by CMC and lecithin as surfactants. Edible film were characterized with respect to water vapor transmission rate and mechanical properties. Incorporation of CMC 2 % and lecithin 1 % as surfactants decreased water vapor transmission rate. Puncture strength decreased but still fulfill Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS 1975 min 50 gf.  Elongation of edible film increased and not fulfill JIS 1975 min 70 %.   Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin, modification, starch, surfactants   ABSTRAK Edible film pati ganyong sebelum dan setelah dimodifikasi ditambahkan surfaktan CMC dan lesitin. Karakteristik edible film yang diamati adalah laju transmisi uap air dan sifat mekanik (kuat tekan dan persen pemanjangan. Penambahan CMC dengan konsentrasi 2 % dan lesitin 1 % menurunkan laju transmisi uap air edible film pati ganyong. Kuat tekan edible film pati ganyong mengalami penurunan, namun masih memenuhi standar JIS 1975 minimal 50gf. Nilai persen pemanjangan edible film pati ganyong meningkat tetapi belum memenuhi standar JIS 1975. Kata kunci: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lesitin, modifikasi, pati, surfaktan

  20. Synthesis of perm-selective membranes by grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Annick; Chapiro, Adolphe

    Grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films was investigated. Pre-irradiation doses ranged from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Grafting occurred at 45 or 60°C. Homopolymerization inhibitors, ferrous ions or methylene blue, were added to the system. It was found that after completion of the reaction, within 40-100 min, membranes were obtained with very low electric resistivities. The influence of added inhibitors, pre-irradiation dose and grafting temperature was studied. From the results it is concluded that the initiating centers in air-irradiated Teflon-FEP are, on the one hand, peroxides of structure POOP', in which P is a polymeric radical and Pprime; a small fragment, and on the other trapped PO .2 radicals. The latter only react after losing their oxygen. In the presence of polymerization inhibitors, initiation involves a redox process which reduces the overall activation energy.

  1. Synthesis of perm-selective membranes by grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, Annick; Chapiro, Adolphe

    1988-01-01

    Grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films was investigated. Pre-irradiation doses ranged from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Grafting occurred at 45 or 60 0 C. Homopolymerization inhibitors, ferrous ions or methylene blue, were added to the system. It was found that after completion of the reaction, within 40-100 min, membranes were obtained with very low electric resistivities. The influence of added inhibitors, pre-irradiation dose and grafting temperature was studied. From the results it is concluded that the initiating centers in air-irradiated Teflon-FEP are, on the one hand, peroxides of structure POOP', in which P is a polymeric radical and P' a small fragment, and on the other hand trapped PO 2 sup(·) radicals. The latter only react after losing their oxygen. In the presence of polymerization inhibitors, initiation involves a redox process which reduces the overall activation energy. (author)

  2. Fabrication of air-stable n-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates using bilayer dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhong; Li, Qunqing; Jin, Yuanhao; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-11-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors hold great potential for flexible electronics. However, fabrication of air-stable n-type devices by methods compatible with standard photolithography on flexible substrates is challenging. Here, we demonstrated that by using a bilayer dielectric structure of MgO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 or HfO2, air-stable n-type devices can be obtained. The mechanism for conduction type conversion was elucidated and attributed to the hole depletion in SWNT, the decrease of the trap state density by MgO assimilating adsorbed water molecules in the vicinity of SWNT, and the energy band bending because of the positive fixed charges in the ALD layer. The key advantage of the method is the relatively low temperature (120 or 90 °C) required here for the ALD process because we need not employ this step to totally remove the absorbates on the SWNTs. This advantage facilitates the integration of both p-type and n-type transistors through a simple lift off process and compact CMOS inverters were demonstrated. We also demonstrated that the doping of SWNTs in the channel plays a more important role than the Schottky barriers at the metal contacts in carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, unlike the situation in individual SWNT-based transistors.

  3. Reorganization of lipid nanocapsules at air-water interface: Part 2. Properties of the formed surface film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, I; Ivanova, Tz; Panaiotov, I; Proust, J; Saulnier, P

    2005-09-01

    The state, electrical and dilatational rheological properties of surface films formed at air-water interface from lipid nanocapsules (LNC) with various compositions as well as model monolayers formed by the LNC constituents-Labrafac, Solutol and Lipoid are investigated. These nanocapsules constitute potential drug delivery systems where lypophilic drug will be loaded in their core. The study of the model Labrafac/Solutol (Lab/Sol) mixed monolayers shows behavior close to the ideal. Small negative deviations in the mean molecular areas a and dipole moments mu are observed. All studied monolayers have elastic behavior during the small continuous compressions. The comparison between the properties of surface films formed from LNC with those of the model monolayers confirms the idea developed in the kinetic study that the surface films formed after a rapid disaggregation of the unstable nanocapsule fraction (LNC I) contains mainly Labrafac and Solutol. The Labrafac molar part (xLab) in the formed Lab/Sol mixed layer is established.

  4. Algorithm for the calculation of a steam generator efficiency; Algoritmo para el calculo de la eficiencia de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.

  5. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  6. Ellipsometry and LIMM investigations of the interaction between PZT thin films and platinum electrodes and air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Glinchuk, M. D.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Sandner, T.; Gerlach, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 254, - (2001), s. 205-211 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferroelecric film * depth profile * interface interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2001

  7. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-07-28

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA) show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air-water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods. We observed that the mechanical and structural responses of the Langmuir PLGA films are significantly dependent on the rate of film compression; the glass transition was induced in the PLGA film only at fast compression rates. Surprisingly, we found that this deformation rate dependence is also dependent on the humidity of the environment. With water acting as a plasticizer for the PLGA material, the diffusion of water molecules through the PLGA film seems to be the key factor in the determination of the glass transformation properties and thus the mechanical response of the PLGA film against lateral compression. Based on our combined results, we hypothesize the following mechanism for the compression-induced glass transformation of the Langmuir PLGA film; (1) initially, a humidified/non-glassy PLGA film is formed in the full surface-coverage region (where the surface pressure shows a plateau) during compression; (2) further compression leads to the collapse of the PLGA chains and the formation of new surfaces on the air side of the film, and this newly formed top layer of the PLGA film is transiently glassy in character because the water evaporation rate

  8. Air stable n-doping of WSe2 by silicon nitride thin films with tunable fixed charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kevin; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hettick, Mark; Tosun, Mahmut; Ha, Tae-Jun; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Desai, Sujay; Sachid, Angada; Javey, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Stable n-doping of WSe 2 using thin films of SiN x deposited on the surface via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. Positive fixed charge centers inside SiN x act to dope WSe 2 thin flakes n-type via field-induced effect. The electron concentration in WSe 2 can be well controlled up to the degenerate limit by simply adjusting the stoichiometry of the SiN x through deposition process parameters. For the high doping limit, the Schottky barrier width at the metal/WSe 2 junction is significantly thinned, allowing for efficient electron injection via tunneling. Using this doping scheme, we demonstrate air-stable WSe 2 n-MOSFETs with a mobility of ∼70 cm 2 /V s

  9. The structure of oleamide films at the aluminum/oil interface and aluminum/air interface studied by Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    The structure of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) films on aluminum has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Three different film deposition strategies were investigated: (i) films formed by equilibrium adsorption from oleamide solutions in oil, (ii) Langmuir-Blodgett films cast at 1 and 25 mN m(-1), (iii) thick spin-cast films. Both L-B and spin-cast films were examined in air and under oil. The adsorbate formed in the 1 mN m(-1) film in air showed little orientational order. For this film, the spectroscopic results and the ellipsometric thickness point to a relatively conformationally disordered monolayer that is oriented principally in the plane of the interface. Direct adsorption to the metal interface from oil results in SFG spectra of oleamide that are comparable to those observed for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. In contrast, SFG and RAIRS results for the 25 mN m(-1) film in air and SFG spectra of the spin-cast film in air both show strong conformational ordering and orientational alignment normal to the interface. The 25 mN m(-1) film has an ellipsometric thickness almost twice that of the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film. Taken in combination with the spectroscopic results, this is indicative of a well packed monolayer in air in which the hydrocarbon chain is in an essentially defect-free extended conformation with the methyl terminus oriented away from the surface. A similar structure is also deduced for the surface of the spin-cast film in air. Upon immersion of the 25 mN m(-1) L-B film in oil the SFG spectra show that this film rapidly adopts a relatively disordered structure similar to that seen for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. Immersion of the spin-cast film in oil results in the gradual disordering of the amide film over a period of several days until the observed spectra become essentially identical to those observed for direct adsorption of oleamide from oil.

  10. Thin film formation at the air-water interface and on solid substrates of soluble axial substituted cis-bis-decanoate tin phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Teran, Jose, E-mail: jcampos@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, DCNI, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40-sexto piso, Col. Hidalgo, D. F., 001120 (Mexico); Garza, Cristina [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 20-364, D. F., 01000 (Mexico); Beltran, Hiram I. [Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, DCNI, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40-sexto piso, Col. Hidalgo, D. F., 001120 (Mexico); Castillo, Rolando [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 20-364, D. F., 01000 (Mexico)

    2012-01-01

    Herein we study thin films of a recent kind of soluble axial substituted cis-bis-decanoate-tin{sup IV} phthalocyanine (PcSn10) at the air/water interface, which were compressed isothermally and observed with Brewster Angle Microscopy. The air/water interfacial behavior of the films suggests that there are strong interactions among the PcSn10 molecules, which produces multilayers and 3D self-assemblies that prevent the formation of a Langmuir monolayer. Langmuir-Blodgett deposits of these films on both mica (negatively charged) and mild steel (positively charged) surfaces were developed. Information about the morphology of the film was obtained by using atomic force microscopy. We found structural differences in the PcSn10 thin films deposited on both substrates, suggesting that a combination of {pi}-{pi}, {sigma}-{pi} and Van der Waals interactions are the leading factors for the deposition, and consequently, for the control of supramolecular order. Our findings provide insights in the design of phthalocyanine molecules for the development of highly ordered and reproducible thin films.

  11. Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a

  12. Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on photocatalyst of N-doped TiOx films prepared by reactive sputtering with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon-Hong; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films are investigated. • Surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties, but significant influence on the photocatalytic ability. • Working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film. • High photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires the permissible range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2 . - Abstract: N-doped TiO x films on the glass substrate were prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron reactive sputtering of Ti target in a mixed gas of argon and dry air. The effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films was investigated. The surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties such as produced phases, lattice parameters, introduced nitrogen contents, and atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the surface roughness of film resulting in the variation of the photocatalytic ability. The working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film, resulting in the large variation of optical, structural, and photocatalytic properties. It is suggested that the high photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires a certain range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2

  13. Bio-inspired evaporation through plasmonic film of nanoparticles at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Shen, Qingchen; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Fangyu; Liu, Quanlong; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Di; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-08-27

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles self-assembled at the air-water interface to produce an evaporative surface with local control inspired by skins and plant leaves. Fast and efficient evaporation is realized due to the instant and localized plasmonic heating at the evaporative surface. The bio-inspired evaporation process provides an alternative promising approach for evaporation, and has potential applications in sterilization, distillation, and heat transfer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Seok; Liu, Yingnan; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Seohee; Wu, Di; Tao, Li; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Lai, Keji; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, is poised to be the most attractive graphene analogue owing to its high mobility approaching that of graphene, and its thickness-tunable band gap that can be as large as that of molybdenum disulfide. In essence, phosphorene represents the much sought after high-mobility, large direct band gap two-dimensional layered crystal that is ideal for optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability in air is of paramount concern for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate air-stable BP devices with dielectric and hydrophobic encapsulation. Microscopy, spectroscopy, and transport techniques were employed to elucidate the aging mechanism, which can initiate from the BP surface for bare samples, or edges for samples with thin dielectric coating, highlighting the ineffectiveness of conventional scaled dielectrics. Our months-long studies indicate that a double layer capping of Al2O3 and hydrophobic fluoropolymer affords BP devices and transistors with indefinite air-stability for the first time, overcoming a critical material challenge for applied research and development. PMID:25758437

  15. Measurement of the local void fraction in two-phase air-water flow with a hot-film anemometer; Mesure du taux de vide local en ecoulement diphasique eau-air par un anemometre a film chaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a {gamma}-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode de mesure du taux de vide local a en ecoulement diphasique, basee sur l'emploi d'un anemometre a film chaud a temperature constante dont on etudie la repartition du signal en amplitude dans un analyseur multicanaux. Ayant trace un profil de taux de vide local suivant un diametre d'une conduite verticale de section circulaire parcourue par un ecoulement ascendant d'eau et d'air, nous avons compare la moyenne de {alpha} sur ce diametre a la valeur obtenue par une methode d'absorption de rayons {gamma}. Les essais ont ete faits en ecoulements a bulles et a bouchons. Les deux methodes donnent des resultats concordants en particulier pour les ecoulements a bulles. Le taux de vide moyenne dans la section, calcule a partir des differents profils, a egalement ete compare avec succes aux resultats experimentaux de R. ROUMY. Dans l'etude de la structure radiale des ecoulements a bulles, nous avons verifie l'hypothese de S.G. BAJMKOFF. (auteur)

  16. Measurement of the local void fraction in two-phase air-water flow with a hot-film anemometer; Mesure du taux de vide local en ecoulement diphasique eau-air par un anemometre a film chaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a {gamma}-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode de mesure du taux de vide local a en ecoulement diphasique, basee sur l'emploi d'un anemometre a film chaud a temperature constante dont on etudie la repartition du signal en amplitude dans un analyseur multicanaux. Ayant trace un profil de taux de vide local suivant un diametre d'une conduite verticale de section circulaire parcourue par un ecoulement ascendant d'eau et d'air, nous avons compare la moyenne de {alpha} sur ce diametre a la valeur obtenue par une methode d'absorption de rayons {gamma}. Les essais ont ete faits en ecoulements a bulles et a bouchons. Les deux methodes donnent des resultats concordants en particulier pour les ecoulements a bulles. Le taux de vide moyenne dans la section, calcule a partir des differents profils, a egalement ete compare avec succes aux resultats experimentaux de R. ROUMY. Dans l'etude de la structure radiale des ecoulements a bulles, nous avons verifie l'hypothese de S.G. BAJMKOFF. (auteur)

  17. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  18. Thermochromic effect in NdNiO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films annealed in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, F; Horwat, D; Pierson, J F [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S, (UMR CNRS 7198), Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Zaghrioui, M; Laffez, P, E-mail: fabien.capon@mines.inpl-nancy.f [Universite de Tours, IUT de Blois, Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR CNRS CEA 6187, Place Jean Jaures, 41029 Blois cedex (France)

    2009-09-21

    The synthesis of NdNiO{sub 3} perovskite structure was achieved by soft post deposition annealing of initially amorphous thin films reactively sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The physical measurements were fully consistent with the properties expected for the thermochromic NdNiO{sub 3} phase. Upon heating, the optical transmission that was correlated with the electrical properties decreased in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect in this optical region. The metal-insulator transition temperature was found to be -68 {sup 0}C for the specimen tested and the jump in resistance at the transition was 1.4 orders of magnitude. The state-of-the-art methods that normally involve an annealing at a high oxygen pressure (200 x 10{sup 5} Pa) or epitaxial stabilization were considerably improved in this work by the use of dc sputtering and the optimization of the deposition conditions. Therefore, the novel soft process proposed here opens up numerous research possibilities. (fast track communication)

  19. Aqueous chemical growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films: Air annealing and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.M.; Deshmukh, P.R.; Patil, S.V. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Facile and efficient route for synthesis of CZTS film. ► Effect of annealing on structural, morphological and electrical properties of CZTS films. ► Solar cell study. - Abstract: In present investigation, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been deposited on to glass substrates by novel chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of air annealing in the temperature range between 573 and 773 K on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties has been studied. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline CZTS films. The surface morphological study showed smooth, compact and uniform film formation after annealing formation. The band gap was in between range from 1.5 to 1.8 eV depending on annealing temperature. The thermo emf measurement revealed that the CZTS exhibits p-type electrical conductivity. Further, photoactivity of CZTS thin films was tested by forming the photoelectrochemical cell.

  20. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  1. Measurement of the local void fraction in two-phase air-water flow with a hot-film anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, J.

    1968-01-01

    The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a γ-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [fr

  2. Effects of the wet air on the properties of the lanthanum oxide and lanthanum aluminate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jin Hyung; Choi, Doo Jin

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum oxide and lanthanum aluminate thin films were deposited on Si substrates. The as-grown films were stored in wet ambient and dry ambient for days and annealed after storage and also the structural and the electrical properties of the films were investigated. As the storage time increased, the La 2 O 3 films stored in wet ambient showed rapid reaction with moisture and the properties degraded. In case of the LAO films, although the thickness of the film also increased during hydration, the properties of the film did not so much changed due to the role of the incorporated aluminum. The LAO films showed better hydration resistance characteristics and so more suitable for conventional wet cleaning process in semiconductor fabrication

  3. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  4. Facile and Scalable Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells in Air Using Gas Pump Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Liang, Lusheng; Chu, Qianqian; Song, Xiaoxuan; Li, Yan; Yang, Guanjun; Fan, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chengxin; Li, Changjiu

    2016-08-10

    Control of the perovskite film formation process to produce high-quality organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films with uniform morphology, high surface coverage, and minimum pinholes is of great importance to highly efficient solar cells. Herein, we report on large-area light-absorbing perovskite films fabrication with a new facile and scalable gas pump method. By decreasing the total pressure in the evaporation environment, the gas pump method can significantly enhance the solvent evaporation rate by 8 times faster and thereby produce an extremely dense, uniform, and full-coverage perovskite thin film. The resulting planar perovskite solar cells can achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency up to 19.00% with an average efficiency of 17.38 ± 0.70% for 32 devices with an area of 5 × 2 mm, 13.91% for devices with a large area up to 1.13 cm(2). The perovskite films can be easily fabricated in air conditions with a relative humidity of 45-55%, which definitely has a promising prospect in industrial application of large-area perovskite solar panels.

  5. Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G., E-mail: grzgr@ifm.liu.se; Hultman, L.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We present first self-consistent model of TiN core level spectra with a cross-peak qualitative and quantitative agreement. • Model is tested for a series of TiN thin films oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature. • Conventional deconvolution process relies on reference binding energies that typically show large spread introducing ambiguity. • By imposing requirement of quantitative cross-peak self-consistency reliability of extracted chemical information is enhanced. • We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling. - Abstract: We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N 1s, O 1s, and C 1s core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature T{sub v} of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show

  6. Visualization study of interaction with 2-D film flow on the vertical plate and lateral air velocity for DVI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sol; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong Jin; Kim, Jong Rok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness. In this study, the average flow information of the downcomer was analyzed through the information about the thickness, speed, droplet size and speed of highly precise liquid film flow in the structure that occurs in a 2-dimensional liquid film flow, rather than film flow, onset of entrainment, droplet velocity, and size which have been studied in 1-dimension of the existing annular flow. The multi-dimensional flow characteristic information of downcomer can be utilized as the basic data for nuclear safety analysis in the future.

  7. Construction of a simple optical sensor based on air stable lipid film with incorporated urease for the rapid detection of urea in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi; Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Methenitis, Constantinos

    2010-08-18

    This work describes the construction of a simple optical sensor for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of urea in milk using air stable lipid films with incorporated urease. The lipid film is stabilized on a glass filter by polymerization using UV (ultra-violet) radiation prior its use. Methacrylic acid was the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the crosslinker and 2,2'-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) was the initiator. Urease is incorporated within this mixture prior to the polymerization. The presence of the enzyme in these films quenched this fluorescence and the colour became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of aqueous solution of urea provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence which allows the rapid detection of this compound at the levels of 10(-8) M concentrations. The investigation of the effect of potent interferences included a wide range of compounds usually found in foods and also of proteins and lipids. These lipid membranes were used for the rapid detection of urea in milk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of applications in Internet for the calculation of solar control devices; Desarrollo de una aplicacion en Internet para el calculo de dispositivos de control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez V, Jesus B; Robles G, Saul; Villa M, Hector A; Cabanillas L, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the development of an interactive software, visible over the World Wide Web, is presented to support the basic calculation required to control the solar gain inside buildings and houses. The site has two main parts: one part describes in a very required parameters to design devices for the control of the illumination inside the buildings, like overhangs and wingwalls for shading. The other part has the routines and procedures to calculate the sun position for any date and position over the earth, and the horizontal and vertical protection angles. The part to implement the calculations has been developed as a Java applet which can run on any platform and let the users, in an interactive way, to get the results. This software makes possible that any Internet user can run the application from his/her own computer without having to compile of use sophisticated procedures as it happens with traditional languages. With this web site it is intended to cover the necessity of having simple and reliable means for architects and civil engineers to support the use of solar energy and the saving of energy in bioclimatic design of buildings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un sitio interactivo visible en el World Wide Web (WWW) que pretende servir de apoyo para los calculos basicos de control de asoleamiento en viviendas y edificios. El sitio esta conformado por dos partes principales: una parte cubre el aspecto informativo, donde en forma sencilla y clara, se explican los conceptos y parametros necesarios para disenar los dispositivos de control, alerones y parteluces. La otra parte contiene los procedimientos y las rutinas de calculo para la determinacion de la posicion solar para cualquier fecha del ano desde cualquier punto sobre la tierra, asi como los angulos de sombreado vertical y horizontal. Para la realizacion de los calculos se ha construido un applet de Java, el cual puede ejecutarse desde cualquier plataforma de computacion y

  9. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-01-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. ...

  10. Low-cost fabrication of WO{sub 3} films using a room temperature and low-vacuum air-spray based deposition system for inorganic electrochromic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Ik [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sooyeun, E-mail: sooyeunk@u.washington.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Oh; Song, Ji-Hyeon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taya, Minoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ahn, Sung-Hoon, E-mail: ahnsh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Advanced Machines and Design, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates by using a room-temperature deposition system based on low-vacuum air-spray for the fabrication of inorganic electrochromic windows. The structure of the WO{sub 3} films was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface morphology and film thickness were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The color of the prepared WO{sub 3} films changed from slight yellow to dark blue under applied voltages, demonstrating electrochromism. The WO{sub 3} film coated FTO glass exhibited a large electrochromic contrast of up to 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The electrochemical properties of the films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated using an air-spray based deposition system at room temperature under low-vacuum conditions. • Dry WO{sub 3} particles were directly deposited on FTO and ITO glasses by using a low-cost deposition system. • The FTO glass based WO{sub 3} film showed the optical contrast of 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  11. A review of induction and attachment times of wetting thin films between air bubbles and particles and its relevance in the separation of particles by flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albijanic, Boris; Ozdemir, Orhan; Nguyen, Anh V; Bradshaw, Dee

    2010-08-11

    Bubble-particle attachment in water is critical to the separation of particles by flotation which is widely used in the recovery of valuable minerals, the deinking of wastepaper, the water treatment and the oil recovery from tar sands. It involves the thinning and rupture of wetting thin films, and the expansion and relaxation of the gas-liquid-solid contact lines. The time scale of the first two processes is referred to as the induction time, whereas the time scale of the attachment involving all the processes is called the attachment time. This paper reviews the experimental studies into the induction and attachment times between minerals and air bubbles, and between oil droplets and air bubbles. It also focuses on the experimental investigations and mathematical modelling of elementary processes of the wetting film thinning and rupture, and the three-phase contact line expansion relevant to flotation. It was confirmed that the time parameters, obtained by various authors, are sensitive enough to show changes in both flotation surface chemistry and physical properties of solid surfaces of pure minerals. These findings should be extended to other systems. It is proposed that measurements of the bubble-particle attachment can be used to interpret changes in flotation behaviour or, in conjunction with other factors, such as particle size and gas dispersion, to predict flotation performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of surface modification of polypropylene film by filamentary DBD at atmospheric pressure and homogeneous DBD at medium pressure in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Xie, X; Li, J; Yang, H; Qiu, Y; Kuffel, E

    2009-01-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, polypropylene (PP) films are modified using a non-equilibrium plasma generated by a DBD in air in homogeneous mode and in filamentary mode. The filamentary DBD is generated in ambient air, and the homogeneous DBD is generated at medium pressure with an operating pressure value of 3 kPa. The characteristics of homogeneous DBD are studied and compared with those of filamentary DBD by measuring their electrical discharge parameters and observing their light emission phenomena, and the surface properties of the PP films before and after the treatments are studied using contact angle and surface energy measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the homogeneous DBD is even and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary DBD. The plasma treatments modify the PP surface in both morphology and composition. The PP films modified in both treatments show a remarkable decrease in the water contact angle and a remarkable increase in surface energy due to the introduction of oxygen-containing groups on the surface and the etching of the surface. The homogeneous DBD is more effective in PP surface modification than the filamentary DBD as it can make the contact angle decrease to a lower level by introducing more oxygen-containing groups. This effect could be explained by the evenly distributed plasma at a homogeneous DBD than at a filamentary DBD, and by the more efficient introduction of atomic oxygen to the PP surface in the case of homogeneous DBD.

  13. XPS study of influence of exposure to air on thermal stability and kinetics of hydrogen decomposition of MgH{sub 2} films obtained by direct hydrogenation from gaseous phase of metallic Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovolsky, V.D., E-mail: dobersh@ipms.kiev.ua; Khyzhun, O.Y.; Sinelnichenko, A.K.; Ershova, O.G.; Solonin, Y.M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Air influence on thermal stability of MgH{sub 2} have been studied by XPS. • XPS spectra of MgH{sub 2} films obtained at different hydrogen pressures have been studied. • Changes in the chemical state of MgH{sub 2} films depending on time of exposure to air are analyzed. • Correlation exists between chemical surface condition of MgH{sub 2} films and their thermal stableness. • Process of hydrogen desorption from MgH{sub 2} films is studied using TDS for model samples. - Abstract: Mechanism of influence of exposure to air on thermal stability of MgH{sub 2} obtained by direct hydrogenation from the gas phase, the nature of the hydride sensitivity to the negative impact of air and the role of its surface chemical state have not been studied enough. The present article presents data of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the Mg 2s, O 1s, C 1s core-level spectra of surface of hydride MgH{sub 2} films derived by gas phase hydrogenation of model samples of metallic Mg, and the evolution of changes in the chemical state of the surface of the hydride films depending on the time of exposure to air and formation conditions (hydrogen pressure and hydrogenation regime). Based on results of XPS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermodesorption spectroscopy (TDS), the existence of a relationship (correlation) between chemical surface condition of hydride MgH{sub 2} films obtained at different hydrogen pressures (3.0 MPa and 11.5 MPa) and their thermal stableness and temperature of the beginning of hydride decomposition has been established.

  14. Experiments and theory on pentacene in the thin film phase: structural, electronic, transport properties, and gas response to oxygen, nitrogen, and ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisse, P.; Picozzi, S.; Passacantando, M.; Ottaviano, L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the morphological, structural, electronic, and transport properties of pentacene thin films grown by vacuum thermal evaporation on different inert substrates at room temperature. The results of our atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) analysis show a structure in the so called 'thin film phase' with 1-2 μm sized grains. Atomic terraces are clearly evidenced with AFM and give an inter-planar spacing of 1.54 nm corresponding to the (001) distance. The Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements show an HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.2 eV. After vacuum thermal evaporation on patterned substrates with different inter-electrodes distances, we have performed in situ measurements of the electrical response of such thin films. We found for these films a resistivity of ρ = 4.7 ± 0.2 . 10 4 Ω m, that is an order of magnitude lower than the value reported to date in literature for single crystals of pentacene. This value is not affected by the presence of grain boundaries. The resistivity is further reduced by a factor 8.9 ± 0.7, 14 ± 1, 2.3 ± 0.3 upon exposure to oxygen, nitrogen and ambient air, respectively. In addition density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic structure of pentacene in this specific phase, focusing on the effects on the relevant electronic properties of the relative orientation of the molecules within the crystalline unit cell, so far experimentally unknown. Our results show that the energy bandwidth and band-gap are crucially affected by the molecular stacking. Furthermore, by comparing our theoretical spectra with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements, we propose a molecular arrangement that gives a good agreement with experiments as far as the relevant orbitals are concerned. For this polymorph, we find a HOMO and LUMO bandwidth of ∼ 0.7 eV and ∼ 0.8 eV, respectively, which are significantly larger than those obtained for

  15. Fullerene films and fullerene-dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air-water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J.Y.; Vaknin, D.; Uphaus, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron and X-ray reflection measurements and surface pressure isotherms of spread films of the fullerene-dodecylamine adduct C60-[NH2(CH2)11CH3]x all indicate that this material may form monomolecular layers on water surfaces. The reflection data sets (neutron on both H2O and D2O) can be accounted...... for by a single model structure defined in terms of the dimensions of an average cell and its chemical composition. This model ascribes a total thickness of about 29 angstrom to the molecular interface layer with the following internal structure. The fullerenes (with several alkyl chains attached) form a central...... stratum and the remainder alkyl tails are located close to both the air and the water interfaces. The alkyl moieties close to the aqueous substrate are hydrated. The reflection experiments and the isotherms suggest that on average 8 +/- 3 dodecylamine molecules are present per fullerene, consistent within...

  16. Surface adsorption of oppositely charged C14TAB-PAMPS mixtures at the air/water interface and the impact on foam film stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Heiko; von Klitzing, Regine; Campbell, Richard A

    2015-01-08

    We have studied the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixture of poly(acrylamidomethylpropanesulfonate) sodium salt (PAMPS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) using a combination of neutron reflectivity and ellipsometry measurements. The interfacial composition was determined using three different analysis methods involving the two techniques for the first time. The bulk surfactant concentration was fixed at a modest value while the bulk polyelectrolyte concentration was varied over a wide range. We reveal complex changes in the surface adsorption behavior. Mixtures with low bulk PAMPS concentrations result in the components interacting synergistically in charge neutral layers at the air/water interface. At the bulk composition where PAMPS and C14TAB are mixed in an equimolar charge ratio in the bulk, we observe a dramatic drop in the surfactant surface excess to leave a large excess of polyelectrolyte at the interface, which we infer to have loops in its interfacial structure. Further increase of the bulk PAMPS concentration leads to a more pronounced depletion of material from the surface. Mixtures containing a large excess of PAMPS in the bulk showed enhanced adsorption, which is attributed to the large increase in total ionic strength of the system and screening of the surfactant headgroup charges. The data are compared to our former results on PAMPS/C14TAB mixtures [Kristen et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 23, 7986]. A peak in the surface tension is rationalized in terms of the changing surface adsorption and, unlike in more concentrated systems, is unrelated to bulk precipitation. Also, a comparison between the determined interfacial composition with zeta potential and foam film stability data shows that the highest film stability occurs when there is enhanced synergistic adsorption of both components at the interface due to charge screening when the total ionic strength of the system is highest. The additional contribution to the

  17. CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film and its enhanced photoelectric responses to dry air and formaldehyde induced by visible light at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhijun, E-mail: zjzou@xynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qiu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xu, Jingjing; Luo, Yongsong; Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Hailong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Photoelectric responses of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} to dry air and formaldehyde were tested. • In contrary to TiO{sub 2}, photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} obviously increased. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} may be a promising material for developing high performance sensor. - Abstract: Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite devices to dry air and formaldehyde under visible light irradiation at room temperature were investigated in this work. The pure TiO{sub 2} film was firstly prepared by screen printing and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film by the subsequent SILAR process. XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis DRS analysis were employed to examine the fundamental characteristics of as-prepared samples. Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} device displayed that no obvious photocurrent was observed upon turning the visible light on either in dry air or in formaldehyde. But in contrary to pure TiO{sub 2} device, the photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device has been obviously enhanced. It is the adding of CdS, which works as a sensitizer, that accounts for the enhanced response and makes the CdS/TiO{sub 2} device sensitive to the visible light. Moreover, the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. The present work does not only shed light on the photoelectric gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2}, but also suggests that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite may be a promising material for fabricating visible-light-induced photoelectric gas sensors working at room temperature.

  18. An optical spot test for the detection of dopamine in human urine using stabilized in air lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Drivelos, Dimitrios A; Simantiraki, Maria G; Koinis, Spyros

    2004-04-15

    The present technique describes a simple, sensitive spot test for the rapid one-shot detection of dopamine in human urine using lipid films with incorporated resorcin[4]arene receptor that are synthesized by a chemical reaction with a methacrylate polymer on a glass fiber filter. The lipid films without the receptor provided fluorescence under a UV lamp. The use of the receptor in these films quenched this fluorescence, and the color became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of dopamine or urine containing this stimulant provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence, which allows the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The novelty of the present work is that it opens new routes in the field of biosensing, i.e., development of sensitive, rapid, and simple methods for detecting species based on the fluorescence of the lipid membranes on a polymer film, and provides a spot test technique for the rapid detection of dopamine. The effect of potent interferences including a wide range of compounds usually found in human urine (i.e., ascorbic aid, glucose, leucine, glycine, tartrate, citrate, bicarbonate, and caffeine) was examined using an aqueous buffered solution that contained the potent interference and dopamine at two lower concentration levels (i.e., 3 x 10(-8)-10(-8) M). The effect of proteins and lipids was also investigated at these two lower dopamine concentration levels in aqueous buffered solution. The results showed no interferences from all these constituents at concentrations usually found in human urine samples; for example, albumin up to 3.22 g/L concentration levels did not provide any interference (i.e., no fluorescence). A drop of urine containing this stimulant provided similar results, i.e., a "switching on" of the fluorescence that allows a technique for the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The technique is not based on a calibration

  19. The Dynamics of the Electric Field Distribution in the Surface of Insulating Film Irradiated by Air Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julionas KALADE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on a surface, electric charge usually accumulates near the tips of surface irregularities, from where it can be transferred to nearby objects due to ionization of ambient air. The amount of transferred charge, the rate of charge transfer, the size of the charged spot (e.g., on the surface of an insulator and its tendency to spread will depend on properties of air during electric discharge, on the magnitude of charge accumulated at the tip of an object, on possibilities for replenishing that charge, on the time spent for charge transfer from the tip onto the insulating layer, on properties of the insulating layer, etc. Those properties are discussed in this work by comparing the results of measurements and theoretical analysis.

  20. Influence of gold species (AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-)) on self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in solutions and morphology of composite thin films fabricated at the air/liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaokai; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-01-21

    Composite thin films doped with Au species were fabricated at an air/liquid interface via a series of steps, including the mass transfer of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) across the liquid/liquid interface between a DMF/CHCl3 solution and an aqueous solution containing either AuCl4(-) or AuCl2(-), self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in a mixed DMF-water solution, and adsorption and further self-organization of the formed aggregates at the air/liquid interface. This is a new approach for fabricating composite polymer films and can be completed within a very short time. AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-) ions were found to significantly influence the self-assembly behavior of the block copolymer and the morphologies of the composite films, leading to the formation of nanowire arrays and a foam structure at the air/liquid interface, respectively, which originated from rod-like micelles and microcapsules that had formed in the respective solutions. The effect of the metal complex was analyzed based on the packing parameters of the amphiphilic polymer molecules in different microenvironments and the interactions between the pyridine groups and the metal chloride anions. In addition, these composite thin films exhibited stable and durable performance as heterogeneous catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroaromatics in aqueous solutions.

  1. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  2. High performance ultraviolet photodetectors with atomic-layer-deposited ZnO films via low-temperature post-annealing in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated the effect of low temperature post-annealing in air on atomic-layer-deposited ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs. The results indicate that the post-annealing could reduce the dark-current of the MSM device by ten orders of magnitude; however, it also decreased the photo-current of the UV PD by one order of magnitude. The former could be related to the reduction of oxygen vacancies and the crystallization enhancement of the ZnO film; the latter should be attributed to the reduction of defects in the ZnO film, thus resulting in a smaller decrease in thermionic-field emission tunneling barrier because of reduced holes trapped near the interface. For the post-annealing at 250 oC for 30 min, the dark-current was equal to 5.16×10-11 A, and the ultraviolet-visible rejection ratio approached 1.4×106, and the responsivity was as high as 1.78×103 A/W at 5V. Further, prolonging annealing time at a lower temperature (200 oC also could greatly improve the performance of the UV PD, i.e., 90 min annealing produced a quite large responsivity of 1.30×104 A/W at 5 V while maintaining a very low dark-current (1.42×10-10 A and a large ultraviolet-visible rejection ratio (4.06×105.

  3. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  4. Self-similar dynamics of air film entrained by a solid disk in confined space: A simple prototype of topological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Hana; Yamagishi, Yuki; Okumura, Ko

    2018-05-01

    In hydrodynamic topological transitions, one mass of fluid breaks into two or two merge into one. For example, in honey-drop formation when honey is dripping from a spoon, honey is extended to separate into two masses as the liquid neck bridging them thins down to the micron scale. At the moment when the topology changes due to the breakup, physical observables such as surface curvature locally diverge. Such singular dynamics has widely attracted physicists, revealing universality in self-similar dynamics, which shares much in common with critical phenomena in thermodynamics. Many experimental examples have been found, including an electric spout and vibration-induced jet eruption. However, only a few cases have been physically understood on the basis of equations that govern the singular dynamics and even in such a case the physical understanding is mathematically complicated, inevitably involving delicate numerical calculations. Here we study the breakup of air film entrained by a solid disk into viscous liquid in a confined space, which leads to formation, thinning, and breakup of the neck of air. As a result, we unexpectedly find that equations governing the neck dynamics can be solved analytically by virtue of two remarkable experimental features: Only a single length scale linearly dependent on time remains near the singularity and two universal scaling functions describing the singular neck shape and velocity field are both analytic. The present solvable case would be essential for a better understanding of the singular dynamics and will help reveal the physics of unresolved examples intimately related to daily-life phenomena and diverse practical applications.

  5. X-ray scattering of calcite thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition: Studies in air and in calcite saturated water solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hudak, Michael R.; Lerner, Allan [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grubbs, Robert K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Wang, Shanmin [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhang, Zhan; Karapetrova, Evguenia [Advance Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hickmott, Donald [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Majewski, Jaroslaw, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Carbonates are one of the most abundant groups of minerals in earth systems and are important in many geological settings and industrial processes. Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) thin films produced by atomic layer deposition offer a method to evaluate the surficial properties of carbonates as well as interactions at the carbonate–fluid interface. Using synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and X-ray diffraction, these films are observed to be porous, polycrystalline, and have crystallites oriented with the major (104) calcite cleavage plane parallel to the surface of the z-cut single crystal quartz substrate. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer, present between quartz and the calcite film, does not affect the as-deposited film, but does influence how the films reorganize in contact with fluid. Without a buffer layer, calcite reorients its crystallites to have populations of (006) and (030) parallel to the substrate, while those with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer become more amorphous. Amorphous films may represent an analog to amorphous calcium carbonate and provide insights into that material's thermophysical behavior. Due to a higher percentage of pore spaces available for fluid infiltration, films deposited at higher temperature make the calcite thin films more susceptible to amorphization. These films are chemically similar, but structurally dissimilar to bulk natural calcite. Nevertheless, they can be a complementary system to traditional single crystal X-ray surface scattering studies on carbonates, particularly for important but less common minerals, to evaluate mineral–fluid interfacial interactions. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) used to produce calcite films. • Calcite film orientation and crystallinity depend on ALD parameters. • ALD calcite films can be both crystalline and amorphous. • Interaction of water with films can re-orient or amorphize the films. • ALD calcite films may be useful to study carbonate–fluid interfacial

  6. X-ray scattering of calcite thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition: Studies in air and in calcite saturated water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Hudak, Michael R.; Lerner, Allan; Grubbs, Robert K.; Wang, Shanmin; Zhang, Zhan; Karapetrova, Evguenia; Hickmott, Donald; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Carbonates are one of the most abundant groups of minerals in earth systems and are important in many geological settings and industrial processes. Calcite (CaCO 3 ) thin films produced by atomic layer deposition offer a method to evaluate the surficial properties of carbonates as well as interactions at the carbonate–fluid interface. Using synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and X-ray diffraction, these films are observed to be porous, polycrystalline, and have crystallites oriented with the major (104) calcite cleavage plane parallel to the surface of the z-cut single crystal quartz substrate. An Al 2 O 3 buffer layer, present between quartz and the calcite film, does not affect the as-deposited film, but does influence how the films reorganize in contact with fluid. Without a buffer layer, calcite reorients its crystallites to have populations of (006) and (030) parallel to the substrate, while those with an Al 2 O 3 buffer layer become more amorphous. Amorphous films may represent an analog to amorphous calcium carbonate and provide insights into that material's thermophysical behavior. Due to a higher percentage of pore spaces available for fluid infiltration, films deposited at higher temperature make the calcite thin films more susceptible to amorphization. These films are chemically similar, but structurally dissimilar to bulk natural calcite. Nevertheless, they can be a complementary system to traditional single crystal X-ray surface scattering studies on carbonates, particularly for important but less common minerals, to evaluate mineral–fluid interfacial interactions. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) used to produce calcite films. • Calcite film orientation and crystallinity depend on ALD parameters. • ALD calcite films can be both crystalline and amorphous. • Interaction of water with films can re-orient or amorphize the films. • ALD calcite films may be useful to study carbonate–fluid interfacial interactions

  7. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  8. Uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin films and air-stable n-type transistors based on donor-acceptor semiconductor (diC8BTBT)(FnTCNQ) [n = 0, 2, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yosei; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshida, Yuji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of high quality thin films for semiconducting organic donor-acceptor charge-transfer (CT) compounds, (diC8BTBT)(FnTCNQ) (diC8BTBT = 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and FnTCNQ [n = 0,2,4] = fluorinated derivatives of 7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane), which have a high degree of layered crystallinity. Single-phase and uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin films of the compounds were obtained by co-evaporation of the component donor and acceptor molecules. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) fabricated with the compound films exhibited n-type field-effect characteristics, showing a mobility of 6.9 × 10-2 cm2/V s, an on/off ratio of 106, a sub-threshold swing of 0.8 V/dec, and an excellent stability in air. We discuss the suitability of strong intermolecular donor-acceptor interaction and the narrow CT gap nature in compounds for stable n-type OTFT operation.

  9. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  10. SU-E-T-800: Verification of Acurose XB Dose Calculation Algorithm at Air Cavity-Tissue Interface Using Film Measurement for Small Fields of 6-MV Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S; Suh, T; Chung, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dose accuracy of Acuros XB (AXB) dose calculation algorithm at air-tissue interface using inhomogeneous phantom for 6-MV flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom included air cavity was manufactured for verifying dose accuracy at the air-tissue interface. The phantom was composed with 1 and 3 cm thickness of air cavity. To evaluate the central axis doses (CAD) and dose profiles of the interface, the dose calculations were performed for 3 × 3 and 4 × 4 cm 2 fields of 6 MV FFF beams with AAA and AXB in Eclipse treatment plainning system. Measurements in this region were performed with Gafchromic film. The root mean square errors (RMSE) were analyzed with calculated and measured dose profile. Dose profiles were divided into inner-dose profile (>80%) and penumbra (20% to 80%) region for evaluating RMSE. To quantify the distribution difference, gamma evaluation was used and determined the agreement with 3%/3mm criteria. Results: The percentage differences (%Diffs) between measured and calculated CAD in the interface, AXB shows more agreement than AAA. The %Diffs were increased with increasing the thickness of air cavity size and it is similar for both algorithms. In RMSEs of inner-profile, AXB was more accurate than AAA. The difference was up to 6 times due to overestimation by AAA. RMSEs of penumbra appeared to high difference for increasing the measurement depth. Gamma agreement also presented that the passing rates decreased in penumbra. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the dose calculation with AXB shows more accurate than with AAA for the air-tissue interface. The 2D dose distributions with AXB for both inner-profile and penumbra showed better agreement than with AAA relative to variation of the measurement depths and air cavity sizes

  11. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  12. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  13. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  14. Thickness calculation software of the thermal insulation in facilities using thermal solar energy; Software para el calculo de espesores del aislante termico en instalaciones de aprovechamiento de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx

    2010-11-15

    It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.

  15. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  16. Investigation of liquid film behavior at the onset of flooding during adiabatic counter-current air-water two-phase flow in an inclined pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deendarlianto; Ousaka, Akiharu; Kariyasaki, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    The liquid film characteristics at the onset of flooding in an inclined pipe (16 mm i.d. and 2.2 m in length) have been investigated experimentally. A constant electric current method and visual observation were utilized to elucidate the flow mechanisms at the onset of flooding. Two mechanisms are clarified to control the flooding in lower flooding and upper flooding, respectively. The lower flooding occurred at lower liquid flow rate and high pipe inclination angle. In this mechanism, the liquid film does not block the pipe cross-section. On the other hand, the upper flooding occurred at higher liquid flow rate and low pipe inclination angle. In this case, blocking of the pipe cross-section by large wave and entrainment plays an important role. The experimental data indicated that there was no reversal motion of liquid film at the onset of flooding during the operation of both lower flooding and upper flooding. The effects of pipe inclination angle on the onset of flooding are also discussed

  17. Computer program for the calculation of stresses in rotary equipment discs; Programas de computo para el calculo de esfuerzos en discos de equipo rotatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.

  18. Computer program for the calculation of stresses in rotary equipment discs; Programas de computo para el calculo de esfuerzos en discos de equipo rotatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.

  19. PCRELAP5: data calculation program for RELAP 5 code; PCRELAP5: programa de calculo dos dados de entrada para o codigo RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Larissa Jacome Barros

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data requires a great number of mathematical operations to calculate the geometry of the components. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Calculo do RELAP5 - PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. In addition, an English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. In this work, the final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra 2. (author)

  20. Absorption of water vapour in the falling film of water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) in a vertical tube at air-cooling thermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouis, Mahmoud; Valles, Manel; Medrano, Marc; Coronas, Alberto [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, CREVER, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Autovia de Salou, s/n, 43006, Tarragona (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    In air-cooled water-LiBr absorption chillers the working conditions in the absorber and condenser are shifted to higher temperatures and concentrations, thereby increasing the risk of crystallisation. To develop this technology, two main problems are to be addressed: the availability of new salt mixtures with wider range of solubility than water-LiBr, and advanced absorber configurations that enable to carry out simultaneously an appropriate absorption process and an effective air-cooling. One way of improving the solubility of LiBr aqueous solutions is to add other salts to create multicomponent salt solutions. The aqueous solution of the quaternary salt system (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) presents favourable properties required for air-cooled absorption systems: less corrosive and crystallisation temperature about 35 K lower than that of water-LiBr.This paper presents an experimental study on the absorption of water vapour over a wavy laminar falling film of an aqueous solution of (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) on the inner wall of a water-cooled smooth vertical tube. Cooling water temperatures in the range 30-45 C were selected to simulate air-cooling thermal conditions. The results are compared with those obtained in the same experimental set-up with water-LiBr solutions.The control variables for the experimental study were: absorber pressure, solution Reynolds number, solution concentration and cooling water temperature. The parameters considered to assess the absorber performance were: absorber thermal load, mass absorption flux, degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber, and the falling film heat transfer coefficient.The higher solubility of the multicomponent salt solution makes possible the operation of the absorber at higher salt concentration than with the conventional working fluid water-LiBr. The absorption fluxes achieved with water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) at a concentration of 64.2 wt% are around 60 % higher than

  1. Manual method for dose calculation in gynecologic brachytherapy; Metodo manual para o calculo de doses em braquiterapia ginecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Biaggio, Maria F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes a manual method for dose calculation in brachytherapy of gynecological tumors, which allows the calculation of the doses at any plane or point of clinical interest. This method uses basic principles of vectorial algebra and the simulating orthogonal films taken from the patient with the applicators and dummy sources in place. The results obtained with method were compared with the values calculated with the values calculated with the treatment planning system model Theraplan and the agreement was better than 5% in most cases. The critical points associated with the final accuracy of the proposed method is related to the quality of the image and the appropriate selection of the magnification factors. This method is strongly recommended to the radiation oncology centers where are no treatment planning systems available and the dose calculations are manually done. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  3. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  4. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  5. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  6. Torque calculation in the induction motor with the finite element method; Calculo del par en el motor de induccion con el metodo del elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Diaz, Ramon

    2002-06-15

    In this work the method of the finite element is applied to the bi-dimensional analysis of the induction motor in operation in steady state, excited by sine sources of laminar currents and sine sources of voltage. The analysis is focused mainly in the calculation of the electromagnetic torque. The topics of electromagnetic theory are covered and in an idealized model of the induction motor, analytically and numerically with the method of the finite element, in the variant method of Galerkin, the vectorial potential and the torque are calculated. The results obtained with the analytical and numerical methods are compared. Three formulations are developed to calculate the torque with the method of the finite element, using triangular elements of first order, based in the equation of force of Lorentz, the Maxwell tensor and the principle of the virtual work. Finally, a motor of induction of real characteristics is simulated, assuming it is connected to a three-phase voltage source. In this motor it is analyzed the convergence and the evolution in the results obtained of the torque with different discretions, and the torque-velocity performance curve is calculated. [Spanish] En este trabajo se aplica el metodo del elemento finito al analisis bidimensional del motor de induccion en operacion en estado estable, excitado por fuentes de corriente laminar senoidales y fuentes de voltaje senoidales. El analisis se enfoca principalmente en el calculo del par electromagnetico. Se tratan los topicos de teoria electromagnetica involucrados y en un modelo idealizado del motor de induccion, se calculan analitica y numericamente con el metodo del elemento finito, en la variante metodo de Galerkin, el potencial vectorial y el par. Se comparan resultados obtenidos con los metodos analiticos y numericos. Se desarrollan tres formulaciones para calcular el par con el metodo del elemento finito, utilizando elementos triangulares de primer orden, basadas en la ecuacion de fuerza de

  7. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  8. Study on radiographic and minerals characteristics of renal calculus; Estudo das caracteristicas radiograficas e minerais de calculos renais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: mfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Goldberg, Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Urologia; Sakate, Makoto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria; Fernandes, Marco F.S. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Geral

    2010-07-01

    Radiological Images of kidneys stones were analyzed, quantifying the optical density (D.O.) and the blackening degree in the radiographic film of the samples. Studies of the literature, analyses of samples and interviews with specialists of the Center of Sciences and Technologies of Materials (CCTM) of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Researches (IPEN/CNEN-SP), after crystallographic analysis for absorption techniques and diffraction of ray-X, showed that D.O. of the stones it is more directly dependent of their dimensions of what of their contents concentration. It is the researchers' consensus that as larger D.O. of the radiographic image of the calculation renal, larger her density (g/cm{sup 3}) and therefore larger the importance of the application of an appropriate energy for the fragmentation of the calculation. This energy, supplied by the equipment extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) it depends on several parameters inside the ones which the anatomy and the patient's position and of the own limitations of the lithotripsy equipment. This interpretation, at least for the analyzed samples, it disappoints a simplistic correlation among the parameters of the shock waves used in the lithotripsy procedures and the measures of D.O. and characteristics minerals. Another restriction factor is the discrepancy of the radiological image the kidneys stones camped in the patient, surrounded by the organs and interposed bone structures, and gotten her through the analysis of the fragments expelled after the accomplishment of ESWL, which present great variety of granulations. (author)

  9. Growth of organic films on indoor surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    predictions indicate that film growth would primarily be influenced by the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs with octanol-air partitioning (Koa) values in the approximate range 10≤log Koa≤13. Within the relevant range, SVOCs with lower values will equilibrate with the surface film more rapidly. Over time...

  10. Application of the ultrasonic technique and high-speed filming for the study of the structure of air-water bubbly flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, R.D.M.; Venturini, O.J.; Tanahashi, E.I. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba (Brazil); Neves, F. Jr. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil); Franca, F.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Multiphase flows are very common in industry, oftentimes involving very harsh environments and fluids. Accordingly, there is a need to determine the dispersed phase holdup using noninvasive fast responding techniques; besides, knowledge of the flow structure is essential for the assessment of the transport processes involved. The ultrasonic technique fulfills these requirements and could have the capability to provide the information required. In this paper, the potential of the ultrasonic technique for application to two-phase flows was investigated by checking acoustic attenuation data against experimental data on the void fraction and flow topology of vertical, upward, air-water bubbly flows in the zero to 15% void fraction range. The ultrasonic apparatus consisted of one emitter/receiver transducer and three other receivers at different positions along the pipe circumference; simultaneous high-speed motion pictures of the flow patterns were made at 250 and 1000 fps. The attenuation data for all sensors exhibited a systematic interrelated behavior with void fraction, thereby testifying to the capability of the ultrasonic technique to measure the dispersed phase holdup. From the motion pictures, basic gas phase structures and different flows patterns were identified that corroborated several features of the acoustic attenuation data. Finally, the acoustic wave transit time was also investigated as a function of void fraction. (author)

  11. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  12. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Møller

    2012-01-01

    Vi vil skabe film til mennesker med demens – ikke film om demens sygdommen eller beretninger om livet og hverdagen med en kronisk lidelse. Filmene skal medvirke til at frembringe en behagelig stemning omkring og hos mennesker med demens, så hverdagen bliver så tryg som mulig. Filmene skal samtidig...... var at afgrænse og prioritere projektet, samt komme med anbefalinger omkring hvad der er vigtigt, i forbindelse med produktion af film målrettet mennesker med demens. Resultat af ekspertgruppen sammenfattes i denne rapport. Projektet gennemføres som et samarbejde mellem Retrospect Film...

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  15. Into films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Ed S.; Doicaru, Miruna M.; Hakemulder, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Most film viewers know the experience of being deeply absorbed in the story of a popular film. It seems that at such moments they lose awareness of watching a movie. And yet it is highly unlikely that they completely ignore the fact that they watch a narrative and technological construction. Perh...

  16. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  17. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.

    1999-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Thickness engineering of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films to suppress interfacial reaction and diffusion of Ni/Au gate metal in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs up to 600 °C in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suria, Ateeq J.; Yalamarthy, Ananth Saran; Heuser, Thomas A.; Bruefach, Alexandra; Chapin, Caitlin A.; So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of 50 nm atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 to suppress the interfacial reaction and inter-diffusion between the gate metal and semiconductor interface, to extend the operation limit up to 600 °C in air. Suppression of diffusion is verified through Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is further supported with electrical characterization. An ALD Al2O3 thin film (10 nm and 50 nm), which functions as a dielectric layer, was inserted between the gate metal (Ni/Au) and heterostructure-based semiconductor material (AlGaN/GaN) to form a metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT). This extended the 50 nm ALD Al2O3 MIS-HEMT (50-MIS) current-voltage (Ids-Vds) and gate leakage (Ig,leakage) characteristics up to 600 °C. Both, the 10 nm ALD Al2O3 MIS-HEMT (10-MIS) and HEMT, failed above 350 °C, as evidenced by a sudden increase of approximately 50 times and 5.3 × 106 times in Ig,leakage, respectively. AES on the HEMT revealed the formation of a Ni-Au alloy and Ni present in the active region. Additionally, XRD showed existence of metal gallides in the HEMT. The 50-MIS enables the operation of AlGaN/GaN based electronics in oxidizing high-temperature environments, by suppressing interfacial reaction and inter-diffusion of the gate metal with the semiconductor.

  19. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2012-01-01

    I forbindelse med opstarten af Demens Film projektet har der været nedsat en ekspertgruppe, som er kommet med en række anbefalinger omkring film til mennesker med demens. Anbefalingerne skal bruges i de næste faser af projektet. Deltagerne i ekspertgruppen var sammensat af en bred gruppe...... fagpersoner inde for forskellige fagområder. Læs mere om gruppens anbefalinger og sammensætning af ekspertgruppen i den kort rapport som er offentlig tilgængelig. Læs Ekspertgruppe anbefalingerne til Demens Film projekt....

  20. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  1. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  2. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  3. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  4. Influence of Liquid Petroleum Gas on the Electrical Parameters of the WO3 Thick Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. KHADAYATE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing technology. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Influence of LPG on the electrical properties of the prepared WO3 thick film is reported. It was observed that the slope of the Arrhenius curves of the WO3 thick film decreased as the medium changed from pure air to 100 ppm LPG in air. From I-V characteristics, it was observed that the WO3 thick film exhibit highest sensitivity to 50 ppm LPG in air at 400oC.

  5. Contactless Positioning using an Active Air Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the production of integrated circuits, solar cells, flat panel displays and elec- tronics, thin plates are often used as a base for manufacturing. Examples are silicon wafers and glass panels on which several process steps build transistors, pixels and interconnects. To improve the production

  6. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d max. , 10 × 10 cm 2 , 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4–40.6°C (85–105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  7. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  8. Science Fiction on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  9. Density determination of langmuir-blodgett monolayer films using x-ray reflectivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damar Yoga Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer deposition by Langmuir-Blodgett technique produces monolayer films that are uniform with controllable thickness down to nanometer scale. To evaluate the quality of the monolayer deposition, X-ray reflectivity technique are employed to monitor the monolayers density. Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer with good coverage and uniformity results in film density close to its macroscopic film counterpart whereas films with presence of air gaps shows lower density compared to its macroscopic film counterpart. (author)

  10. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-01-01

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm −2 ) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm −2 ) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm 2 had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10 3 Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10 4 Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films

  11. Structure and oxygen incorporation in low pressure sputtered YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, S.; Pandya, D. K.; Kashyap, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ (YBCO) have been successfully grown by reactive RF-magnetron sputtering technique at low pressure. The oxygen partial pressure of 0.95 mTorr, a total pressure (argon and oxygen) of 1.9 mTorr, and a substrate temperature of 775 grad C resulted in good quality films with T C (R=0) = 85.3 K and J Cmag (4.2 K) ≅ 2x10 7 A/cm 2 . The incorporation of oxygen in the as-grown films has been controlled by using different ambient - oxygen, air or argon during in-situ cooling. The superconducting behaviour of the films was studied using resistance-temperature and low field ac-susceptibility measurements and correlated with their structure. All the films exhibited metallic conduction in the normal state. The oxygen- and air- cooled films were superconducting, possessing the usual orthorhombic structure. The argon-cooled films were non-superconducting possessing the tetragonal structure, thus implying that the structure of the film during deposition is tetragonal which transforms to either of the oxygen rich orthorhombic-I or -II phases depending upon the oxygen/air ambient. The 'δ' values of 0.14, 0.32 and 0.70 and higher 'c'-parameters of 1.1785, 1.180 and 1.183 nm have been obtained for oxygen, air and argon cooled films respectively. (Authors)

  12. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  13. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  14. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timounay Yousra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  15. Scalable Production of Mechanically Robust Antireflection Film for Omnidirectional Enhanced Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Lin, Yinyue; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Jia, Wei; Cao, Xinmin; Chang, Paichun; Li, Dongdong

    2017-09-01

    Antireflection (AR) at the interface between the air and incident window material is paramount to boost the performance of photovoltaic devices. 3D nanostructures have attracted tremendous interest to reduce reflection, while the structure is vulnerable to the harsh outdoor environment. Thus the AR film with improved mechanical property is desirable in an industrial application. Herein, a scalable production of flexible AR films is proposed with microsized structures by roll-to-roll imprinting process, which possesses hydrophobic property and much improved robustness. The AR films can be potentially used for a wide range of photovoltaic devices whether based on rigid or flexible substrates. As a demonstration, the AR films are integrated with commercial Si-based triple-junction thin film solar cells. The AR film works as an effective tool to control the light travel path and utilize the light inward more efficiently by exciting hybrid optical modes, which results in a broadband and omnidirectional enhanced performance.

  16. Antibacterial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films grafting electrospun PLA/Ally isothioscyanate (AITC) fibers for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers of submicron sizes encapsulating allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (PfA) were made and electrospun onto the surfaces of PLA films (PfA-g-film). SEM examination confirmed that the fibers were grafted to the PLA film after the (PfA-g-film) underwent air blowing and water washi...

  17. Black Films and Film-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

    The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

  18. Films nématiques minces sur substrats liquides

    OpenAIRE

    Delabre , Ulysse

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes the organization of thin films of nematic liquid crystals on liquid substrates (water and glycerol). In this situation, the planar anchoring at the liquid interface is stronger than the homeotropic anchorage at the air interface. Below a critical thickness about 0.5-0.6 µm, stripes appear that correspond to a modulation of the nematic orientation. The stripe wavelength is much larger than the film thickness. We have analyzed the specific situation of very thin films and we ...

  19. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  20. Film: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  1. Film and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  2. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  3. STUDI EKSPERIMENTAL FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR PADA EVAPORASI NIRA KENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medya Ayunda Fitri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Falling film evaporator is a constructed equipment for concentrating dilute solution that are sensitive to heat flowing form a thin film. This research aims to study the evaporation of cane juice concentrated with air flow on falling film evaporator and knowing evaporation rate occured in falling film evaporator used. In the process, cane juice from plant pumped to the falling film evaporator that used in this experiment. This research used concentrated cane juice and air flow rate for variables of this experiment. Cane juice flow from top of evaporator through distributor to form thin film and air flow from the bottom of evaporator. After that, temperatur of pipe wall, inlet and outlet temperature of cane juice and air were measured. This experiment concluded that the highest concentration of outlet solution is 59 brix for liquid flow rate 154 l/h and air flow rate 10 m3/h, and the other hand inlet solution concentration 51 brix. Optimum evaporation rate is 35 kg/m2.h for 51 brix and air flow rate 10 m3/h.

  4. Refractometry and Extinguishment/Burnback Testing of Pacific Air Forces AFFF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer L; Barrett, Kimberly D

    2006-01-01

    At the request of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) performed refractometry and extinguishment/burnback tests on samples of Ansulite and 3M aqueous film forming foam...

  5. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers onto synthetic polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, G.S.; Kaur, Inderjeet; Misra, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) and polyamide (PA) films have been modified by radiochemical grafting of methylacrylate (MA), ethylacrylate (EA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) in aqueous medium in air. Grafted films show increased area and lower thermal stability. The swelling behaviour of these films vary as a function of percent grafting (P g ). (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  6. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  7. Large area synthesis, characterization, and anisotropic etching of two dimensional tungsten disulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergent properties of tungsten disulfide at the quantum confinement limit hold promise for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we report on the large area synthesis of atomically thin tungsten disulfide films with strong photoluminescence properties via sulfurization of the pre-deposited tungsten films. Detailed characterization of the pre-deposited tungsten films and tungsten disulfide films are performed using microscopy and spectroscopy methods. By directly heating tungsten disulfide films in air, we have shown that the films tend to be etched into a series of triangular shaped pits with the same orientations, revealing the anisotropic etching behavior of tungsten disulfide edges. Moreover, the dimensions of the triangular pits increase with the number of layers, suggesting a thickness dependent behavior of etching in tungsten disulfide films. This method offers a promising new avenue for engineering the edge structures of tungsten disulfide films. - Highlights: • Large-scale synthesis of WS_2 films is achieved via sulfurization of W films. • Annealing of W films leads to a substantial improvement in the quality of WS_2 films. • WS_2 films show laser power dependent photoluminescence characteristics. • WS_2 films are etched with well-oriented triangular pits upon annealing in air. • Anisotropic oxidative etching is greatly affected by the thickness of WS_2 films.

  8. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  9. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  10. Perkembangan Motif Sineas Film Indie dalam Menghadapi Industri Film Mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoppy Ardiyono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to review to review determine the effect and its impact raised by motive - a motive the ada in the hearts period travel time history of film short against cinematographer-filmmaker as principal especially filmmakers left path (indie. The used platform theory research hearts singer adopts from theory commodification media vincent mosco. Singer helped shift theory understanding the motive filmmakers working hearts differences fundamental basis of political pressure economic happens under with demands regime. The method used is descriptive qualitative research methods. Data collection techniques through observation of the environment of an independent film live and in-depth interviews with speakers including mr. Yang prayer orangutan direct contact 'with realm of research. Coupled with study to review the literature references adding insight research. And that was concluded change appears motif among indie film cinematographer it is true the situation is closely linked to the mainstream industry, konstilasi politics, and the orientation of capitalism. Necessary their one thing is clear and systematic regulation from the government to the future movement of currents sidestream (indie more with good operates professionally arranged, the air so that the contribution of indie cinema film land for progress can feels good to yourself indie filmmakers as well as those of its main industries.

  11. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  12. Development of a computational code for calculations of shielding in dental facilities; Desenvolvimento de um codigo computacional para calculos de blindagem em instalacoes odontologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise D.; Borges, Diogo da S.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de L., E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is prepared in order to address calculations of shielding to minimize the interaction of patients with ionizing radiation and / or personnel. The work includes the use of protection report Radiation in Dental Medicine (NCRP-145 or Radiation Protection in Dentistry), which establishes calculations and standards to be adopted to ensure safety to those who may be exposed to ionizing radiation in dental facilities, according to the dose limits established by CNEN-NN-3.1 standard published in September / 2011. The methodology comprises the use of computer language for processing data provided by that report, and a commercial application used for creating residential projects and decoration. The FORTRAN language was adopted as a method for application to a real case. The result is a programming capable of returning data related to the thickness of material, such as steel, lead, wood, glass, plaster, acrylic, acrylic and leaded glass, which can be used for effective shielding against single or continuous pulse beams. Several variables are used to calculate the thickness of the shield, as: number of films used in the week, film load, use factor, occupational factor, distance between the wall and the source, transmission factor, workload, area definition, beam intensity, intraoral and panoramic exam. Before the application of the methodology is made a validation of results with examples provided by NCRP-145. The calculations redone from the examples provide answers consistent with the report.

  13. Fabricated super-hydrophobic film with potentiostatic electrolysis method on copper for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Qiu Ri; Zhang Dun; Lin Zhifeng; Hou Baorong

    2010-01-01

    A novel one-step potentiostatic electrolysis method was proposed to fabricate super-hydrophobic film on copper surface. The resulted film was characterized by contact angle tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical measurements. It could be inferred that the super-hydrophobic property resulted from the flower-like structure of copper tetradecanoate film. In the presence of super-hydrophobic film, the anodic and cathodic polarization current densities are reduced for more than five and four orders of magnitude, respectively. The air trapped in the film is the essential contributor of the anticorrosion property of film for its insulation, the copper tetradecanoate film itself acts as a 'frame' to trap air as well as a coating with inhibition effect. The super-hydrophobic film presents excellent inhibition effect to the copper corrosion and stability in water containing Cl - .

  14. Metal Rubber Sensor Appliqus for Rotor Blade Air, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin film Metal RubberTM sensor appliqués have the potential to reduce the time, complexity and cost of measuring air flow-induced skin friction during the...

  15. Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Peter

    This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

  16. The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harbord, Janet P.

    2007-01-01

    How is film changing? What does it do, and what do we do with it? This book examines the reasons why we should be studying film in the twenty-first century, connecting debates from philosophy, anthropology and new media with historical concerns of film studies.

  17. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  18. Tribological properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; McCauley, T.; Csencsits, R.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we present the friction and wear properties of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown in Ar-fullerene (C{sub 60}) and Ar-CH{sub 4} microwave plasmas. Specifically, we will address the fundamental tribological issues posed by these films during sliding against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterfaces in ambient air and inert gases. Grain sizes of the films grown by the new method are very small (10-30 nm) and are much smoother (20-40 nm, root mean square) than those of films grown by the conventional H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the grain boundaries of these films are very sharp and free of nondiamond phases. The microcrystalline diamond films grown by most conventional methods consist of large grains and a rough surface finish, which can cause severe abrasion during sliding against other materials. The friction coefficients of films grown by the new method (i.e. in Ar-C{sub 60} and Ar-CH{sub 4} plasmas) are comparable with those of natural diamond, and wear damage on counterface materials is minimal. Fundamental tribological studies indicate that these films may undergo phase transformation during long-duration, high-speed and/or high-load sliding tests and that the transformation products trapped at the sliding interfaces can intermittently dominate friction and wear performance. Using results from a combination of TEM, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we describe the structural chemistry of the debris particles trapped at the sliding interfaces and elucidate their possible effects on friction and wear of NCD films in dry N{sub 2}. Finally, we suggest a few potential applications in which NCD films can improve performance and service lives. (orig.)

  19. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  20. Monte Carlo calculations for doses in organs and tissues to oral radiography; Calculo de Monte Carlo para doses em orgaos e tecidos para radiologia oral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, E V.M.

    1986-12-31

    Using the MIRD 5 phantom and Monte Carlo technique, organ doses in patients undergoing external dental examination were calculated taking into account the different x-ray beam geometries and the various possible positions of x-ray source with regard to the head of the patient. It was necessary to introduce in the original computer program a new source description specific for dental examinations. To have a realistic evaluation of organ doses during dental examination it was necessary to introduce a new region in the phantom heat which characterizes the teeth and salivary glands. The attenuation of the x-ray beam by the lead shield of the radiographic film was also introduced in the calculation. (author).

  1. Production of optically thin free-standing oil films from the edge of a rotating disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.; Burch, D.F.; Rodenberg, R.; Cramer, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for forming thin free-standing oil films which are spun from the edge of a sharp-edged rotating disc. The films can be made thin enough to show strong optical interference colors when viewed in white light. The thinnest films have areal densities down to about 10 to 20 μgm/cm 2 . A stable roughly triangular film with an area of about 10 cm 2 and fairly uniform thickness can be readily produced. Much larger films having either greater thickness or less stability are also possible. Films have been produced both in air and in vacuum

  2. Nanoparticle size and morphology control using ultrafast laser induced forward transfer of Ni thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Abere, Michael J.; Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-26

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) printing technique using Ni thin film lift-off from glass substrates after ultrafast irradiation in air. Unique interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with thin films allow for control over NP faceting and size distributions. Control is achieved by changing the laser fluence, film thickness, and film-substrate distance. We demonstrate 20 nm Ni film removal from substrates and rapid NP printing, with size distributions centered at a 6 nm diameter. When the Ni film thickness is lowered to 10 nm, NPs are printed with distributions peaked at a 2 nm diameter.

  3. Porous-ZnO-Nanobelt Film as Recyclable Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film was synthesized by oxidizing the ZnSe-nanobelt film in air. The experiment results show that the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the ZnO-nanobelt film, and can be used as recyclable photocatalysts. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film is attributed to the increased surface area. Therefore, turning the 1D-nanostructure film into porous one may be a feasible approach to meet the demand of photocatalyst application.

  4. Film quality in film mammography. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Weskamp, P.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    During consideration of three film mammographic systems, the concept of signal/noise ratio is developed as a quantitative measure of film quality. The ability to recognise detail related to detail size, film blackening and exposure geometry was studied for various systems, and the quality profiles are discussed. There is a considerable difference in quality between industrial films without screens and film-screen combinations; however, exposure geometry during mammography has a considerable effect which tends to reduce the difference. Consequently, detail sizes of 200 μ to 1,000 μ (including the majority of mammographic micro-calcifications) are shown about equally well. Contrast for the lo-dose system is somewhat less than for adequately exposed industrial film. Over-exposure with the lo-dose system, contrary to industrial film, rapidly leads to unsatisfactory results. On the other hand it is often not possible to obtain an adequate exposure when using industrial film. For these reasons it is often an advantage to examine large breasts and the dense breasts of young women with a film-screen combination which requires approximately one eighth of the dose necessary for industrial film. For small or easily compressable breasts best results are obtained, using an adequate exposure by employing industril film; radiation dose it then acceptable. (orig./ORU) [de

  5. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  6. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  7. Penciptaan Seni Film Eksperimental “Sweet Rahwana”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Sasongko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Akhir-akhir ini bioskop di Indonesia memutar film-film horor. Genre film yangmuncul di Indonesia sejak tahun 1941 melalui Film Tengkorak Hidoep ini jugadiminati banyak penikmat film tanah air. Sebut saja film Sundel Bolong dan NyiBlorong yang menggondol Piala Antemas FFI (Festival Film Indonesia untuk FilmTerlaris 1982-1983. Film-film horor juga terus mampu meraup jumlah penontonyang besar dikarenakan bumbu adegan seks yang banyak ada di film-film hororIndonesia. Jika kembali mengaca pada sejarah termasuk sejarah perfilman Indonesia,penulis percaya akan ada titik jenuh. Penonton akan bosan dan kembali menjauhibioskop dengan film Indonesia. Kondisi ini pernah terjadi hanya sesaat sebelumdunia film Indonesia mati suri. Wayang bisa menjadi sumber inspirasi untukmengatasi kejenuhan tema film di Indonesia. Wayang adalah legenda yang tidakbisa dipisahkan dari cerita para tokoh tokohnya, salah satunya adalah karakter tokohRahwana yang selalu berwatak jahat. Unsur-unsur yang terdapat dalam karakterRahwana menjadi inspirasi untuk membuat karya film eksperimental agar menjadikarya dan tontonan alternatif bagi generasi muda Indonesia sehingga bisa menambahwawasan yang lebih luas. Dengan cara mengeksplorasi visual serta metode editingdengan teknik yang baru dan bermutu dapat menjadikan film eksperimental yangberkualitas untuk ditonton. “Sweet Ravana” an Experimental Film Art. Recently, cinemas in Indonesia play scarymovies. Scary movies have appeared in Indonesia since 1941 through a film entitled“Tengkorak Hidoep”. Many people got attracted with it. “Sundel Bolong” and “NyiBlorong” movies got achievement on Anthemas Cup FFI (Indonesian Film Festivalaward for a best-selling movies category in 1982-1983. Scary movies have been succsesfullto get a lot of audiences because of many sex scenes in the Indonesian scary movies. Thewriter believes there will be a saturation point against its. The audience will be boredand keep away from Indonesian

  8. Mathematical model for heat loss calculation through a window; Modelo para el calculo de la perdida de calor por una ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Cuevas B, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: afissore@udec.cl; ccuevas@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    In the present work a semi-empirical model for heat loss by convection at an indoor window surface with curtain or blind is given. With this model, the convection heat transfer coefficient and temperature of the air at confined space between the curtain and the glass can be calculated. The curtain was modeled with a paper due to the low thermal inertia that it has. The model is based on experimental data obtained for four separations between the paper and the window. Data from numerical simulation program are also used. (author)

  9. Air Force and Diversity: The Awkward Embrace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    people of color into their training films .60 The Air Force will stagnate in its diversity efforts without an in-depth review and overhaul of...December 2012 to ensure workspaces reflected a professional workspace. These were depicted as a “ witch hunt” against the fighter pilot culture; General...Welsh countered vehemently, stating certain traditions had no place in today’s Air Force. Nevertheless, discussions regarding witch hunts are still

  10. Evaporation-driven instability of the precorneal tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Cerretani, Colin; Braun, Richard J; Radke, C J

    2014-04-01

    Tear-film instability is widely believed to be a signature of eye health. When an interblink is prolonged, randomly distributed ruptures occur in the tear film. "Black spots" and/or "black streaks" appear in 15 to 40 s for normal individuals. For people who suffer from dry eye, tear-film breakup time (BUT) is typically less than a few seconds. To date, however, there is no satisfactory quantitative explanation for the origin of tear rupture. Recently, it was proposed that tear-film breakup is related to locally high evaporative thinning. A spatial variation in the thickness of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL) may lead to locally elevated evaporation and subsequent tear-film breakup. We examine the local-evaporation-driven tear-film-rupture hypothesis in a one-dimensional (1-D) model for the evolution of a thin aqueous tear film overriding the cornea subject to locally elevated evaporation at its anterior surface and osmotic water influx at its posterior surface. Evaporation rate depends on mass transfer both through the coating lipid layer and through ambient air. We establish that evaporation-driven tear-film breakup can occur under normal conditions but only for higher aqueous evaporation rates. Predicted roles of environmental conditions, such as wind speed and relative humidity, on tear-film stability agree with clinical observations. More importantly, locally elevated evaporation leads to hyperosmolar spots in the tear film and, hence, vulnerability to epithelial irritation. In addition to evaporation rate, tear-film instability depends on the strength of healing flow from the neighboring region outside the breakup region, which is determined by the surface tension at the tear-film surface and by the repulsive thin-film disjoining pressure. This study provides a physically consistent and quantitative explanation for the formation of black streaks and spots in the human tear film during an interblink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  12. Validation of Hiriart equation to compute steam production by the lip pressure method; Validacion de la ecuacion de Hiriart para calculo de gasto de vapor por el metodo de presion de labio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Mainly in new geothermal wells, it is necessary to evaluate the production in a very fast, simple and not expensive way, to know the convenience to install surface equipment, such as silencers and separators, to drive the steam to the commercial gathering system. In practice, one of the most known methods is the lip pressure one, which requires a simple set of installations. The objective of this paper is to validate the steam flow rate calculated by the lip pressure method, with respect to the ASME method. The ASME method is known for its accuracy, and is done by measuring the steam and liquid after a high pressure separator, by an orifice plate of known diameter and a triangular weir. Results of the validation show up the feasibility of application of the lip pressure method by using a simple adjustment equation. Percentage of mistake results less than 1%, without any notable influence of the production enthalpy. That equation to be applied in a general case, is as follows: Q{nu} =(20642)(F*P*D{sup 2}/{radical}h-2000). For the particular case of the Los Azufres geothermal field, the equation is: Q{nu}= 810*P*D{sup 2} [Espanol] En los pozos geotermicos, principalmente en los nuevos, es necesario evaluar su produccion de manera rapida, sencilla y economica, para determinar la conveniencia de instalar equipo superficial, como separadores, silenciadores, etc., que permita la integracion del vapor al sistema comercial de generacion electrica. Para fines practicos uno de los metodos mas conocidos es el de presion de labio, que solo requiere un arreglo sencillo de instalaciones superficiales. En este documento se validan y ajustan los calculos de produccion de vapor por ese metodo de presion de labio, con respecto a las mediciones exactas efectuadas con el metodo ASME. Este ultimo es reconocido internacionalmente por su precision, y se lleva a cabo separando la mezcla obtenida en superficie en un recipiente a presion para medir el vapor a traves de una placa de orificio

  13. Adjusting of the power-factor correction. Technical, economic and financial implications; Calculo de correccion del factor de potencia. Implicaciones tecnicas, economicas y financieras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eficiencia Energetica aplicada (Energiza) [Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A power-factor is a device formed by a dielectric set and electrodes within a container with terminals, able to contribute with capacitance to an electrical circuit, such as: transformers, induction motors, regulators, air conditioning, welding machines, induction furnaces and ballasts. This document also tells us about the location of capacitors in their system, the electrical conductor, the monthly consumption electricity bill, of the benefits when adjusting the power-factor, the liberation of power of the transformer, the reduction of current in feeders, the reduction of losses in feeders, the diminution of the tension fall and the approximate average sale price. [Spanish] Un factor de potencia es un dispositivo formado por un conjunto de dielectrico y electrodos dentro de un recipiente con terminales, capaz de aportar capacitancia a un circuito electrico, como lo son: transformadores, motores de induccion, reguladores, aire acondicionado, maquinas soldadoras, hornos de induccion y balastros. Este documento tambien nos habla acerca de la localizacion de capacitores en su sistema, del conductor electrico, del recibo de consumo mensual de energia, de los beneficios al corregir factor de potencia, la liberacion de potencia del transformador, la reduccion de corriente en alimentadores, la reduccion de perdidas en alimentadores, la disminucion de la caida de tension y el precio de venta promedio aproximado.

  14. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  15. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, E., E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Güder, H.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.

  16. A review of calculation methods for fast and intermediate reactors; Expose des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires; Obzor metodov rascheta reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh; Estudio panoramico de los metodos de calculo de los reactores rapidos e intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    This paper discusses the development of methods for calculating intermediate and fast reactors. It deals with various approaches to the problems of physical calculation. The calculation of resonance effects is discussed. Consideration is given to multi-group systems of fundamental and conjugate equations, various applications of perturbation theory to the problems of physical reactor calculation, and numerical methods of solving fundamental and conjugate reactor equations, which approximate the method of spherical harmonics. The paper describes an application of the response method to the solution of critical-mass problems, and methods of calculating reactors with hydrogeneous moderators. The fundamental features of an effective one-group reactor model are described. (author) [French] L'auteur examine la mise au point de methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires . Il decrit diverses manieres d'aborder les problemes des calculs sur la physique des reacteurs, notamment le calcul des effets de resonance. Il s'attache particulierement aux points suivants: systemes d'equations fondamentales et conjuguees a plusieurs groupes; diverses applications de la theorie des perturbations aux problemes de calculs sur la physique des reacteurs; methodes numeriques pour resoudre les equations fondamentales et conjuguees, voisines de la methode des harmoniques spheriques. L'auteur decrit ensuite une maniere d'appliquer la methode de la reponse aux problemes de la masse critique ainsi que des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs ralentis a l'hydrogene. Il decrit les caracteristique s fondamentale s d'un modele de reacteur a un groupe effectif. (author) [Spanish] El autor analiza el desarrollo de los metodos de calculo de los reactores nucleares que trabajan con neutrones rapidos y con neutrones intermedios. Examina diversos planteos de los problemas del calculo fisico. Indica la forma de tomar en cuenta los efectos de resonancia y menciona los sistemas

  17. The effect of radiosterilization on surface properties of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effect of sterilization method by gamma-ray on structure and cytotoxicity of polyurethane film surface has been investigated. For this purpose reactive urethan prepolymer was synthesized by the reaction between Tdi with a mixture of Peg and castro oil (50/50, w/w). The cured prepolymer films were prepared due to the reaction of reactive prepolymer with air moister under ambient conditions. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by Sem and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast L 929 cells and sterilized polyurethane film was evaluated. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  18. The effect of radiosterilization on cytotoxicity of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a sequence of tests for evaluation of sterilized biomaterial includes an initial set of tests in vitro, both biological (cell culture) and non-biological (mechanical tests). In this paper the cytotoxicity of a sterilized polyurethane film, in order to use as biomaterial, has been investigated. For this purpose NCO-terminated urethane prepolymer in medical quality was synthesized without ingredients beside monomers (polyethylene glycol/castor oil and toluene diisocyanate). The cured prepolymer films were prepared under ambient conditions due to the reaction of free NCO-groups of prepolymer with air moisture. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface structure of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by SEM and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast cells and sterilized polyurethane film in culture medium containing serum was evaluated in comparison with control samples. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  19. Composite polyaniline/calixarene Langmuir - Blodgett films for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. V.; DeRossi, D.; Kazantseva, Z. I.; Nabok, A. V.; Nesterenko, B. A.; Piletsky, S. A.; Kalchenko, V. I.; Shivaniuk, A. N.; Markovskiy, L. N.

    1996-12-01

    Mixtures of the polyaniline (emeraldine base) and phosphorylated calix[4]resorcinolarene derivative (CA) are proposed to prepare LB films for conductometric gas sensors. They are quite stable at the air - water interface and give LB films of high quality. The average thickness of the mixed monolayers is found to be 1.6 nm. The as-deposited films are insulating. Doping with HCl increases the conductivity up to between 0957-4484/7/4/002/img12 and 0957-4484/7/4/002/img13 which depends on the component ratio. The films containing more than 20 wt% of CA are doped reversibly in part. Thus, the films which are highly sensitive to either 0957-4484/7/4/002/img14 or HCl films are prepared by choosing the component ratio. Detection of 0957-4484/7/4/002/img14 and HCl in the ppm range is demonstrated.

  20. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng

    1991-11-01

    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  1. Bubbling in vibrated granular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan, Piroz

    2011-02-01

    With the help of experiments, computer simulations, and a theoretical investigation, a general model is developed of the flow dynamics of dense granular media immersed in air in an intermediate regime where both collisional and frictional interactions may affect the flow behavior. The model is tested using the example of a system in which bubbles and solid structures are produced in granular films shaken vertically. Both experiments and large-scale, three-dimensional simulations of this system are performed. The experimental results are compared with the results of the simulation to verify the validity of the model. The data indicate evidence of formation of bubbles when peak acceleration relative to gravity exceeds a critical value Γ(b). The air-grain interfaces of bubblelike structures are found to exhibit fractal structure with dimension D=1.7±0.05.

  2. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  3. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  4. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  5. RBS and XRD analysis of silicon doped titanium diboride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollica, S.; Sood, D.K.; Ghantasala, M.K.; Kothari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Titanium diboride is a newly developed material suitable for protective coatings. Its high temperature oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 deg C and beyond is limited due to its poor oxidative behaviour. This paper presents a novel approach to improving the coatings' oxidative characteristics at temperatures of 700 deg C by doping with silicon. Titanium diboride films were deposited onto Si(100) wafer substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering system. Films were deposited in two different compositions, one at pure TiB 2 and the other with 20 % Si doping. These samples were vacuum annealed at 700 deg C at 1x10 -6 Torr to investigate the anaerobic behaviour of the material at elevated temperatures and to ensure that they were crystalline. Samples were then oxidised in air at 700 deg C to investigate their oxidation resistance. Annealing the films at 700 deg C in air results in the oxidation of the film as titanium and boron form TiO 2 and B 2 O 3 . Annealing is seen to produce only minor changes in the films. There is some silicon diffusion from the substrate at elevated temperatures, which is related to the porous nature of the deposited film and the high temperature heat treatments. However, silicon doped films showed relatively less oxidation characteristics after annealing in air compared with the pure TiB 2 samples

  6. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  7. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM 10 was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology

  8. Modeling on the cathodoluminescence properties of the thin film phosphors for field emission flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Gong

    2000-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the film roughness with the fundamental luminance parameters of thin film phosphors, Y2 O3:Eu films with different thickness and roughness values were deposited on various substrate materials using a pulsed laser deposition technique under a controlled experimental procedure. The best luminous efficiency was observed from the Y2O3:Eu films on quartz substrates due to the smaller refractive index and low absorption characteristics of the quartz substrates which produce a larger amount of total internal reflection in the film and low loss of light intensity during the multiple internal reflections. The trapped light inside the film can escape the film more easily due to rougher film surface. The better epitaxial growth capability of the Y2O 3:Eu films with the LaAlO3 substrates resulted in higher luminous efficiency in the small surface roughness region. Higher luminous efficiency was observed in reflection mode than in transmission mode due to the contribution of diffusely scattered light at the air-film interface. A new theoretical model based on the diffraction scattering theory of light, the steady-state diffusion condition of carriers and the Kanaya-Okayama's electron- beam-solid interaction range satisfactorily explains all the experimental results mentioned above. The model also provides solid understandings on the cathodoluminescence properties of the thin film phosphors with the effects of other single or multiple luminance parameters. The parameters encountered for the model are surface roughness, electron-beam-solid interaction, surface recombination rate of carriers, charge carrier diffusion properties, multiple scattering at the interfaces (air- film, film-substrate, and substrate-air), optical properties of the material, film thickness, and substrate type. The model supplies a general solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways to estimate the luminance properties of the thin film phosphors and it can be

  9. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    utilise la methode S{sub n} pour resoudre le probleme du transport neutronique. La comparaison entre les valeurs calculees et les valeurs mesurees des parametres, tels que le coefficient thermique, l'efficacite des barres de controle et la masse critique, presente aussi de l'interet pour evaluer le degre de confiance que l'on peut accorder aux calculs des bureaux d'etudes. (author) [Spanish] Como parte de un programa de ensayos de combustibles de plutonio para reactores reproductores de neutrones rapidos, se ha construido y puesto en marcha en el Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory un reactor experimental de 1 MW refrigerado por sodio, cuyo cuerpo contiene una aleacion fundida de plutonio y hierro (90 atomos por ciento de Pu y 10 atomos por ciento de Fe; punto de fusion: 410 deg. C). La reactividad se regula por medio de un reflector de acero inoxidable y de cuatro barras de control de niquel situadas fuera del nucleo. Se han llevado a cabo experimentos a temperaturas (isotermicas) de 80, 160 y 480 deg. C en el cuerpo, a fin de determinar la masa critica y la eficacia del reflector a cada una de esas temperaturas. Tambien se midio la eficacia de las barras de control, por registro de los periodos y del coeficiente termico de la reactividad. Aplicando el metodo S{sub n} de resolucion del problema del transporte neutronico, se efectuaron calculos para determinar los parametros nucleares basicos del reactor. La comparacion entre los valores calculados y los valores medidos de parametros tales como el coeficiente termico, la eficacia de las barras de control y la masa critica, presenta tambien interes en lo que se refiere a la evaluacion del grado de confianza que puede atribuirse a los calculos del proyectista. (author) [Russian] V kachestve chasti programmy po razvitiyu plutonievogo topliva dlya reaktorov-razmnozhitele j na bystrykh nejtronakh Los-Alamosskaya nauchnaya laboratoriya skonstruirovala i ehkspluatiruet ispytatel'nyj reaktor s natrievym okhlazhdeniem moshchnost'yu v

  10. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0g/cm(3) and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0g/cm(3). However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0g/cm(3), whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0g/cm(3). The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7wt.% and 3.0wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0 g/cm 3 and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0 g/cm 3 . However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0 g/cm 3 , whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0 g/cm 3 . The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10 wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9 wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76 wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75 wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7 wt.% and 3.0 wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  12. Portal film charts for a 6 MV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faermann, S.; Regev, E.; Leser, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Localization errors frequently arise in the portal film technique due to over-or underdevelop films, for high energy radiotherapy machines. To guarantee the accuracy and reproducibility of the localization film technique portal film charts were introduced into the routine planning for the Mevatron 6MV linear accelerator of the Beilinson Radiotherapy Dept. Maintaining reproducible film processor conditions, two films were used: medical X-ray film Curix RPI Agfa and localization film X-OMAT TL Kodak, combined with front and rear copper screens of 0.5 mm thickness each. The sensitometric curves for each film-screen combination were obtained (optical density as function of cassette dose). The least square fitted O.D. curve was used to obtain the cassette dose which produces an O.D. of 1.6. A theoretical equation for the calculation of the dose at the cassette positions, beyond a water phantom, as function of field size, SSD, patient thickness and patient to cassette separation, was experimentally checked with a 0.6 cc Farmer ionization chamber coupled to a 2570 Farmer dosimeter. As a result portal film charts (expressed in MU) were constructed as a function of FS, air-gap and patient-thickness, and the best partition dose for the double-exposure technique was also established. The patients dose in the double exposure technique was compared to that delivered in diagnostic radiology procedures. (author)

  13. Transparent and Printable Regenerated Kenaf Cellulose/PVA Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatika Kaco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core powder by a series of bleaching processes and subsequently dissolved using an alkaline LiOH/urea solvent at low temperatures. The produced cellulose solution was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different ratios of cellulose/PVA and coagulated to produce regenerated transparent films. The films were then air dried to produce transparent film. The effects of PVA content on tensile index, transparency, pore size, and printability of the films were studied. A slight reduction of 7% on the tensile index of the film was observed when the content of PVA increased to 10%. Nevertheless, the addition of 10% of PVA increased the porosity of the regenerated cellulose/PVA film, while the transparency of the film increased by 10%. The films were color-printed using a laser printer and can be recycled, in which the printed ink can be removed easily from the films with higher amount of PVA content. In addition, the films can be reprinted repeatedly several times.

  14. Piezoelectric polydimethylsiloxane films for MEMS transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jhih-Jhe; Hsu, Tsung-Hsing; Yeh, Che-Nan; Tsai, Jui-Wei; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of piezoelectric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films utilizing multilayer casting, stacking, surface coating and micro plasma discharge processes. To realize the desired electromechanical sensitivity, cellular PDMS structures with micrometer-sized voids are implanted with bipolar charges on the opposite inner surfaces. The implanted charge pairs function as dipoles, which respond promptly to diverse electromechanical stimulation. In the prototype demonstration, cellular PDMS films with various void geometries are fabricated and internally coated with a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene, which can help secure the implanted charges. An electric field up to 35 MV m −1 is applied across the fabricated PDMS films to ionize the air in the voids and to accelerate the resulting bipolar charges to bombard the opposite inner surfaces. The resulting charge-implanted, cellular PDMS films show a low effective elastic modulus (E) of about 500 kPa, and a piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) higher than 300 pC N −1 , which is more than ten times higher than those of common piezoelectric polymers (e.g. polyvinylidene fluoride). Furthermore, the piezoelectricity of the PDMS films can be tailored by adjusting the dimensions of the cellular structures. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS films could potentially serve as flexible and sensitive electromechanical materials, and fulfill the needs of a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications. (paper)

  15. Rupture of thin liquid films on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S; Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Kabov, Oleg A

    2011-10-01

    We investigate stability and breakup of a thin liquid film on a solid surface under the action of disjoining pressure. The solid surface is structured by parallel grooves. Air is trapped in the grooves under the liquid film. Our mathematical model takes into account the effect of slip due to the presence of menisci separating the liquid film from the air inside the grooves, the deformation of these menisci due to local variations of pressure in the liquid film, and nonuniformities of the Hamaker constant which measures the strength of disjoining pressure. Both linear stability and strongly nonlinear evolution of the film are analyzed. Surface structuring results in decrease of the fastest growing instability wavelength and the rupture time. It is shown that a simplified description of film dynamics based on the standard formula for effective slip leads to significant deviations from the behavior seen in our simulations. Self-similar decay over several orders of magnitude of the film thickness near the rupture point is observed. We also show that the presence of the grooves can lead to instability in otherwise stable films if the relative groove width is above a critical value, found as a function of disjoining pressure parameters.

  16. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie, E-mail: cytsay@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-06-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10{sup 3} Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films.

  17. Protection of MoO3 high work function by organic thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Gao, Yongli

    2014-01-01

    The effects of air exposure are investigated for molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) covered with organic thin films using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It is found that the severe drop of the work function of MoO 3 by air exposure is substantially reduced by the organic thin films. Both CuPc and C 60 are used for the investigations. The results indicate that the MoO 3 surface can be passivated by approximately two monolayers of organic thin films against exposure to air

  18. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  19. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  20. Film som kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2013-01-01

    Films by artists induce scholars to work across art, film and cultural history. Accordingly, this article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the British-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare’s film Un Ballo in Maschera (2004). The film is grounded in Shonibare’s unique use of African-print fabric...... in conjunction with references to European cultural and political history, but the film is also – it is alleged – rooted in Black British cinema and the transnational postcolonialism which emerged in the UK of the 1980s. The article starts with a general introduction to Shonibare’s art and the colonial...... connotations of the African-print fabric, which are also central to the critique of power in Un Ballo in Maschera. Its critical agenda is then analysed and put into historical perspective by relating the film to Black British film. A comparison with the Black Audio Film Collective’s key work Handsworth Songs...

  1. The Educational Film Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Vincent R.; Schillaci, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Increased dialog is needed among educational film producers, distributors, and consumers in order to be sure that what is being produced meets educators' needs and also to help solve the financial problems of the film industry. (LS)

  2. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  3. Electrochromic nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2018-04-10

    The present invention provides an electrochromic nanocomposite film. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film, includes (1) a solid matrix of oxide based material and (2) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures embedded in the matrix. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film farther includes a substrate upon which the matrix is deposited. The present invention also provides a method of preparing an electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  4. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  5. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  6. Levitation of a drop over a film flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, K. R.; de, P. K.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1999-02-01

    A vertical jet of water impinging on a horizontal surface produces a radial film flow followed by a circular hydraulic jump. We report a phenomenon where fairly large (1 ml) drops of liquid levitate just upstream of the jump on a thin air layer between the drop and the film flow. We explain the phenomenon using lubrication theory. Bearing action both in the air film and the water film seems to be necessary to support large drops. Horizontal support is given to the drop by the hydraulic jump. A variety of drop shapes is observed depending on the volume of the drop and liquid properties. We show that interaction of the forces due to gravity, surface tension, viscosity and inertia produces these various shapes.

  7. A Strategy To Increase United States Air Force Fighter Pilot Retention And Morale: Legendary Ace Robin Olds On The Silver Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Olds led an extraordinary life. Both the film industry and the Air Force could collaborate on a joint venture for mutual benefit to share his unique...realistic film by using Joseph Campbell’s monomyth heroic formula. The film industry has an intertwined history with the military. The first movies...counter the fighter pilot retention challenge. • First recommendation: The Air Force should engage the film industry to investigate and scope the

  8. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  9. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  10. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  11. Getting into Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  12. The Sponsored Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Walter J.

    For public relations professionals and would-be sponsors of films, this book provides guidelines for understanding the film medium and its potential as a persuasive force in industry, government, organizations, and religious orders. For filmmakers, it brings together practical information needed to survive in the sponsored-film industry and to…

  13. Introduction to Film Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  14. Teaching Culture Through Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷

    2016-01-01

    Cultural teaching is an issue which is associated with complexity and paradox and also it is a big challenge for faculty. Teaching culture through films has become an important way of cross-cultural teaching This paper focuses on the reasons for teaching culture through films, the value and how it works. And finally it leads out the prospects of cultural teaching through films.

  15. Experimental study of falling film evaporation in large scale rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.G.; Yang, Y.H.; Hu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper studies the falling film evaporation in large scale rectangular channel experimentally. • The effects of air flow rate, film temperature and film flow rate on falling film evaporation are analyzed. • Increasing the air flow rate is considered as an efficient method to enhance the evaporation rate. • A correlation including the wave effect for falling film evaporation is derived based on heat and mass transfer analogy. - Abstract: The falling film evaporation in a large scale rectangular channel is experimentally studied in this paper for the design and improvement of passive containment cooling system. The evaporation mass transfer coefficient h D is obtained by the evaporation rate and vapor partial pressure difference of film surface and air bulk. The experimental results indicate that increasing of air flow rate appears to enhance h D , while the film temperature and film flow rate have little effect on h D . Since the wave effect on evaporation is noticed in experiment, the evaporation mass transfer correlation including the wave effect is developed on the basis of heat and mass transfer analogy and experimental data

  16. Magnetic properties of partially oxidized Fe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Hernando, Antonio

    Hybrid magnetic nanostructures exhibit appealing properties due to interface and proximity effects. A simple and interesting system of hybrid magnetic nanomaterials are partially oxidized ferromagnetic films. We have fabricated Fe films by thermal evaporation and performed a partial oxidation to magnetite (Fe3O4) by annealing in air at different times and temperatures. The magnetic properties of the films evolve from those of pure metallic iron to pure magnetite, showing intermediate states where the proximity effects control the magnetic behavior. At some stages, the magnetization curves obtained by SQUID and MOKE magnetometry exhibit important differences due to the dissimilar contribution of both phases to the magneto-optical response of the system This work has been supported by the Ministerio Español de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO) MAT2013-48009-C4-1. V.L.D and M.A.G. acknowledges financial support from BBVA foundation.

  17. Radiochromic dye film studies for brachytherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Arzamendi-Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial radiochromic dye films have been used in recent years to quantify absorbed dose in several medical applications. In this study we present the characterisation of the GafChromic MD-55-2 dye film, a double sensitive layer film suitable for photon irradiation in brachytherapy applications. Dose measurements were carried out with a low dose rate 137 Cs brachytherapy source, which produces very steep dose gradients in its vicinity, and therefore requires the capability of producing high spatial resolution isodose curves. Quantification of the dose rate in water per unit air kerma strength was obtained using a high-resolution transmission commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200) with the capability of digitising up to 600 x 1200 pixels per inch using 36 bits per pixel, together with optical density measurements. The Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements compared well in the 0-50 Gy dose interval used in this study. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of screen-film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, Goergen; Holje, G.

    1992-01-01

    This report, which has been funded by SSI, presents sensitivity data on the 'second generation' of modern intensifying screens, commercially available at the onset of the investigation. The sensitivity of the screen-film systems was evaluated with 80 kV tube potential and a total filtration of 3.0 mm Al. 20 mm aluminum was used for simulating human tissue, since it gives the same HVL x , as does 25 cm water. Kerma in air, needed to produce a net film density of 1.00 was determined and its inverse, expressed in mGy -1 , was taken as an indicator of the sensitivity; here called the sensitivity class of a screen-film system

  19. Measurements and Calculations of the Slowing-Down and Migration Time; Mesures et Calcul du Temps de Ralentissement et de Migration; Izmereniya i raschety vremeni zamedleniya i migratsii; Medicion y Calculo del Tiempo de Moderacion y de Migracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A. E.; Koppel, J. U. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States); Adamantiades, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-08-15

    transcurre hasta que la velocidad de los neutrones pulsados disminuya en la medida necesaria para que estos alcancen la energia, el angulo y la posicion de observacion apetecidas. El tiempo medio es una correccion de las mediciones de espectros neutronicos en la masa hechas segun el metodo del tiempo de vuelo, y la variacion impone limites al poder de resolucion efectivo de tales experimentos. Estos parametros son igualmente importantes en los detectores cuyo funcionamiento se base en la moderacion, en los experimentos con el metodo de tiempo de vuelo en los que un moderador situado cerca de la fuente de neutrones pulsados proporciona neutrones de baja energia, y en la espectrometria del tiempo de moderacion. Se han ideado diversos metodos analfticos y numericos para calcular la distribucion espacio-energia angulo-tiempo o sus integrales. Ha podido demostrarse que los momentos temporales Empty-Set {sup (n)} (r, {Omega}, v, t) = {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}}t{sup n} Empty-Set (r, {Omega}, v, t)dt, pueden calcularse aplicando repetidamente una clave de transporte en regimen estacionario. El termino de la fuente para el calculo del momento 'n'es igual a nv{sup -1} Empty-Set {sup (n-1)}. Los autores presentan los resultados correspondientes a maquetas del reactor TRIGA en las que se emplean medios multiplicadores y no multiplicadores. Otro valioso metodo de calculo consiste en emplear una clave de Monte Cario en funcion del tiempo. Los autores exponen los resultados del calculo de un flujo que escapa de una delgada placa de plomo. Se han hecho mediciones del tiempo de moderacion hasta la energia de corte del Cd y hasta la resonancia de 1,46 eV del In en agua y en tolueno. Los rayos gamma de captura se detectaron con un contador de centelleo. Esta tecnica exige disponer de una fuente de suficiente intensidad y de un detector eficaz debido a la brevedad del ciclo de trabajo (escasa anchura de las rafagas para la resolucion del tiempo de moderacion y amplio intervalo entre los

  20. Design of Novel Organic Thin Film Transistors for Wearable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS 7 1.0 INTRODUCTION 7 2.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF OTFTS 3.0 USE OF PHTHALOCYANINE AS A BIOSENSOR 8 4.0 CATHODIC ELECTRODEPOSITION ...public release; distribution is unlimited. 12 4.0 CATHODIC ELECTRODEPOSITION OF ANATASE HIGH DİELECTRIC CONSTANT TITANIA Polycrystalline...oxidised film which is used and left in air for 3 months. 11 5 Raman Spectra for TiO2 films electrodeposited at temperatures: (a) 296K, (b) 318K

  1. Laser ablation of Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hayashida, K.; Kawano, K.; Higuchi, K.; Ohkoshi, M.; Tsushima, K.

    1995-01-01

    Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films were deposited by laser ablation. The composition, the structure and the magnetic properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent both on the compositions of the targets and on the pressure of oxygen. The highest values of Bi-substitution up to x=1.44 with uniform composition were obtained, after annealing in air. ((orig.))

  2. The effect of non-condensable gas on direct contact condensation of steam/air mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. C.; Park, S. K.; Kim, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the effects of noncondensable gas on the direct contact film condensation of vapor mixture, a series of experiments has been carried out. The rectangular duct inclined 87.deg. to the horizontal plane was used for this experiment. The average heat transfer coefficient of the steam-air mixture was obtained at the atmospheric pressure with four main parameters, air-mass fraction, vapor velocity, film Reynolds number,and the degree of water film subcooling having an influence on the condensation heat transfer coefficient. With the analysis on 88 cases of experiments, a correlation of the average Nusselt number for direct contact film condensation of steam-air mixture at a vertical wall proposed as functions of film Reynolds number, mixture Reynolds number, air mass fraction, and Jacob number. The average heat transfer coefficient for steam-air mixture condensation decreased significantly while air mass fraction increases with the same inlet mixture velocity and inlet film temperature. The average heat transfer coefficients also decreased with the degree of film subcooling increasing and were scarcely affected by film Reynolds number below the mixture Reynolds number about 30,000

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  4. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  5. Air family in Chacaltaya experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semba, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    A clean event with a large multiplicity was detected in the CH 19 film exposed at Chacaltaya. Two jets produced in the producer were seen in this event '19 - 191'. Thirteen hadron components were observed. The height at which the event was produced was estimated to be about 320 m. A similar event '17 - 112' with a large multiplicity has been reported as an event in the CH 17 film. An event '17 - I153' with a large multiplicity was also seen in a producer jet. These three events have the mutually similar properties. The half-angle of the angular distribution was as large as 50 to 100 GeV. The values of the transverse momentum were large. These properties show that at the time of interaction, a very heavy intermediate product called UH quantum is produced, and decays thermally. A new method of analysis of air family is proposed. (Kato, T.)

  6. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  7. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  8. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, ...

  9. Film studies the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Film Studies: The Basics is a compelling guide to the study of cinema in all its forms. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of recent scholarship, the latest developments in the industry and the explosive impact of new technologies. Core topics covered include:   The history, technology and art of cinema Theories of stardom, genre and film-making The movie industry from Hollywood to Bollywood Who does what on a film set   Complete with film stills, end-of-chapter summaries and a substantial glossary, Film Studies: The Basics is the ideal introduction to those new to the study of cinema.

  10. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  11. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  12. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  13. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170°C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM10 was 98.3%. © 2013.

  14. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  15. Calculation of attenuation by rain using the DAH model and diameter of antennas for the Ka Band in Mexico; Calculo de atenuacion por lluvia usando el modelo DAH y diametro de antena para Banda Ka en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeros-Ayala, S.; Neri-Vela, R; Cruz-Sanchez, H.; Hernandez-Bautista, H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    Fatim Haidara), combinado con los mapas globales de distribucion de lluvia de Crane, para el calculo de la atencion por lluvia en sistema de comunicacion por satelite que operen en la Banda Ka. Ademas, se proponen diametros de antena para los sistemas de comunicaciones en Banda Ka en diferentes localidades de la Republica Mexicana, empleando para ello, los margenes de atencion por lluvia obtenidos a trav del Modelo DAH, y usando como referencia las caracteristicas del satelite de comunicaciones ANIK F2 y de una estacion terrena VSAT.Se muestra una fig. de la atenuacion por lluvia a 27.5 gHz y de los diametros de antena para banda Ka en Mexico. Se da una tabla de la atenuacion por lluvia a 29.5 GHz y a 20.2 GHz.

  16. Systems for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for high-capacity hydroelectric generators; Sistemas para el calculo de parametros electricos y eficiencia energetica para generadores hidroelectricos de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    construccion es la Central Hidroelectrica La Yesca, el cual concluira a finales de 2012 y consiste en dos generadores electricos de 375 MW, 17 kV. Sera el segundo en potencia y el tercero en generacion electrica en el sistema. De acuerdo con las normas nacionales e internacionales, debe efectuarse un conjunto de pruebas estaticas y dinamicas en estos generadores antes de la puesta en servicio, para asegurar su operacion apropiada. La prueba de resistencia de alto voltaje del devanado del estator, la prueba de corto circuito subito trifasico y el calculo de eficiencia energetica son algunas de las pruebas mas importantes por realizar en un nuevo generador electrico. Estas pruebas son dificiles de efectuar en sitio debido a la capacidad del equipo requerido, por lo que muy pocas companias en el mundo pueden conducirlas.

  17. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  18. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  19. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  20. Foam films as thin liquid gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Müller, Hans Joachim; Möhwald, Helmuth; Krastev, Rumen

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we testify the feasibility of using freestanding foam films as a thin liquid gas separation membrane. Diminishing bubble method was used as a tool to measure the permeability of pure gases like argon, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to atmospheric air. All components of the foam film including the nature of the tail (fluorocarbon vs hydrocarbon), charge on the headgroup (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) and the thickness of the water core (Newton black film vs Common black film) were systematically varied to understand the permeation phenomena of pure gases. Overall results indicate that the permeability values for different gases are in accordance with magnitude of their molecular diameter. A smaller gaseous molecule permeates faster than the larger ones, indicating a new realm of application for foam films as size selective separation membranes.

  1. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  2. Determining thin film properties by fitting optical transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.D.; Yen, A.; Cogan, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    The optical transmission spectra of rf sputtered tungsten oxide films on glass substrates were modeled to determine absorption edge behavior, film thickness, and index of refraction. Removal of substrate reflection and absorption phenomena from the experimental spectra allowed direct examination of thin film optical characteristics. The interference fringe pattern allows determination of the film thickness and the dependence of the real index of refraction on wavelength. Knowledge of the interference fringe behavior in the vicinity of the absorption edge was found essential to unambiguous determination of the optical band gap. In particular, the apparently random deviations commonly observed in the extrapolation of as-acquired data are eliminated by explicitly considering interference fringe phenomena. The multivariable optimization fitting scheme employed allows air-film-substrate reflection losses to be compensated without making reflectance measurements

  3. Cholesterol monohydrate nucleation in ultrathin films on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapaport, H.; Kuzmenko, I.; Lafont, S.

    2001-01-01

    The growth of a cholesterol crystalline phase, three molecular layers thick at the air-water interface, was monitored by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. Upon compression, a cholesterol film transforms from a monolayer of trigonal symmetry and low crystallinity to a tri......The growth of a cholesterol crystalline phase, three molecular layers thick at the air-water interface, was monitored by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. Upon compression, a cholesterol film transforms from a monolayer of trigonal symmetry and low crystallinity...... in pathological lipid deposits....

  4. Investigation of temperature stability of ITO films characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troyan Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents research of thermal stability of optical and electro-physical parameters of ITO films deposited using various techniques. Variation of optical and electro-physical parameters was recorded using spectroscopy, and Hall’s and four-probe measurements. The best thermal stability was demonstrated by ITO films deposited by metal target sputtering In(90%/Sn(10% in mixture of gases O2 (25% + Ar (75% with further annealing in air atmosphere. This enables to apply this technique for production of thin film transparent resistive elements capable to heat the translucent structures up to 100°C without deterioration of their parameters.

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  6. Reducing Friction with a Liquid Film on the Body Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Klyuev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A flow of a thin layer of liquid is simulated on a flat surface of a body located in a stream of air. Liquid film on the surface of the body reduces frictional resistance and can be used as a boundary layer control element. The paper presents a mathematical model of the film flow on a half-plane, located at an angle to the horizon. The fluid flow is determined by the force of gravity and friction from the external air current. A model of an incompressible viscous fluid is used in the boundary-layer approximation. The terms of the motion equation are averaged over the film thickness according to the Leibniz rule. In the cross section of the film, a quadratic law is adopted for the distribution of the longitudinal velocity, taking into account friction on the film surface. An analytical solution of the problem is obtained in the form of series in powers of the small parameter for determining the film thickness and the average longitudinal velocity along the length of the plate. It is shown that the friction decreases with flow around a half-plane with a film of liquid on the surface.

  7. The microjet-film interaction: the interaction and resulting shapes of a liquid microjet impacting a soap film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Jau Tung; Tan, Guoxian; Lee, Jie Liang; Tjeng, Vincent; Yeo, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide annual competition for high-school students. This paper is adapted from the solution to problem 8, Jet and Film, as presented by the Singapore Team at the 26th IYPT, Taipei, Taiwan. The impact of liquid microjets on stable soap films was investigated. Two steady regimes were observed: refraction (where the microjet penetrates the soap film and is deflected) and absorption (where the microjet merges with the soap film and forms vertical undulating patterns on the soap film surface). This phenomenon has potential applications in controlling the trajectory of a liquid microjet in air. Although Kirstetter et al (2012) investigated this interaction by using the same liquid for both the microjet and the soap film, this paper extends their work by using different liquids for the microjet and the soap film. In addition, the need for a small-angle approximation of Snell’s law is removed for the refraction regime, and an alternative expression is proposed for the force exerted by the soap film on the microjet in the absorption regime that accounts for the dependence of the wavelength of the undulating patterns on the angle of incidence of the microjet on the soap film. Empirical data support these improved theoretical predictions. (paper)

  8. The microjet-film interaction: the interaction and resulting shapes of a liquid microjet impacting a soap film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jau Tung; Lee, Jie Liang; Tjeng, Vincent; Yeo, Ye; Tan, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide annual competition for high-school students. This paper is adapted from the solution to problem 8, Jet and Film, as presented by the Singapore Team at the 26th IYPT, Taipei, Taiwan. The impact of liquid microjets on stable soap films was investigated. Two steady regimes were observed: refraction (where the microjet penetrates the soap film and is deflected) and absorption (where the microjet merges with the soap film and forms vertical undulating patterns on the soap film surface). This phenomenon has potential applications in controlling the trajectory of a liquid microjet in air. Although Kirstetter et al (2012) investigated this interaction by using the same liquid for both the microjet and the soap film, this paper extends their work by using different liquids for the microjet and the soap film. In addition, the need for a small-angle approximation of Snell’s law is removed for the refraction regime, and an alternative expression is proposed for the force exerted by the soap film on the microjet in the absorption regime that accounts for the dependence of the wavelength of the undulating patterns on the angle of incidence of the microjet on the soap film. Empirical data support these improved theoretical predictions.

  9. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  11. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  12. Wear life of sputtered MoSx films extended by high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yasufumi; Fujiura, Hideo; Nishimura, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of sputtered MoSx films have been reportedly improved by inert gas ion implantation. We tried to extend their wear life by introducing indium, carbon and gallium ion implantation. Pin-on-disk testers were used to measure friction coefficient and wear life in a vacuum, dry and humid air. Comparing with the unimplanted films, we found that the indium ion implanted films showed marked improvement in wear life in a vacuum. Carbon ion implanted films showed improvement in wear life in high humid air. Implantation was effective when it was conducted with maximum concentration at the interface between film and substrate rather than at the neighborhood of the interface inside a film. (author)

  13. Calibration of GafChromic XR-RV3 radiochromic film for skin dose measurement using standardized x-ray spectra and a commercial flatbed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bradley P.; Speidel, Michael A.; Pike, Tina L.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, newly formulated XR-RV3 GafChromic film was calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability for measurement of patient skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Methods: The film was calibrated free-in-air to air kerma levels between 15 and 1100 cGy using four moderately filtered x-ray beam qualities (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp). The calibration films were scanned with a commercial flatbed document scanner. Film reflective density-to-air kerma calibration curves were constructed for each beam quality, with both the orange and white sides facing the x-ray source. A method to correct for nonuniformity in scanner response (up to 25% depending on position) was developed to enable dose measurement with large films. The response of XR-RV3 film under patient backscattering conditions was examined using on-phantom film exposures and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The response of XR-RV3 film to a given air kerma depended on kVp and film orientation. For a 200 cGy air kerma exposure with the orange side of the film facing the source, the film response increased by 20% from 60 to 120 kVp. At 500 cGy, the increase was 12%. When 500 cGy exposures were performed with the white side facing the x-ray source, the film response increased by 4.0% (60 kVp) to 9.9% (120 kVp) compared to the orange-facing orientation. On-phantom film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations show that using a NIST-traceable free-in-air calibration curve to determine air kerma in the presence of backscatter results in an error from 2% up to 8% depending on beam quality. The combined uncertainty in the air kerma measurement from the calibration curves and scanner nonuniformity correction was ±7.1% (95% C.I.). The film showed notable stability. Calibrations of film and scanner separated by 1 yr differed by 1.0%. Conclusions: XR-RV3 radiochromic film response to a given air kerma shows dependence on beam quality and film

  14. Surface Chemistry Interactions of Cationorm with Films by Human Meibum and Tear Film Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi As. Georgiev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationorm® (CN cationic nanoemulsion was demonstrated to enhance tear film (TF stability in vivo possibly via effects on tear film lipid layer (TFLL. Therefore the interactions of CN with human meibum (MGS and TFLL in vitro and in vivo deserve special study. MGS and CN were spread at the air/water interface of a Langmuir surface balance to ensure a range of MGS/CN oil phase ratios: 20/1, 10/1, 5/1, 3/1, 2/1 and 1/1. The films capability to reorganize during dynamic area changes was evaluated via the surface pressure-area compression isotherms and step/relaxation dilatational rheology studies. Films structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy. CN/TFLL interactions at the ocular surface were monitored with non-contact specular microscopy. The in vitro studies of MGS/CN layers showed that (i CN inclusion (at fixed MGS content increased film elasticity and thickness and that (ii CN can compensate for moderate meibum deficiency in MGS/CN films. In vivo CN mixed with TFLL in a manner similar to CN/MGS interactions in vitro, and resulted in enhanced thickness of TFLL. In vitro and in vivo data complement each other and facilitated the study of the composition-structure-function relationship that determines the impact of cationic nanoemulsions on TF.

  15. Characterization of the flooding in vertical tubes by means of the film thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandrone, M.; Mioliggi, L.; Panella, B.; Scorta, G.

    1992-01-01

    The air-water countercurrent flow up to the flooding transition in a vertical tube has been experimentally investigated by liquid film thickness measurement performed by means of an electrical two-wires conductance probe. The liquid film mean thickness, the probability density function, the spectral power density and the power of the signal have been derived for a wide range of air and water flow rate, and related to the flow pattern with particular attention to the flooding phenomena. (6 figures) (Author)

  16. Tribological properties of nitrogen-containing amorphous carbon film produced by dc plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wazumi, Koichiro; Tanaka, Akihiro; Koga, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-contained amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films were deposited in a dc plasma chemical vapor deposition system with different substrate bias voltages. The structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of the a-C:N films were investigated. The influence of the bias voltage on the tribological behaviors of the a-C:N films was evaluated under various environments (dry air, O 2 , N 2 , and vacuum) using a ball-on-disk friction tester. It showed that the sp 3 C and hydrogen concentration of the a-C:N films decreases with increasing the bias voltage. However, the nitrogen concentration increases with increasing the bias voltage. As a result, the hardness and internal stress decrease and the critical load for fracturing increases as the substrate bias increases. For the tribological properties of the a-C:N films, the friction coefficient of the films slightly decreases in the environments of N 2 , O 2 , or dry air, but increases slightly in the vacuum environment by increasing the bias voltage. It indicates that the incorporated nitrogen in the a-C:N films would decrease the friction coefficient of the films in N 2 or O 2 environments, but slightly increases the friction coefficient of the films in a vacuum. The excellent wear resistance of the a-C:N films, in the level of 10 -9 -10 -8 mm 3 /Nm, can be observed in N 2 , vacuum, and dry air environments. In addition, the effect of the bias voltage on the wear rate of the a-C:N films becomes less obvious by nitrogen incorporation. So, we suggest the incorporated nitrogen, which bonded to carbon and restrained the increase of the fraction of sp 2 C-C, would restrain the wear of the a-C:N films in different environments, especially in dry air

  17. Deformation and dewetting of thin liquid films induced by moving gas jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the deformation of thin liquid films subjected to impinging air-jets that are moving with respect to the substrate. The height profile and shape of the deformed liquid film is evaluated experimentally and numerically for different jet Reynolds numbers and translation speeds, for different

  18. On the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Smets, A. H. M.; Creatore, M.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited by using the expanding thermal plasma and their oxidation upon air exposure was followed in time. Transmission spectra were

  19. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO 3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and ethanol vapour concentrations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity of ∼1424.6% at 400°C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery ...

  20. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  1. Deuterium release from Li-D films exposed to atmospheric gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M., E-mail: YMGasparyan@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S.; Krat, S.A.; Pisarev, A.A.; Vasina, Ya. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.V. [JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The major part of deuterium desorbs from Li-D films in a very sharp peak at 670–710 K. • Exposure on air leads to intensive deuterium release from the Li-D film at room temperature. • Interaction with water vapor plays a major role in deuterium release from lithium films in the air. - Abstract: Deuterium release from Li-D films co-deposited on a Mo substrate at room temperature in magnetron discharge was investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. The deuterium concentration in the films was estimated to be D/Li = (14 ± 4)%. TDS from Li-D films just after co-deposition had a sharp peak at 670–710 K. Exposure of deposited Li-D films in the air at room temperature led to deuterium release. Comparison of release in air, water vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen demonstrated that water plays a major role in deuterium release in the air at low temperatures.

  2. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  3. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  4. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  5. Optical and electronic properties of HWCVD and PECVD silicon films irradiated using excimer and Nd:Yag lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.Z.; O'Neill, K.A.; Anthony, S.; Persheyev, S.K.; Rose, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silicon film samples were deposited using HWCVD and PECVD techniques to study the influence of laser annealing on their optical and electronic properties. Samples were annealed in air using a XeCl excimer and Nd:Yag lasers. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) at 50 to 222 mJ/cm 2 increased conductivity in PECVD films by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and in HWCVD films by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. ELA was also seen to decrease the optical gap in PECVD films by 0.5 eV and HWCVD films by 0.15 eV. Silicon-oxygen bond content was higher in as-deposited HWCVD films than PECVD films. Hydrogen content (at.%) in PECVD films was higher than HWCVD for higher H dilution ratios. A Nd:Yag laser 3-beam interference pattern was used to produce a periodic array of crystals in both PECVD and HWCVD films

  6. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  7. Film: Genres and Genre Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Genre is a concept used in film studies and film theory to describe similarities between groups of films based on aesthetic or broader social, institutional, cultural, and psychological aspects. Film genre shares similarities in form and style, theme, and communicative function. A film genre...

  8. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  9. Demagnetization in photomagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajerowski, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel@pajerowski.com [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Hallock, Scott J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Winston Churchill High School, Potomac, Maryland 20854 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a model for demagnetization in photomagnetic films, and investigate different regimes for the magnetizing process using finite element analysis. It is found that the demagnetizing factor may depend strongly upon the high-spin fraction of the film, and the specifics of the dependence are dictated by the microscopic morphology of the photomagnetic domains. This picture allows for facile interpretation of existing data on photomagnetic films, and can even explain an observed photoinduced decrease in low-field magnetization concurrent with increase in high-spin fraction. As a whole, these results reiterate the need to consider demagnetizing effects in photomagnetic films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite element methods are used to examine demagnetization in photomagnetic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under the right conditions, photomagnetic films may show a photoinduced decrease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demagnetization in photomagnets will be important to consider in possible devices.

  10. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  11. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  12. Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Hydrostatic Thrust Air Bearings for High Loading Capacities and Low Air Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunluo; Pu, Guang; Jiang, Kyle

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation study on hydrostatic thrust air bearings to assess the load capacity, compressed air consumptions, and the dynamic response. Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) are combined to solve the non-linear Reynolds equation to find the pressure distribution of the air bearing gas film and the total loading capacity of the bearing. The influence of design parameters on air film gap characteristics, including the air film thickness, supplied pressure, depth of the groove and external load, are investigated based on the proposed FDM model. The simulation results show that the thrust air bearings with a groove have a higher load capacity and air consumption than without a groove, and the load capacity and air consumption both increase with the depth of the groove. Bearings without the groove are better damped than those with the grooves, and the stability of thrust bearing decreases when the groove depth increases. The stability of the thrust bearings is also affected by their loading.

  13. Den danske independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    at producere film, og derved er filmproduktion potentielt gjort tilgængelig for en større gruppe personer som både afsender og modtager. For det fjerde implicerer diskussionen af de to film også genre- og stilmæssige spørgsmål om dansk filmkultur, fordi indiefilmen både i film og uden for filmene italesætter...

  14. Religion og film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  15. Horror films and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Forcen, Fernando Espi; Shand, John Preston

    2014-10-01

    Horror films have been popular for generations. The purpose of this article is to illustrate psychiatric conditions, themes and practice seen in horror films. Horror films often either include psychiatrists as characters or depict (Hollywood's dangerous version of) serious mental illness. Demonic possession, zombies, and 'slasher' killers are described, as well as the horror genre's characterizations of psychiatrists. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  16. Renaissance of the Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Julius, Ed.

    The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

  17. Film in concert

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    From the very beginning of cinema, music always played an important role in the history of filmmaking. Nonetheless, film music is judged by critics as a kind of low-grade art form. However, the majority of film score composers enjoyed a classical education and composed as well for the silver screen as for the concert hall. Film music also has its roots in the musical era of romanticism. Therefore, symphonic film scores can be regarded as program music in a broader sense. These scores were inf...

  18. Film, Neuroaesthetics, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the link between film viewing and human 'ultra-sociality' (Boyd and Richardson 1998), describing how empathy is supported by mirror resonances but also modified by appraisal mechanisms and how emotions are communicated, It further discusses how 'attainment' to film builds...... on mother-child communication and also how film genres of attachment use such attainment, especially by means of close-ups of human faces and shot-reverse shots. Finally it deals with how films boost development of cognitive and emotional intelligence...

  19. Atomic-Layer-Deposition of Indium Oxide Nano-films for Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zheng, He-Mei; Shao, Yan; Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-09

    Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) of In 2 O 3 nano-films has been investigated using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as precursors. The In 2 O 3 films can be deposited preferentially at relatively low temperatures of 160-200 °C, exhibiting a stable growth rate of 1.4-1.5 Å/cycle. The surface roughness of the deposited film increases gradually with deposition temperature, which is attributed to the enhanced crystallization of the film at a higher deposition temperature. As the deposition temperature increases from 150 to 200 °C, the optical band gap (E g ) of the deposited film rises from 3.42 to 3.75 eV. In addition, with the increase of deposition temperature, the atomic ratio of In to O in the as-deposited film gradually shifts towards that in the stoichiometric In 2 O 3 , and the carbon content also reduces by degrees. For 200 °C deposition temperature, the deposited film exhibits an In:O ratio of 1:1.36 and no carbon incorporation. Further, high-performance In 2 O 3 thin-film transistors with an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric were achieved by post-annealing in air at 300 °C for appropriate time, demonstrating a field-effect mobility of 7.8 cm 2 /V⋅s, a subthreshold swing of 0.32 V/dec, and an on/off current ratio of 10 7 . This was ascribed to passivation of oxygen vacancies in the device channel.

  20. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  1. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  2. Droplet ejection and sliding on a flapping film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water recovery and subsequent reuse are required for human consumption as well as industrial, and agriculture applications. Moist air streams, such as cooling tower plumes and fog, represent opportunities for water harvesting. In this work, we investigate a flapping mechanism to increase droplet shedding on thin, hydrophobic films for two vibrational cases (e.g., ± 9 mm and 11 Hz; ± 2 mm and 100 Hz. Two main mechanisms removed water droplets from the flapping film: vibrational-induced coalescence/sliding and droplet ejection from the surface. Vibrations mobilized droplets on the flapping film, increasing the probability of coalescence with neighboring droplets leading to faster droplet growth. Droplet departure sizes of 1–2 mm were observed for flapping films, compared to 3–4 mm on stationary films, which solely relied on gravity for droplet removal. Additionally, flapping films exhibited lower percentage area coverage by water after a few seconds. The second removal mechanism, droplet ejection was analyzed with respect to surface wave formation and inertia. Smaller droplets (e.g., 1-mm diameter were ejected at a higher frequency which is associated with a higher acceleration. Kinetic energy of the water was the largest contributor to energy required to flap the film, and low energy inputs (i.e., 3.3 W/m2 were possible. Additionally, self-flapping films could enable novel water collection and condensation with minimal energy input.

  3. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  4. Controlling compositional homogeneity and crystalline orientation in Bi0.8Sb0.2 thermoelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, C.; Medlin, D. L.; Erickson, K. J.; Siegal, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Compositional-homogeneity and crystalline-orientation are necessary attributes to achieve high thermoelectric performance in Bi1-xSbx thin films. Following deposition in vacuum, and upon air exposure, we find that 50%-95% of the Sb in 100-nm thick films segregates to form a nanocrystalline Sb2O3 surface layer, leaving the film bulk as Bi-metal. However, we demonstrate that a thin SiN capping layer deposited prior to air exposure prevents Sb-segregation, preserving a uniform film composition. Furthermore, the capping layer enables annealing in forming gas to improve crystalline orientations along the preferred trigonal axis, beneficially reducing electrical resistivity.

  5. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  6. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming; Duan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  7. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  8. The film thickness dependent thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiudi; Xu Gang, E-mail: xiudixiao@163.com; Xiong Bin; Chen Deming; Miao Lei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrates, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (China)

    2012-03-15

    The monolayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of thin film after annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C in air were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectrophotometer. It revealed that the particle shape, size, and distribution across the film were greatly changed before and after annealing. The surface plasmon resonance absorption and thermal stability of the film were found to be strongly dependent on the film thickness, which was believed to be associated with the evolution process of particle diffusion, agglomeration, and evaporation during annealing at high temperature. When the film thickness was smaller than 90 nm, the film SPR absorption can be attenuated until extinct with increasing annealing time due to the evaporation of Ag particles. While the film thickness was larger than 120 nm, the absorption can keep constant even after annealing for 64 h due to the agglomeration of Ag particles. On the base of film thickness results, the multilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag solar selective thin films were prepared and the thermal stability test illustrated that the solar selectivity of multilayer films with absorbing layer thickness larger than 120 nm did not degrade after annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C for 70 h in air. It can be concluded that film thickness is an important factor to control the thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers.

  9. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  10. Modifications in SnS thin films by plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-01

    The present study shows the modifications of structural, optical and electrical characteristics that occur in tin sulfide (SnS) thin films treated in air and in nitrogen plasma at different pressure conditions. The films were obtained by the chemical bath deposition method, which results in SnS thin films with an orthorhombic crystalline structure, band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.1-1.2 eV, and electrical conductivities ({sigma}) in the order of 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}. The films treated with air plasma at pressures between 1 and 4 Torr, showed the presence of SnS{sub 2}, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, within the band gap values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 eV. On the other hand, the films treated with nitrogen plasma presented the same phases, but showed a significant modification in the electrical conductivity, increasing from 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (as-deposited) up to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (plasma treated). This result is a suitable range of conductivity for the improvement of the solar cells with SnS as an absorber material. Also, emission spectroscopy measurements were carried out in both air and nitrogen plasma treatments.

  11. The formation of soap bubbles created by blowing on soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Using either circular bubble wands or long-lasting vertically falling soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we study the formation of soap bubbles created when air is blown through a nozzle onto a soap film. We vary nozzle radius, film size, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are generated. The response is sensitive to confinement, that is, the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet which is a function of the distance from the nozzle to the film. We observe four different regimes that we rationalize by comparing the dynamic pressure of a jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble.

  12. Laser micromachining of indium tin oxide films on polymer substrates by laser-induced delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David A; Dreier, Adam L

    2009-01-01

    A Q-switched neodymium : yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser was used to ablate indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films from polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Film damage and partial removal with no evidence of a melt zone was observed above 1.7 J cm -2 . Above the film removal threshold (3.3 J cm -2 ) the entire film thickness was removed without substrate damage, suggesting that ablation was a result of delamination of the film in the solid phase. Measurements of ablated fragment velocities near the ablation threshold were consistent with calculations of velocities caused by stress-induced delamination of the ITO film, except for a high velocity component at higher fluences. Nanosecond time-resolved shadowgraph photography revealed that the high velocity component was a shock wave induced by the rapid compression of ambient air when the film delaminated.

  13. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Phong Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codoped in ZnO film (IGZO to improve the film optoelectronic properties. A wide range of Ga and In contents in sputtering targets was explored to find optimum optical and electrical properties of deposited films. The results show that an appropriate combination of In and Ga atoms in ZnO material, followed by in-air thermal annealing process, can enhance the crystallization, conductivity, and transmittance of IGZO thin films, which can be well used as front-contact electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells.

  14. Optimisation of chemical solution deposition of indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Tor Olav Løveng; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor, E-mail: grande@ntnu.no

    2014-12-31

    An environmentally friendly aqueous sol–gel process has been optimised to deposit indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, aiming to improve the film properties and reduce the deposition costs. It was demonstrated how parameters such as cation concentration and viscosity could be applied to modify the physical properties of the sol and thereby reduce the need for multiple coatings to yield films with sufficient conductivity. The conductivity of the thin films was enhanced by adjusting the heat treatment temperature and atmosphere. Both increasing the heat treatment temperature of the films from 530 to 800 °C and annealing in reducing atmosphere significantly improved the electrical conductivity, and conductivities close to the state of the art sputtered ITO films were obtained. A pronounced decreased conductivity was observed after exposing the thin films to air and the thermal reduction and ageing of the film was studied by in situ conductivity measurements. - Highlights: • Spin coating of indium tin oxide using an aqueous solution was optimised. • The conductivity was enhanced by thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere. • The conductivity of is comparable to the conductivity of sputtered films. • A relaxation process in the reduced thin film was observed after exposure in air.

  15. Characterization of thin CeO{sub 2} films electrochemically deposited on HOPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faisal, Firas [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Toghan, Arafat, E-mail: arafat.toghan@yahoo.com [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt); Khalakhan, Ivan; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Matolin, Vladimír [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 747/2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Libuda, Jörg [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Erlangen Catalysis Resource Center, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells catalyst using electrochemical thin film deposition. • Electrodeposition thin films of CeO{sub 2} on HOPG substrates. • The samples were characterized by in-situ AFM and ex-situ XPS. • XPS results reveal that the electrochemically deposited cerium oxide films are stoichiometric. • Exposing the films to ambient air, cracking structures are formed. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is widely used for industrial applications to deposit thin films, coatings, and adhesion layers. Herein, CeO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The influence of the deposition parameters on the yield and on the film morphology is studied and discussed. Morphology and composition of the electrodeposited films were characterized by in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By AFM we show that the thickness of CeO{sub 2} films can be controlled via the Ce{sup 3+} concentration in solution and the deposition time. After exposing the films to ambient air, cracking structures are formed, which were analyzed by AFM in detail. The chemical composition of the deposits was analyzed by XPS indicating the formation of nearly stoichiometric CeO{sub 2}.

  16. Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under air plasma and He-Ne laser treatment ... The parameters such as (1) surface area by contact angle measurements, (2) quality of material before and after treatment by SEM and FTIR spectra and (3) material characterization by UV-vis spectra were studied.

  17. Thermogravimetric analysis of reactor-neutrons-irradiated LEXAN polycarbonate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of reactor-neutrons irradiation on the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of LEXAN polycarbonate film in air were studied. Irradiation enhances the degradation rate and the effect increases further with increasing neutron fluence. The kinetics of the different steps of degradation were also evaluated from the TG curves. The activation energy values calculated for all the degradation stages decrease on irradiation. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films. A P RAMBU1,* and N IFTIMIE2 .... R. −. Δ. = = (1) where Ra is the sensor resistance in the air and Rg is the .... ple, Aida and coworkers (2006) reported that the total oxidation is ...

  19. Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kercher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling for turbine airfoil leading edges has been a common practice for at least 35 years as turbine inlet gas temperatures and pressures have continually increased along with cooling air temperatures for higher engine cycle efficiency. With substantial engine cycle performance improvements from higher gas temperatures, it has become increasingly necessary to film cool nozzle and rotor blade leading edges since external heat transfer coefficients and thus heat load are the highest in this airfoil region. Optimum cooling air requirements in this harsh environment has prompted a significant number of film cooling investigations and analytical studies reported over the past 25 years from academia, industry and government agencies. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the complex nature of leading edge film cooling from airfoil cascades, simulated airfoil leading edges and environment. This bibliography is a report of the open-literature references available which provide information on the complex aero–thermo interaction of leading edge gaseous film cooling with mainstream flow. From much of this investigative information has come successful operational leading edge film cooling design systems capable of sustaining airfoil leading edge durability in very hostile turbine environments.

  20. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  1. Influence of surface oxide films on the SCC of stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Junichi; Kato, Shunji; Hirano, Hideo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab; Kushida, H.

    2000-06-01

    Effect of pre-filming conditions on the SCC susceptibility of stainless steels (SS) was investigated by SSRT and electrochemical measurement in high temperature water. The IGSCC ratio of a specimen with the oxide film formed in hydrogen-saturated water (R film specimen) was higher than that of a specimen with the oxide film formed in air-saturated water (O film specimen). When the pre-filmed specimens were coupled with a Cr-depleted SS that simulated weld-heat-affected zones, the galvanic couple between the R film specimen and Cr-depleted SS showed higher corrosion current than the couple between the O film specimen and Cr-depleted SS. The film thickness of the Cr-depleted SS was thinner in the couple with the R film specimen after the test. These results clearly show that the SCC susceptibility of R film specimen was higher than that of the O film specimen, in accordance with the SSRT results. (author)

  2. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  3. FAA Film Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  4. What Is Film Phenomenology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Ferencz-Flatz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this article Christian Ferencz-Flatz and I try to give an answer to the question what film phenomenology actually is. We proceed in three steps. First, we provide a survey of five different research practices within current film phenomenological writing: We call them excavation, explanation,

  5. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  6. Determining Film Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Roger

    1974-01-01

    The criteria by which films can and should be analyzed as art are discussed in this paper. A triangular model of theme-form-content is presented with form given greater significance than is usually the case in film criticism. The form-content-theme synthesis is the process in which theme is made clear by means of form and content within an…

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  8. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  9. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  10. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  11. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  12. Formation and microstructure of nickel oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcius, Marijan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ristic, Mira, E-mail: ristic@irb.hr [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ivanda, Mile; Music, Svetozar [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difference in NiO films formed on Ni plate or glass substrate were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO particle sizes on Ni plate changed from nano to micron dimensions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO particle sizes on glass substrate changed from {approx}16 to {approx}27 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman and UV/Vis/NIR spectra are related to the microstructure of NiO films. - Abstract: The formation and microstructure of NiO films on different substrates were monitored using XRD, Raman, UV/Vis/NIR and FE-SEM/EDS techniques. The formation of NiO films on Ni plates in air atmosphere between 400 and 800 Degree-Sign C was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The origin of Raman bands and corresponding Raman shifts in the samples are discussed. An increase in the size of NiO particles in the films from nano to micro dimensions was demonstrated. A change in the atomic ratio Ni:O with an increase in heating temperature was observed. Polished Ni plates coated with a thin Ni-acetate layer upon heating at high temperatures gave similar NiO microstructures on the surface like in the case of non-treated Ni plates. Glass substrates coated with thin Ni-acetate films upon heating between 400 and 800 Degree-Sign C yielded pseudospherical NiO nanoparticles. The dominant Raman band as an indicator of NiO formation on a glass substrate was shown. The formation of NiO nanoparticles on glass substrates with maximum size distribution from 16 to 27 nm in a broad temperature range from 400 to 800 Degree-Sign C can be explained by the absence of a constant source of metallic nickel which was present in the case of Ni plates.

  13. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  14. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  15. IAEA film library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Most of the scientific and technical films shown during the Second Geneva Conference for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy were donated to IAEA by the producing countries at the end of the Conference. They will form the basic stock for the Agency's loan service intended to provide atomic energy institutions in Member States with film material. A detailed catalogue of the films, classified according to subject and giving conditions of loan or purchase, is now being prepared. In addition to this, information on all films produced in Member Countries dealing with the peaceful uses cf atomic energy is being assembled. The documentary information contained in the films in IAEA's possession relates to the following subjects: national programmes; nuclear physics; accelerators; plasma and fusion; reactors (power, research, material testing and experimental); prospecting and mining; ore dressing; metallurgy; production of fuel elements; treatment of irradiated fuel elements; protection against radiation; detection and counting; uses of radiation in medicine, biochemistry, agriculture and industry; industrial application of nuclear explosions. Most of the commentaries are in the language of the producing country. A few films are available in a choice of two languages. The films donated to the Agency total 82, two of which have been produced in Canada, 13 in France, one in India, one in Romania, one in Spain, 14 in the United Kingdom, one in the Union of South Africa, 47 in the United States of America and two in the USSR: they are mostly illustrations of papers presented at the Second Geneva Conference. In arranging for the circulation of scientific and technical films IAEA wishes to help meet some of the training and information needs of Member States. It is hoped that all organizations producing films on the peaceful uses of atomic energy will entrust copies to the IAEA with a view to their widest possible circulation. In the meantime, the Agency's films have been given

  16. IAEA film library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Most of the scientific and technical films shown during the Second Geneva Conference for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy were donated to IAEA by the producing countries at the end of the Conference. They will form the basic stock for the Agency's loan service intended to provide atomic energy institutions in Member States with film material. A detailed catalogue of the films, classified according to subject and giving conditions of loan or purchase, is now being prepared. In addition to this, information on all films produced in Member Countries dealing with the peaceful uses cf atomic energy is being assembled. The documentary information contained in the films in IAEA's possession relates to the following subjects: national programmes; nuclear physics; accelerators; plasma and fusion; reactors (power, research, material testing and experimental); prospecting and mining; ore dressing; metallurgy; production of fuel elements; treatment of irradiated fuel elements; protection against radiation; detection and counting; uses of radiation in medicine, biochemistry, agriculture and industry; industrial application of nuclear explosions. Most of the commentaries are in the language of the producing country. A few films are available in a choice of two languages. The films donated to the Agency total 82, two of which have been produced in Canada, 13 in France, one in India, one in Romania, one in Spain, 14 in the United Kingdom, one in the Union of South Africa, 47 in the United States of America and two in the USSR: they are mostly illustrations of papers presented at the Second Geneva Conference. In arranging for the circulation of scientific and technical films IAEA wishes to help meet some of the training and information needs of Member States. It is hoped that all organizations producing films on the peaceful uses of atomic energy will entrust copies to the IAEA with a view to their widest possible circulation. In the meantime, the Agency's films have been given

  17. FILM ANIMASI 2D (DIMENSI PENYULUHAN KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hidayatul Ahmad Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia Animation is an attempt to make a live presentation of static or moving, the animation may consist of images and music to blend together and become alive. In this case Multimedia Animation designed by using multimedia-based information technology. From year to year Multimedia Animation Film Animation shaped more advanced, both in coloring, and in concep movement. With the community Animation Film spoiled by progress dazzling animation creation. Later in the era of globalization in Indonesia's population penetration rate can be calculated very rapidly. So the authors designed an Animated Film to Family Planning Counseling to promote family planning in the community.Data collection methods used to make this application is the method of interview and literature study. For the development of the system in this paper by using development techniques Luther systems development models - Sutopo which consists of six stages: concept, design, collecting materials, assembly, testing and distribution. The results of this study are 2D Animation Film as a medium of socialization to Family Planning Department with extension. Avi and will be distributed via CD media and aired on Social Media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. This animation movie aims to be one choice as the media reduces the increase in the number of residents is too drastic. Keywords: movies, animation, family planning, Luther-Sutopo

  18. Mechanism analysis of improved DLC films friction behaviors with liquid sulfidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Yu Fei; Dong Guangneng; Mao Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid sulfidation is applied to treat DLC films. ► Sulfur atoms are chemically bonded and the graphitization presented in the treated films. ► The treated films exhibited much lower coefficient of friction than the untreated films under dry friction condition. ► The sulfidation mechanisms are supposed as surface chemical reaction and surface diffusion. ► The presence of sulfur-containing materials and graphitization are beneficial to improve anti-friction behaviors of the treated films. - Abstract: Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were treated by liquid sulfidation to improve their friction behaviors. Friction behaviors of DLC films were experimentally evaluated in ambient air under dry friction using GCr15 steel ball sliding over DLC-coated steel flat in a ball-on-disk tribometer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the chemical composition and structure of DLC films. It was found that the content of sp 2 carbon bond increased and G peak shifted to high wave number after sulfidation treatment. The measurement results showed that sulfur atoms were chemically bonded and the graphitization occurred in the treated DLC films. It was indicated that the treated DLC films exhibited much better friction behaviors than the untreated films, especially for DLC films deposited with high nitrogen ratio. In this paper, we proposed the possible sulfidation mechanism of sulfurized DLC films. Sulfidation mechanism is postulated that thiourea reacted with oxygen to form sulfur-containing organic compounds which included CSSC, CSOH and (NH 2 )NH=CSO 2 H and surface diffusion during sulfidation treatment. The anti-friction behaviors of the treated DLC films can be attributed to the production of the compounds containing sulfur on the DLC film surface, the reduce of oxygen content and the presence of graphitization of DLC films.

  19. Interfacial bubbles formed by plunging thin liquid films in a pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; David, Richard; Delvert, Alexandre; Gicquel, Eric; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    We show that the immersion of a horizontally suspended thin film of liquid in a pool of the same fluid creates an interfacial bubble, that is, a bubble at the liquid-air interface. Varying the fluid properties, the film's size, and its immersion velocity, our experiments unveil two formation regimes characterized by either a visco-capillary or an inertio-capillary mechanism that controls the size of a produced bubble. To rationalize these results, we compare the pressure exerted by the air flow under a plunging film with the Laplace pressure needed to generate film dimpling, which subsequently yields air entrapment and the production of a bubble. This physical model explains the power-law variations of the bubble size with the governing dimensionless number for each regime.

  20. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  1. Films Deliver: Teaching Creatively with Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Anthony, Ed.; Culkin, John M., Ed.

    The fifteen papers in this resource guide are grouped into four sections. Section one contains formulations of the basic rationale for screen education and descriptions of new concepts and approaches to film study. Section two presents a definition of the elements involved in filmmaking and viewing, and it describes several model programs which…

  2. Fast electrochemical deposition of Ni(OH)2 precursor involving water electrolysis for fabrication of NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Miki; Ichimura, Masaya

    2018-05-01

    Ni(OH)2 precursor films were deposited by galvanostatic electrochemical deposition (ECD), and NiO thin films were fabricated by annealing in air. The effects of the deposition current densities were studied in a range that included current densities high enough to electrolyze water and generate hydrogen bubbles. The films fabricated by ECD involving water electrolysis had higher transparency and smoother surface morphology than those deposited with lower current densities. In addition, the annealed NiO films clearly had preferred (111) orientation when the deposition was accompanied by water electrolysis. p-type conduction was confirmed for the annealed films.

  3. Study on Gas Sensing Performance of In2O3 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. KULKARNI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indium Oxide (In2O3 thick films were prepared on alumina substrate by using standard screen printing technique. These films were dried and fired at temperatures between 750 0C to 950 0C for two hours in air atmosphere. The compositional, morphological and structural properties of In2O3 films were performed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX, XRD, and Scanning electron Microscopy respectively. We explore the various gases to study sensing performance of In2O3 thick films. The maximum response was reported to film fired at 750 0C for H2S gas at 150 0C operating temperature.

  4. Structural, morphological and optical properties of thermal annealed TiO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO thin films grown by single source thermal evaporation method were studied. The films were annealed from 300 to 520 deg. C in air after evaporation. Qualitative film analysis was performed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and optical transmittance and reflectance spectra. A correlation was established between the optical properties, surface roughness and growth morphology of the evaporated TiO thin films. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicated the presence of the TiO 2 phase for the annealing temperature above 400 deg. C

  5. Sintering effect on the optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Kwangsub; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    The optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films spin-coated on flexible plastic substrates are investigated under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light. The sintering process improves the optoelectronic characteristics of the HgSe nanoparticle films. The photocurrent of the sintered HgSe nanoparticle films under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light is approximately 20 times larger in magnitude than that of the non-sintered films in air at room temperature. Moreover, the endurance of the flexible optoelectronic device investigated by the continuous substrate bending test reveals that the photocurrent efficiency changes negligibly up to 250 cycles.

  6. Air annealing induced transformation of cubic CdSe microspheres into hexagonal nanorods and micro-pyramids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400032, M.S. (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline CdSe thin films were deposited using inexpensive CBD method. • Air annealing induced structural and interesting morphological transformation. • The as-deposited CdSe thin films showed a blue shift in its optical spectra. • The films showed a red shift in their optical spectra after annealing. - Abstract: CdSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using a chemical bath deposition method at relatively low temperatures (40 °C). The precursors used for the deposition of the thin films are cadmium nitrate hexahydrate, freshly prepared sodium selenosulfate solution and aqueous ammonia solution as a complex as well as pH adjusting reagent. In order to study the influence of air annealing on their physicochemical properties, the as-deposited CdSe thin films were further annealed at 200 °C and 400 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Significant changes in the morphology and photonic properties were clearly observed after the thermal annealing of the CdSe thin films. The as-deposited CdSe films grow with the cubic phase that transforms into mixed cubic and hexagonal wurtzite phase with improved crystalline quality of the films after the air annealing. Morphological observation reveals that the as-deposited thin films grow with multilayer that consists of network or mesh like structure, uniformly deposited on the glass substrate over which microspheres are uniformly distributed. After air annealing, CdSe nanorods emerged from the microspheres along with conversion of few microspheres into micro-pyramids. The UV–visible study illustrates that the as-deposited thin film shows blue shifts in its optical spectrum and the spectrum was red-shifted after annealing the CdSe thin films. The band gap of the CdSe thin films were found to be decreased after the thermal treatment.

  7. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  8. Controllable film densification and interface flatness for high-performance amorphous indium oxide based thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: OUYANG.Wei@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito, E-mail: OUYANG.Wei@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectronics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide [MANA Foundry and MANA Advanced Device Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    To avoid the problem of air sensitive and wet-etched Zn and/or Ga contained amorphous oxide transistors, we propose an alternative amorphous semiconductor of indium silicon tungsten oxide as the channel material for thin film transistors. In this study, we employ the material to reveal the relation between the active thin film and the transistor performance with aid of x-ray reflectivity study. By adjusting the pre-annealing temperature, we find that the film densification and interface flatness between the film and gate insulator are crucial for achieving controllable high-performance transistors. The material and findings in the study are believed helpful for realizing controllable high-performance stable transistors.

  9. A plasmaless, photochemical etch process for porous organosilicate glass films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. Todd; Molis, Steven E.

    2017-12-01

    A plasmaless, photochemical etch process using ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of NH3 or O2 etched porous organosilicate glass films, also called pSiCOH films, in a two-step process. First, a UV/NH3 or UV/O2 treatment removed carbon (mostly methyl groups bonded to silicon) from a pSiCOH film by demethylation to a depth determined by the treatment exposure time. Second, aqueous HF was used to selectively remove the demethylated layer of the pSiCOH film leaving the methylated layer below. UV in the presence of inert gas or H2 did not demethylate the pSiCOH film. The depth of UV/NH3 demethylation followed diffusion limited kinetics and possible mechanisms of demethylation are presented. Unlike reactive plasma processes, which contain ions that can damage surrounding structures during nanofabrication, the photochemical etch contains no damaging ions. Feasibility of the photochemical etching was shown by comparing it to a plasma-based process to remove the pSiCOH dielectric from between Cu interconnect lines, which is a critical step during air gap fabrication. The findings also expand our understanding of UV photon interactions in pSiCOH films that may contribute to plasma-induced damage to pSiCOH films.

  10. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  11. Thermal cycling characteristics of plasma synthesized mullite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, O.R.; Hou, P.Y.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors have developed a plasma-based technique for the synthesis of mullite and mullite-like films on silicon carbide substrate material. The method, which they refer to as MePIIID (for Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition), uses two vacuum arc plasma sources and simultaneous pulse biasing of the substrate in a low pressure oxygen atmosphere. The Al:Si ratio can be controlled via the separate plasma guns, and the film adhesion, structure and morphology can be controlled via the ion energy which in turn is controlled by the pulse bias voltage. The films are amorphous as-deposited, and crystalline mullite is formed by subsequent annealing at 1000 C for 2 hours in air. Adhesion between the aluminum-silicon oxide film and the substrate increases after this first annealing. They have tested the behavior of films when subjected to repetitive thermal cycling between room temperature and 1100 C, and found that the films retain their adhesion and quality. Here they review the plasma synthesis technique and the characteristics of the mullite films prepared in this way, and summarize the status of the thermal cycling experiments.

  12. Drying of latex films and coatings: Reconsidering the fundamental mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast to previ......The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast...... to previous model studies, but in agreement with observations, simulations suggest that during the falling rate period of the drying process of a latex film, a porous skin of partly coalesced latex particles is indeed formed, which limits transport of water vapour from the receding air-liquid interphase...... to the surface of the film. The value of the effective diffusion coefficient of water vapour in the dry and partly coalesced layer (7 x 10(-7) m(2)/s at 19-24 degrees C), the adjustable parameter of the model for the falling rate period, was found to be independent of initial wet film thickness (89-1322 mu m...

  13. Process and apparatus for irradiating film, and irradiated film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A process for irradiating film is described, which consists of passing the film through an electron irradiation zone having an electron reflection surface disposed behind and generally parallel to the film; and disposing within the irradiation zone adjacent the edges of the film a lateral reflection member for reflecting the electrons toward the reflection surface to further reflect the reflected electrons towards the adjacent edges of the film. (author)

  14. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  15. Intermetallic semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, H H

    1970-01-01

    Intermetallic Semiconducting Films introduces the physics and technology of AшВv compound films. This material is a type of a polycrystalline semiconductor that is used for galvanomagnetic device applications. Such material has a high electron mobility that is ideal for generators and magnetoresistors. The book discusses the available references on the preparation and identification of the material. An assessment of its device applications and other possible use is also enumerated. The book describes the structures and physical parts of different films. A section of the book covers the three t

  16. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  17. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Tallant, D. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Provencio, P. N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Overmyer, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Simpson, R. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L. J. [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2000-05-22

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 degree sign C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5%-10%. We report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approx}15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  19. FEMINIST FILM THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Haris

    2015-01-01

    The developing of film industry has brought us into a complexity of art and business. If the first movie audiences were delighted to see that it was possible to record a moving scene on film; today we debate the desirability behind every movie, rather than just the possibility of capturing an image. Film has already become entertainment tool and communication media with quite powerful effect to influence people at the early 20th century. The problem that happens now is there are not many wome...

  20. Nopal cactus film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Conde-Cuatzo, María. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nopal mucilage potentially has certain properties required for the preparation biofilms which can be used as holographic replication recording medium. In this study, mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form films under different concentration with polyvinyl alcohol. The transmission holographic diffraction gratings (master) were replicated into nopal films. The results showed good diffraction efficiencies. Mucilage from nopal could represent a good option for the development of films to replication holographic, owing to; its low cost and its compatibility with the environmental.

  1. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  2. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  3. Film Scriptwriting: A Practical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Dwight V.

    Dealing with both documentary and feature films, this book is a guide to using particular tools and procedures in developing ideas and concepts for writing film scripts. Part one deals with the factual, or documentary, film and discusses the proposal outline, film treatment, sequence outline, shooting script, and narration writing. Part two…

  4. Discovery in Film, Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Malcolm W.

    Approximately 80 16 millimeter (16mm) short films are reviewed in this introduction and guide which attempts to be comprehensive in touching the major areas and styles of 16mm films now being produced. An attempt is made to describe as carefully as possible the style and content of each film and suggest ways in which the films might be used. Films…

  5. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  6. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  7. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  8. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  9. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  10. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  11. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  12. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  13. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited using High Target Utilisation Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Upadhyaya, H.M.; Thwaites, M.J.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on soda lime glass and polyimide substrates using an innovative process known as High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS). The influence of the oxygen flow rate, substrate temperature and sputtering pressure, on the electrical, optical and thermal stability properties of the films was investigated. High substrate temperature, medium oxygen flow rate and moderate pressure gave the best compromise of low resistivity and high transmittance. The lowest resistivity was 1.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass while that on the polyimide was 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Substrate temperatures above 100 deg. C were required to obtain visible light transmittance exceeding 85% for ITO films on glass. The thermal stability of the films was mainly influenced by the oxygen flow rate and thus the initial degree of oxidation. The film resistivity was either unaffected or reduced after heating in vacuum but generally increased for oxygen deficient films when heated in air. The greatest increase in transmittance of oxygen deficient films occurred for heat treatment in air while that of the highly oxidised films was largely unaffected by heating in both media. This study has demonstrated the potential of HiTUS as a favourable deposition method for high quality ITO suitable for use in thin film solar cells

  14. Stabilization of thin liquid films by repulsive van der waals force

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2014-05-13

    Using high-speed video recording of bubble rise experiments, we study the stability of thin liquid films trapped between a rising bubble and a surfactant-free liquid-liquid meniscus interface. Using different combinations of nonpolar oils and water that are all immiscible, we investigate the extent to which film stability can be predicted by attractive and repulsive van der Waals (vdW) interactions that are indicated by the relative magnitude of the refractive indices of the liquid combinations, for example, water (refractive index, n = 1.33), perfluorohexane (n = 1.23), and tetradecane (n = 1.43). We show that, when the film-forming phase was oil (perfluorohexane or tetradecane), the stability of the film could always be predicted from the sign of the vdW interaction, with a repulsive vdW force resulting in a stable film and an attractive vdW force resulting in film rupture. However, if aqueous electrolyte is the film-forming bulk phase between the rising air bubble and the upper oil phase, the film always ruptured, even when a repulsive vdW interaction was predicted. We interpret these results as supporting the hypothesis that a short-ranged hydrophobic attraction determines the stability of the thin water film formed between an air phase and a nonpolar oil phase. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Atomic-scale epitaxial aluminum film on GaAs substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-scale metal films exhibit intriguing size-dependent film stability, electrical conductivity, superconductivity, and chemical reactivity. With advancing methods for preparing ultra-thin and atomically smooth metal films, clear evidences of the quantum size effect have been experimentally collected in the past two decades. However, with the problems of small-area fabrication, film oxidation in air, and highly-sensitive interfaces between the metal, substrate, and capping layer, the uses of the quantized metallic films for further ex-situ investigations and applications have been seriously limited. To this end, we develop a large-area fabrication method for continuous atomic-scale aluminum film. The self-limited oxidation of aluminum protects and quantizes the metallic film and enables ex-situ characterizations and device processing in air. Structure analysis and electrical measurements on the prepared films imply the quantum size effect in the atomic-scale aluminum film. Our work opens the way for further physics studies and device applications using the quantized electronic states in metals.

  16. Gas sensing of ruthenium implanted tungsten oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamichael, T., E-mail: t.tesfamichael@qut.edu.au [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ahsan, M. [William A. Cook Australia, 95 Brandl Street Eight Mile Plains, Brisbane, QLD 4113 (Australia); Notarianni, M. [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Groß, A.; Hagen, G.; Moos, R. [University of Bayreuth, Faculty of Engineering Science, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Ionescu, M. [ANSTO, Institute for Environmental Research, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Bell, J. [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2014-05-02

    Different amounts of Ru were implanted into thermally evaporated WO{sub 3} thin films by ion implantation. The films were subsequently annealed at 600 °C for 2 h in air to remove defects generated during the ion implantation. The Ru concentrations of four samples have been quantified by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry as 0.8, 5.5, 9 and 11.5 at.%. The un-implanted WO{sub 3} films were highly porous but the porosity decreased significantly after ion implantation as observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The thickness of the films also decreased with increasing Ru-ion dose, which is mainly due to densification of the porous films during ion implantation. From Raman Spectroscopy two peaks at 408 and 451 cm{sup −1} (in addition to the typical vibrational peaks of the monoclinic WO{sub 3} phase) associated with Ru were observed. Their intensity increased with increasing Ru concentration. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed a metallic state of Ru with binding energy of Ru 3d{sub 5/2} at 280.1 eV. This peak position remained almost unchanged with increasing Ru concentration. The resistances of the Ru-implanted films were found to increase in the presence of NO{sub 2} and NO with higher sensor response to NO{sub 2}. The effect of Ru concentration on the sensing performance of the films was not explicitly observed due to reduced film thickness and porosity with increasing Ru concentration. However, the results indicate that the implantation of Ru into WO{sub 3} films with sufficient film porosity and film thickness can be beneficial for NO{sub 2} sensing at temperatures in the range of 250 °C to 350 °C. - Highlights: • Densification of WO{sub 3} thin films has occurred after Ru ion implantation. • Thickness and porosity of the films decrease with increasing Ru ion dose. • The amount of oxygen vacancies and defects increases with increasing Ru ion dose. • Ru has shown a crucial role in enhancing sensor response

  17. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g m change, threshold voltage V T change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature

  18. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy (RCETS), National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  19. Film and Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrow, David

    1978-01-01

    One practical method which development film makers can adopt to increase comprehension of important scenes is to eliminate extraneous background information by putting it out of focus, or by shooting against plain backgrounds. (Author/STS)

  20. Film documentaire, lecture documentarisante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Odin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Réfléchir sur la relation entre le cinéma et la réalité n’est pas, bien sûr, tenter de distinguer l’espace du documentaire de celui de la fiction, au point que l’opposition avec le film de fiction est devenu le critère de définition privilégié du film documentaire. Prenant acte l’existence, dans le espace de la lecture des films, d’une lecture documentaire ou, plus exactement, d’une lecture documentarisante, nous pensons qu’il y a un ensemble de films que s’affiche comme documentaire (tout le problème est précisément étudier comment s’effetue cet affichage.

  1. Fra bog til film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelern, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Efter en historisk oversigt over samspillet mellem film og litteratur i dansk film, opstilles en råkke begreber, som filmatiseringer kan analyseres ud fra. Der ses pa det litteråre vårks status — evt. som klassiker eller bestseller. Der ses pa de centrale filmatiseringsproblemer, forhold som pråger...... adaptionsprocessen fra bog til film. De kan opdeles dels i forhold, der udspringer af filmsprogets specifikke sys- tem, dels forhold, der udspringer af filmens status som massemedium. Den färste kategori er pråget af, at filmsproget generelt fremstiller handling snarere end refleksion, noget konkret snarere end...... noget abstrakt, en scene snarere end et resume og det ydre snarere det indre. Den anden kategori kan forklare filmens tilbäjelighed til åndring af forlågget, til forkortelse, forenkling og modernisering. Eksemplerne er en råkke centrale danske film/romaner...

  2. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  3. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  4. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  5. Min Morfars Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1957-01-01

    Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film.......Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film....

  6. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  7. Anthropology of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The second volume of the journal in 2017, which is part of the thematic issue, includes foreign films, and five of the eight papers contribute analyses of dystopian films. These are: A Clockwork Orange (1971, Westworld (1973, Gattaca (1997 The Lobster (2015 and Man and Chicken (2015. Aside from this thematic block, the first part of the thematic issue comprises the analyses of Miracolo a Milano (1951, Happiness (1998 and American Gangster (2007.

  8. Isodose curves through films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, A.M.S.; Campos, J.C.F. de; Scaff, L.A.M.; Val Kopacek, A.B. do

    1985-01-01

    Information about the beam profile of 4 MV X-rays through irradiation of radiographic films is presented. The films were irradiated in parallel to the central axis, within tissue-like phantom and in conditions of clinical application. The conclusion is that the method does not supply absolute values of percentage depth dose over points outside of beam bounds, but throughout the corrections it may be of great utility in radiation dosimetry. (Author) [pt

  9. Isodose curves through films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, A.M.S.; Campos, J.C.F. de; Scaff, L.A.M.; Val Kopacek, A.B. do

    Information about the beam profile of 4 MV X-rays through irradiation of radiographic films is presented. The films were irradiated in parallel to the central axis, within tissue-like phantom and in conditions of clinical application. The conclusion is that the method does not supply absolute values of percentage depth dose over points outside of beam bounds, but throughout the corrections it may be of great utility in radiation dosimetry. (Author).

  10. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  11. Innovative polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaro, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a new type of polyimide film with a unique chemical structure. Developed using proprietary technology, Upilex features outstanding properties over a wide range of temperatures, and offers the following advantages over previously available polyimide film: ultra-high heat resistance, excellent cryogenic properties, high tensile strength and modulus, excellent radiation resistance, excellent weather resistance (ultraviolet), superior dimensional stability, excellent chemical resistance, low water absorption, and low gas permeability

  12. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    plasticizer terhadap kuat tarik, persentase elongation dan permeabilitas uap air dari pektin edible film. Plasticizer yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah sorbitol dan gliserol. Serbuk albedo dari kulit jeruk bali dihidrolisis dengan larutan asam klorida 0,1 N  untuk mendapatkan pektin. Pektin kemudian dilarutkan dalam air dan dicampurkan dengan plasticizer dan larutan CaCl22H2O. Kadar plasticizer yang digunakan adalah 0; 0,03; 0,05; 0,10; 0,15 mL/mL larutan. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa semakin banyak plasticizer yang digunakan akan menurunkan nilai kuat tarik film tetapi menaikkan nilai percent elongation of break dan permeabilitas film. Film dengan plasticizer sorbitol  lebih rapuh namun memberikan nilai kuat tarik dan permeabilitas uap air yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan film dengan plasticizer gliserol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa gliserol merupakan plasticizer yang lebih baik.

  13. Equilibrium helium film in the thick film limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klier, J.; Schletterer, F.; Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2003-01-01

    For the thickness of a liquid or solid quantum film, like liquid helium or solid hydrogen, there exist still open questions about how the film thickness develops in certain limits. One of these is the thick film limit, i.e., the crossover from the thick film to bulk. We have performed measurements in this range using the surface plasmon resonance technique and an evaporated Ag film deposited on glass as substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed helium film is varied by changing the distance h of the bulk reservoir to the surface of the substrate. In the limiting case, when h > 0, the film thickness approaches about 100 nm following the van der Waals law in the retarded regime. The film thickness and its dependence on h is precisely determined and theoretically modeled. The equilibrium film thickness behaviour is discussed in detail. The agreement between theory and experiment is very good

  14. Semiconducting properties of oxide and passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira M. G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconducting properties of passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600 in borate buffer solution were studied by capacitance (Mott-Schottky approach and photocurrent measurements. Oxide films formed on 304 stainless steel in air at 350 ºC have also been studied. The results obtained show that, in all cases the electronic structure of the films is comparable to that of a p-n heterojunction in which the space charges developed at the metal-film and film-electrolyte interfaces have also to be considered. This is in accordance with analytical results showing that the oxide films are in all cases composed of an inner region rich in chromium oxide and an outer region rich in iron oxide.

  15. Soft Magnetic Properties of High-Entropy Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Si Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si thin films were studied. As-deposited Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si nano-grained thin films showing no magnetic anisotropy were subjected to field-annealing at different temperatures to induce magnetic anisotropy. Optimized magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si films annealed at 200 °C are saturation magnetization 9.13 × 105 A/m, coercivity 79.6 A/m, out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy field 1.59 × 103 A/m, and electrical resistivity 3.75 μΩ·m. Based on these excellent properties, we employed such films to fabricate magnetic thin film inductor. The performance of the high entropy alloy thin film inductors is superior to that of air core inductor.

  16. Crystalline thin films of transition metal hexacyanochromates grown under Langmuir monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagkar, Nitin; Choudhury, Sipra; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Lee, Sung-Ik; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Crystalline films of cobalt, nickel and iron hexacyanochromates (analogues of Prussian blue) were grown at air-water interface using a surfactant monolayer as a template. These films were transferred on suitable substrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry and magnetization measurements. XRD patterns confirmed the formation of oriented crystals in {100} direction for all these films. Magnetization data on nickel and iron hexacyanochromate films indicated ferromagnetic behaviour below Curie temperatures of 72 and 21 K, respectively. The methodology adopted by us to grow crystalline films is useful in obtaining magnetic thin films of analogues of Prussian blue with interesting magnetic properties with respect to transition temperatures and nature of magnetic ordering

  17. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yamada, Keisuke; Onozuka, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shigematsu, Kei [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO{sub 3} films using CaH{sub 2}. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO{sub 2}H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H{sup −}-V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO{sub 2}H film was reversible to SrVO{sub 3} by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V{sup 3+} valence state in the SrVO{sub 2}H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  18. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO2H thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Yamada, Keisuke; Shigematsu, Kei; Onozuka, Tomoya; Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Oxyhydride SrVO2H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO3 substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO3 films using CaH2. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO2H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H--V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO2H film was reversible to SrVO3 by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V3+ valence state in the SrVO2H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  19. Effect of aging and temperature on alternating current conductivity of tellurium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiulyanu, D. [Technical University, Department of Physics, bul. Dacia 41, MD-2060, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: tsiu@cni.md; Marian, T.; Tiuleanu, A. [Technical University, Department of Physics, bul. Dacia 41, MD-2060, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Liess, H.-D.; Eisele, I. [University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Physics, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2009-02-27

    The impedance spectra of tellurium films with interdigital platinum electrodes were investigated in air at temperatures between 10 and 50 deg. C . Cole-Cole analysis made it possible to assess time constants, resistance, and capacitance of the film at characteristic frequencies and the dependence of these parameters on aging and temperature. Aging under normal conditions over 12 months led to a relative increase of only {approx} 5% in film impedance at the characteristic frequency. However, aging noticeably influences the electrical resistance of the film at high (> 500 kHz) frequencies, and capacitance diminished after 12 months by more than 50% throughout the spectrum. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the effect of aging is due to structural changes in the film. Temperature does not influence the capacitance of the film but uncommonly influences its resistance, which reaches a maximum at around 20 deg. C . This is ascribed to desorption of oxygen previously adsorbed from the environment.

  20. Effect of aging and temperature on alternating current conductivity of tellurium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiulyanu, D.; Marian, T.; Tiuleanu, A.; Liess, H.-D.; Eisele, I.

    2009-01-01

    The impedance spectra of tellurium films with interdigital platinum electrodes were investigated in air at temperatures between 10 and 50 deg. C . Cole-Cole analysis made it possible to assess time constants, resistance, and capacitance of the film at characteristic frequencies and the dependence of these parameters on aging and temperature. Aging under normal conditions over 12 months led to a relative increase of only ∼ 5% in film impedance at the characteristic frequency. However, aging noticeably influences the electrical resistance of the film at high (> 500 kHz) frequencies, and capacitance diminished after 12 months by more than 50% throughout the spectrum. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the effect of aging is due to structural changes in the film. Temperature does not influence the capacitance of the film but uncommonly influences its resistance, which reaches a maximum at around 20 deg. C . This is ascribed to desorption of oxygen previously adsorbed from the environment

  1. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Songbo; Shao Tianmin; Ding Peng

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp 2 carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N≡C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp 2 C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  2. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Songbo [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao Tianmin, E-mail: shaotm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ding Peng [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-10-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp{sup 2} carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N{identical_to}C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp{sup 2}C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  3. Modification and application of water film model in COCOSYS for PWR's passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xi; Cheng, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Water film model in COCOSYS has been modified by considering film breakup. • Shear stress on film surface created by countercurrent flow has been considered. • Formation and development of rivulets have been taken into account. • Modified model has been applied for passive containment cooling system. • The modified water film model has optimized the simulation results. - Abstract: In this paper the physical model describing water film behaviors in German containment code system COCOSYS has been modified by taking into consideration the film breakup and subsequent phenomena as well as the effect of film interfacial shear stress created by countercurrent air flow. The modified model has extended its capability to predict particular water film behaviors including breakup at a critical film thickness based on minimum total energy criterion, the formation of rivulets according to total energy equilibrium as well as subsequent performance of rivulets according to several assumptions and observations from experiments. Furthermore, the modification considers also the change of velocity distribution on the cross section of film/rivulets due to shear stress. Based on the geometry of AP1000 and Generic Containment, simulations predicting containment pressure variation during accidents with operation of passive containment cooling system have been carried out. With the new model, considerably larger peak pressures are observed by comparing with those predicted with original water film model within a certain range of water film flow rate. Sensitivity analyses also point out that contact angle between water rivulets and steel substrate plays a significant role in the film cooling

  4. The influence of metal interlayers on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO 2 films

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Bei; Mi, Wenbo; Chen, Long; Li, Lin; Zhao, Chao; Diallo, Elhadj; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    TiO 2-M-TiO 2 (M = W, Co and Ag) multilayer films have been deposited on glass substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, then annealed in air for 2 h at 500°C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the films have been

  5. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  6. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  7. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  8. Technical Note: Response time evolution of XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Tomic, Nada; Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos; Schneider, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Shih, Shelley; Lewis, David; Devic, Slobodan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the response of the newest XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film model in terms of postexposure signal growth and energy response in comparison with the older XR-QA (Version 2) model. Pieces of film were irradiated to air kerma in air values up to 12 cGy with several beam qualities (5.3-8.25 mm Al) commonly used for CT scanning. Film response was scored in terms of net reflectance from scanned film images at various points in time postirradiation ranging from 1 to 7 days and 5 months postexposure. To reconstruct the measurement signal changes with postirradiation delay, we irradiated one film piece and then scanned it at different point times starting from 2" min and up to 3 days postexposure. For all beam qualities and dose range investigated, it appears that the XR-QA2 film signal completely saturated after 15 h. Compared to 15 h postirradiation scanning time, the observed variation in net reflectance were 3%, 2%, and 1% for film scanned 2" min, 20 min, and 3 h after exposure, respectively, which is well within the measurement uncertainty of the XR-QA2 based reference radiochromic film dosimetry system. A comparison between the XR-QA (Version 2) and the XR-QA2 film response after several months (relative to their responses after 24 h) show differences in up to 8% and 1% for each film model respectively. The replacement of cesium bromide in the older XR-QA (Version 2) film model with bismuth oxide in the newer XR-QA2 film, while keeping the same single sensitive layer structure, lead to a significantly more stable postexposure response. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle...

  10. Dipole pinning effect on photovoltaic characteristics of ferroelectric BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P. P.; Thirmal, Ch.; Pal, S.; Murugavel, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferroelectric bismuth ferrite is an attractive candidate for switchable devices. The effect of dipole pinning due to the oxygen vacancy layer on the switching behavior of the BiFeO3 thin film fabricated by the chemical solution deposition method was studied after annealing under air, O2, and N2 environment. The air annealed film showed well defined and dense grains leading to a lower leakage current and superior electrical properties compared to the other two films. The photovoltage and transient photocurrent measured under positive and negative poling elucidated the switching nature of the films. Though the air and O2 annealed films showed a switchable photovoltaic response, the response was severely affected by oxygen vacancies in the N2 annealed film. In addition, the open circuit voltage was found to be mostly dependent on the polarization of BiFeO3 rather than the Schottky barriers at the interface. This work provides an important insight into the effect of dipole pinning caused by oxygen vacancies on the switchable photovoltaic effect of BiFeO3 thin films along with the importance of stoichiometric, defect free, and phase pure samples to facilitate meaningful practical applications.

  11. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  12. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  13. Radiochromic film calibration for dosimetry in computed tomography tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K. C.; Prata M, A. [Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Biomedical Engineering Center, Av. Amazonas 5253, Nova Suica, 30421-169 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ladino G, A. M. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-90 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Costa, K. L., E-mail: apratabhz@gmail.com [University of Itauna, Medicine Department, Rodovia Mg 431 Km 45 s/n, El Dorado, 35680-142 Itauna, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    Radiochromic film applications in dosimetry have become increasingly significant for studies on radiotherapy and diagnostic tests. Due to sensitivity to exposure to ionizing radiation, radiochromic films are commonly used to obtain dose distribution maps. The objective of this study is to obtain the calibration curves of the radiographic film for exposure with X-ray beam in a computerized tomography (CT) scanner to realize measures of typical doses found in radiodiagnosis tests. It was used Gafchromic Xr-AQ2 film, which shows little sensitivity to visible light and a response in the range of 0.1 to 20 Gy for X-ray beam in a tube voltage supply range ranging from 20 kV to 200 kV. In the experiments, a head polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, with a cylindrical shape with five openings was used. This phantom was placed in the CT scanner isocenter and radiochromic film strips were placed into two openings. The irradiations were performed in a Toshiba Asteion scanner that allows making acquisitions in helical mode. The central slice of the head phantom was irradiated to obtain the values of air kerma in PMMA measured with a pencil ionization chamber. Thereafter, radiochromic film strips were placed into the central and one peripheral opening and 10 cm long scans of the central region of the phantom were carried out with feed voltage of 120 kV. The strips irradiated with different X-ray tube currents were scanned and processed using the ImageJ software to obtain the intensity values resulting from the absorbed radiation by optical density analysis. The calibration curves were obtained for both region, central and peripheral corresponding to the values of air kerma in PMMA measured with ionization chamber. With the curves in hand, CT experiments with applied beams can use radiochromic films as a dosimetry method and then seek the generation of images with lower dose deposition and higher diagnostic quality. (Author)

  14. Radiochromic film calibration for dosimetry in computed tomography tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K. C.; Prata M, A.; Ladino G, A. M.; Costa, K. L.

    2017-10-01

    Radiochromic film applications in dosimetry have become increasingly significant for studies on radiotherapy and diagnostic tests. Due to sensitivity to exposure to ionizing radiation, radiochromic films are commonly used to obtain dose distribution maps. The objective of this study is to obtain the calibration curves of the radiographic film for exposure with X-ray beam in a computerized tomography (CT) scanner to realize measures of typical doses found in radiodiagnosis tests. It was used Gafchromic Xr-AQ2 film, which shows little sensitivity to visible light and a response in the range of 0.1 to 20 Gy for X-ray beam in a tube voltage supply range ranging from 20 kV to 200 kV. In the experiments, a head polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, with a cylindrical shape with five openings was used. This phantom was placed in the CT scanner isocenter and radiochromic film strips were placed into two openings. The irradiations were performed in a Toshiba Asteion scanner that allows making acquisitions in helical mode. The central slice of the head phantom was irradiated to obtain the values of air kerma in PMMA measured with a pencil ionization chamber. Thereafter, radiochromic film strips were placed into the central and one peripheral opening and 10 cm long scans of the central region of the phantom were carried out with feed voltage of 120 kV. The strips irradiated with different X-ray tube currents were scanned and processed using the ImageJ software to obtain the intensity values resulting from the absorbed radiation by optical density analysis. The calibration curves were obtained for both region, central and peripheral corresponding to the values of air kerma in PMMA measured with ionization chamber. With the curves in hand, CT experiments with applied beams can use radiochromic films as a dosimetry method and then seek the generation of images with lower dose deposition and higher diagnostic quality. (Author)

  15. Changes in ocular and nasal signs and symptoms among air crew in relation to air humidification on intercontinental flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla

    2006-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of air humidification in aircraft on symptoms, tear-film stability, nasal patency, and peak expiratory flow. Commercial air crew (N=71) were given a medical examination during eight flights from Stockholm to Chicago and eight flights in the opposite direction. Examinations were done onboard one Boeing 767 aircraft equipped with an evaporation humidifier in the forward part of the cabin. The investigators followed the air crew, staying one night in Chicago and returning with the same crew. Four of the flights had the air humidification device active in-flight to Chicago and deactivated when returning to Stockholm. The other four flights had the inverse humidification sequence. The humidification sequence was randomized and double blind. Hygienic measurements were performed. The humidification increased the relative air humidity by 10% in the 1st row in business class, by 3% in the last row (39th row) in tourist class, and by 3% in the cockpit. Air humidification increased tear-film stability and nasal patency and decreased ocular, nasal, and dermal symptoms and headache. The mean concentration of viable bacteria [77-108 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3)], viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and particulate matter (1-8 microg/m(3)) was low, both during the humidified and non-humidified flights. Relative air humidity is low (10-12%) during intercontinental flights and can be increased by the use of a ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. Air humidification could increase passenger and crew comfort by increasing tear-film stability and nasal patency and reducing various symptoms.

  16. She stands alone: Pakistani woman film director, Shireen Pasha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the activities of film director Shireen Pasha in promoting truth in the mass media in Pakistan. Pasha is described as one who finds it inexcusable in a state-subsidized system that national problems of poverty are not aired openly. Pasha has pursued the goal of exposing the real lives of Pakistanis on film in contrast to the publicly aired segments of "pretty girls in nice drawing rooms." Foreign channels available through satellite communications technology are viewed by Pasha as inappropriate with regard to people's needs and uncreative. Pakistan began with one channel, PTV, which recently refused to air her documentary on living conditions in Pakistan's rural areas "The Travelogue Pakistan." "The Walled City of Lahore" was her film about life in the old city. Both films poetically depicted the honor of humans and their struggle to stay alive. Some of her documentaries are made to show the value of indigenous skills, centuries old know-how, and traditions, regardless of the poverty. Pasha is described as fighting with PTV management over use of resources. Pasha desires to invest in training people to do documentaries or be more field-oriented rather than investing in equipment. Pasha joined PTV in 1975 and left in 1990. Pasha is recognized for her isolation as a woman in the business world, her commitment to exposing remote cultures and truth, and the odds she must confront in attaining her goals. Pasha is committed to doing extensive research, usually conducted during the summer months, in order to construct a credible story line that is produced usually during the winter months. One model of film story line is defined as one where women are portrayed as starting from an indigenous skill or knowledge and shifting to a greater position of power and control over their lives. Pasha believes that people who make films have the responsibility to evoke a reaction in people and to offer solutions. Two acclaimed films, which were supported by

  17. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  18. Effect of complexing agent on the photoelectrochemical properties of bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.B.; Singh, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bath deposited CdS thin films based on complexing agents i.e. ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA) has been discussed. Effect of annealing has also been analyzed. The as-deposited and annealed (at 523 K for 1 h in air) films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and PEC properties. XRD studies revealed that the films were nanocrystalline in nature with mixed hexagonal and cubic phases. TEA complex resulted in better crystallinity. Further improvement in the crystallinity of the films was observed after air annealing. The marigold flower-like structure, in addition to flakes morphology, was observed with TEA complex, whereas for ammonia complex only flakes morphology was observed. The UV-vis absorption studies revealed that the optical absorption edge for the films with ammonia and TEA complex was around 475 nm and 500 nm, respectively. Annealing of the films resulted in red shift in the UV-vis absorption. The PEC cell performance of CdS films was found to be strongly affected by crystallinity and morphology of the films resulted due to complexing agent and annealing. The air annealed film deposited using TEA complex showed maximum short circuit current density (J sc ) and open circuit voltage (V oc ) i.e. 99 μA/cm 2 and 376 mV respectively, under 10 mW/cm 2 of illumination. The films deposited using TEA complex showed good stability under PEC cell conditions.

  19. Electron irradiation effects on partially fluorinated polymer films: Structure-property relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on two partially fluorinated polymer films i.e. poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer (ETFE) are studied at doses ranging from 100 to 1200 kGy in air at room temperature. Chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties of irradiated films are investigated. FTIR show that both PVDF and ETFE films undergo similar changes in their chemical structures including the formation of carbonyl groups and double bonding. The changes in melting and crystallisation temperatures (T m and T c ) in both irradiated films are functions of irradiation dose and reflect the disorder in the chemical structure caused by the competition between crosslinking and chain scission. The heat of melting (ΔH m ) and the degree of crystallinity (X c ) of PVDF films show no significant changes with the dose increase, whereas those of ETFE films are reduced rapidly after the first 100 kGy. The tensile strength of PVDF films is improved by irradiation compared to its rapid deterioration in ETFE films, which stemmed from the degradation prompted by the presence of radiation sensitive tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) comonomer units. The elongation at break of both films drops gradually with the dose increase indicating the formation of predominant crosslinked structures at high doses. However, the response of each polymer to crosslinking and main chain scission at various irradiation doses varies from PVDF to ETFE films

  20. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, Peter W. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Nelson, Andrew R.J. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia); Williams, David E. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand); McGillivray, Duncan J., E-mail: d.mcgillivray@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  1. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, Peter W.; Nelson, Andrew R.J.; Williams, David E.; McGillivray, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  2. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  3. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  4. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  5. Synthesis of low oxygen concentration molybdenum nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, S.L.; Davis, R.F.; Finello, D.

    1998-01-01

    Polycrystalline, small grain size, 15 μm thick Mo x N (x = 1 and 2) films containing ∼60 at.% γ-Mo 2 N and ∼40 at.% δ-MoN and void of Auger detectable concentrations of molybdenum oxides, have been prepared on 50-μm thick nitrided Ti substrates via programmed reaction and subsequent anneal at 750 C for 2 h of the precursor MoO 3 films with NH 3 . The latter films were prepared via liquid spray pyrolysis of an MoCl 5 /methanol mixture in air at 500 C. By contrast, residual MoO 2 occurred near the film-substrate interface in Mo x N films produced using the same programmed reaction but where MoO 3 had been deposited on bare Ti substrates. The change in density of MoO 3 (ρ = 4.69 gcm -3 ) to γ-Mo 2 N (ρ = 9.50 gcm -3 ) and δ-MoN (ρ = 9.05 gcm -3 ), as well as the nature of the topotactic conversion, produced grains which had a calculated average size of 10 nm and which exhibited good adhesion to the substrate. Variations in the conversion heating rates and the NH 3 flow rates also affected both the phase composition and the average grain size of the intermediate and the final reaction products. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the Mo x N films revealed a highly porous surface morphology. (orig.)

  6. Influence of thin film nickel pretreatment on catalytic thermal chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiggelaar, R.M. [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Thakur, D.B.; Nair, H.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K. [Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gardeniers, J.G.E., E-mail: j.g.e.gardeniers@utwente.nl [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Nickel and other metal nanoparticles are known to be active as catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. In this paper we investigate how dewetting and break-up of nickel thin films depends on film thickness, film–substrate interaction and pretreatment conditions. This is evaluated for films evaporated on oxidized silicon and fused silica substrates with or without tantalum coating, which were subsequently exposed to different pretreatment atmospheres (vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen; 1 h, 650 °C). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the films. Pretreated Ni films were subjected to a thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition procedure with brief ethylene exposures (0.5–3 min, 635 °C). It was found that only on the spherical nanoparticles originating from a hydrogen pretreatment of a Ni film with Ta adhesion layer, homogeneously distributed, randomly-oriented, well-attached, and semi-crystalline carbon nanofibers be synthesized. - Highlights: • On the formation of nanoparticles required for carbon nanofiber (CNF) synthesis • Various evaporated thin films on oxidized silicon and fused silica: Ni and Ni/Ta • Pretreatment of nickel-based thin films in vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen • Only on reduced Ni/Ta fast – within 3 min – initiation of CNF nucleation and growth.

  7. Effect of oxygen on the surface morphology of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaili, F., E-mail: fethi.smaili@voila.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-08-01

    Since the effect of oxygen is very significant during the heat treatment of the thin films, we study the effect of this during the annealing of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films by two different types. In this study, CuGaS{sub 2} thin films were deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of CuGaS{sub 2} powder on heated glass substrates at 200 deg. C submitted to a thermal gradient. The films are annealed in air and under nitrogen atmosphere at 400 deg. C for 2 h. In order to improve our understanding of the influence of oxygen during two annealing types on device performance, we have investigated our CuGaS{sub 2} material by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and spectrophotometry. A correlation was established between the surface roughness, growth morphology and optical properties, of the annealed CuGaS{sub 2} thin films. It was found that annealing of CuGaS{sub 2} film in nitrogen atmosphere leads to a decrease of the mean grain size and to an evolution of a (112) preferred film orientation. Annealing in air results in the growth of oxide phases such as CuO and modifies the films structure and their surface morphology.

  8. Capillary bending of a thin polymer film floating on a liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Timothy; Croll, Andrew B.

    Thin elastic films and shells are very important in schemes for the encapsulation and protection of fluids from their environment. Capillary origami is a particularly poignant example of how useful fluid/film structures can be formed. The interactions of fluids on thin-films which themselves lie on another surface (fluid or low friction solid) need to be studied if the differences from fluid-fluid and fluid-solid film interfaces are to be fully appreciated. In this experiment, we examine the triple line that occurs when a fluid is resting on a thin polymer film which is itself floating on a second fluid. The top fluid has a high-energy air/fluid interface which can be minimized by deforming the film in a manner that reduces the total air/fluid interface. We create a one-dimensional experiment in order to isolate the basic physics that occurs as the tension of the top fluid pulls on the thin film. Notably, the 1D geometry removes all the complexity incurred by thin films in biaxial stress states (such as wrinkling, folding and crumpling) from the problem. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  9. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2006-01-01

    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  10. Filming eugenics: teaching the history of eugenics through film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooten, Melissa; Trembanis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    In teaching eugenics to undergraduate students and general public audiences, film should he considered as a provocative and fruitful medium that can generate important discussions about the intersections among eugenics, gender, class, race, and sexuality. This paper considers the use of two films, A Bill of Divorcement and The Lynchburg Story, as pedagogical tools for the history of eugenics. The authors provide background information on the films and suggestions for using the films to foster an active engagement with the historical eugenics movement.

  11. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  12. Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.

  13. Nanoscale modeling for ultrathin liquid films: Spreading and coupled layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Michael

    The hard disk drive (HDD) industry is currently experiencing a compound annual growth rate of 100% for the areal density. Current production drives have an areal density of 80 Gbit in-2, and drives with an areal density of 100 Gbit in-2 have been recently demonstrated. While much of this growth has been fueled by the development of new read/write heads, some of this gain was achieved by reducing the spacing between the heads and the magnetic media. This in turn reduces the spacing at the head-disk interface (HDI). The HDI in a HDD system consists of a slider, which contains the read/write heads, flying over the disk surface on an air bearing. The current designed separation distance, or fly height, is less than 10 nm. This spacing is expected to reduce to a mere 5 nm within the next few years. With the reduced fly height, intermittent contacts at the HDI become more probable. Only a thin lubricant film of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and a sputtered carbon overcoat on the disk surface protect the slider and the stored data from mechanical and thermal damage. The PFPE film is quite thin, with a thickness of less than 2 nm or about a monolayer of molecules. During an HDI contact, the PFPE film is considered sacrificial and is often depleted in the contact area. In order to maintain adequate protection for the disk surface, PFPE molecules from the surrounding film must replenish the depleted area. This replenishment ability directly opposes the requirement that the PFPE film must not spin-off of the disk surface due to the disk rotation rate, which is as high as 10,000 RPM in current drives. To balance the PFPE films to sufficiently meet both requirements, HDD manufacturers functionalized the endgroups of the PFPE molecules to allow some portion of the lubricant film to reversibly bond with the disk overcoat. The result is a lubricant film that has a slower replenishment but does not spin-off. The work presented here focuses on the replenishment ability of thin films of

  14. Gammel Sherlock Holmes-film fundet - igen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni......Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni...

  15. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory, November 1995-2005 (DVD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: 1 DVD-ROM and 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 395 MB. ABSTRACT: A short film and presentation on laser propulsion research at the Air Force Research Laboratory, spanning November 1995 through October 2005...

  16. Film Propaganda: Ikonografi Kekuasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Irawanto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available As a modern technological invention cinema has numerous potentialities such as economic, social and political power. Fascist regimes as well as film corporations have employed cinema as a tool of propaganda to control and mobilize the masses for the sake of their power longevity. Moreover, the character of film itself is a perfect fascist medium which came from the network of proto-fascism of the twentieth century civilization. By using various genres of Indonesian cinema from different eras as a case study, this article argues that Indonesian propaganda films have monolithic representation which can be described as a cult of "bapakisme" (patronism, "kultur komando" (command culture, marginalisation of women' role in Indonesian revolutionary movement and demonization of progressive women organisation, and glorification of the role of Soeharto in Indonesian revolutionary movement.

  17. Oxygen vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in (In1-xNix)2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Deepannita; Kaleemulla, S.; Kuppan, M.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Omkaram, I.; Reddy, D. Sreekantha; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-05-01

    Nickel doped indium oxide thin films (In1-xNix)2O3 at x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 were deposited onto glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. The deposited thin films were subjected to annealing in air at 250 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C for 2 h using high temperature furnace. A set of films were vacuum annealed at 450 °C to study the role of oxygen on magnetic properties of the (In1-xNix)2O3 thin films. The thin films were subjected to different characterization techniques to study their structural, chemical, surface, optical and magnetic properties. All the synthesized air annealed and vacuum annealed films exhibit body centered cubic structure without any secondary phases. No significant change in the diffraction peak position, either to lower or higher diffraction angles has been observed. The band gap of the films decreased from 3.73 eV to 3.63 eV with increase of annealing temperature from 250 °C to 450 °C, in the presence of air. From a slight decrease in strength of magnetization to a complete disappearance of hysteresis loop has been observed in pure In2O3 thin films with increasing the annealing temperature from 250 °C to 450 °C, in the presence of air. The (In1-xNix)2O3 thin films annealed under vacuum follow a trend of enhancement in the strength of magnetization to increase in temperature from 250 °C to 450 °C. The hysteresis loop does not disappear at 450 °C in (In1-xNix)2O3 thin films, as observed in the case of pure In2O3 thin films.

  18. Influence of film dimensions on film droplet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Helene; Ljungström, Evert

    2012-02-01

    Aerosol particles may be generated from rupturing liquid films through a droplet formation mechanism. The present work was undertaken with the aim to throw some light on the influence of film dimensions on droplet formation with possible consequences for exhaled breath aerosol formation. The film droplet formation process was mimicked by using a purpose-built device, where fluid films were spanned across holes of known diameters. As the films burst, droplets were formed and the number and size distributions of the resulting droplets were determined. No general relation could be found between hole diameter and the number of droplets generated per unit surface area of fluid film. Averaged over all film sizes, a higher surface tension yielded higher concentrations of droplets. Surface tension did not influence the resulting droplet diameter, but it was found that smaller films generated smaller droplets. This study shows that small fluid films generate droplets as efficiently as large films, and that droplets may well be generated from films with diameters below 1 mm. This has implications for the formation of film droplets from reopening of closed airways because human terminal bronchioles are of similar dimensions. Thus, the results provide support for the earlier proposed mechanism where reopening of closed airways is one origin of exhaled particles.

  19. Buy, Borrow, or Steal? Film Access for Film Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Libraries offer a mix of options to serve the film studies curriculum: streaming video, DVDs on Reserve, and streaming DVDs through online classrooms. Some professors screen films and lend DVDs to students. But how do students obtain the films required for their courses? How would they prefer to do so? These are among the questions explored using…

  20. Properties, ageing behavior and stability of bipolar films containing nano-layers of allylamine and acrylic acid plasma polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Asadian, Mahtab; Declercq, Heidi; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been used for the deposition of bipolar films containing alternating nano-layers of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) and acrylic acid (PPAac). Various films were obtained by varying the single-layer thickness of each plasma polymer while maintaining a constant total film thickness and two kinds of films were fabricated via different depositing sequences (PPAam/Aac and PPAac/Aam). Films properties, ageing in air and stability in water over a 7 days period were investigated. Results showed that, COO- and NH3+ polar entities, generated from the interaction of PPAam and PPAac, are present in the bipolar films. Concerning the films stability, the different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation of each kind of films resulted in a higher amount of polar groups in the PPAam/Aac films; this conferred these films a higher stability than PPAac/Aam. Concerning the films ageing behavior, all prepared samples underwent some kind of ageing which was found to be dependent on the deposition sequence. Results also showed that bipolar coatings exhibited better cell-material interactions compared to PPAam and PPAac films; with a better cell viability observed on PPAam/Aac coatings after 1 and 7 days culture.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on the tribological behavior of ZnO films prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Liyu; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2009-01-01

    The tribological behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown on glass and silicon (100) substrates by sol-gel method was investigated. Particularly, the as-coated films were post-annealed at different temperatures in air to investigate the effect of annealing temperature. Crystal structural and surface morphology of the films were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XRD patterns and AFM images indicated that the crystallinity and grain size of the films were enhanced and increased, respectively, with temperature. The tribological behavior of films was evaluated by sliding the ZnO films against a Si 3 N 4 ball under 0.5 gf normal load using a reciprocating pin-on-plate tribo-tester. The wear tracks of the films were measured by AFM to quantify the wear resistance of the films. The results showed that the wear resistance of the films could be improved by the annealing process. The wear resistance of the films generally increased with annealing temperature. Specifically, the wear resistance of the films was significantly improved when the annealing temperature was higher than 550 deg. C. The increase in the wear resistance is attributed to the increase in hardness and modulus of the film with annealing temperature

  2. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  3. Partnervalg på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Mette

    2006-01-01

    Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer......Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer...

  4. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  5. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  6. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  7. Oxidation films morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paidassi, J.

    1960-01-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [fr

  8. Films and nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María GABRIELA FELIPPA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide some ideas about the importance of film, with it’s audiovisual narrative, in the nursing education. The use of films during teaching gives the posibility to increase the construction of a professional view.The nursing carreer of Isalud University of Argentina is founded a sistematic work with cinematographic support. In this case are presented different ways of work with cinematographic support in a curricular space of Fundamentals of Nursing of the career of a professional Nurse of the Isalud University.

  9. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    Segmuller, A., Cooper, E.I., Chisholm, M.F., Gupta, A. Shinde, S., and Laibowitz, R.B. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-T superconducting thin...M. F. Chisholm, A. Gupta, S. Shinde, and R. B. Laibowitz, " Lanthanum Gallate Substrates for Epitaxial High-T c Superconducting Thin Films," Appl...G. Forrester and J. Talvacchio, " Lanthanum Copper Oxide Buffer Layers for Growth of High-T c Superconductor Films," Disclosure No. RDS 90-065, filed

  10. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  11. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era......Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...

  12. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  13. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  14. Den umulige film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    Den smertelige Sorg og Glæde fuldender en lang og glorværdig karriere for danske Nils Malmros. Den er en yderst vellykket film, fordi den forbliver usentimental om en skæbnesvanger dag i instruktørens liv.......Den smertelige Sorg og Glæde fuldender en lang og glorværdig karriere for danske Nils Malmros. Den er en yderst vellykket film, fordi den forbliver usentimental om en skæbnesvanger dag i instruktørens liv....

  15. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  16. CMHC research project: Testing of air barriers construction details: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This project was conducted to quantify the air leakage characteristics of the header joist, the electric outlets, and the window openings in wood-frame walls. The study evaluated the sealed internal membrane method, where polyethylene sheet and sealant provide the air barrier; the external air barrier method, which uses a continuous vapour permeable membrane (spun-bonded olefin film), sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; and the airtight drywall method, where the interior gypsum board finish, together with framing materials and gaskets, are used as the air barrier. In addition, the traditional approach to wood-frame wall construction, where no special attention is given to achieving a continuous air barrier, was evaluated for comparison.

  17. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  18. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2008-01-01

    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  19. Antikken på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasilnikoff, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt.......Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt....

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  2. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Soo [Ahtti Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyu [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Yup [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods.

  3. Effects of vacuum processing erbium dideuteride/ditritide films deposited on chromium underlays on copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Thin films of erbium dideuteride/ditritide were experimentally produced on chromium underlays deposited on copper substrates. The chromium underlay is required to prevent erbium occluder/copper substrate alloying which inhibits hydriding. Data taken has shown that vacuum processing affects the erbium/chromium/copper interaction. With an in situ process in which underlay/occluder films are vacuum deposited onto copper substrates and hydrided with no air exposure between these steps, data indicates a minimum of 1500A of chromium is required for optimum hydriding. If films are vacuum deposited as above and air-exposed before hydriding, a minimum of 3000A of chromium was shown to be required for equivalent hydriding. Data suggests that the activation step (600 0 C for 1 hour) required for hydriding the film of the second type is responsible for the difference observed. Such underlay thickness parameters are important, with regard to heat transfer considerations in thin hydride targets used for neutron generation

  4. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  5. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Myung Soo; Park, Jun Hyu; Kim, Jung Yup

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods

  6. Film in Education: This Worked For Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Several techniques for teaching film appreciation to adults are discussed, including the use of audio cassettes, instructional films, silent films, and film dissection. Included are the techniques, philosophy, and content of a seminar on the short film, in which the short film is viewed as a variant of a short story, a pop song, a joke, and a…

  7. Deposition and characterization of Pt nanocluster films by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Prokeš, Jan; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Čechvala, Juraj; Kousal, Jaroslav; Pešička, Josef; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    2014-11-28

    In this study we report on the deposition of Pt nanocluster films prepared by gas aggregation source that was operated with argon as working gas. The aim of this study was optimization of deposition process as well as determination of properties of deposited nanocluster films and their temporal stability. It was found that the production of Pt nanoclusters reached maximum value for pressure of 100 Pa and increases monotonously with magnetron current. The deposition rate at optimized deposition conditions was 0.7 nm of the Pt nanocluster film per second. Deposited films were porous and composed of 4 nm Pt nanoclusters. The nanoclusters were metallic and no sights of their oxidation were observed after 1 year on open air as witnessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Regarding the electrical properties, a dramatic decrease of the resistivity was observed with increasing amount of deposited nanoclusters. This decrease saturated for the films approximately 50 nm thick. Such behavior indicates transition between different mechanisms of electrical conductivity: charge hopping for thin discontinuous films and current conduction through conducting path formed when higher amount of nanoclusters is deposited. Different mechanisms of electrical conduction for thin and thick layers of Pt were confirmed by subsequent investigation of temperature dependence of resistivity. In addition, no changes in resistivity were observed after one year on open air that confirms stability of produced Pt nanocluster films. - Highlights: • Pt nanocluster films were deposited by gas aggregation nanocluster source. • Conditions leading to effective deposition of Pt nanocluster films were found. • Deposited nanocluster films have good temporal stability. • Electrical properties of Pt films were found to depend on their thickness.

  8. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  9. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  10. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  11. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  12. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  13. Film Analysis through Linguistic Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2007-01-01

    Studies made in the last few years show that using films in language classrooms is an effective way in teaching a foreign language. Well-chosen films can serve as a valuable pedagogical aid, both for classroom use and self-study. This article is about using films in language classrooms through a specially designed course, whose outline description…

  14. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  15. Reversible superhydrophilicity and hydrophobicity switching of V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunzi; Peng, Zhiguang; Cui, Xiaoyu; Neil, Eric; Li, Yuanshi; Kasap, Safa; Yang, Qiaoqin

    2018-03-01

    V2O5 thin films are well-known "smart" materials due to their reversible wettability under UV irradiation and dark storage. Their surfaces are usually hydrophobic and turn into hydrophilic under UV irradiation. However, the V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in present work are superhydrophilic and turned into hydrophobic after days' of storage in air. This change can be recovered by heating. The effects of many factors including surface roughness, irradiation from visible light, UV, & X-ray, and storage in air & vacuum on the reversible switching of wettability were investigated. The results show that air absorption is the main factor causing the film surface change from superhydrophilicity to hydrophobicity.

  16. Curvature singularity and film-skating during drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Laurent; Josserand, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    We study the influence of the surrounding gas in the dynamics of drop impact on a smooth surface. We use an axisymmetric model for which both the gas and the liquid are incompressible; lubrication regime applies for the gas film dynamics and the liquid viscosity is neglected. In the absence of surface tension a finite time singularity whose properties are analysed is formed and the liquid touches the solid on a circle. When surface tension is taken into account, a thin jet emerges from the zone of impact, skating above a thin gas layer. The thickness of the air film underneath this jet is always smaller than the mean free path in the gas suggesting that the liquid film eventually wets the surface. We finally suggest an aerodynamical instability mechanism for the splash.

  17. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Luminescence and structural study of porous silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. H.; Wilson, W. L.; Ross, F. M.; Mucha, J. A.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Macaulay, J. M.; Harris, T. D.

    1992-03-01

    A combination of photoluminescence, TEM, and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy is used to investigate the luminescence properties of 3-micron thick, strongly emitting, and highly porous silicon films. TEMs indicate that these samples have structures of predominantly 6-7-nm size clusters. In the as-prepared films, there is a significant concentration of Si-H bonds which is gradually replaced by Si-O bonds during prolonged aging in air. Upon optical excitation these films exhibit strong visible emission, peaking at about 690 nm. The excitation edge is shown to be emission-wavelength dependent, revealing the inhomogeneous nature of both the initially photoexcited and luminescing species. The correlation of the spectral and structural information suggest that the source of the large blue shift of the visible emission compared to the bulk Si bandgap energy is due to quantum confinement in the nanometer-size Si clusters.

  19. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  20. Fabrication and properties of yttrium doped barium titanate film by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, H.; Yuasa, M.; Okazaki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Semiconductive barium titanate films were fabricated by RF sputtering on fused quartz, alumina and barium titanate ceramic substrates using barium titanate ceramic with a small amount of yttria as a target. The films on the barium titanate substrates turned blue color and showed a small PTC effect by heat-treating at 1000 0 C in the air after deposition at the substrate temperature of 600 0 C