WorldWideScience

Sample records for air energy storage

  1. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  2. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  3. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Bo; Ming Ni; Yang Gu; James McCalley

    2013-01-01

    Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimizatio...

  4. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  5. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology is...... analysed with regard to the Danish energy system. In Denmark, wind power supplies 20% of the electricity demand and 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The operation of CAES requires high electricity price volatility. However, in the Nordic region, large hydro capacities have so far kept the...

  6. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the...... compensates the added investment. •When comparing ALP-CAES to an adiabatic CAES system, where compression heat is stored in thermal oil, the ALP-CAES system is found only to be competitive under a very specific set of operating/design conditions, including very high operation pressure and the use of very...... primarily due to the investment in turbine/generator, heat exchangers, and a large quantity of thermal oil. To improve the economy, it would be relevant to investigate the possibility of replacing the thermal oil by water, for example by injecting the water directly into the air flow between the different...

  7. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  8. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  9. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  10. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency of the...... storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...... electricity storage is 25-45% and thus has a quite low efficiency, which is close to the efficiency of the simple diabatic CAES-process. Adiabatic CAES would reach significantly higher storage efficiency about 70-80%....

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  12. Novel concepts of compressed air energy storage and thermo-electric energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    The interest in energy storage is currently increasing, especially from the perspectives of matching intermittent sources of renewable energy with customer demand and storing excess nuclear or thermal power during the daily cycle. Technologies to be considered for load leveling for large-scale energy systems, typically in the range of hours to days of discharge time, include pumped-storage hydroelectricity, compressed air energy storage (CAES), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, advanced absorben...

  13. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  14. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  15. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  16. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  17. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine;

    2011-01-01

    Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed...... on reviewing the current knowledge on risks and vulnerabilities of energy systems and on potential adaptation options. The paper finds that short and longer term action on climate risk management of energy systems strongly depends on: Strengthening the capacity to model and project climate change and...

  18. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  19. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  20. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  1. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  2. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2016-05-01

    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24 bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.

  3. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, M. J.

    1981-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints included the selection of turbomachinery designs that would require little development and would therefore be available for near-term plant construction and demonstration. The design was to be based upon the DOE/EPRI/PEPCO-funded 231 MW/unit conventional CAES plant design prepared for a site in Maryland. This report summarizes the project, its findings, and the recommendations of the study team; presents the development and optimization of the plant heat cycle and the selection and thermal design of the thermal energy storage system; discusses the selection of turbomachinery and estimated plant performance and operational capability; describes the control system concept; and presents the conceptual design of the adiabatic CAES plant, the cost estimates and economic evaluation, and an assessment of technical and economic feasibility. Particular areas in the plant design requiring further development or investigation are discussed. It is concluded that the adiabatic concept appears to be the most attractive candidate for utility application in the near future. It is operationally viable, economically attractive compared with competing concerns, and will require relatively little development before the construction of a plant can be undertaken. It is estimated that a utility could start the design of a demonstration plant in 2 to 3 years if research regarding TES system design is undertaken in a timely manner. (LCL)

  4. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  5. Potential and Evolution of Compressed Air Energy Storage: Energy and Exergy Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Min Kim; Jang-Hee Lee; Seok-Joon Kim; Daniel Favrat

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems are increasingly gaining importance with regard to their role in achieving load levelling, especially for matching intermittent sources of renewable energy with customer demand, as well as for storing excess nuclear or thermal power during the daily cycle. Compressed air energy storage (CAES), with its high reliability, economic feasibility, and low environmental impact, is a promising method for large-scale energy storage. Although there are only two large-scale CAES p...

  6. Commercial concepts for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Global Research, Garching (Germany); Schainker, Robert [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Moreau, Robert [General Electric Oil and Gas, Florence (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) systems offer the potential for efficient large-scale energy storage, almost approaching values typical for pumped hydro. In an ACAES plant, the heat of compression is stored and utilized during the expansion of the air instead of firing natural gas like in commercial CAES. However, no ACAES plants have been commercialized due to challenges with respect to the cost and the heat storage technology. In this study, conducted by EPRI, GE Global Research and GE Oil and Gas, several concepts for ACAES plants are analyzed and their efficiency, complexity and technical risk compared. The components selected for the plants are available either off-the-shelf or near-commercial within a short development time and without the high costs associated with developing a new generation of large custom-made compressors and turbines. The most promising concept for near-term commercialization and low costs turns out to be a two-stage, low-temperature ACAES system. A regenerative (solid) and a recuperative (liquid) thermal storage system have been designed and analyzed for this concept, with the result that the liquid-recuperative system offers a much lower cost and comparable performance. Performance and cost targets for the concepts are 100 MW output per plant for 6 h with a round-trip efficiency above 60% and a capital cost of about $1000/kW. Selections of the turbomachinery for the compression and expansion train from General Electric Oil and Gas are presented for several plant options along with their expansion power range (25..100 MW), round-trip efficiency (66%..70%) and preliminary capital cost estimates (1100..1200 $/kW).

  7. A preliminary dynamic behaviors analysis of a hybrid energy storage system based on adiabatic compressed air energy storage and flywheel energy storage system for wind power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating energy storage system into wind system can mitigate the negative effects caused by the intermittent wind. In addition, the spectrum analysis of wind power implies that the hybrid energy storage system may have better performance on smoothing out the wind power fluctuations than the independent energy storage system. The main advantage of the hybrid energy storage system is the multi-response speeds. Also, the hybrid energy storage system often operates in the modes switch, partial load and frequent start/stop conditions. Thus, the dynamic behaviors of each devices and the assembly of hybrid energy storage system are important for the system operation and control system design. The design, off-design analysis and parametric analysis of a wind-hybrid energy storage system consisting an A-CAES (adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system and a FESS (flywheel energy storage system) based on spectrum analysis method are carried out in the previous paper (P Zhao et al., 2014). This paper will conduct a preliminary dynamic behaviors analysis of the proposed wind-hybrid energy storage system based on the dynamic models. The simulation results indicate that the total power of wind-hybrid energy storage system can fit the load requirement well, providing an efficient power management for wind power penetration. - Highlights: • A hybrid energy storage system based on A-CAES and FESS is proposed. • Dynamic model of a wind-hybrid energy storage system is laid out. • Dynamic behaviors of wind-hybrid energy storage system are investigated. • The power output of wind-hybrid energy storage system can fit the load well

  8. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif SedighNejad; Tariq Iqbal; John Quaicoe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI), measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated communit...

  9. Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage with packed bed thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of A-CAES using packed bed regenerators. • The packed beds are used to store the compression heat. • A numerical model is developed, validated and used to simulate system operation. • The simulated efficiencies are between 70.5% and 71.1% for continuous operation. • Heat build-up in the beds reduces continuous cycle efficiency slightly. - Abstract: The majority of articles on Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) so far have focussed on the use of indirect-contact heat exchangers and a thermal fluid in which to store the compression heat. While packed beds have been suggested, a detailed analysis of A-CAES with packed beds is lacking in the available literature. This paper presents such an analysis. We develop a numerical model of an A-CAES system with packed beds and validate it against analytical solutions. Our results suggest that an efficiency in excess of 70% should be achievable, which is higher than many of the previous estimates for A-CAES systems using indirect-contact heat exchangers. We carry out an exergy analysis for a single charge–storage–discharge cycle to see where the main losses are likely to transpire and we find that the main losses occur in the compressors and expanders (accounting for nearly 20% of the work input) rather than in the packed beds. The system is then simulated for continuous cycling and it is found that the build-up of leftover heat from previous cycles in the packed beds results in higher steady state temperature profiles of the packed beds. This leads to a small reduction (<0.5%) in efficiency for continuous operation

  10. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  11. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, Benjamin [Sustainx, Incorporated, Seabrook, NH (United States)

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  12. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction...

  13. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction...

  14. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  16. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  17. Potential and Evolution of Compressed Air Energy Storage: Energy and Exergy Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems are increasingly gaining importance with regard to their role in achieving load levelling, especially for matching intermittent sources of renewable energy with customer demand, as well as for storing excess nuclear or thermal power during the daily cycle. Compressed air energy storage (CAES, with its high reliability, economic feasibility, and low environmental impact, is a promising method for large-scale energy storage. Although there are only two large-scale CAES plants in existence, recently, a number of CAES projects have been initiated around the world, and some innovative concepts of CAES have been proposed. Existing CAES plants have some disadvantages such as energy loss due to dissipation of heat of compression, use of fossil fuels, and dependence on geological formations. This paper reviews the main drawbacks of the existing CAES systems and presents some innovative concepts of CAES, such as adiabatic CAES, isothermal CAES, micro-CAES combined with air-cycle heating and cooling, and constant-pressure CAES combined with pumped hydro storage that can address such problems and widen the scope of CAES applications, by energy and exergy analyses. These analyses greatly help us to understand the characteristics of each CAES system and compare different CAES systems.

  18. Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired External Combustion Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Liu; Qing Li; Feifei Liang; Linzhi Liu; Gang Xu; Yongping Yang

    2014-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the large-scale energy storage technologies utilized to provide effective power peak load shaving. In this paper, a coal-fired external combustion CAES, which only uses coal as fuel, is proposed. Unlike the traditional CAES, the combustion chamber is substituted with an external combustion heater in which high-pressure air is heated before entering turbines to expand in the proposed system. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed CAES is conduct...

  19. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  20. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  1. Thermodynamic impact of aquifer permeability on the performance of a compressed air energy storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design procedure of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was proposed. • An approach to select aquifers with adequate permeability was presented. • Applied an exergy analysis to exam the impact of permeability on plant economics. • The exergy destruction in the aquifer was reduced as the permeability increased. - Abstract: Economic, large-scale energy storage technology plays a key role in enabling the utility industry to integrate more renewable energy sources into the grid. Compressed air energy storage in porous geological formations has the potential to become one of the principal energy storage technologies in the future. Storing pressurized air in aquifers has several advantages, including large storage capacity, geologically widespread availability, relatively constant pressure, and relatively low construction cost. The performance of a compressed air energy storage plant is influenced by the subsurface reservoir properties. In this paper, the design criteria, calculation procedure, and exergy analysis approach to quantify the influence of aquifer permeability on compressed air energy storage plants are proposed. A case-study model was built to simulate a compressed air energy storage plant using aquifers with porosities of 30% and different permeabilities (0.01–1.0 darcies). The exergy destruction rates and exergy and thermal efficiencies were calculated. The results indicated that as the permeability increased, the exergy destruction due to a pressure drop of working fluid in an aquifer decreased; as the permeability increased, both thermal and exergy efficiencies increased, and the net output of the plant increased. The benefits are more obvious when the permeability increased from low (⩽0.05 darcies) to medium–high values (⩾0.25 darcies)

  2. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  3. Overview of direct air free cooling and thermal energy storage potential energy savings in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the total energy demand of data centres has experienced a dramatic increase which is expected to continue. This is why data centres industry and researchers are working on implementing energy efficiency measures and integrating renewable energy to overcome energy dependence and to reduce operational costs and CO2 emissions. The cooling system of these unique infrastructures can account for 40% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption, free cooling strategies are used more and more, but so far there has been little research about the potential of thermal energy storage (TES) solutions to match energy demand and energy availability. Hence, this work intends to provide an overview of the potential of the integration of direct air free cooling strategy and TES systems into data centres located at different European locations. For each location, the benefit of using direct air free cooling is evaluated energetically and economically for a data centre of 1250 kW. The use of direct air free cooling is shown to be feasible. This does not apply the TES systems by itself. But when using TES in combination with an off-peak electricity tariff the operational cooling cost can be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • The total annual hours for direct air free cooling in data centres are calculated. • The potential of TES integration in data centres is evaluated. • The implementation of TES to store the ambient air cold is not recommended. • TES is feasible if combined with redundant chillers and off-peak electricity price. • The cooling electricity cost is being reduced up to 51%, depending on the location

  4. The role of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in future sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future sustainable energy systems call for the introduction of integrated storage technologies. One of these technologies is compressed air energy storage (CAES). In Denmark at present, wind power meets 20% and combined heat and power production (CHP) meets 50% of the electricity demand. Based on these figures, the paper assesses the value of integrating CAES into future sustainable energy systems with even higher shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources. The evaluation is made on the basis of detailed energy system analyses in which the supply of complete national energy systems is calculated hour by hour in relation to the demands during a year. The Danish case is evaluated in a system-economic perspective by comparing the economic benefits achieved by improving the integration of wind power to the costs of the CAES technology. The result is compared to various other storage options. Furthermore, a business-economic evaluation is done by calculating the potential income of the CAES technology from both spot markets and regulating power markets. The evaluation includes both historical hour by hour prices during a 7-year period on the Nordic Nord Pool market as well as expected future price variations. The conclusion is that even in energy systems with very high shares of wind power and CHP, neither the historical nor the expected future price variations on the spot market alone can justify the investment in CAES systems. Other storage technology options are significantly more feasible. CAES may operate both on the spot market and the regulating power market, which indicates potential feasibility. However, such strategy is highly risky because of the small extent of the regulating power market and if CAES is to become feasible it will depend on incomes from auxiliary services.

  5. The role of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in future sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future sustainable energy systems call for the introduction of integrated storage technologies. One of these technologies is compressed air energy storage (CAES). In Denmark at present, wind power meets 20% and combined heat and power production (CHP) meets 50% of the electricity demand. Based on these figures, the paper assesses the value of integrating CAES into future sustainable energy systems with even higher shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources. The evaluation is made on the basis of detailed energy system analyses in which the supply of complete national energy systems is calculated hour by hour in relation to the demands during a year. The Danish case is evaluated in a system-economic perspective by comparing the economic benefits achieved by improving the integration of wind power to the costs of the CAES technology. The result is compared to various other storage options. Furthermore, a business-economic evaluation is done by calculating the potential income of the CAES technology from both spot markets and regulating power markets. The evaluation includes both historical hour by hour prices during a 7-year period on the Nordic Nord Pool market as well as expected future price variations. The conclusion is that even in energy systems with very high shares of wind power and CHP, neither the historical nor the expected future price variations on the spot market alone can justify the investment in CAES systems. Other storage technology options are significantly more feasible. CAES may operate both on the spot market and the regulating power market, which indicates potential feasibility. However, such strategy is highly risky because of the small extent of the regulating power market and if CAES is to become feasible it will depend on incomes from auxiliary services. (author)

  6. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Gareth; Barnett Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years....

  7. Optimization of specific rating for wind turbine arrays coupled to compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The economics of a wind farm coupled to an energy storage system are modeled. ► The combined system is designed to deliver baseload power at least cost. ► The model jointly optimizes the wind turbine array power curve and the storage system configuration. ► This yields a combined baseload system very different from wind and storage systems optimized for standalone operation. ► The result is reduced cost, emissions and storage requirements. -- Abstract: A methodology is presented for jointly optimizing the wind turbine specific rating and the storage configuration for a large-scale wind farm coupled to compressed air energy storage (CAES). By allowing the wind-storage system to be optimized in an integrated, variable rating framework the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be reduced substantially. These changes also enhance the capacity factor of the wind farm, reduce the storage capacity requirements of the baseload plant and reduce the greenhouse gas emission rate of the combined system relative to a separately optimized wind farm coupled to CAES. The results of this analysis could have important implications for the competitiveness of large-scale remote wind and the applicability of energy storage as a baseload wind strategy in a carbon constrained world.

  8. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  9. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  10. Optimal Energy Reduction Schedules for Ice Storage Air-Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm to solve the optimal energy dispatch of an ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on a real air-conditioning system, the data, including the return temperature of chilled water, the supply temperature of chilled water, the return temperature of ice storage water, and the supply temperature of ice storage water, are measured. The least-squares regression (LSR is used to obtain the input-output (I/O curve for the cooling load and power consumption of chillers and ice storage tank. The objective is to minimize overall cost in a daily schedule while satisfying all constraints, including cooling loading under the time-of-use (TOU rate. Based on the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN and Ant Colony Optimization, an Ant-Based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN is constructed in the searching process. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the economic dispatch of ice storage air-conditioning systems, and offering greater energy efficiency in dispatching chillers.

  11. Site specific comparison of H2, CH4 and compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The supply of energy from renewable sources like wind or solar power is subject to fluctuations determined by the climatic and weather conditions, and shortage periods can be expected on the order of days to weeks. Energy storage is thus required if renewable energy dominates the total energy production and has to compensate the shortages. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide large storage capacities for various energy carriers, such as hydrogen (H2), synthetic methane (CH4) or compressed air (CAES). All three energy storage options have similar requirements regarding the storage site characteristics and consequently compete for suitable subsurface structures. The aim of this work is to compare the individual storage methods for an individual storage site regarding the storage capacity as well as the achievable delivery rates. This objective is pursued using numerical simulation of the individual storage operations. In a first step, a synthetic anticline with a radius of 4 km, a drop of 900 m and a formation thickness of 20 m is used to compare the individual storage methods. The storage operations are carried out using -depending on the energy carrier- 5 to 13 wells placed in the top of the structure. A homogeneous parameter distribution is assumed with permeability, porosity and residual water saturation being 500 mD, 0.35 and 0.2, respectively. N2 is used as a cushion gas in the H2 storage simulations. In case of compressed air energy storage, a high discharge rate of 400 kg/s equating to 28.8 mio. m³/d at surface conditions is required to produce 320 MW of power. Using 13 wells the storage is capable of supplying the specified gas flow rate for a period of 31 hours. Two cases using 5 and 9 wells were simulated for both the H2 and the CH4 storage operation. The target withdrawal rates of 1 mio. sm³/d are maintained for the whole extraction period of one week in all simulations. However, the power output differs with the 5 well scenario producing

  12. Compressed air energy storage with waste heat export: An Alberta case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Export of compression waste heat from CAES facilities for municipal heating can be profitable. • D-CAES concept has a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO2e under the studied circumstances. • Economic viability of D-CAES highly depends on distance between air storage site and heat load. - Abstract: Interest in compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology has been renewed driven by the need to manage variability form rapidly growing wind and solar capacity. Distributed CAES (D-CAES) design aims to improve the efficiency of conventional CAES through locating the compressor near concentrated heating loads so capturing additional revenue through sales of compression waste heat. A pipeline transports compressed air to the storage facility and expander, co-located at some distance from the compressor. The economics of CAES are strongly dependant on electricity and gas markets in which they are embedded. As a case study, we evaluated the economics of two hypothetical merchant CAES and D-CAES facilities performing energy arbitrage in Alberta, Canada using market data from 2002 to 2011. The annual profit of the D-CAES plant was $1.3 million more on average at a distance of 50 km between the heat load and air storage sites. Superior economic and environmental performance of D-CAES led to a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO2e. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of size of heat load, size of air storage, ratio of expander to compressor size, and length of pipeline on the economic feasibility of D-CAES

  13. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  14. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) technologies can be used for load levelling in the electricity supply and are therefore often considered for future energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources, such as e.g. wind power. In such systems, CAES plants will often operate...... on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes...

  15. Compressed Air Energy Storage: Optimal Performance and Techno-Economical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vadasz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic and techno-economical analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system subjected to an exogenous periodic electricity price function of the interconnection is presented. The fundamental parameters affecting the thermodynamic performance and the techno-economical cost-benefit indices are identified and corresponding optimisation problems are formulated. The results of the analysis permit to obtain the optimal values of the fundamental plant parameters to be used in the design process.

  16. Optimal study of a solar air heating system with pebble bed energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Use two kinds of circulation media in the solar collector. → Air heating and pebble bed heat storage are applied with different operating modes. → Design parameters of the system are optimized by simulation program. → It is found that the system can meet 32.8% of the thermal energy demand in heating season. → Annual solar fraction aims to be 53.04%. -- Abstract: The application of solar air collectors for space heating has attracted extensive attention due to its unique advantages. In this study, a solar air heating system was modeled through TRNSYS for a 3319 m2 building area. This air heating system, which has the potential to be applied for space heating in the heating season (from November to March) and hot water supply all year around in North China, uses pebble bed and water storage tank as heat storage. Five different working modes were designed based on different working conditions: (1) heat storage mode, (2) heating by solar collector, (3) heating by storage bed, (4) heating at night and (5) heating by an auxiliary source. These modes can be operated through the on/off control of fan and auxiliary heater, and through the operation of air dampers manually. The design, optimization and modification of this system are described in this paper. The solar fraction of the system was used as the optimization parameter. Design parameters of the system were optimized by using the TRNSYS program, which include the solar collector area, installation angle of solar collector, mass flow rate through the system, volume of pebble bed, heat transfer coefficient of the insulation layer of the pebble bed and water storage tank, height and volume of the water storage tank. The TRNSYS model has been verified by data from the literature. Results showed that the designed solar system can meet 32.8% of the thermal energy demand in the heating season and 84.6% of the energy consumption in non-heating season, with a yearly average solar fraction of 53.04%.

  17. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  18. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  19. Preliminary stability criteria for compressed air energy storage in porous media reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Results from the initial phase of a study to establish subsurface design and operating criteria for a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility are summarized. The primary objective was to derive a preliminary set of criteria that would help ensure the long term (30 to 40 year) integrity of CAES reservoirs in porous media, such as aquifers or abandoned natural gas reservoirs. In addition, appropriate research and development tasks were to be defined if the current technology was found to be inadequate. Preliminary stability and design criteria for storage of compressed air in porous media were determined on the basis of a survey of the open literature and the experience of experts in industry and universities. The results were separated into two categories: criteria for low temperature air injection (under 200/sup 0/F) and criteria for high temperature air injection (200 to 650/sup 0/F). Results are presented as maximum and/or minimum bounds for a number of parameters such as porosity, permeability, closure, storage pressure, caprock thickness, delta pressure, and caprock slope. One of the prime conclusions derived from an evaluation of the low temperature concept is that the technology currently exists to handle the potential design and operating problems. Therefore, there appears to be no technical roadblocks to the successful demonstration of the CAES concept, and a pilot project could be constructed in the near future.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired External Combustion Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is one of the large-scale energy storage technologies utilized to provide effective power peak load shaving. In this paper, a coal-fired external combustion CAES, which only uses coal as fuel, is proposed. Unlike the traditional CAES, the combustion chamber is substituted with an external combustion heater in which high-pressure air is heated before entering turbines to expand in the proposed system. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed CAES is conducted on the basis of the process simulation. The overall efficiency and the efficiency of electricity storage are 48.37% and 81.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the exergy analysis is then derived and forecasted, and the exergy efficiency of the proposed system is 47.22%. The results show that the proposed CAES has more performance advantages than Huntorf CAES (the first CAES plant in the world. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-fired CAES shows that the cost of electricity (COE is $106.33/MWh, which is relatively high in the rapidly developing power market. However, CAES will be more likely to be competitive if the power grid is improved and suitable geographical conditions for storage caverns are satisfied. This research provides a new approach for developing CAES in China.

  1. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.

    1978-03-01

    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  2. A Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Model of Jointed Hard Rock for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as wind and solar are intermittent, which causes instability when being connected to utility grid of electricity. Compressed air energy storage (CAES provides an economic and technical viable solution to this problem by utilizing subsurface rock cavern to store the electricity generated by renewable energy in the form of compressed air. Though CAES has been used for over three decades, it is only restricted to salt rock or aquifers for air tightness reason. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilizing hard rock for CAES is investigated by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM modelling of nonisothermal gas flow. Governing equations are derived from the rules of energy balance, mass balance, and static equilibrium. Cyclic volumetric mass source and heat source models are applied to simulate the gas injection and production. Evaluation is carried out for intact rock and rock with discrete crack, respectively. In both cases, the heat and pressure losses using air mass control and supplementary air injection are compared.

  3. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  4. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  5. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  6. The application of power-to-gas, pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage in an electricity system at different wind power penetration levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries worldwide have committed themselves to reducing the rate in which they emit greenhouse gasses. These emissions are the major driver behind human induced global warming. Renewable electricity implementation is one way of reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. However, this transition is also accompanied by some problems. The intermittency of renewables demands for a more flexible electricity system. In existing electricity systems this lack of flexibility already leads to load balancing issues increasing costs and threatening energy security. Large scale storage facilities could provide the needed flexibility. This paper focuses on the economic and environmental system consequences of the application of power-to-gas, pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage in an electricity system at different wind power penetration levels. The study shows that the application of large scale energy storage techniques results in economic costs reducing effects on the electricity system. These are highest for pumped hydro storage, followed by the cost reducing effects of compressed air energy storage and power-to-gas. The impact on the fuel use and the emissions is less obvious. In some scenarios, the application of storage even resulted in an increase of the fuel use and the emissions. - Highlights: • We studied the effects of adding three storage techniques to an electricity system. • We modelled: Power-to-gas, pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage. • Storage is used for optimizing the operational costs of the electricity system. • The economic system benefits were highest when applying pumped hydro storage. • The application of storage not always resulted in environmental system benefits

  7. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  8. Technology assessment report for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. compressed air energy storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The design and operational features of compressed air energy storage systems (CAES) in general and, specifically, of a proposed 220 MW plant being planned by the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. in Illinois are described. This technology assessment discusses the need for peaking capacity, CAES requirements for land, fuel, water, and storage caverns, and compares the costs, environmental impacts and licensing requirements of CAES with those of power plants using simple cycle or combined cycle combustion turbines. It is concluded that during the initial two years of CAES operation, the CAES would cost more than a combustion turbine or combined cycle facility, but thereafter the CAES would have a increasing economic advantage; the overall environmental impact of a CAES plant is minimal, and that there should be no great difficulties with CAES licensing. (LCL)

  9. Thermal energy storages analysis for high temperature in air solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a high temperature thermal storage in a honeycomb solid matrix is numerically investigated and a parametric analysis is accomplished. In the formulation of the model it is assumed that the system geometry is cylindrical, the fluid and the solid thermo physical properties are temperature independent and radiative heat transfer is taken into account whereas the effect of gravity is neglected. Air is employed as working fluid and the solid material is cordierite. The evaluation of the fluid dynamic and thermal behaviors is accomplished assuming the honeycomb as a porous medium. The Brinkman–Forchheimer–extended Darcy model is used in the governing equations and the local thermal non equilibrium is assumed. The commercial CFD Fluent code is used to solve the governing equations in transient regime. Numerical simulations are carried out with storage medium for different mass flow rates of the working fluid and different porosity values. Results in terms of temperature profiles, temperatures fields and stored thermal energy as function of time are presented. The effects of storage medium, different porosity values and mass flow rate on stored thermal energy and storage time are shown. - Highlights: • HTTES in a honeycomb solid matrix is numerically investigated. • The numerical analysis is carried out assuming the honeycomb as a porous medium. • The Brinkman–Forchheimer–extended Darcy model is used in the governing equations. • Results are carried out for different mass flow rates and porosity values. • The main effect is due to the porosity which set the thermal energy storage value

  10. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  11. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  12. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  13. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  14. Design issues for compressed air energy storage in sealed underground cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perazzelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES systems represent a new technology for storing very large amount of energy. A peculiarity of the systems is that gas must be stored under a high pressure (p = 10–30 MPa. A lined rock cavern (LRC in the form of a tunnel or shaft can be used within this pressure range. The rock mass surrounding the opening resists the internal pressure and the lining ensures gas tightness. The present paper investigates the key aspects of technical feasibility of shallow LRC tunnels or shafts under a wide range of geotechnical conditions. Results show that the safety with respect to uplift failure of the rock mass is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for assessing feasibility. The deformation of the rock mass should also be kept sufficiently small to preserve the integrity of the lining and, especially, its tightness. If the rock is not sufficiently stiff, buckling or fatigue failure of the steel lining becomes more decisive when evaluating the feasible operating air pressure. The design of the concrete plug that seals the compressed air stored in the container is another demanding task. Numerical analyses indicate that in most cases, the stability of the rock mass under the plug loading is not a decisive factor for plug design.

  15. A Feasibility Study on Operating Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations has been considered as one promising option of large scale energy storage for decades. This study, hereby, aims at analyzing the feasibility of operating large scale CAES in porous formations and evaluating the performance of underground porous gas reservoirs. To address these issues quantitatively, a hypothetic CAES scenario with a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was numerically simulated. Because of the rapid growth in photovoltaics, the period of extraction in a daily cycle was set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. The gas turbine scenario was defined referring to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant. The numerical simulations involved two stages, i.e. initial fill and cyclic operation, and both were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger). Pressure loss in the gas wells was post analyzed using an analytical solution. The exergy concept was applied to evaluate the potential energy amount stored in the specific porous formation. The simulation results show that porous formations prove to be a feasible solution of large scale CAES. The initial fill with shut-in periods determines the spatial distribution of the gas phase and helps to achieve higher gas saturation around the wells, and thus higher deliverability. The performance evaluation shows that the overall exergy flow of stored compressed air is also determined by the permeability, which directly affects the deliverability of the gas reservoir and thus the number of wells required.

  16. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid thermal-compressed air energy storage system for the integration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, a large amount of wind power is abandoned due to the difficulty of integrating fluctuating wind power into electricity grid systems. Advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) is regarded as a promising emission-free technology to facilitate the wind power integration, but its high capital cost has hindered its wide commercialization. In the present work, a novel hybrid system was proposed on the basis of AA-CAES. It can reduce abandoned wind power and improve the financial return per capital cost of the system by increasing power output. In the new system, which is called hybrid thermal-compressed air energy storage (HTCAES), thermal energy storage (TES) units absorb the heat released from air compression and also the thermal energy converted from reluctant wind power using electrical heaters. Theoretical thermodynamic analyses show that the HTCAES system can absorb much more wind power than an AA-CAES system with the same scale of compressors, turbines, and TES units do. And recovery efficiency of this additional wind power is about 41–47%, depending on the final storage temperature of the TES. The power output ratio of the HTCAES system to the AA-CAES system increases with the maximum TES storage temperature and decreases with the operating pressure. - Highlights: •A novel concept of adiabatic compressed air energy storage is proposed. •Heat TES using electricity heaters after TES absorbs heat from air. •Power storage capacity of the new system can be greatly increased. •Recovery efficiency of the wind power used for electric heating is about 41–47%. •Power output increase is about 19–125% depending on the TES storage temperature

  18. Guidelines for the pressure and efficient sizing of pressure vessels for compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In small-scale CAES there are no robust guidelines in choosing an operational pressure for the vessels. ► Through the stress analysis of the vessel, an optimum pressure at minimum cost can be determined. ► One contribution is in determining the optimum pressure is small-scale CAES. ► Another contribution is in determining the shape size, and number of vessels in small-scale CAES designs. - Abstract: The paper reports guidelines for the efficient design and sizing of Small-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (SS-CAES) pressure vessels, including guidelines for pressures that should be used in the SS-CAES system to minimize the cost of the pressure vessel. Under a specified energy storage capacity and specified maximum and minimum operating pressures in CAES, the volume of the vessel(s) can be evaluated. The present study provides guidelines for choosing appropriate shape and size for the vessels that minimize material and manufacturing cost for cylindrical vessels. The two main contributions of the paper are that it provides a methodology to determine: (a) an optimum pressure; (b) the shape, size, and number of vessel to be used in a particular application. Results suggest that pressure vessels with a length to diameter ratio of roughly three are the most economical, and that a system should be designed for a pressure of roughly three times the minimum pressure of the expansion device.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated energy system based on compressed air energy storage (CAES) system and Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated energy system based on CAES and Kalina cycle is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–KCS6 system are laid out. • The energy analysis and exergy analysis of the proposed system are carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine their effect on system performance. - Abstract: High penetration of renewable power sources into power system leads to significant challenge in balancing of power generation and consumption due to the highly erratic nature of renewable energies. Integrating the energy storage system (ESS) with power system can weaken these negative effects effectively. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) system as one of the grid-scale ESS technologies has grown rapidly in the past few years. However, the temperature of exhaust from low pressure turbine during discharge process is still high enough to utilize. An integrated energy system consisting of a CAES system and a Kalina cycle system 6 (KCS6) is proposed to recover this waste heat. The thermodynamic analyses including energy analysis and exergy analysis are evaluated by using steady-state mathematical model and thermodynamic laws. The second law efficiency of the proposed CAES–KCS6 system can be improved nearly 4% compared to that of the single conventional CAES system. Meanwhile, the parametric analysis is also carried out to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on system performance, such as the turbine inlet temperature (TIT), inlet pressure of low pressure turbine and the air storage cavern temperature. Results show that all of these parameters have positive effect on system exergy efficiency

  20. High-Temperature Thermal Storage System for Solar Tower Power Plants with Open-Volumetric Air Receiver Simulation and Energy Balancing of a Discretized Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kronhardt, Valentina; Alexopoulos, Spiros; Reißel, Martin; Sattler, Johannes; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Hänel, Matthias; Doerbeck, Till

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of a high-temperature storage system for an existing solar tower power plant with open volumetric receiver technology, which uses air as heat transfer medium (HTF). The storage system model has been developed in the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink®. The storage type under investigation is a packed bed thermal energy storage system which has the characteristics of a regenerator. Thermal energy can be stored and discharged as required via the HTF air. ...

  1. Petrologic and petrophysical evaluation of the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, for compressed air energy storage in the Mount Simon Sandstone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew

    2013-03-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories' petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.

  2. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi H. Alyami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy supply and demand in an effort to mitigate the current demand deficiency. The volume ratio of air to liquid air is nearly 700:1. Liquid air is a dense energy carrier that is by converting renewable energy at off-peak periods into liquid air the energy can be stored until a peak-demand period when energy producers are maximising output to meet the demand. The energy is then retrieved from the liquid air through rapid expansion as it re-gasifies through a gas turbine and converted into electricity. A commercial scale pilot plant in Slough, UK illustrates the application of this technology empirically. The application of this technology in Canada might have challenges as public policy respective jurisdictions play a role. A case of point of applications where LAES can be integrated is the renewable energy market; particularly the wind power in Alberta. This paper’s analysis embraces wind power industry in Alberta from the perspective of both the electric system operator and the power generation plant. As such, it serves as an alleviating proposal of the current wind energy issues in Alberta – including the uncertainty of forecasting system. The analysis assumed energy storage technologies as a viable stand-alone mitigation with no consideration of the current technological and operational advancements in power systems such HVDC grids, distributed generation concepts and among others.

  3. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies:For the integration of fluctuating renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    A brief examination into the energy storage techniques currently available for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy was carried out. These included Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (PHES), Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (UPHES), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), Battery Energy Storage (BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Hydrogen Energy ...

  4. Economics of compressed air energy storage to integrate wind power: A case study in ERCOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) could be paired with a wind farm to provide firm, dispatchable baseload power, or serve as a peaking plant and capture upswings in electricity prices. We present a firm-level engineering-economic analysis of a wind/CAES system with a wind farm in central Texas, load in either Dallas or Houston, and a CAES plant whose location is profit-optimized. With 2008 hourly prices and load in Houston, the economically optimal CAES expander capacity is unrealistically large - 24 GW - and dispatches for only a few hours per week when prices are highest; a price cap and capacity payment likewise results in a large (17 GW) profit-maximizing CAES expander. Under all other scenarios considered the CAES plant is unprofitable. Using 2008 data, a baseload wind/CAES system is less profitable than a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant at carbon prices less than $56/tCO2 ($15/MMBTU gas) to $230/tCO2 ($5/MMBTU gas). Entering regulation markets raises profit only slightly. Social benefits of CAES paired with wind include avoided construction of new generation capacity, improved air quality during peak times, and increased economic surplus, but may not outweigh the private cost of the CAES system nor justify a subsidy. - Research highlights: → Sizes of CAES and transmission paired with a Texas wind farm are optimized for profit. → A profit-maximizing wind farm owner would not invest in a dedicated CAES system. → The social benefit of a wind/CAES system is unlikely to outweigh private cost. → CAES cannot cost-effectively smooth wind power with plausible imminent carbon prices.

  5. A low-cost hybrid drivetrain concept based on compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new pneumatic hybrid concept is introduced. • A proof-of-concept prototype system is built and tested. • The experimental system has a round-trip efficiency of just under 10%. • A thermodynamics model is used to predict the performance of modified designs. • An efficiency of nearly 50% is possible with reasonable design changes. - Abstract: This paper introduces a new low-cost hybrid drivetrain concept based on compressed air energy storage. In contrast to most contemporary approaches to pneumatic hybridization, which require modification to the primary power plant, this concept is based on a stand-alone pneumatic system that could be readily integrated with existing vehicles. The pneumatic system consists of an air tank and a compressor–expander that is coupled to the rest of the drivetrain via an infinitely variable transmission. Rather than incorporating more expensive technologies such as variable valve timing or a variable compression ratio compressor, a fixed valve system consisting of a rotary valve and passive check valves is optimized to operate efficiently over a range of tank pressures. The feasibility of this approach is established by thermodynamic modeling and the construction of a proof-of-concept prototype, which is also used to fine tune model parameters. While the proof-of-concept system shows a round trip efficiency of just under 10%, modeling shows that a round trip efficiency of 26% is possible with a revised design. If waste heat from the engine is used to maintain an elevated tank temperature, efficiencies of nearly 50% may be possible, indicating that the concept could be effective for practical hybridization of passenger vehicles

  6. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Aoife; Diaz Lobera, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of th...

  7. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  8. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  9. Analysis and Proof‐of‐Concept Experiment of Liquid‐Piston Compression for Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage (OCAES) System

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joong-kyoo; Ro, Paul I.; He, Xiao; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis and a proof‐of‐concept experiment of liquid‐piston compression were conducted for a table‐top Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage (OCAES) prototype. A singlecylinder‐ type piston surrounded by water was modeled and analyzed based on convection heat transfer with fully developed internal flow, the assumption adopted by earlier liquid piston study in literature. Transient numerical results of this model were calculated for a polytropic compression with different polytropic index val...

  10. Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Saline Aquifer as Storage Reservior%压缩空气地下咸水含水层储能技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡贤贤; 张可霓; 郭朝斌

    2014-01-01

    Energy crisis and greenhouse effect have promoted the utilization of renewable energy. Energy storage technology is an indispensable part in solving the fluctuation problem for the utilization of solar energy, wind energy, etc. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology is the second large energy storage potential just after the pumped hydro storage technology. At present, reservoirs for the CAES are usually underground caverns which are highly limited by geological conditions. Using saline aquifer as the storage reservoir can extend the utilization of the CAES. Herein, the operation principle, advantages and disadvantages of CAES plant are introduced. The feasibility, problems and the key technologies used in aquifer CAES such as the residual hydrocarbons, oxidation, corrosion, particulates and the choice of cushion gas are discussed. This study concludes that the use of saline aquifer as storage reservoir will be an important way to extend the application of CAES.%能源危机和温室效应促进了可再生能源的利用,储能技术是解决太阳能、风能波动问题的重要手段。压缩空气储能(Compressed Air Energy Storage, CAES)技术是仅次于抽水蓄能的第二大蓄能技术。目前CAES多是通过洞穴实现,其主要缺点是对地质要求较高,合适的洞穴数量有限,为扩大其应用,可使用地下咸水含水层作为储层。本文介绍了 CAES 电站的工作原理、优缺点及各国的发展现状,并分析了利用地下咸水含水层进行压缩空气储能的可行性、优点及一些问题与技术方法,如储层内残余烃的影响、氧化与腐蚀作用、颗粒的影响及缓冲气的选择,表明含水层CAES将是拓宽CAES应用的重要途径。

  11. Co-location of air capture, sub-ocean CO2 storage and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Han, P.; Lackner, K.; Wang, T.

    2011-12-01

    How can carbon capture and storage activities be sustained from an energy perspective while keeping the entire activity out of sight and away from material risk and social refrain near populated areas? In light of reducing the atmospheric CO2 level to mitigate its effect on climate change, the combination of new air-capture technologies and large offshore storage reservoirs, supplemented by carbon neutral renewable energy, could address both of these engineering and public policy concerns. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture scrubbers could be located anywhere in the world. Although the power requirements for this technology may reduce net efficiencies, the local availability of carbon-neutral renewable energy for this purpose would eliminate some net energy loss. Certain locations where wind speeds are high and steady, such as those observed at high latitude and across the open ocean, appeal as carbon-neutral energy sources in close proximity to immense and secure reservoirs for geological sequestration of captured CO2. In particular, sub-ocean basalt flows are vast and carry minimal risks of leakage and damages compared to on-land sites. Such implementation of a localized renewable energy source coupled with carbon capture and storage infrastructure could result in a global impact of lowered CO2 levels. We consider an extreme location on the Kerguelen plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, where high wind speeds and basalt storage reservoirs are both plentiful. Though endowed with these advantages, this mid-ocean location incurs clear material and economic challenges due to its remoteness and technological challenges for CO2 capture due to constant high humidity. We study the wind energy-air capture power balance and consider related factors in the feasibility of this location for carbon capture and storage. Other remote oceanic sites where steady winds blow and near large geological reservoirs may be viable as well, although all would require

  12. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  13. The first and second law analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic plant equipped with a compressed air energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PV (Photovoltaic) plants are widely used to produce power in either large or small scales all around the world. In addition, CAES (compressed air energy storage) system has attracted considerable attention as one of the most efficient candidates for large scales energy storage applications in the recent years. In this work, detailed energy and exergy analysis of a 100 MWp (megawatt peak) grid connected PV plant equipped with a CAES system is carried out. The PV plant is assumed to be located in Brazil. The formulations related to the first and the second laws of thermodynamic for all components as well as detailed solar engineering formulations for both the PV farm and the solar heating unit are presented. The performance of the power plant is comprehensively investigated for one entire year in real circumstances. The results revealed that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CAES system are very close and vary from 35% up to 65% during the year. Also, the annual average exergy and energy efficiencies of the power plant are calculated to be 17.9% and 16.2%, respectively. - Highlights: • This article presents a thorough thermodynamic analysis on a PV farm equipped with a CAES unit. • Energy performance of all components in the system are investigated. • Exergy analysis formulation for of all components in the system is given. • Energy and exergy destruction origins are found and reported. • Detailed energy and exergy efficiency report for the power plant and its subsystems is presented

  14. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  15. Rechargeable Metal–Air Proton‐Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rechargeable proton‐exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen‐storage media have the potential to serve as next‐generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen‐storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal‐ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn0.9In0.1P2O7‐based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V4+/V3+, V3+/V2+, and Sn4+/Sn2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g−1 for VOSO4 and SnSO4, respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles.

  16. Performance assessment and optimization of a combined heat and power system based on compressed air energy storage system and humid air turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A combined heat and power system based on CAES and HAT is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–HAT based CHP system are laid out. • The performance assessment of the proposed system is carried out. • The system optimization is conducted to decide the maximum conditions. - Abstract: Renewable energy based power sources have grown rapidly in the past few years owing to the dual constraint of climate change and pollution control. Compressed air energy storage (CAES), as a large-scale energy storage system (ESS) technology, has huge potential to manage the intermittent renewable energy based power sources effectively. However, the compression heat generated during charge and waste heat carried in turbine exhaust during discharge are not fully recuperated in current stage. A combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a CAES system and a humid air turbine (HAT) system is proposed to utilize the both types of heat energy. The proposed system can boost the power output, enhance performance and improve efficiency through a simultaneous supply of power and heat. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the expansion train power can be improved about 26% compared with the conventional CAES system. The parametric analysis reveals that the exergy efficiency increases with the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of high pressure turbine (HPT) and inlet pressure of low pressure turbine (LPT), but decreases with the TIT of LPT, L/G ratio and dry air inlet temperature of saturator. Meanwhile, the system optimization is carried out via particle swarm optimization (PSO) to determine the maximum power and exergy efficiency conditions

  17. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  18. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  19. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  20. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  1. Experimental investigation of an innovative thermochemical process operating with a hydrate salt and moist air for thermal storage of solar energy: Global performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A large scale thermochemical storage system working with moist air is experimented. • High energy density (203 kW h/m3) and storage capacity (105 kW h) have been obtained. • Hydration specific powers between 0.75 and 2 W/kg have been reached. • The ways to control the storage system have been deeply investigated. • Two important parameters (equilibrium drop and mass flowrate) have been identified. - Abstract: This paper investigates an innovative open thermochemical system dedicated to high density and long term (seasonal) storage purposes. It involves a hydrate/water reactive pair and operates with moist air. This work focuses on the design of and experimentation with a large scale prototype using SrBr2/H2O as a reactive pair (400 kg of hydrated salt, 105 kW h of storage capacity and a reactor energy density of 203 kW h/m3). Promising conclusions have been obtained regarding the feasibility and performance of such a storage process. Hydration specific powers from 0.75 to 2 W/kg have been reached for a bed salt energy density of 388 kW h/m3. Moreover, two important parameters that control the storage system have been identified and investigated: the equilibrium drop and the mass flow rate of moist air. Both have a strong influence on the reaction kinetics and therefore on the reactor’s thermal power

  2. Review of Compressed Air Energy Storage System%压缩空气蓄能(CAES)系统综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖定垚; 王承民; 衣涛; 谢宁; 史伟伟

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的大规模蓄能技术——压缩空气蓄能(Compressed Air Energy Storage,CAES),CAES系统响应快、容量大、成本低、寿命长,逐渐成为了全球第二大蓄能技术.根据CAES系统的容量不同,将CAES系统划分为大型CAES、小型CAES和微型CAES 3种,并针对3种不同容量级的CAES,详细介绍了其组成及现状,对技术特点与难点和应用领域及场景进行了分析与概述.对CAES系统的研究方向与发展前景进行了展望.

  3. Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety, and licensing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The behavior and suitability of aquifers as compressed-air energy storage (CAFS) sites was studied. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are described. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  4. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    ), Battery Energy Storage (BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Hydrogen Energy Storage System (HESS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The objective was to...

  5. Assessing the Economic Benefits of Compressed Air Energy Storage for Mitigating Wind Curtailment

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Brendan; Duffy, Aidan; O'Connor, Alan; Conlon, Michael; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy generation in the All-Island of Ireland (AII) is set to increase by 2020 due to binding renewable energy targets. To achieve these targets, there will be periods of time when 75% of electricity will be generated mainly from onshore wind. Currently, the AII system can accommodate a 50% maximum permissible instantaneous level of wind generation. The system operators must make system wide wind curtailment decisions to ensure this level is not breached. Subsequently, the ability ...

  6. Energy Storage and Renewable Energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    I consider an economy with fossil fuel and renewable energy and energy storage, and search for the conditions that lead to welfare improvements when energy is stored. I then solve for the optimal decision rule and analyze the long-run tendencies of the economy-energy variables. The findings are threefold. First, energy storage is fostered by the convexity of the marginal utility (prudence), the marginal cost function for fossil fuel energy, and the degree of intermittency. Second, considering...

  7. Designing And Testing An Air-PCM Heat Exchanger For Building Ventilation Application Coupled To Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dechesne, Bertrand; Gendebien, Samuel; Martens, Jonathan; Lemort, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increase of energy costs, buildings energy consumption has tended to decrease in the past decades. This gives an opportunity for developing innovative renewable technologies that are more adapted to recent buildings with low energy demand. In this context, one main challenge is to manage non-simultaneous availability of heat source or sink and the energy demand of buildings. Hence, different technologies dedicated to energy storage have been developed recently; one of them is the u...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  9. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  10. Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, Mohammed; Abdel-Khalik, Ayman; Elserogi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Shehab; Massoud, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Flywheels are one of the oldest and most popular energy storage media owing to the simplicity of storing kinetic energy in a rotating mass. Flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) can be used in different applications, for example, electric utilities and transportation. With the development of new technologies in the field of composite materials and magnetic bearings, higher energy densities are allowed in the design of flywheels. The amount of stored energy in FESS depends on the mass and th...

  11. Applicability of thermal energy storage recycled ceramics to high temperature and compressed air operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ACW ceramics have been successfully tested under ACAES operating conditions. • ACW ceramics have been successfully tested under gas turbine based CSP conditions. • Under 600 °C-30 bars of air, ACW ceramics Cp is slightly lowered by 5%. • Thermal conductivity of ACW ceramics is advantageously enhanced by 30%. - Abstract: Recycled ceramics made of inertized asbestos containing wastes have been submitted to high pressure/temperature cycling tests in the operating range of ACAES and CSP applications. Ten successive cycles between room conditions and 610 °C/30 bars for a cumulated duration of 2500 h lead to a validation of the ability of the material to resist to those constrains. The Wollastonite/Augite initial structure is gradually transformed in a unique Augite containing material. While mechanical parameters and density are unchanged, thermal capacity is reduced by 5% and thermal conductivity increased by 30%. This last result offers an advantageous way to enhance the thermal conductivity of those recycled ceramics, a key parameter to control the charge/discharge power in TES systems

  12. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  13. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  14. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  15. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  16. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  17. Compressed-air energy-storage preliminary design and site-development program in an aquifer. Volume 7: Environmental, safety and licensing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    The suitability of aquifers as compressed air energy storage (CAES) sites was examined. The methodology and results of the study are described. The probability, severity, and recommended control measures for the environmental and safety impacts that could result from the construction and operation of a CAES facility are outlined. The permits and approvals that would be required and the time estimated for their acquisition are also described.

  18. Thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  19. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  20. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  1. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  2. Compressed air energy storage power plants as an option for the grid integration of renewable energy sources. A comparison of the concepts; Druckluftspeicherkraftwerke als Option zur Netzintegration erneuerbarer Energiequellen. Ein Vergleich der Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, Ilja [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesystemtechnik

    2008-07-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of power generation from renewable energy sources is a large challenge for the electricity supply. Apart from the compensation of varying production by supra-regional grids and apart from the further development of peak load power stations the energy storage is discussed as an option. Several power suppliers referred to compressed air energy storage plants as a possible solution. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the different concepts for compressed air energy power stations systematically. A special emphasis is the thermodynamic evaluation of the different concepts. Also energy-technical aspects are addressed which decide on possibilities of application and perspectives of development for compressed air energy power stations.

  3. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  4. Power supply to the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak by a multi-stage inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-stage inductive energy storage circuits have been studied by a simplex method to obtain an optimum design of a power supply system for the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak. Parameters of the electric circuits subject to various constraints were determined by the method. The multi-stage inductive energy storage system is better than the single-stage system in viewpoint of the energy necessary to build up the plasma current. Circuit analysis including the plasma was made for the two cases: (1) the plasma resistance given as a function of time, and (2) the plasma resistance determined from a zero-dimensional plasma model. The plasma self-inductance and its time variation play an important role during the build up of plasma current, and influence largely on the optimal circuit parameters. (auth.)

  5. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  6. AA-CAES. Opportunities and challenges of advanced adiabatic compressed-air energy storage technology as a balancing tool in interconnected grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Roland; Moser, Peter [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung, Neue Technologien; Hoffmann, Stephanie [GE Global Research Europe, Garching (Germany); Pazzi, Simone [GE Infrastructure, Oil and Gas, Firenze (Italy); Klafki, Michael [ESK GmbH (RWE Group), Freiberg (Germany); Zunft, Stefan [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2008-07-01

    An expansion of CO{sub 2}-neutral energy supply is in the focus of European and national environmental policy and will be crucially supported by offshore wind power generation in future. Grid-compatible integration of these fluctuating electricity quantities will - in the medium term already - require substantial adjustments of the German grid and power plant system in order to cope with the upcoming new boundary conditions. The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible European electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in Adiabatic CAES power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. Before this concept can be implemented, however, several technical problems must be solved and technical development work done, especially in the field of turbomachinery and the required heat storage device. This paper outlines the technical possibilities and the need for development. Ongoing development activities are described and first interim results presented. (orig.)

  7. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  8. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  9. Energy storage: a review of recent literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

  10. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  11. Optimal management of compressed air energy storage in a hybrid wind-pneumatic-diesel system for remote area's power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity in Canadian remote areas is, historically, produced using Diesel generators. Its total production cost is very high not only due to inherent cost of fuel but also due to transportation and maintenance costs. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid systems that combine wind turbines and diesel generators reduce fuel consumption, operational cost and pollution. Adding a storage element to this hybrid system increases the penetration level of renewable sources, i.e. the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. Among all energy storage techniques, CAES (compressed air energy storage) has several advantages to be combined with hybrid WDS (wind-diesel systems), due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. In a previous work, we have exposed and have evaluated a new technique to transform the existing Diesel engine to a HPCE (hybrid pneumatic combustion engine), able to operate as a bi-source engine (compressed air and fuel). Based on ideal cycle modeling, we provided a first estimation of the annual fuel economy obtained with this multi-hybrid system (WDS–HPCE). As a continuity to this work, we will compare, in this article, several strategies of management of the CAES. We will demonstrate that one of these strategies that uses an algorithm based on wind speed forecast, is the most efficient. We will, also, provide an evaluation of the fuel economy generated by the WDS–HPCE, as a function of the wind power penetration ratio, the air-storage capacity, and the average wind speed on site. - Highlights: • We model thermodynamic cycle of a new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine. • we evaluate all ratios of pneumatic power to fuel power and select two highlighted. • we calculate maps of fuel and air consumption for the highlighted strategies. • We evaluate fuel consumption for each strategy and for a combination between both. • we get

  12. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  13. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  14. Thermal energy storage application areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The use of thermal energy storage in the areas of building heating and cooling, recovery of industrial process and waste heat, solar power generation, and off-peak energy storage and load management in electric utilities is reviewed. (TFD)

  15. Superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and economic aspects of large scale superconductive magnetic energy storage are discussed. This paper is a review of a program which has been under way at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. Early work between 1970 and 1976 was primarily involved in providing economic and technical feasibility of the concept. The present program deals with component development and detailed design ultimately leading to construction of a large superconducting magnet capable of storing 1000 to 10,000 MWh. The magnet is a single-layered segmented solenoid approx. 100 m radius. Energy containment is achieved economically by burying the magnet underground in bedrock tunnels. Magnetic loads are transmitted from the conductor to bedrock through glass fiber reinforced composite struts. The conductor consists of a composite of aluminium and NbTi and is designed for full cryogenic stability in 1.8 K superfluid helium. The dewar-conductor assembly will be rippled in a 1 m radius of curvature to reduce the hoop stress tension. A Graetz bridge is required to convert the d.c. superconducting current into a.c. current in the three-phase power system. Economic analysis indicates that superconductive magnetic energy storage is competitive with alternative large scale storage schemes for units greater than 1000 MWh size. (U.K.)

  16. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  17. Short term thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Abhat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reviews the problem of short term thermal energy storage for low temperature solar heating applications. The techniques of sensible and latent heat storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the latter. Requirements for hot water storage subsystems are provided and the importance of stratification in hot water storage tanks is described. Concerning latent heat storage, both material and heat exchanger aspects are considered in detail. The example of a passively opera...

  18. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  19. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  20. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  1. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  2. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  3. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  4. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  5. The stationary storage of energy. Available technologies and CEA researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a discussion of the main challenges related to the stationary storage of energy, this publication proposes an overview of the different available technologies: plant for transfer of energy by pumping, compressed air, energy flywheels, hydrogen, lithium-ion battery, redox-flow battery, thermal storage by sensitive heat, thermal-chemical storage coupled to a thermal solar system, thermal storage by phase change, superconductive inductance storage, super-capacitors. It discusses the criteria of choice of storage technology, either for electric energy storage or for heat storage. It proposes an overview of researches performed within the CEA on storage systems: electrochemical, thermal, and hydrogen-based storages. The final chapter addresses current fundamental researches on storage in the field of lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen as a fuel, and thermoelectricity

  6. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  7. Article for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  8. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  9. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  10. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  11. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  12. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  13. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  14. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  15. Thermal–economic–environmental analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a mathematical model of an ice thermal energy storage (ITES) system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling is developed and thermal, economic, and environmental (emissions cost) analyses have been applied to the model. While taking into account conflicting thermodynamic and economic objective functions, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal design parameters of the plant. Exergetic efficiency is chosen as the thermodynamic objective while the total cost rate of the system including the capital and operational costs of the plant and the social cost of emissions, is considered as the economic objective. Performing the optimization procedure, a set of optimal solutions, called a Pareto front, is obtained. The final optimal design point is determined using TOPSIS decision-making method. This optimum solution results in the exergetic efficiency of 34.06% and the total cost of 28.7 million US$ y−1. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that inlet air cooling using an ITES system leads to 11.63% and 3.59% improvement in the output power and exergetic efficiency of the plant, respectively. The extra cost associated with using the ITES system is paid back in 4.72 years with the income received from selling the augmented power. - Highlights: • Mathematical model of an ITES system for a GT cycle inlet air cooling is developed. • Exergetic, economic and environmental analyses were performed on the developed model. • Exergy efficiency and total cost rate were considered as the objective functions. • The total cost rate involves the capital, maintenance, operational and emissions costs. • Multi-objective optimization was applied to obtain the Pareto front

  16. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  18. Geotechnical Feasibility Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Bedded Salt Formations: a Case Study in Huai'an City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guimin; Li, Yinping; Daemen, Jaak J. K.; Yang, Chunhe; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangtze River is one of the most developed regions in China. It is desirable to build compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plants in this area to ensure the safety, stability, and economic operation of the power network. Geotechnical feasibility analysis was carried out for CAES in impure bedded salt formations in Huai'an City, China, located in this region. First, geological investigation revealed that the salt groups in the Zhangxing Block meet the basic geological conditions for CAES storage, even though the possible unfavorable characteristics of the salt formations include bedding and different percentages of impurities. Second, mechanical tests were carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the bedded salt formations. It is encouraging that the samples did not fail even when they had undergone large creep deformation. Finally, numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stability and volume shrinkage of the CAES under the following conditions: the shape of a single cavern is that of a pear; the width of the pillar is adopted as two times the largest diameter; three regular operating patterns were adopted for two operating caverns (internal pressure 9-10.5 MPa, 10-11.5 MPa, and 11-12.5 MPa), while the other two were kept at high pressure (internal pressure 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 MPa) as backups; an emergency operating pattern in which two operating caverns were kept at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) for emergency while the backups were under operation (9-10.5 MPa), simulated for 12 months at the beginning of the 5th year. The results of the analysis for the plastic zone, displacement, and volume shrinkage support the feasibility of the construction of an underground CAES power station.

  19. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  20. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  1. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times...

  2. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  3. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  4. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  5. Operation Optimization and Energy Consumption Analysis of Radiation Air Conditioning System with Ice Storage%冰蓄冷辐射空调系统运行优化与能耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁坤峰; 任岘乐; 贾雪迎; 王林; 阮春蕾; 张林泉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of temperature and humidity independent control, a radiation air conditioning system with ice storage was presented, which combined ice storage system, capillary radiation air conditioning, and ground-source heat exchanger;the new system may realize the power load peak load shifting, the reduction of energy consumption and good thermal comfort. Operation optimization model is established for the ice storage air conditioning system. Taking an office building in Hangzhou area as an example, the load calculation, operation strategy optimization and energy consumption analysis have been conducted. The results show that, the ice storage air conditioning system has the remarkable advantages for saving electricity and operation cost than the conventional air conditioning system. In the practical application, ice storage capacity constraints are considered in order to determine the system operation scheme.%基于温湿度独立控制思路,提出了一种将冰蓄冷、毛细管辐射及地源耦合的冰蓄冷辐射空调系统,以实现电力负荷“削峰填谷”、降低能耗和更好的热舒适性。建立了冰蓄冷辐射空调系统的运行优化模型,以杭州地区某办公楼为实例,进行了负荷计算、运行方案优化以及能耗分析,结果表明冰蓄冷辐射空调系统与常规空调系统相比,具有显著的节电和节省运行费用优势。实际应用中需综合考虑蓄冰容量的限制以最终确定系统运行方案。

  6. Performance investigation of a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater combined with energy storage and dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to investigate a novel frost-free ASHPWH system. • Dynamic characteristics of the system are studied at different ambient conditions. • Test results confirm the expected potential to control the frost-free process. • The COP increased 17.9% and 3.4% respectively in comparison with RCD at −3 °C and 3 °C. - Abstract: Air-source heat pump (ASHP) often operates with substantial frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger at low ambient temperature in winter, it insulates the finned surface and also reduces heat transfer rate, leading to performance degradation or even shutdown of ASHP systems. Although several defrosting methods have been reported, the frosting and defrosting processes reduced energy efficiency and resulted in, in some cases, heat pump breakdown. To solve this problem, a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) system has been developed, which coupled with an extra heat exchanger coated by a solid desiccant (EHECSD) with an energy storage device (ESD). Based on the previous studies, a further analysis and comprehensive research on the novel frost-free ASHPWH system is presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the novel system are investigated experimentally in different ambient conditions. An experimental setup and experimental procedures are described in detail. Thereafter, the dehumidification efficiency and regeneration efficiency of EHECSD, suction and discharge pressures of the compressor, the temperature of PCM are evaluated during the heating and regeneration modes respectively. Results indicate that the system can keep the evaporator frost-free for 32, 34, 36 min during heating mode at the ambient temperatures of −3 °C, 0 °C and 3 °C and 85% RH. Compared with the reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD), COP of the frost-free ASHPWH are 17.9% and 3.4% higher at the ambient temperature of −3 °C and 3 °C respectively. With this innovative technology, it has

  7. Low energy ion storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While high energy physicists have found it expedient to store ions at increasingly higher energies in devices of greater size and complexity, atomic physicists have generally attempted to store ions at ever lower energies, and often in miniaturized containers. However, many of the techniques used at both high and low energies are analogous or related. Three basic means of ion containment have been used: the dc electrostatic trap, the Penning-type trap with uniform magnetic field and quadrupole dc potential, and the radio-frequency quadrupole trap in either the cylindrically symmetric or storage-ring configurations. Each trapping configuration has characteristic advantages or drawbacks for particular measurements. Each method is described

  8. Electrical Energy Storage and the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ruth

    2007-05-01

    Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power or power from renewables requires either a system for storage of electrical energy that can respond quickly to demand or a back-up power source, usually a gas turbine plant that has a quick response time. We have studied six technologies for storing electrical energy from the grid: pumped hydropower, compressed air storage, batteries, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and electrochemical capacitors. In addition, the power conversion systems (PCS) that connect storage to the grid are both expensive and critical to the success of a storage technology. Each of these six technologies offers different benefits, is at a different stage of readiness for commercial use, and offers opportunities for research. Advantages and disadvantages for each of the technologies and PCS will be discussed. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.1

  9. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  10. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-01-01

    The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal...

  11. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  12. A Lithium-Air Battery with a High Energy Air Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will advance an efficient and lightweight energy storage device for Oxygen Concentrators by developing a high specific energy lithium-air cell....

  13. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  14. Technical basis of compressed-air energy storage as a substitute for lead batteries; Techn. Grundlagen der Druckluftspeicherung und deren Einsatz als Ersatz fuer Bleibatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphelly, I.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.

    2004-07-01

    Stand-alone electrical grids need storage systems, as consumption and generation usually do not fit in time and magnitude; this paper shows typical rural revenue-generating dairy applications in the multi-kW-range: this allows for a detailed analysis of the lay-out, and also of the needed elements and of the types of voltages involved (230 V AC, 24 and 315 V DC), but also of the characteristics of the storage system. A list of wishful storage qualities is extracted from these experiences and used to evaluate a possible pneumatic substitute to the lead-acid battery (BOP = Batteries w. Oilhydraulics and Pneumatics) and to imagine an extension towards a higher power range (like grid quality enhancement in the MW-range). According to the state-of-the-art and the commercial availability of components which would be inserted in this storage chain, an overview of the two existing systems (BOP-A with compression/expansion directly in the storage vessel volume and BOP-B with external thermodynamics) is presented with formulae and graphics yielding main parameters (efficiency, specific energies etc) and sizing basics. This data compilation also helps to insert BOP technologies in the latest storage debate, where future distribution technology is at stake. (author)

  15. Modeling and integration of a heat storage tank in a compressed air electricity storage process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large-scale heat storage tank behavior is explored with a two dimensional model. • Thermal storage tank efficiencies are estimated thanks to dimensionless numbers. • Abacuses of the tank efficiency are provided. • The link between tank efficiency and A-CAES global efficiency is generated. - Abstract: In an adiabatic compressed air energy storage process (A-CAES), heat storage tank operation is a key factor that determines the overall energy performance of the process. To highlight energy issues linked to a correct tank design in the specific case of an A-CAES system, a two-dimensional thermal numerical model was developed. Thermal efficiencies of the tank are presented with abacus defined from the four dimensionless numbers defining the thermal behavior of the reservoir. Cycling effects are explored with a realistic case study corresponding to an A-CAES system design to deliver an electrical power of 250 MWel for 4 h, the daily peak demand. Extended beyond the thermal reservoir, A-CAES thermodynamic analysis combined with the dynamic simulation makes it possible to generate a direct quantitative link between reservoir sizing and A-CAES global efficiency

  16. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  17. Thermal energy storage flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of an experimental program to study heat transfer, energy storage, fluid movement, and void location under microgravity. Plans for experimental flight packages containing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material applicable for advanced solar heat receivers are discussed. Candidate materials for TES include fluoride salts, salt eutectics, silicides, and metals. The development of a three-dimensional computer program to describe TES material behavior undergoing melting and freezing under microgravity is also discussed. The TES experiment concept and plans for ground and flight tests are outlined.

  18. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  19. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  20. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  1. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  2. Nanoconfined hydrides for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-05-01

    The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage properties are reviewed.The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage

  3. Multifunctional composites for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif I.; Karim, Hasanul; Rajib, Md; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical super-capacitors have become one of the most important topics in both academia and industry as novel energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide lighter structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area and fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and XRay Diffraction (XRD) measurements were used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing has been performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire hybrid carbon fiber provides 65.9% better performance than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  4. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  5. Nanoelectrodes: energy conversion and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Wallace

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials take on exceptional properties as we enter the nanodomain and Electromaterials: those that transport and/or transfer charge are no exception. As such the ability to impart nanostructure to electrodes is having a dramatic effect on areas such as energy conversion and storage.

  6. Improving Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kranz; G. Blöcher; Ali Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage systems play an important role for the future energy supply systems. Such systems can decouple energy availability (e.g. fluctuating renewable energy, waste heat) and energy supply in times of demand. In order to fully contribute to the sustainability of energy supply, the essential requirements of energy storages are high energy efficiency, high reliability, cost effectiveness, as well as operational flexibility. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems (ATES) me...

  7. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes Lubomir; Mauder Tomas; Ostry Milan; Charvat Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage...

  8. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  9. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  10. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  11. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  12. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  13. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D. [comps.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  14. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  15. Thermal energy storage program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored applied research, development, and demonstration of technologies aimed at reducing energy consumption and encouraging replacement of premium fuels (notably oil) with renewable or abundant indigenous fuels. One of the technologies identified as being able to contribute to these goals is thermal energy storage (TES). Based on the potential for TES to contribute to the historic mission of the DOE and to address emerging energy issues related to the environment, a program to develop specific TES technologies for diurnal, industrial, and seasonal applications is underway. Currently, the program is directed toward three major application targets: (1) TES development for efficient off-peak building heating and cooling, (2) development of advanced TES building materials, and (3) TES development to reduce industrial energy consumption.

  16. Ten questions to Jean Dhers on the storage of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors proposes a comprehensive set of technical and economical data and information on electricity storage: the reasons to store energy (autonomous, stationary and network applications), the different types and advantages of energy storages with reversible power, the means to massively store electricity to exploit in on the network (description, uses and comparison of pumping energy transfer station, energy storage under the form of compressed air), the inertial storage (storage of kinetic energy accumulated in a flywheel, and its applications), the importance of storage with electrochemical batteries (reversible storage, evolution of batteries in ground transports, main economic sectors for batteries), fuel cells, the role of energy storage by power capacitors, the perspectives of super capacitors in a near future (comparison of their performance with those of batteries, possible applications), the use of electromagnetic storage of electricity (description, advantages, drawbacks and applications of superconducting magnet energy storage or SMES), and how the research on electric power storage is organised

  17. Design and Economic Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage Based Wind Farm Power Regulation System%基于压缩空气储能的风电场功率调节及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭靖; 李国杰; 唐志伟

    2011-01-01

    风能的间歇性和波动性给风力发电大规模并网应用带来了不利影响,利用储能技术能够很好地解决该问题,然而昂贵的成本一直是制约储能技术应用的瓶颈.文中提出了基于压缩空气储能(CAES)的风电场功率调节系统的额定功率以及容量的设计,在满足风电并网标准的前提下尽可能减小储能装置的规模,并利用仿真加以分析验证.建立了CAES装置效益评估模型,将CAES电站与传统的火力调峰机组进行比较,分析结果表明CAES电站具有良好的经济效益.%The intermittence and fluctuation of the wind energy results in many adverse impacts on current large-scale utilization of wind power. Storage technology is an effective way to solve this problem, however the expensive cost has been the bottleneck of large-scale energy storage application. This paper puts forward a method to evaluate the power rating and energy capacity of wind power regulation system based on compressed air energy storage (CAES), that is to minimize the size of the energy storage device under the premise of meeting the standard for wind power integration. Results have been analyzed by using simulation software package. Meanwhile, this paper has established a benefit assessment model for CAES. Compared with traditional fossil-fired power generation units, CAES has considerable benefits.

  18. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Saxena; Varun Goel

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has be...

  19. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...

  20. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  1. Integration of Energy Storage in Distribution Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Geth, Frederik; Tant, Jeroen; Haesen, Edwin; Driesen, Johan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy storage services can bring benefit to multiple stakeholders in the distribution grid. Energy storage owners maximize their profit on an external energy market. This can cause a conflict with the distribution system operator because a grid is designed in terms of peak power, not energy. The subject of this paper is a optimization method for the siting and sizing of energy storage in distribution grids. The optimization is implemented multi-objective as to visualize the trade-...

  2. A novel flexible and modular energy storage system for near future Energy Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Daniele; Habib, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    We considered a novel energy storage system based on the compression of air through pumped water. Differently from CAES on trial, the proposed indirect compression leaves the opportunity to choose the kind of compression from adiabatic to isothermal. The energy storage process could be both fast or slow leading to different configuration and applications. These novel storage system are modular and could be applied in different scales for different locations and applications, being very flexib...

  3. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal energy storage systems are to store solar heat collected in summer for space heating in winter. This concept is not new; it is been used and developed for centuries because is playing an important role in energy conservation and contribute significantly to improving the energy efficiency and reducing the gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  4. Thermal energy storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  5. Community energy storage and distribution SCADA improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of American Electric Power (AEP) is to sustain the real time balance of energy supply and demand. Approximately 2.5 percent of energy generated in the United States (USA) is stored as pumped hydro, compressed air, or in batteries and other devices. This power point presentation discussed the use of SCADA for improving community energy storage (CES) and distribution systems. CES is a distributed fleet of small energy units connected to the transformers in order to serve houses or small commercial loads. CES is operated as a fleet offering multi-megawatt (MW) multi-hour storage. The benefits of CES include backup power, flicker mitigation, and renewable integration. Benefits to the electricity grid include power factor correct, ancillary services, and load leveling at the substation level. SCADA is being used to determine when emergency load reductions are required or when emergency inspections on fans, oil pumps or other devices are needed. An outline of AEP's monitoring system installation plan was also included. tabs., figs.

  6. Nanocarbons for advanced energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacit

  7. Modeling of seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tao; ZHENG Mao-yu; WANG Xiao; KONG Fan-hong

    2010-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption on summer air conditioning,a novel seasonal soil cold storage mode using natural energy is presented and two-dimensional transient heat transfer model of U-tube is developed.The three processes of cold storage in winter,shut-down in transition season and cold extraction in summer are simulated by using sensitive heat capacity method with variable time step.The changing of U-tube outlet water temperature in different periods,daily cold storage and cold extraction are estimated.The temperature field of the U-tube and soil around the tube is investigated.Simulations show that seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy is feasible in the north to Changchun,which provides theoretical support for seasonal soil cold storage application.

  8. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Chun Lo; Shang-Ho Tsai; Bor-Shyh Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR) is used to obtain the polynomial function for the c...

  9. Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

  10. Strategies for commercializing customer thermal-energy storage. [64 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report presents strategies for commercializing customer thermal storage. Four storage techniques are evaluated: space heating, air conditioning, hot-water heating, and interruptible hot-water heating. The storage systems involved store off-peak electric energy for thermal applications during peak load hours. Analyses of both storage techniques and principal parties affected by storage indicate four barriers: the absence of (1) commercially available air conditioning storage devices, (2) appropriate rates, (3) information on both rates and devices, and (4) widespread utility support. Development of appropriate rates is the key to commercialization. The criteria used to evaluate rate types are: maximum combined utility and customer benefits, ease of commercialization, and practical feasibility. Four rate types--demand charges, time-of-use rates, and two forms of load management rates (a monthly credit and an off-peak discount)--plus the possibility of utility ownership are considered. The best rate types for each storage option are: for hot-water heating, a monthly credit for allowing utility interruptions or an off-peak price discount for storage; for space heating, an off-peak discount contingent upon meeting utility requirements; and for air conditioning, an off-peak discount plus monthly credit.

  11. Test report : Milspray Scorpion energy storage device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  12. Third international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2008). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Third International Renewable Storage Conference at 24th to 25th November, 2008, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of electricity storage technologies and Newest Trends (Rick Winter); (2) Threats and opportunities of plug-in hybrids and electrical vehicles and other competing storage technologies (Dirk Uwe Sauer); (3) Overview about lithium ion battery technology (Martin Winter); (4) Technologies for thermal energy storage (Peter Schossig); (5) Spur the carmakers onwards: Accelerate the transition to electric cars (Hermann Scheer); (6) Market conditions for a shift from grid connection towards stand-alone electricity generation form Renewable Energies (Ingo Stadler); (7) Appliance-integrated electricity stores (Ulf Bossel); (8) Solar thermal hydrogen generation through sulphuric acid based cyclic processes (Dennis Thomey); (9) 30 Years compressed air energy storage plant Huntorf - Experiences and outlook (Peter Raten); (10) Concrete storage for solar thermal power plants and industrial process heat (Doerte Laing); (11) Heat management of decentralized adiabatic compressed air energy storage (Daniel Wolf); (12) Cogeneration of wind power and heat pump applications for cooling demands (Achim Schreider); (13) Wind heating: Reducing carbon emissions and improving energy security (Larry Hughes); (14) The VDE-Study about storage technologies (Martin Kleimaier); (15) Significance of energy storages 10 100 % -renewable-energy-regions (Stefan Schaefer); (16) Economical and technical evaluation of energy storage systems (Julia Oberschmidt); (17) Evaluation of the Portuguese energy storage needs due to the increasing integration of renewable sources (Sergio Faias); (18) The value of adding electricity storage to wind autoproducers (Raymond Byrne); (19) Large-Scale underground storage of hydrogen (Hubert Landinger); (20) Vanadium redox flow battery - an in depth analysis for small scale utility applications

  13. Factors affecting storage of compressed air in porous-rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Erikson, R.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents a review and evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of porous medium (aquifer) storage. These aspects include geologic, petrologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and geochemical characteristics of porous rock masses and their interactions with compressed air energy storage (CAES) operations. The primary objective is to present criteria categories for the design and stability of CAES in porous media (aquifers). The document will also describe analytical, laboratory, and field-scale investigations that have been conducted.

  14. Evaluation of a PWR assembly subjected to air-storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most dry storage tests and demonstrations involving Zircaloy-clad fuel have been conducted in inert cover gases. The availability of irradiated PWR fuel and an instrumented dry storage test module (Fuel Temperature Test or FTT Facility) at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) site in Nevada prompted a dry storage test in air. Not included in the prior publication are results of the post-test fuel examination. To date, that examination has involved visual inspection, photography, and analysis of swipes taken from fuel assembly surfaces. This paper summarizes results of the examination and an overview of the test interpretation and significance

  15. Study on Virtual Energy Storage Features of Air Conditioning Load Direct Load Control%空调负荷直接负荷控制虚拟储能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾欣; 赵阅群; 周树鹏

    2016-01-01

    The paper studied the virtual storage features and energy storage capacity of aggregated air condition loads (ACLs) of demand side reflected from wind power accommodation under the background of the energy internet. The energy storage features of changed set temperature aggregated ACLs was verified by Monte Carlo simulation, The aggregated ACLs state space model was established on the base of two coupled partial differential equations, and the power of wind power-energy storage-aggregated ACLs union system used as the sliding surface of power tracking sliding mode variable structure control strategy was proposed which can realize the smoothing output of union system power. At last, the aggregated ACLs accommodation of real wind power plant was simulated by changing the set temperature, the result shows that the proposed method can accommodate the wind power filtered by a low time constant, and the set temperature changed within±1℃, the energy storage capacity can reach more than 90MW⋅h. The method paves the path for the energy reasonable allocation in energy internet and reducing of energy storage allocation.%研究能源互联网背景下,需求侧直接负荷控制的集群空调负荷(air condition loads,ACLs)在消纳风电功率中体现的虚拟储能特性和相应的储能容量。采用蒙特卡洛模拟方法验证改变设定温度的集群ACLs的储能特性;建立了双耦合线性偏微分方程组的集群ACLs状态空间模型,提出了以风电–储能–集群 ACLs 联合系统出力为滑模面的变结构滑动模块跟踪控制策略来实现联合出力的平滑输出;仿真改变设定温度时,集群ACLs消纳实地风电场输出功率情景,结果表明所提方法能够消纳低时间常数滤波的风电出力,设定温度变化在±1℃内,其储能容量达到90MW⋅h以上。该方法可为能源互联网中能量合理调配、减少储能配置方面提供新的技术途径。

  16. Pulsed Energy Storage System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallis, G.; Cassel, R.L.; Fowler, W.; Livdahl, P.V.; Mills, F.E.; Palmer, M.L.; Reardon, P.J.; Snowden, S.C.; Strauss, B.P.; Teng, L.C.; Winje, R.A.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison

    1974-07-01

    A superconductive energy storage magnet which is connected to the three phase power system could be designed, constructed, and placed in operation at Fermilab which would essentially eliminate the large repetitive power pulses now required from the power system. In addition to the power pulses, voltage flicker is also caused due to the reactive power pulsation. Specifically, a one megawatt hour superconductive energy storage magnet and a 2.00 megawatt thyristorized converter can achieve nullification of these power pulses up to 400 GEV synchrotron operation. Above 400 GEV, operation should be possible up to 500 GEV with appreciable less power pulsing requirements from the system than are now considered permissible. Carried to successful completion, this project would serve to advance applied superconductivity to a highly significant degree. The effect would be of world wide importance to both high energy physics and to the electric power industry. The preliminary magnet design is a 1 MWh dipole composed of cryogenically stable composite conductors connected in parallel with aluminum shield windings. The shield windings carry impressed pulsed currents while eliminating pulsed currents from the dc superconductive windings. Without pulsed currents or pulsed magnetic fields there are no ac losses in standard helium. The major radius of the dipole is 8.85 m; the minor radius is 0.69m; there are 188 turns at 80,000 A and each turn is 4 conductors wound in parallel. The 20,000 A TiNb-copper composite conductor is l0x 1.12 cm in cross section similar to but larger than the FNAL bubble chamber conductor. The shield is 188 turns (equal number of turns is a shielding condition) of hollow aluminum conductor cooled via circulated cold helium gas at 40K. The turns are spaced around the minor circumference according to a cosine distribution which produces zero internal field. In use the shield loss converted to room temperature power is about .8MW when 0.1 MWh is used from a 1

  17. Design of Micro Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flywheel energy storage systems have advantages over other types of energy storage devices in such aspects as unlimited charge/discharge cycles and environmental friendliness. In this paper, we propose a millimeter scale flywheel energy storage device. The flywheel is supported by a pair of passive magnetic bearings and rotated by a toroidally wound electric motor/generator. The geometry of the bearings is optimized for the maximum dynamic performance

  18. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  19. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  20. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  1. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  2. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  3. Development of fuel and energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development of fuel cell power plants is intended of high-efficiency power generation using such fuels with less air pollution as natural gas, methanol and coal gas. The closest to commercialization is phosphoric acid fuel cells, and the high in efficiency and rich in fuel diversity is molten carbonate fuel cells. The development is intended to cover a wide scope from solid electrolyte fuel cells to solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. For new battery power storage systems, development is focused on discrete battery energy storage technologies of fixed type and mobile type (such as electric vehicles). The ceramic gas turbine technology development is purposed for improving thermal efficiency and reducing pollutants. Small-scale gas turbines for cogeneration will also be developed. Development of superconduction power application technologies is intended to serve for efficient and stable power supply by dealing with capacity increase and increase in power distribution distance due to increase in power demand. In the operations to improve the spread and general promotion systems for electric vehicles, load leveling is expected by utilizing and storing nighttime electric power. Descriptions are given also on economical city systems which utilize wide-area energy. 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  5. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  6. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  7. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  8. Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, David

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment was designed to characterize void shape and location in LiF-based phase change materials in different energy storage configurations representative of advanced solar dynamic systems. Experiment goals and payload design are described in outline and graphic form.

  9. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of...

  11. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The paper investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity storage....... The system is modelled in the hourly energy systems analyses model energyPRO with a view to investigating how the different storages marginally affect the amount of wind power that may be integration applying the different storage options. Results show the largest potential but also most costly......Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage...

  12. Small magnetic energy storage systems using high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on magnetic energy storage for power systems that has been considered for commercial utility power, air and ground mobile power sources, and spacecraft applications. Even at the current technology limits of energy storage (100 KJ/Kg*), superconducting magnetic energy storage inductors do not offer a strong advantage over state-of-the-art batteries. The commercial utility application does not have a weight and volume limitation, and is under intense study in several countries for diurnal cycle energy storage and high power delivery. The advent of high temperature superconductors has reduced one of the penalties of superconducting magnetic energy storage in that refrigeration and cryocontainers become greatly simplified. Still, structural and current density issues that limit the energy density and size of superconducting inductors do not change. Cold weather starting of aircraft engines is an application where these limitations are not as significant, and where current systems lack performance. The very cold environments make it difficult to achieve high power densities in state-of-the-art batteries and hydraulically activated starters. The same cold environments make it possible to cool superconducting systems for weeks using a single charge of liquid nitrogen. At the same, the ground carts can handle the size and weight of superconducting magnetic storage (SMES) devices

  13. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  14. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  15. Techno-economic analysis of energy storage systems for grid ancillary services

    OpenAIRE

    Peracaula Ruiz, Àlex

    2014-01-01

    In a future with a higher renewable penetration, energy storage technologies will play an important role. They may, for example, use curtailed energy for arbitrage or supply ancillary services, help in relieving the grid congestion, and promote distributed generation. A techno-economic understanding and comparison between several electrical energy storage options is pursued as the main objective. Technologies with particular interest are: pumped hydropower storage, compressed air energy stora...

  16. A novel flexible and modular energy storage system for near future Energy Banks

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We considered a novel energy storage system based on the compression of air through pumped water. Differently from CAES on trial, the proposed indirect compression leaves the opportunity to choose the kind of compression from adiabatic to isothermal. The energy storage process could be both fast or slow leading to different configuration and applications. These novel storage system are modular and could be applied in different scales for different locations and applications, being very flexible in charge and discharge process. The system may offer an ideal energy buffer for wind and solar storage with no (or negligible) environment hazard. The main features of this novel energy storage system will be showed together with overall energy and power data.

  17. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  18. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  19. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair has been developed, and some operating results are summarized. This system is used for providing air conditioning for the driver's cab of an internal combustion locomotive. Unlike a normal adsorption air conditioner, the system starts running with the adsorption process, during which the cold energy stored is discharged, and ends running with the generation process. The adsorbent temperature decreases during the cold storing period between two runs. The refrigeration power output for the whole running cycle is about 4.1 kW. It appears that such a system is quite energetically efficient and is comparatively suitable for providing discontinuous refrigeration capacity when powered by low grade thermal energy, such as industrial exhausted heat or solar energy

  20. Energy investment: The many lives of energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Energy storage offers potential to support a changing electricity sector, but investors remain uncertain about its attractiveness. Analysis now shows that this can be overcome for battery technology by providing more than one storage service in a single facility.

  1. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  2. An Overview on Energy Storage Options for Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Developing technology to store electrical energy so it can be available to meet demand whenever needed would represent a major breakthrough in electricity distribution. Helping to try and meet this goal, electricity storage devices can manage the amount of power required to supply customers at times when need is greatest, which is during peak load. This paper focuses on four storage technologies that can be used as storage for wind energy conversion system. For each storage te...

  3. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  4. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 an...

  5. Microstructured electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Leland Cramer

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries and electric double-layer capacitors are two types of electrochemical energy storage devices that are characterized by high energy density and high power density, respectively. While these technologies have been successfully applied in applications such as personal electronics and electric vehicles, the potential for microscale energy storage devices remains unrealized. In this dissertation novel materials and processing methods are introduced for the fabrication of micr...

  6. Control of Generalized Energy Storage Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Junjie; Chow, Yinlam; Yang, Jiyan; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-01-01

    The integration of intermittent and volatile renewable energy resources requires increased flexibility in the operation of the electric grid. Storage, broadly speaking, provides the flexibility of shifting energy over time; network, on the other hand, provides the flexibility of shifting energy over geographical locations. The optimal control of general storage networks in uncertain environments is an important open problem. The key challenge is that, even in small networks, the corresponding...

  7. RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Lova

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current fl...

  8. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  9. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

    2013-06-01

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the timescale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady-state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

  10. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

    2013-02-26

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

  11. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Chioncel Cristian Paul; Chioncel Petru; Babescu Marius

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  12. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  13. Generalized Model of VSC-based Energy Storage Systems for Transient Stability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Álvaro; Milano, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized energy storage system model for voltage and angle stability analysis. The proposed solution allows modeling most common energy storage technologies through a given set of linear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). In particular, the paper considers, but is not limited to, compressed air, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical capacitor and battery energy storage devices. While able to cope with a variety of different technologies, the proposed general...

  14. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  15. Energy Storage:Maximising Irelands Wind Energy Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Ireland plan's to generate up to 40% of its electricity from wind generation by 2020. This thesis outlines the problems that may be faced by the electricity system and illustrates the benefits that large scale energy storage can bring to the electricity system when trying to integrate large amounts of wind energy. Energy storage is currently a topical subject in Ireland as wind penetration increases and problems such as curtailment loom. This thesis outlines the storage capacities required to...

  16. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates to...... maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present the...... interactions between the storage facility and the market operator. In an illustrative test system, operation of the storage facility in these two market structures is compared and discussed....

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  18. Energy management system of hybrid microgrid with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Marzband, Mousa; Sumper, Andreas; Chindris, Mircea; Tomoiaga, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The economic scheduling of the generation units is playing a significant role in the energy management of the hybrid stand alone microgrid. Energy storage is an increasingly important part of the renewable energy sector because of the need to store power during peak production times for use in off-peak periods. This paper describes an energy management system (EMS) for an islanded microgrid (MG) comprising wind energy conversion system (WECS),photovoltaic (PV), energy storage (ES) system, ...

  19. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  20. TES (Thermal Energy Storage) Video News Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal energy storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.

  1. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  2. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  3. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  4. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  5. Development on Energy Storage Technology%储能技术发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳琦

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage technology is the key to sustainable development of energy. It can be used in power system, transportation, industrial process and so on. In this paper, existing energy storage technologies are discussed, including pumped hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheel energy storage, battery energy storage, flow battery energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, super capacitor energy storage, hydrogen energy storage and thermal energy storage. Then their technical characteristics and cost are compared.%储能技术是实现能源可持续发展的关键,可用于电力、交通、工业生产等方面.本文讨论了现有的储能技术,包括抽水蓄能、压缩空气储能、飞轮储能、电池储能、液流电池储能、超导磁储能、超级电容储能、储氢技术及储热技术等,并对他们的技术特征及成本等进行了比较.

  6. Storage, a stake for renewable energies integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of renewable energy sources is challenging the power system operation. Balancing consumption and generation at different times, from real time up to 10 years, with an increasing part of intermittent and fatal sources should indicate a clear route to storage development Up to now on opposite situation occurs. New storage project in Europe has been stopped because of missing business model, and there is no long term economical signal showing it could change in the near future. The capability to predict with a good accuracy, and share through the European transmission system the renewable production places storage in direct competition with other sources of flexibility. However, use case of storage is not limited to energy balancing. Ancillary services, connexion cost optimization, quality of supply are among other possible services offered by storage installation. For all of those, understanding technical requirements and economical issues is an initial condition to open a favourable game area for storage. Exploring new multi-service models through demonstrators, redesigning the electricity market in Europe are key initiatives to approach a new era for storage development. It doesn't prevent innovation to improve performance and reduce cost, an essential condition to give a chance for storage solution compared to other flexibility sources. (author)

  7. Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Hybrid Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Omur; Shahzad, Khurram; Ulukus, Sennur

    2013-01-01

    We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a hybrid energy storage unit composed of a perfectly efficient super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider the offline throughput maximization problem ...

  8. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  9. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  10. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER ...

  11. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  12. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  13. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  14. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  15. Energy storage for improvement of wind power characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Results from simulation of the influence of energy storage on the variability and availability of wind energy are presented here. Simulations have been done using a mathematical model of energy storage implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results show the quality improvement, of energy delivered by a combination of wind and energy storage, in relation to the size of the energy storage. The introduction of storage enables suppression of wind power fluctuations up to a timescale proportional to ...

  16. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  17. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  18. Energy storage: Redox flow batteries go organic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vince

    2016-03-01

    The use of renewable resources as providers to the electrical grid is hampered by the intermittent and irregular nature in which they generate energy. Electrical energy storage technology could provide a solution and now, by using an iterative design process, a promising anolyte for use in redox flow batteries has been developed.

  19. Energy storage: Redox Flow Batteries Go Organic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-19

    Access to sustainable and affordable energy is the foundation for the economic growth of our current society and its future prosperity. Energy harvested from renewable resources, such as solar and wind, although currently at a small fraction, is on a steady trajectory of increasing installation accompanied with falling cost. Driven also by the need to reduce the carbon footprint from electricity generation, they could provide a clean and sustainable energy future. The caveat, however, is the intermittent and fluctuating nature of the renewables, which threatens the stability of the grid when its share surpasses 20% of the overall energy capacity. 1 Besides the on-demand power generation, electrical energy storage is another potentially cost-effective way to provide massive energy storage for not only renewable energy integration, but to balance the mismatch between supply and demand, and the improvement of grid reliability and efficiency also.

  20. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  1. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M [eds.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating system, and stand-alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  2. Development of thermal energy storage concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Zhang; Jianmin Zhou; Keru Wa [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Concrete Materials Research; Zongjin Li [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, a two-step procedure to produce thermal energy storage concrete (TESC) is described. At the first step, thermal energy storage aggregates (TESAs) were made from porous aggregates absorbing phase changing materials (PCMs). At the second step, TESC was produced with a normal mixing method and using TESAs. An adequate amount of PCM can be incorporated into concrete by the two-step procedure. It can be seen experimentally that the energy storage capacity of the TESC was comparable with that of a commercially available PCM. The experimental results showed that the geometrical features of the porous structure of the aggregates had significant effect on their absorbing ability of the PCM. Aggregates with large pore connectivity factor and transport tunnel in boundary part can absorb more PCM. It was also found that the phase changing behavior was affected by the volume fraction of PCM in concrete. (Author)

  3. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  4. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet the......  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... higher level of energy demand....

  5. Electroactive graphene nanofluids for fast energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Graphenes have been extensively studied as electrode materials for energy storage in supercapacitors and batteries, but always as solid electrodes. The conception and development of graphene electroactive nanofluids (ENFs) reported here for the first time provides a novel way to ‘form’ graphene electrodes and demonstrates proof of concept for the use of these liquid electrodes for energy storage in novel flow cells. A stabilized dispersion of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in aqueous sulfuric acid solution was shown to have capacitive energy storage capabilities parallel to those of solid electrode supercapacitors (169 F g‑1(rGO)) but working up to much faster rates (from 1 mV s‑1 to the highest scan rate of 10 V s‑1) in nanofluids with 0.025, 0.1 and 0.4 wt% rGO, featuring viscosities very close to that of water, thus being perfectly suitable for scalable flow cells. Our results provide proof of concept for this technology and include preliminary flow cell performance of rGO nanofluids under static and continuous flow conditions. Graphene nanofluids effectively behave as true liquid electrodes with very fast capacitive storage mechanism and herald the application not only of graphenes but also other 2D materials like MoS2 in nanofluids for energy storage and beyond.

  6. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  7. On generation-integrated energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, S.D.; Eames, P.C; Wang, J. H.; Pimm, A.J.; Waterson, M; MacKay, R. S.; M. Giulietti; Flatley, L.C.; Thomson, M.; Barton, J.; Evans, D. J.; Busby, J; Garvey, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Generation-integrated energy storage (GIES) systems store energy at some point along the transformation between the primary energy form and electricity. Instances exist already in natural hydro power, biomass generation, wave power, and concentrated solar power. GIES systems have been proposed for wind, nuclear power and they arise naturally in photocatalysis systems that are in development. GIES systems can compare very favourably in both performance and total cost against equivalent non-int...

  8. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

  9. Energy for the Future: Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Energy for the Future - Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage is the name of the first thematic dossier by University of Ulm. As basis for all kind of energy conversion and storage the electrochemistry plays a central role in research. The University of Ulm is one of the few universities in Germany which pursues the basic science in battery technology with unwavering commitment. The further development of batteries and fuel cell technology is the centre of numerous research projects.

  10. Solar energy collector and storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.T.

    1979-08-28

    An improved flat plate solar energy collector of integral construction capable of mass production in which metal tubing is eliminated is described. The collector includes a stamped planar tray and a radiant energy absorber plate connected together to form the inlet and outlet fluid header and the innerconnecting channels therebetween. The planar tray and absorber plate are mounted in a molded insulated housing which integrally includes a storage tank. A fluid medium such as water is heated by solar radiation and circulated through the collector to the storage tank by thermal syphon. Elimination of conventional tubing greatly reduces fabrication costs and increases absorption efficiency.

  11. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  12. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  13. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  14. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  15. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  16. Energy storage, compression, and switching. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Storage, Compression, and Switching, which was held in order to assemble active researchers with a major interest in plasma physics, electron beams, electric and magnetic energy storage systems, high voltage and high current switches, free-electron lasers, and pellet implosion plasma focus. Topics covered include: Slow systems: 50-60 Hz machinery, homopolar generators, slow capacitors, inductors, and solid state switches; Intermediate systems: fast capacitor banks; superconducting storage and switching; gas, vacuum, and dielectric switching; nonlinear (magnetic) switching; imploding liners capacitors; explosive generators; and fuses; and Fast systems: Marx, Blumlein, oil, water, and pressurized water dielectrics; switches; magnetic insulation; electron beams; and plasmas

  17. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  18. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  19. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivkov Venelin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES, as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery and secondary (KES sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  20. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  1. Start It up: Flywheel Energy Storage Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to construct and test an off-grid photovoltaic (PV) system in which the power from a solar array could be stored in a rechargeable battery and a flywheel motor generator assembly. The mechanical flywheel energy storage system would in turn effectively power a 12-volt DC appliance. The voltage and current of…

  2. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. Vasudeva

    2008-10-01

    This paper gives an Introduction to Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems and their applications along with an overview of their present status. Further a brief description to a Micro SMES/UPS system of 0.5 MJ capacity that was developed/tested at IIT, Kharagpur is also included.

  3. Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

  4. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological reactions. The inter

  5. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  6. Dry storage of irradiated Magnox fuel in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the large dry store for irradiated Magnox fuel at Wylfa. The storage is basically a concrete box 60 x 1 x 4.5m and 2m thick with a capacity of 350t uranium or 28992 fuel elements, and depending upon natural convection of air for cooling. Freshly irradiated fuel is first stored for 150 days in the original CO2 cooled dry stores to reduce irradiation to an acceptable level before being removed to a store skip. Details are given of the layout of the plant, method of transfer and the transfer machine, and the skips. Development work and automatic control of the transfer equipment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Thermochemical solar energy storage via redox oxides: materials and reactor/heat exchanger concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tescari, Stefania; Agrafiotis, Christos; Breuer, Stefan; de Oliveira, Lamark; Neises-von Puttkamer, Martina; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical Storage of solar heat exploits the heat effects of reversible chemical reactions for the storage of solar energy. Among the possible reversible gas-solid chemical reactions, the utilization of a pair of redox reactions of multivalent solid oxides can be directly coupled to CSP plants employing air as the heat transfer fluid bypassing the need for a separate heat exchanger. The present work concerns the development of thermochemical storage systems based on such oxide-based r...

  8. High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

    2012-12-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

  9. Estimating the capital costs of energy storage technologies for levelling the output of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mignard, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    In remote areas and islands north and west of Scotland and in many other parts of the world, the high cost of connecting wind farms and other renewable energy converters to the grid may make energy storage an attractive alternative. We estimated the installed capital costs of advanced adiabatic compressed air storage (ACAES), vanadium redox flow cells (VRB) and Li-ion batteries inthe range of 0.5–50 MW and 0.7–30 MWh. These costs were all of the order of £1 million per MWh, confirming that th...

  10. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  11. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  12. Energy storage for improvement of wind power characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Results from simulation of the influence of energy storage on the variability and availability of wind energy are presented here. Simulations have been done using a mathematical model of energy storage implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results show the quality improvement, of energy delivered by...... a combination of wind and energy storage, in relation to the size of the energy storage. The introduction of storage enables suppression of wind power fluctuations up to a timescale proportional to the storage energy capacity. Energy storage cannot provide availability of wind power at all times......, but it can guarantee that a certain fraction of average wind power will be available within a given timeframe. The amount of storage energy capacity necessary for significant improvement of wind power availability, within a given period, is found to be approximately 20% of the energy produced in that...

  13. Review of electrical energy storage technologies and systems and of their potential for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of current energy storage technologies and their potential application in the UK. Five groups of storage technologies are examined: compressed air energy storage; battery energy storage systems including lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, sodium-sulphur, sodium-nickel and lithium ion batteries; electrochemical flow cell systems, including the vanadium redox battery, the zinc bromide battery and the polysulphide battery; kinetic energy storage systems, ie flywheel storage; and fuel cell/electrolyser systems based on hydrogen. Details are given of the technology, its development status, potential applications and the key developers, manufacturers and suppliers. The opportunities available to UK industry and the potential for systems integration and wealth creation are also discussed.

  14. conversion and storage of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These two thematic issues of Comptes Rendus Chimie (February and April-May 2006) contain papers contributed to the 15. International conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy (IPS-15), held from 4 to 7 July 2004 at the Pharmacy Faculty in Paris (France). With nearly 400 individuals attending, representing academics, national laboratories, industry from 33 countries, and with several exhibitions in the vendor section, the conference was most certainly a well attended success. Among the 340 presentations given during the meeting (plenary and invited lectures, oral and poster presentations), 59 will be found in this publication. The goal of this thematic issue was to provide a broad overview of the various topics covered by the IPS series, and happily the conference committee did not need to press participants at all to provide written versions of their research. A thorough review process insured that this publication represents the most novel and well-received contributions of the conference, in keeping with the high standards of the Comptes rendus. In this issue, we cover a range of topics, including photo-generated electron and energy transfer, bio-mimetic systems, dye-sensitized and polymer solar cells, environmental chemistry and design of nano-materials for photo-conversion. From the included prints, we can see the advanced knowledge base accumulated in the past 3 years regarding the structure and function of photosystem II, providing a more complete understanding of the architecture of the center for photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Today, we apply photo-catalysis in numerous applications, from air and water purification to the production of self-cleaning surfaces on windows and street lamps. These applications have attracted the interest of a wide variety of industrial sectors, especially to those using TiO2-coated materials that make it possible to maintain clean, hydrophilic conditions on a surface without the addition of any

  15. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  16. Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL; Jenkins, Kip [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  17. Flywheel Energy Storage Technology Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A flywheel energy storage system was spun to 60,000 rpm while levitated on magnetic bearings. This system is being developed as an energy-efficient replacement for chemical battery systems. Used in groups, the flywheels can have two functions providing attitude control for a spacecraft in orbit as well as providing energy storage. The first application for which the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the flywheel is the International Space Station, where a two-flywheel system will replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the space station's power system. The 60,000-rpm development rotor is about one-eighth the size that will be needed for the space station (0.395 versus 3.07 kWhr).

  18. Progress in energy storage in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and the emergence of a competitive marketplace for electricity are bringing many changes to the electric power industry in the United States. Traditional utilities are changing their business structure and new unregulated companies are entering the marketplace to compete for customers on the basis of cost and services. Increased strain on the transmission and distribution system may lead to reliability problems. These changes present many opportunities for energy storage technologies. U.S. industry and the Department of Energy are developing state-of-the-art energy storage systems that will minimize the cost to the U.S. economy due to power quality and reliability problems, enhance utility choices in a deregulated electricity marketplace and increase the value of renewable and distributed resources. (author)

  19. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  20. The storage of electric energy: an unavoidable dimension of energy transition. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief synthesis, the opinion of the Council is stated. It presents the main objectives of the storage of electric energy, its main physical-chemical principles and the available technologies (gravity, compressed air energy storage, electrochemical, thermal, electric, and inertial storage), and the three main techniques: pumped-storage hydroelectricity, batteries, hydrogen. Global assessment and recommendations are discussed, notably in terms of economic and financial consequences, but also in terms of technological choices, research and development, local development, industrial cooperation, and legal framework. Appendices notably present in detail the different technologies, the operation of the electric grid in France and Europe, and some experiments

  1. Panorama 2013 - Mass storage of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is universally apparent that environmental and energy transition must evolve in order to meet the needs of a growing world population while still heeding environmental constraints. This change over time will be based on a sustainable energy mix, and consequently the use of renewable energy sources is likely to intensify over the coming decades in respond to rising demand for electricity worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that 40% of electricity will come from renewable sources by 2050. Some of these renewable forms of energy generate power on an irregular and intermittent basis, and energy storage offers one solution for deploying these intermittent energy sources more widely as part of an efficient smart grid. (authors)

  2. Energy storage reinforces competitive business practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage

  3. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  4. Experimental research on a novel cold storage defrost method based on air bypass circulation and electric heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost accumulation on evaporator decreased cooling capacity and COP (coefficient of performance) of cold storage refrigeration system, so timely and effective defrost was significant to cold storage energy-saving operation. The EHD (electric heat defrosting) method was commonly used in cold storages, however, defrost efficiency of the traditional EHD is rather low, and defrost operation usually caused an unfavorable storage temperature fluctuation, which is harmful to storage quality and shelf-life of stored products. In order to solve the problems existing in the traditional EHD method, a novel defrost method with air bypass circulation and electric heater was proposed for the first time in this paper. Five practical cases of this new method with different defrost heaters and air circulation modes were comparatively studied. The results showed that the case with heater embedded in evaporator fins and air circulating through bypass channel was the optimum implementation way of the new method. Compared with the traditional EHD method, the defrost time of this new method was shortened by 62.1%, defrost energy consumption was reduced by 61.0%, and storage temperature fluctuation was decreased by 70.1%. In addition, the defrost efficiency was up to 77.6%, which was 2.93 times of the traditional EHD method. -- Highlights: ► A novel cold storage defrosting method is proposed for the first time in this paper. ► Five practical cases of this new defrosting method are comparatively studied. ► Heater embedded in fins and air circulated through tunnel is the optimum way. ► Defrosting energy efficiency is 77.6% which is 2.93 times of the traditional method. ► Defrost time is shorten by 62.1%, defrost energy consumption is reduced by 61.0%.

  5. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round-trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code has been written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have 'D' shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. This paper presents designs for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 t to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils have been divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport. 8 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  8. A Numerical and Graphical Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Sabihuddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More effective energy production requires a greater penetration of storage technologies. This paper takes a looks at and compares the landscape of energy storage devices. Solutions across four categories of storage, namely: mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic and thermal storage are compared on the basis of energy/power density, specific energy/power, efficiency, lifespan, cycle life, self-discharge rates, capital energy/power costs, scale, application, technical maturity as well as environmental impact. It’s noted that virtually every storage technology is seeing improvements. This paper provides an overview of some of the problems with existing storage systems and identifies some key technologies that hold promise.

  9. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  10. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  11. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  12. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  13. Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Energy Storage Systems Are Coming: Are You Ready

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2015-12-05

    Energy storage systems (batteries) are not a new concept, but the technology being developed and introduced today with an increasing emphasis on energy storage, is new. The increased focus on energy, environmental and economic issues in the built environment is spurring increased application of renewables as well as reduction in peak energy use - both of which create a need for energy storage. This article provides an overview of current and anticipated energy storage technology, focusing on ensuring the safe application and use of energy storage on both the grid and customer side of the utility meter.

  15. Energy storage improvement through material science approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brandon Joseph

    A need for improved energy storage is apparent for the improvement of our society. Lithium ion batteries are one of the leading energy storage technologies being researched today. These batteries typically utilize coupled reduction/oxidation reactions with intercalation reactions in crystalline metal oxides with lithium ions as charge carriers to produce efficient and high power energy storage options. The cathode material (positive electrode) has been an emphasis in the recent research as it is currently the weakest link of the battery. Several systems of cathode materials have been studied with different structures and chemical makeup, all having advantages and disadvantages. One focus of the research presented below was creating a low cost and high performance cathode material by creating a composite of the low cost spinel structured LiMn2O4 and the higher capacity layered structure materials. Two compositional diagrams were used to map out the composition space between end members which include two dimensional layer structured LiCoO 2, LiNiO2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and three dimensional spinel structured LiMn2O4. Several compositions in each composition map were electrochemically tested and structurally characterized in an attempt to discover a high performance cathode material with a lower cost precursor. The best performing composition in each system shows the desired mixed phase of the layered and spinel crystal structures, yielding improved performance versus the individual end member components. The surrounding compositions were then tested in order to find the optimum composition and performance. The best performing composition was 0.2LiCoO 2•0.7LiNi0.8Co0.2O2•0.1LiMn 2O4 and yielded a specific capacity of 182mAh/g. Another promising area of chemical energy storage is in the storage of hydrogen gas in chemical hydrides. Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in a variety of applications as a viable method for storing and transporting energy. Currently, the

  16. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  17. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    OpenAIRE

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible de...

  18. High temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage for future NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Rudnick, Stanley J.

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored studies based on 'conventional' liquid helium temperature level superconductivity technology have concluded that superconducting magnetic energy storage has considerable potential for space applications. The advent of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) may provide additional benefits over conventional superconductivity technology, making magnetic energy storage even more attractive. The proposed NASA space station is a possible candidate for the application of HTSC energy storage. Alternative energy storage technologies for this and other low Earth orbit missions are compared.

  19. REVIEW ON PHASE CHANGE MATERIALAS THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti H. Verma; S V PRAYAGI; J. A. Gotmare

    2014-01-01

    Energy demands in the commercial, industrial, and utility sectors vary on daily, weekly, and seasonal bases. These demands can be matched with the help of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. This paper presentsTES using phase change material (PCMs) and their application. The use of latent heat storage system using phase change material (PCM) is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has advantages of high energy storage density and isothermal nature of the storage pro...

  20. CALORSTOCK'94. Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the first volume of the proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the sixth international conference on thermal energy storage held in Espoo, Finland on August 22-25, 1994. This volume contains 58 presentations from the following six sessions: Aquifer storage, integration into energy systems, Simulation models and design tools, IEA energy conservation through energy storage programme workshop, Earth coupled storage, District heating and utilities

  1. Development of nanocomposites for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Ashiqur Rahaman

    With the ever-increasing need in improving the performance and operation life of future mobile devices, developing higher power density energy storage devices has been receiving more attention. Lithium ion battery (LIB) and capacitor are two of the most widely used energy storage devices and have attracted increasing interest from both industrial and academic fields. Batteries have higher power density than capacitor but significantly longer charge/discharge rates. In order to further improve the performance of these energy storage devices, one of the approaches is to use high specific surface area nano-materials. Among all the nano-materials developed so far, one-dimensional nanowires are of special interests because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and aligned pathway for electron diffusion and conduction. Therefore, in this thesis work, zinc oxide nanowires are implemented as an anode along with carbon fiber/graphene to increase the performance of LIB while lead titanate nanowires are used to improve the energy density of capacitors. For batteries, zinc oxide nanowires are grown on carbon cloth by low temperature hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to analyze morphology and crystal structures of samples. The performances of LIB using zinc oxide nanowire coated carbon cloth and bare carbon cloth are compared to show the improvement induced by zinc oxide nanowires. For capacitors, lead titanate (PTO) nanowires are used with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to make nanocomposites of high dielectric constants. Lead titanate nanowires are synthesized by low temperature hydrothermal method. XRD and SEM are used to analyze as synthesized nanowires. Different volume fraction of PTO nanowires is used with PVDF to make dielectric for capacitor. Dielectric constant and breakdown voltage at variable frequency are determined to calculate energy density and specific energy density. The influence of temperature on

  2. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  3. Electrochemical supercapacitors: Energy storage beyond batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Sampath, S.; K. Vijayamohanan

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a new class of reversible electrochemical energy storage systems have been developed that use: (a) the capacitance associated with charging and discharging of the electrical doublelayer at the electrode–electrolyte interface and are hence called electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and (b) the pseudocapacitance with electrosorption or surface redox reactions which are referred as pseudocapacitors. While EDLCs with capacities of many tens of farads per gram of the electrode ma...

  4. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological reactions. The interplay of these reactions may have a negative influence on the operational performance of ATES-systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate bacterial clogging processes and the biogeochemical...

  5. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  6. Research for superconducting energy storage patterns and its practical countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D. H.; Cui, D. J.; Li, B.; Teng, Y.; Zheng, G. L.; Wang, X. Q.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we attempt to introduce briefly the significance, the present status, as well as the working principle of the primary patterns of the superconducting energy storage system, first of all. According to the defect on the lower energy storage density of existed superconducting energy storage device, we proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density, in which, a brand-new but a tentative proposal regarding the concept of energy compression was emphasized. This investigation has a certain reference value towards the practical application of the superconducting energy storage.

  7. A work procedure of utilising PCMs as thermal storage systems based on air-TES systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A procedure to design effective thermal energy storage (TES) system. • A guidance for the selection of the working material (PCM) and the heat exchanger development. • Suggestions for heat transfer enhancement techniques for the air-TES system. • Mathematical, computational and experimental methods optimising the air-TES system. - Abstract: The paper seeks to offer a procedure to design an effective short term thermal energy storage (TES) system using phase change materials. The methodology focus on two main aspects: the selection of the working material and the heat exchanger development. The selection of the appropriate PCMs is one of the main keys for any TES therefore their classifications, properties, advantages and disadvantages need to be investigated. Due to the intensive researches using this kind of materials in the recent years, there are a range of commercial PCMs available and supplied by different companies. However, all types of PCM present their specific problems and therefore requirements are defined in order to select the most suitable PCMs. The other main key when designing TES is related to the heat exchanger formed by the PCM and the cold/hot heat sources. For this step, the choice of the appropriate container to encapsulate the PCM and the heat transfer enhancement techniques are analysed. Distinct methodologies such as experimental and numerical study methods and modelling software tools are presented to analyse the thermal energy performance of the system and achieve the optimal design of the TES system

  8. Research for superconducting energy storage patterns and its practical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density for SMES system. • Increasing the effective current density in the superconducting coils or optimizing the configuration of the SMES coil could improve the energy storage density. • A new conceive of energy compression is also proposed. -- Abstract: In this paper, we attempt to introduce briefly the significance, the present status, as well as the working principle of the primary patterns of the superconducting energy storage system, first of all. According to the defect on the lower energy storage density of existed superconducting energy storage device, we proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density, in which, a brand-new but a tentative proposal regarding the concept of energy compression was emphasized. This investigation has a certain reference value towards the practical application of the superconducting energy storage

  9. Research for superconducting energy storage patterns and its practical countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.H., E-mail: lindehua_cn@yahoo.com.cn [College of Physics, Chongqing University, JD Duz (USA)-CQU Institute for Superconductivity, Chongqing 400030 (China); Cui, D.J.; Li, B.; Teng, Y.; Zheng, G.L. [College of Physics, Chongqing University, JD Duz (USA)-CQU Institute for Superconductivity, Chongqing 400030 (China); Wang, X.Q. [College of Physics, Chongqing University, JD Duz (USA)-CQU Institute for Superconductivity, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density for SMES system. • Increasing the effective current density in the superconducting coils or optimizing the configuration of the SMES coil could improve the energy storage density. • A new conceive of energy compression is also proposed. -- Abstract: In this paper, we attempt to introduce briefly the significance, the present status, as well as the working principle of the primary patterns of the superconducting energy storage system, first of all. According to the defect on the lower energy storage density of existed superconducting energy storage device, we proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density, in which, a brand-new but a tentative proposal regarding the concept of energy compression was emphasized. This investigation has a certain reference value towards the practical application of the superconducting energy storage.

  10. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  11. New superconducting coil configuration for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy storage using superconducting coils involves the problem of electromagnetic field pollution outside the considered system. Different configurations are widely studied: the torus, the alone solenoid and multiple parallel solenoids enclosed in one container. A new configuration which minimizes the external pollution is studied in this paper. The theoretical system is composed of two spherical distributions of the current which are concentric. The analytical study uses solution of Laplace equations. Parametric study covers energy, flux density and geometrical data. The second study concerns the numerical approach of this design using coaxial solenoids. A comparison between this new system and the known systems is presented as a conclusion. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of an earth heat storage system in a solar energy greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Langrell, J.; Boris, R. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Greenhouses store solar energy in the walls and floors during the daytime and release the stored energy back to the greenhouse at night. In this study, an earth heat storage system was constructed and tested in a solar energy greenhouse in order to enhance energy storage. The system consisted of a network of perforated pipes buried in the soil at depths from 0.3 to 1 m. The warm air near the greenhouse ceiling was drawn to the buried pipes. Soil and air temperatures were recorded at various locations by a network of thermocouples. The energy balance was analyzed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the earth heat storage system. The temperature profiles in the soil were used to determine the summer recharge and winter energy depletion behaviour of the system.

  13. The Role of Energy Storages in Energy Independent Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven;

    2009-01-01

    electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped Hydro and Heat Pumps in combination with Heat Storages......In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... with specific regulation of power system could additionally increase wind penetration for 0.37 TWh. Hence, with the current technologies installed in the Croatian energy system the installed pumped hydro- plant may facilitate more than 10% wind power in the electricity system. In future research more...

  14. The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

  15. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  16. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  17. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  18. The Role of Energy Storages in Energy Independent Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped Hydro and Heat Pumps in combination with Heat Storages. The results show that such options can enable an increased penetration of wind power. Using pumped hydro storage (PHS) may increase wind power penetration from 0.5 TWh, for existing PHS installations and up to 6 TWh for very large installations. Using large heat pumps and heat storages in combination with specific regulation of power system could additionally increase wind penetration for 0.37 TWh. Hence, with the current technologies installed in the Croatian energy system the installed pumped hydro-plant may facilitate more than 10% wind power in the electricity system. In future research more precise assessments can be made of whether to increase the storage size or whether to expand capacities in turbines and pumps. Using heat pumps also shows good the results in combination with CHP, in this paper and future research can give more precise results about such possibilities. With more wind, power integration technologies and system regulation are required. Additional confirmation of wind power data and hydropower production in Croatia is required to have more accurate results in future analyses. Large-scale integration of wind power in the Croatian energy systems requires new technologies in other parts of the energy system.(author).

  19. Advances in thermal energy storage development at the German Aerospace Center(DLR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laing; Doerte; Steinmann; Wolf-Dieter; Tamme; Rainer; Wrner; Antje; Zunft; Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Thermal energy storage(TES)is a key technology for renewable energy utilization and the improvement of the energy efficiency of heat processes.Sectors include industrial process heat and conventional and renewable power generation.TES systems correct the mismatch between supply and demand of thermal energy.In the medium to high temperature range(100~1000℃),only limited storage technology is commercially available and a strong effort is needed to develop a range of storage technologies which are efficient and economical for the very specific requirements of the different application sectors.At the DLR’s Institute of Technical Thermodynamics,the complete spectrum of high temperature storage technologies,from various types of sensible over latent heat to thermochemical heat storages are being developed.Different concepts are proposed depending on the heat transfer fluid(synthetic oil,water/steam,molten salt,air)and the required temperature range.The aim is the development of cost effective,efficient and reliable thermal storage systems.Research focuses on characterization of storage materials,enhancement of internal heat transfer,design of innovative storage concepts and modelling of storage components and systems.Demonstration of the storage technology takes place from laboratory scale to field testing(5 kW~1 MW).The paper gives an overview on DLR’s current developments.

  20. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  1. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Paweł Antos; Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2012-01-01

    Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy), and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld). Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers an...

  2. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  3. A thermal energy storage process for large scale electric applications

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues, T; Ruer, J; Marty, P.; Fourmigué, JF

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A new type of thermal energy storage process for large scale electric applications is presented, based on a high temperature heat pump cycle which transforms electrical energy into thermal energy and stores it inside two large regenerators, followed by a thermal engine cycle which transforms the stored thermal energy back into electrical energy. The storage principle is described, and its thermodynamic cycle is analyzed, leading to the theoretical efficiency of the storage...

  4. Energy Recovery with Air-to-air Membrane Energy Exchanger for Ventilation in Cold Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Air-to-air membrane energy exchangers (MEEs) are attracting increasing attention as one of the most important novel trends in heat and energy recovery exchangers for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In MEEs, simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through the selectively permeable membrane reduces the energy consumed for heating, cooling, dehumidifying or humidifying the ventilation air. In cold climates, the moisture transfer from the warm and humid...

  5. DTU International Energy Report 2013:Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or veh...

  6. NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  7. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  8. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  9. Low temperature thermal-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.S.; Christian, J.E.

    1979-03-01

    This report evaluates currently available techniques and estimated costs of low temperature thermal energy storage (TES) devices applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) installations serving communities ranging in size from approximately 3000 (characterized by an electrical load requirement of 2 MWe) to about 100,000 population (characterized by an electrical load requirement of 100 MWe). Thermal energy in the form of either hotness or coldness can be stored in a variety of media as sensible heat by virtue of a change in temperature of the material, or as latent heat of fusion in which the material changes from the liquid phase to the solid phase at essentially a constant temperature. Both types of material are considered for TES in ICES applications.

  10. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security.

  11. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiassi-Farrokhfal, Yashar; Rosenberg, C; Keshav, Srinivasam; Adjaho, Marie-Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the sizing of each storage element, and deciding when to charge and discharge each underlying storage element (the operating strategy.We formulate the problem of jointly optimizing the sizing and the oper...

  12. Nanostructured conductive polymers for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Peng, Lele; Ding, Yu; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2015-10-01

    Conductive polymers combine the attractive properties associated with conventional polymers and unique electronic properties of metals or semiconductors. Recently, nanostructured conductive polymers have aroused considerable research interest owing to their unique properties over their bulk counterparts, such as large surface areas and shortened pathways for charge/mass transport, which make them promising candidates for broad applications in energy conversion and storage, sensors, actuators, and biomedical devices. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed to obtain various conductive polymer nanostructures, and high-performance devices based on these nanostructured conductive polymers have been realized. This Tutorial review describes the synthesis and characteristics of different conductive polymer nanostructures; presents the representative applications of nanostructured conductive polymers as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries and new perspectives of functional materials for next-generation high-energy batteries, meanwhile discusses the general design rules, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conductive polymers in the energy storage field; and provides new insights into future directions. PMID:26119242

  13. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  14. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  15. Cooperation and Competition among Energy Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Ocaña, Jesus E.; Ortega-Vazquez, Miguel A.; Zhang, Baosen

    2015-01-01

    We study competition and cooperation among a group of storage units. We show that as the number of storages increases, the profit of storages approaches zero under Nash competition. We propose two ways in which storages can achieve non-zero profit and show that they are optimal in the sense that storages achieve the maximum possible profit. The first is a decentralized approach in which storages are exposed to artificial cost functions that incentivize them to behavior as a coalition. No priv...

  16. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  17. Energy storage. Stakes, technical solutions and valorization opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a key factor to allow the continuous growth of renewable energies, energy storage technologies are now more than ever in the spotlight. In order to grasp the stakes, understand the technology diversity, learn relevant orders of magnitudes and comprehend the close intricacy of energy storage with energy and environmental issues, ENEA has published a detailed and well-documented publication on the subject

  18. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder; Giddey, Sarbjit; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand; Hollenkamp, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation and storage; pollution control / monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  19. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  20. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  1. Limits on the Benefits of Energy Storage for Renewable Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Han-I; Gamal, Abbas El

    2011-01-01

    The high variability of renewable energy resources presents significant challenges to the operation of the electric power grid. Conventional generators can be used to mitigate this variability but are costly to operate and produce carbon emissions. Energy storage provides a more environmentally friendly alternative, but is costly to deploy in large amounts. This paper studies the limits on the benefits of energy storage to renewable energy: How effective is storage at mitigating the adverse e...

  2. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  3. Activated magnesium for hydrogen energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is the ideal means of storage, transport and conversion of energy for a comprehensive clean-energy concept because of its free emission. Hydrogen can be stored as an energy carrier in the form of gas, liquid, and in solid. Magnesium is the candidate material for on-board hydrogen storage in the form of solid metal hydride because of its safe and higher volumetric energy density, about 7.6 wt% of the metal. Previous experiment on the hydriding of magnesium with the particle size of <0.3 mm and <60 μm yields very poor hydrogen capacity due to the oxygen existence on the metal surface. To improve the hydrogen sorption properties, the magnesium with the particle size of <60 μm is activated by treating the metal with 0.15M NH4F solution for 1 hour. The hydriding experiment is conducted in a hydriding system that can be operated at a very high vacuum up to 1x10-7 mbar. Analyses on the experimental results of two cycles of hydriding show that the activated magnesium powder with the particle size of <60 mm absorbed hydrogen in the amount of 3.82 wt% of the metal in the first cycle, which increased to 5.15 wt% in the second cycle. The absorption process took respectively 312 and 221 seconds for the first and second cycle of hydriding. Experimental results show that the hydrogen capacity of the current experiment is still low likely due to the particle size of magnesium metal, i.e. it should be nano size. (author)

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Michael George mckellar; Su-Jong Yoon

    2013-11-01

    efficient idealized energy storage system is the two tank direct molten salt ESS with an Air Brayton combined cycle using LiF-NaF-KF as the molten salt, and the most economical is the same design with KCl MgCl2 as the molten salt. With energy production being a major worldwide industry, understanding the most efficient molten salt ESS boosts development of an effective NHES with cheap, clean, and steady power.

  5. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  6. Review on the Distributed Energy Storage Technology in the Application of the Micro Network

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Qiyuan; Wang Zhijie; Zhu Jun; Wang Dongwei; Du Bin

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized the application process of energy storage technology in the micro-grid, elaborated on the development of energy storage technology concisely, and illustrated the roles of battery energy storage, flywheel energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super capacitor energy storage and other energy storage and so on in micro-hybrid. Then it compared the performances of some sorts of the storage method. As characteristics and actual demands of micro-grid w...

  7. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  8. High energy interactions and extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on papers presented in the high energy sessions of the conference that do not deal with the theory and observations of muons and neutrinos. We concentrate on the development and testing of hadronic interaction models, their extension to ultrahigh energy and their importance for the analysis and interpretation of air shower data. We also summarize data on the cosmic ray spectrum and composition obtained with air showers

  9. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Kirby, Brendan [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  10. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  11. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  12. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  13. Parametric study of a solar air heater with and without thermal storage for solar drying applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Enein, S.; El-Sebaii, A.A.; Ramadan, M.R.I.; El-Gohary, H.G. [Tanta Univ., Physics Dept., Tanta (Egypt)

    2000-12-01

    A transient analytical model is presented for a flat-plate solar air heater with and without thermal storage. The flowing air temperature is assumed to vary with time and space coordinates. Analytical expressions are obtained for various temperatures of the air heater elements as well as for the temperature of the storage material. The performance of the air heater is investigated by computer simulation using the climatic conditions of Tanta (Lat. 30deg 47' N, Egypt). Effects of design parameters of the air heater such as length (L), width (b), gap spacing between the absorber plate and glass cover (d{sub f}), mass flow rate (m) and thickness and type of the storage material (sand, granite and water) on the outlet and average temperatures of the flowing air are studied. It is found that as L and b increase the average temperatures of flowing air (T{sub fav}) increases up to typical values for these parameters. Typical values for L and b are obtained as 3 and 2 m, respectively. The outlet temperature (T{sub fo}) of flowing air is found to decrease with increasing gap spacing and mass flow rate of air. Improvements in the heater performance with storage have been achieved at the optimum thickness (0.12 m) of the storage material. Therefore, the air heater can be used as a heat source for drying agricultural products and the drying process will continue during night, instead of re-absorption of moisture from the surrounding air. Comparisons between experimental and theoretical results indicated that the proposed mathematical model can be used for estimating the thermal performance of flat-plate solar air heaters with reasonable accuracy. (Author)

  14. Aqueous sodium hydroxide seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantenbein, P.; Daguenet-Frick, X.; Frank, E. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Rapperswil (Switzerland). Inst. for Solar Technologies SPF; Weber, R.; Fumey, B. [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Williamson, T. [Kingspan Renewables Ltd, Portadown, Co. Armagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal storage of sensible thermal energy in materials is a challenge in respect to thermal loss corresponding to low volumetric energy density. In a process involving absorption and desorption lower heat losses and higher energy densities can be reached. The working pair sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and water can be employed to this purpose. A possible application of such a system can be a single family passive energy building that requires a maximum power output of approximately 8 kW. The required absorption/desorption zone can be designed as a falling film tube bundle, using either Hu's or Owens' correlations. To meet the required power the tube bundle can be built of 300 mm long tubes with an outer diameter of 12 mm in a configuration of either 3 rows of 18 tubes or 2 rows of 25 tubes. During desorption one row of 18 tubes or 3 rows of 6 tubes are sufficient. In the absorption or discharging process a mass flow of 2 to 4 kg/h of aqueous NaOH with a concentration of 50 wt% NaOH is required. In the reverse process 18 to 30 kg/h of aqueous NaOH at a concentration of 30 wt% are necessary. The mass transport is performed without recirculation, reducing the parasitic power consumption. Initial experiments conducted with a less reactive substitute liquid showed good homogeneous distribution.

  15. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  16. The Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Optoelectric Conversion and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yongfeng Luo; Xi Li; Jianxiong Zhang; Chunrong Liao; Xianjun Li

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies on carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers for weavable device of optoelectric conversion and energy storage. The intrinsic properties of individual CNTs make the CNT fibers ideal candidates for optoelectric conversion and energy storage. Many potential applications such as solar cell, supercapacitor, and lithium ion battery have been envisaged. The recent advancement in CNT fibers for optoelectric conversion and energy storage and the current challenge including lo...

  17. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  18. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System Volume 2: Energy Storage Evaluation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2013-12-01

    This volume presents the battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is used to evaluate benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a look-ahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine battery base operating point. The minute by minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation. This volume provide background and manual for this evaluation tool.

  19. 0.54-MJ superconducting magnetic energy transfer and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting energy storage coil designed to store 300 kJ of energy was operated with stored energy up to 0.54 MJ. The energy was transferred from the coil in periods from 1 to 2.4 ms. Hysteresis loss and losses from all effects during pulsed energy transfer were observed. The coil is described and the test results are presented. Also included is a description of a METS (magnetic energy transfer and storage) driven adiabatic plasma compression system for a large toroidal theta-pinch reactor test and of a 300-kJ, monolithic conductor, superconducting pulsed energy storage coil

  20. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the siz

  1. Study of the potential of energy storage - Investigation report - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess, for France and its overseas territories, the potential of energy storage by 2030, and to identify the technological sectors which are the most economically relevant. A global surplus has been calculated, as well as the benefit from additional storage capacities. This benefit has been compared with cost predictions by 2030 for different storage technologies. Economically viable powers and types of energy storages are assessed with respect to different scenarios, and impacts in terms of associated jobs are assessed. The document reports and discusses the surplus assessment for the community, describes the various services provided by energy storage, presents the modelling scenarios and hypotheses, discusses the main results of valorisation for the community, presents the various energy storage technologies (gravity, thermodynamic, electrochemical, electrostatic, inertial, latent thermal, thermo-chemical, and power to gas), presents business models and deployment potential for different applications (mass storage of electricity in France, electricity storage in a non-connected area, decentralised electricity storage as a response to grid congestion, valorisation of an electricity storage, thermal storage on a heat network, cold storage, management of diffuse demand of hot water), and discusses implications regarding employment

  2. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  3. Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.

  4. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1985-06-01

    The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: (1) the exploratory technology development and testing (ETD) project and (2) the technology base research (TBR) project. The role of the TBR Project is to perform supporting research for the advanced battery systems under development by the ETD Project, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the TBR Project is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to industry and/or the ETD Project for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial, and management activities relevant to the TBR Project in CY 1984. General problem areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the assessment of fuel-cell technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: exploratory research, applied science research, and air systems research.

  5. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  6. Analysis of lunar regolith thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using lunar regolith as a thermal energy storage medium was evaluated. The concept was examined by mathematically modeling the absorption and transfer of heat by the lunar regolith. Regolith thermal and physical properties were established through various sources as functions of temperature. Two cases were considered: a semi-infinite, constant temperature, cylindrical heat source embedded in a continuum of lunar regolith and a spherically shaped molten zone of lunar regolith set with an initial temperature profile. The cylindrical analysis was performed in order to examine the amount of energy which can be stored in the regolith during the day. At night, the cylinder acted as a perfect insulator. This cycling was performed until a steady state situation was reached in the surrounding regolith. It was determined that a cycling steady state occurs after approximately 15 day/night cycles. Results were obtained for cylinders of various diameters. The spherical molten zone analysis was performed to establish the amount of thermal energy, within the regolith, necessary to maintain some molten material throughout a nighttime period. This surrounding temperature profile was modeled after the cycling steady state temperature profile established by the cylindrical analysis. It was determined that a molten sphere diameter of 4.76 m is needed to maintain a core temperature near the low end of the melting temperature range throughout one nighttime period.

  7. Thermal energy storage. [by means of chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The principles involved in thermal energy storage by sensible heat, chemical potential energy, and latent heat of fusion are examined for the purpose of evolving selection criteria for material candidates in the low ( 0 C) and high ( 100 C) temperature ranges. The examination identifies some unresolved theoretical considerations and permits a preliminary formulation of an energy storage theory. A number of candidates in the low and high temperature ranges are presented along with a rating of candidates or potential candidates. A few interesting candidates in the 0 to 100 C region are also included. It is concluded that storage by means of reactions whose reversibility can be controlled either by product removal or by catalytic means appear to offer appreciable advantages over storage with reactions whose reversability cannot be controlled. Among such advantages are listed higher heat storage capacities and more favorable options regarding temperatures of collection, storage, and delivery. Among the disadvantages are lower storage efficiencies.

  8. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  9. Energy dependence of air fluorescence yield

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ave, M.; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    Mexico : Universidad National Autonóma, 2007, s. 1-4. [International Cosmic Ray Conference /30./. Merida (MX), 03.07.2007-11.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : AIR FLY * cosmic rays * fluorescence * ultra high energy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  10. Energy storage - underground pumped storage / energy membrane; Energilager - nedgravet pumpelager / energimembran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder Pedersen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Hededal, O.; Foged, N. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Byg. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-06-15

    The project deals with a new idea where water from a nearby reservoir - sea, river or lake - via a pump/motor pressurizes a closed underground membrane, meaning that excessive electrical energy is stored as mechanical energy. Afterwards the stored energy is released by the obtained pressure and the amount of water will impel a turbine/generator. Hereby an underground pressurized pump storage can be established. The advantage by such type of pump storage is, that it can be placed, where there is no natural geological formations - high placed lake or alike. The conclusion and results after the completion of Phase 1 and 2 is that the expected losses in the soil layers where the energy is stored as potential energy will be approx. 100J/m{sub 3}. It is expected that the energy loss in the soil layer on a 50x50 m demo installation (performed in Phase 3) would constitute <0.5% of the total energy stored. An elongation of less the <2% of the LDPE membrane was measured in the experiments. This is a lot less than the 7% elongation that the membrane was exposed to during the testing at Danfoss, and further far below elongation of 500% that the supplier indicates. There were no changes on the membrane after the test. (Author)

  11. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions

  12. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  13. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Manabu Takao; Toshiaki Setoguchi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that ...

  14. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However......, these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily...

  15. Electromagnetic energy storage and power dissipation in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, J M

    2014-01-01

    The processes of storage and dissipation of electromagnetic energy in nanostructures depend on both the material properties and the geometry. In this paper, the distributions of local energy density and power dissipation in nanogratings are investigated using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. It is demonstrated that the enhancement of absorption is accompanied by the enhancement of energy storage both for material at the resonance of its dielectric function described by the classical Lorentz oscillator and for nanostructures at the resonance induced by its geometric arrangement. The appearance of strong local electric field in nanogratings at the geometry-induced resonance is directly related to the maximum electric energy storage. Analysis of the local energy storage and dissipation can also help gain a better understanding of the global energy storage and dissipation in nanostructures for photovoltaic and heat transfer applications.

  16. Battery energy storage market feasibility study - Expanded report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  17. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  18. Improving the Technical, Environmental, and Social Performance of Wind Energy Systems Using Biomass-Based Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely renewable baseload electricity generation system is proposed by combining wind energy, compressed air energy storage, and biomass gasification. This system can eliminate problems associated with wind intermittency and provide a source of electrical energy functionally equivalent to a large fossil or nuclear power plant. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) can be economically deployed in the Midwestern US, an area with significant low-cost wind resources. CAES systems require a combustible fuel, typically natural gas, which results in fuel price risk and greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing natural gas with synfuel derived from biomass gasification eliminates the use of fossil fuels, virtually eliminating net CO2 emissions from the system. In addition, by deriving energy completely from farm sources, this type of system may reduce some opposition to long distance transmission lines in rural areas, which may be an obstacle to large-scale wind deployment.

  19. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  20. Modeling and simulation to determine the potential energy savings by implementing cold thermal energy storage system in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulating the CTES system behavior based on Malaysian climate. • Almost 65% of power is used for cooling for cooling the office buildings, every day. • The baseline shows an acceptable match with real data from the fieldwork. • Overall, the energy used for full load storage is much than the conventional system. • The load levelling storage strategy has 3.7% lower energy demand. - Abstract: In Malaysia, air conditioning (AC) systems are considered as the major energy consumers in office buildings with almost 57% share. During the past decade, cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems have been widely used for their significant economic benefits. However, there were always doubts about their energy saving possibilities. The main objective of the present work is to develop a computer model to determine the potential energy savings of implementing CTES systems in Malaysia. A case study building has been selected to determine the energy consumption pattern of an office building. In the first step the building baseline model was developed and validated with the recorded data from the fieldwork. Once the simulation results reach an acceptable accuracy, different CTES system configuration was added to the model to predict their energy consumption pattern. It was found that the overall energy used by the full load storage strategy is considerably more than the conventional system. However, by applying the load leveling storage strategy, and considering its benefits to reduce the air handling unit size and reducing the pumping power, the overall energy usage was almost 4% lower than the non-storage system. Although utilizing CTES systems cannot reduce the total energy consumption considerably, but it has several outstanding benefits such as cost saving, bringing balance in the grid system, reducing the overall fuel consumption in the power plants and consequently reducing to total carbon footprint

  1. The Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Optoelectric Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies on carbon nanotube (CNT fibers for weavable device of optoelectric conversion and energy storage. The intrinsic properties of individual CNTs make the CNT fibers ideal candidates for optoelectric conversion and energy storage. Many potential applications such as solar cell, supercapacitor, and lithium ion battery have been envisaged. The recent advancement in CNT fibers for optoelectric conversion and energy storage and the current challenge including low energy conversion efficiency and low stability and future direction of the energy fiber have been finally summarized in this paper.

  2. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...

  4. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  5. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  6. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  7. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  8. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  9. Regeneration and efficiency characterization of hybrid adsorbent for thermal energy storage of excess and solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicaire, Daniel; Tezel, F. Handan [University of Ottawa, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 161 Louis Pasteur, Colonel By Hall, A402, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Adsorption Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is a promising technology for long term thermal energy storage of excess and solar heat. By using the exothermic reversible adsorption process, excess heat from an incinerator or solar heat from the summer can be stored and then released for heating during the winter. The usefulness of the storage system relies heavily on the temperature and quality of the heat available for regeneration of the adsorbent as it affects the storage efficiency, the amount of water released from the adsorbent and in turn the performance or energy density of the storage system. In this study, a lab scale high throughput open loop forced air adsorption TES has been built. A series of adsorption experiments were performed to determine the effect of adsorption flow rate and cycling on the chosen best performing adsorbent, AA13X from Rio Tinto Alcan. Regeneration characterization experiments were performed to determine the effect of flow rate, temperature and feed air relative humidity on the regeneration and performance of the system. The results were compared with another adsorbent to verify the observed trend. Finally, the efficiency of the thermal storage system was calculated. (author)

  10. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  11. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  12. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  13. 78 FR 9687 - Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prineville Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Prineville Energy Storage, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Matthew Shapiro, Chief Executive Officer, Prineville Energy Storage,...

  14. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series ...

  15. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  16. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  17. Hybrid DNA materials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, R. A.; Thomas, J.; Peyghambarian, N.; Wang, J.; Li, L.; Ouchen, F.; Grote, J. E.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the dielectric and electrical properties of sol-gel/DNA-CTMA blends, with particular interest in capacitor applications in energy storage. Methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) was the solgel precursor, and DNA-CTMA was blended in to the resulting sol-gel at various weight percentages. The blends were tested for their dielectric properties and dielectric breakdown strength; the 5% DNA blend was found to be optimal with a dielectric constant in the range of 7.5, while the breakdown strength was greater than 800 V/μm for 1 μm films and about 500 V/μm for 5μm films. Hybrid sol-gel/DNA-CTMA/barium titanate nanoparticle composites were also formulated and their dielectric properties measured. While a high dielectric constant was achieved (38), this came at the expense of a significantly reduced breakdown voltage (160V/μm). We discuss these results as well as other aspects of the dielectric and electrical properties of these blends.

  18. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  19. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  20. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  1. Flight experiment of thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, David

    1989-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) enables a solar dynamic system to deliver constant electric power through periods of sun and shade. Brayton and Stirling power systems under current considerations for missions in the near future require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1300+ K range. TES materials that meet these requirements fall into the fluoride family of salts. These salts store energy as a heat of fusion, thereby transferring heat to the fluid at constant temperature during shade. The principal feature of fluorides that must be taken into account is the change in volume that occurs with melting and freezing. Salts shrink as they solidify, a change reaching 30 percent for some salts. The location of voids that form as result of the shrinkage is critical when the solar dynamic system reemerges into the sun. Hot spots can develop in the TES container or the container can become distorted if the melting salt cannot expand elsewhere. Analysis of the transient, two-phase phenomenon is being incorporated into a three-dimensional computer code. The code is capable of analysis under microgravity as well as 1 g. The objective of the flight program is to verify the predictions of the code, particularly of the void location and its effect on containment temperature. The four experimental packages comprising the program will be the first tests of melting and freezing conducted under microgravity. Each test package will be installed in a Getaway Special container to be carried by the shuttle. The package will be self-contained and independent of shuttle operations other than the initial opening of the container lid and the final closing of the lid. Upon the return of the test package from flight, the TES container will be radiographed and finally partitioned to examine the exact location and shape of the void. Visual inspection of the void and the temperature data during flight will constitute the bases for code verification.

  2. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  3. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  4. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg;

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... material melts it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at...

  5. Conference on storage in the service of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on energy storage supporting the energy transition in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 140 participants met together to debate about the answer of future storage technologies to the electric power system needs and to the optimum integration of renewable energies at different levels of the power transmission and distribution grid. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Storage Technologies, Status and Perspectives (Matthias Leuthold); 2 - Which electricity storage needs for 2030, 2050 in France? (David Marchal); 3 - Storage in context of the German 'Energiewende' (Ralf Sitte); 4 - Battery Storage for residential PV Systems: Grid relieving effects (Kai-Philipp Kairies); 5 - Battery Storage for residential PV Systems: Technologies and Market Trends (Kai-Philipp Kairies); 6 - Pumped hydro-stations to ensure a decentralized and flexible storage to integrate the best way RES in the electric system (Pierre Guerrier); 7 - RRKW Feldheim - Primary Frequency Control in a wind feed-in grid (Niklas Netzel); 8 - Smoothing an intermittent generation: interest of generation forecast and storage global management (Etienne Radvanyi); 9 - Power-to-gas after 2030 - A cost-benefit analysis (Thorsten Lenck)

  6. Review on the Distributed Energy Storage Technology in the Application of the Micro Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized the application process of energy storage technology in the micro-grid, elaborated on the development of energy storage technology concisely, and illustrated the roles of battery energy storage, flywheel energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES, super capacitor energy storage and other energy storage and so on in micro-hybrid. Then it compared the performances of some sorts of the storage method. As characteristics and actual demands of micro-grid work were given full into consideration, the current micro-grid energy storage technology research problems and development trend in the future were pointed out.

  7. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  8. Benefits of an Energy Storage Device for a Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aten, M.; Hair, R. [EON UK Power Technology, Ratcliffe on Soar, Nottinghamshire, NGII 0EE (United Kingdom); Barton, J. [Bryte Energy Limited, Loughborough Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LEll 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Energy storage has been a long sought after concept that could give several benefits for an intermittent energy source like wind power. The primary objective of the study presented in this paper is to determine the role that energy storage can play in alleviating network constraints and avoid the need for network investment. Two case studies have been considered in which a new wind farm would cause an existing adjacent radial line to be thermally overloaded at times of high wind, unless the generated wind power is curtailed. Important parameters affecting the viability of using energy storage for the purpose of avoiding spillage without reinforcing the network are: line length, ratio of wind farm size to line rating, wind farm energy curtailment, network reinforcement costs, energy storage systems costs, electricity wholesale price, and losses in the store and power conversion.

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage in the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F. A.; Beshore, D. G.; Miller, F. M.; Gartner, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    In the manufacture of cement, literally trillions of Btu's are rejected to the environment each year. The purpose of this feasibility study program was to determine whether thermal energy storage could be used to conserve or allow alternative uses of this rejected energy. This study identifies and quantifies the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, established use of this energy, investigates various storage system concepts, and selects energy conservation systems for further study. Thermal performance and economic analyses are performed on candidate storage systems for four typical cement plants representing various methods of manufacturing cement. Through the use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 10 to the 13th power Btu/year, or an equivalent on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for further development.

  10. The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-03-31

    1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. The Energy Institute has been engaged in the

  11. Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C

    OpenAIRE

    Meseret Tesfay; Meyyappan Venkatesan

    2013-01-01

    Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES) is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, i...

  12. Electromagnetic energy storage and power dissipation in nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, J. M.; Zhang, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The processes of storage and dissipation of electromagnetic energy in nanostructures depend on both the material properties and the geometry. In this paper, the distributions of local energy density and power dissipation in nanogratings are investigated using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. It is demonstrated that the enhancement of absorption is accompanied by the enhancement of energy storage both for material at the resonance of its dielectric function described by the classical Lorent...

  13. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid conne...

  14. Seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers. Environmental benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium informed on the current state of seasonal thermal energy storage in the soil and, especially, in aquifers. Furthermore, the potentially negative impact of such plants on the environment was discussed. Seasonal thermal energy storage is a suitable method in particular in combination with solar energy and for cogeneration power plants. For each technical paper presented a separate subject analysis was carried through. (BWI)

  15. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyong Wang; Peng Tao; Yang Liu; Hao Xu; Qinxian Ye; Hang Hu; Chengyi Song; Zhaoping Chen; Wen Shang; Tao Deng

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with ...

  16. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  17. Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides (239Pu)

  18. Power storage: An important option for the German energy transition

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter; Diekmann, Jochen; Zerrahn, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The German energy transition makes it necessary to increase flexibility in the electricity system. Different forms of power storage may play a part in this, yet there is competition with other options on the production or demand side. In the short term, the further expansion of electricity generation from fluctuating renewables will be possible in Germany without additional power storage facilities. In the longer term, however, storage requirements will depend strongly on specific circumstanc...

  19. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen; Bouchafaa, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  20. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  1. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  2. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  3. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  4. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  5. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  6. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are...... presented, and the comparison of the system efficiencies highlights the improvement of the proposed control method....

  7. Combination of thermal energy storage and soil reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the reports from the Netherlands (Sniders, 1993), Sweden (Andersson, 1993), Canada (Cruickshanks, 1993) and Switzerland (Saugy, 1983) show, aquifer thermal energy storage in many cases is profitable already in itself. There is evidence justifying the assumption that it may be possible to combine thermal energy storage with soil reclamation. The temperature increase can be harnessed for more rapid degradation of pollutants. In this case there is no doubt that aquifer thermal energy storage will be both ecologically acceptable and economically worth-while. A corresponding project is in the planning stage. (orig.)

  8. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  9. Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer characteristics in solar chimney power plants with energy storage layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the characteristics of heat transfer and air flow in the solar chimney power plant system with an energy storage layer. Different mathematical models for the collector, the chimney and the energy storage layer have been established, and the effect of solar radiation on the heat storage characteristic of the energy storage layer has been analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that: (1) the heat storage ratio of the energy storage layer decreases firstly and then increases with the solar radiation increasing from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2; (2) the relative static pressure decreases while the velocity increases significantly inside the system with the increase of solar radiation; (3) the average temperature of the chimney outlet and the energy storage layer may increase significantly with the increase of solar radiation. In addition, the temperature gradient of the storage medium may increase, which results in an increase of energy loss from the bottom of the energy storage layer

  10. Electrothermal energy storage with transcritical CO2 cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel type of bulk electricity storage – electrothermal energy storage (ETES) – is presented. The concept is based on heat pump and heat engine technologies utilizing transcritical CO2 cycles, storage of pumped heat in hot water, and ice generation and melting at the cold end of the cycles. The paper first describes the growing need for large scale electrical energy storage and the role of storage in the integration of renewable intermittent generation such as wind energy into the electricity network. The background and a short review on ETES is given and the main principles of (i) reversible heat pumping using vapor compression, (ii) thermal energy storage, and finally (iii) back conversion of thermal energy into electricity via a thermal engine are explained. Following the introduction of ETES as a general concept, the transcritical CO2 based system is presented by providing a description of the thermodynamic cycles and the corresponding operating conditions. Next the overview of an envisioned transcritical ETES plant is given with information on the main equipment including the turbomachines such as compressor and turbine, high pressure plate heat exchangers, and ice storage. Key properties of the proposed transcritical ETES system are then reviewed with an emphasis on energy storage efficiency, scalability, site-independence, and minimal environmental impact. Information about the operating characteristics such as start-up and standby times and storage duration of the proposed system is also given. The paper is concluded by discussing the future perspectives for the proposed system mainly by focusing on potential technology improvements for the CO2 machines and the storage materials for both hot and cold ends of the system.

  11. NATURAL GAS STORAGE ROLE IN ENERGY SAFETY ASSURANCE IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2008-01-01

    : In the paper author considers possibility of natural gas storage in natural underground stores in large scale. The author presents natural gas stores in Poland with their technical and economical features and chances of their extension. He also presents influence of large scale gas storage on energy safety assurance.

  12. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa;

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...... efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage...... directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices....

  13. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  14. Air encapsulation. II. Profile water storage and shallow water table fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a wet soil, volumetric encapsulated air contents can easily approach 0.06 m3 m-3. The objective of this study was to determine, through simulation, the effect of air encapsulation on profile water storage and shallow water table fluctuations and whether air encapsulation should be considered in modeling field events. Using a two-dimensional soil moisture code that included a routine designed to model air encapsulation, the authors simulated profile water storage changes during hypothetical rainfall events and water table responses during actual rainfall events. The simulation results indicated that, following the infiltration of 10 mm of water, profile moisture content differences with and without air encapsulation would be 3 m-3 and thus may not be measurable in the field with a neutron probe. Water table levels, however, rose significantly higher in the profile when air was encapsulated. Depending on the initial depth of the water table and the moisture characteristic, the water table rises were two to five times those when air was not encapsulated. For water tables located within 1.3 m of the surface, application of the model to actual rainfall events improved the fit to the measured water table data. In those situations where water table level predictions are important (e.g., wetlands, stream banks), researchers should consider air encapsulation in their analysis of water table fluctuations

  15. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-09-30

    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic analysis of a totally solarpowered desert home. The home is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. It features closely spaced, roof mounted photovoltaic modules, which collect the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose the roof to the sky, thus enhancing night-time cooling. Two methods of energy storage are proposed and compared, one using solely battery storage of electrical output, and the other employing a combination of cold water storage and battery storage. The analysis is based on detailed dynamic heat transfer calculations for the entire building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model, and followed by energy balances. The results reveal that indeed it is feasible to employ solar energy as the only source of energy to power the home, and that each storage system has its own merits and shortcomings. © 2010 WIT Press.

  16. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  17. Relative humidity in the ventilation air of the storage tunnels dug in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of a deep underground repository implies a ventilation of all tunnels and shafts in order to maintain good working conditions. Based on actually planned repository architecture, the ventilation machinery is dimensioned to produce around 1 000 000 m3 of moving air per second, which will implies an air velocity of several meters per second in the tunnels and shafts. The air used for the ventilation is picked at ground level around the site without any pretreatment. This air has a relative humidity and a temperature varying throughout the year, on a monthly basis, from 84 % and 3 C in winter to 75% and 17 in summer. What ever part of the year considered, the ventilation air entering the ventilation shaft is not saturated in water vapor. The annual mean of relative humidity is around 80% for a annual temperature of around 10 C. Moving into the shafts and tunnel system, the ventilation air will gain, or loose, some water, and also exchange heat with the surrounding rock. These mass and energy exchange will modify the temperature and relative humidity of the air. As hydraulic boundary condition of the rock on the tunnel walls is conditioned by the relative humidity of the ventilation air, knowing the evolution of this variable along the shafts and galleries, will help determine the hydraulic impact of the storage exploitation on the argilites of the Callovo-Oxfordian. A relative humidity less than 100% implies a desaturation of the rock around the tunnel walls, and even a slit decrease in relative humidity will generate quite high suctions on the tunnel walls. A numerical 2D axisymmetric model taking into account air flow and heat and mass exchange between air and rock was build by TEC INGENIERIE to estimate the relative humidity along the tunnels, from the surface to the repository zones. (authors)

  18. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  19. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  20. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); O' Malley, Mark [Univ. College of Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  1. Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.

    1966-11-01

    High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.

  2. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  3. The Effect of Ventilation, Filtration and Passive Sorption on Indoor Air Quality in Museum Storage Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, M.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in five storage rooms at the National Museum of Denmark, in which the effect on indoor air quality of mechanical ventilation, filtration and passive sorption was investigated. Mechanical ventilation and recirculation/filtration was initiated by introducing new ventilation an...

  4. Storage of HLW in engineered structures: air-cooled and water-cooled concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study on an air-cooled and a water-cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations has been performed by Nukem and Belgonucleaire respectively. In the air-cooled storage concept the decay heat from the storage area will be removed using natural convection. In the water-cooled storage concept the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced-cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety study carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water-cooled system is very high and comparable to the inherent, safe, air-cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water-cooled facility are higher than for the air cooled facility. The result of the safety and economic analysis and the discussions with the members of the working group have shown some possible significant modifications for both systems, which are included in this report. The whole study has been carried out using certain national criteria which, in certain Member States at least, would lead to a higher standard of safety than can be justified on any social, political or economic grounds

  5. Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Storage in Advanced EVA Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate prototype multifunctional EVA system power patches that integrate energy storage into advanced space...

  6. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  7. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  8. Economics of Energy Storage. An analysis of the administrative consequences of electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the administrative aspects connected to the introduction of electricity storage in the energy system. First, the macro-economic aspects of utilizing storage facilities are discussed, and the possible benefits of storage in the electricity system are summarized. Next, the discussion focuses on the administrative aspects. In particular, the regulation system of the Dutch electricity market is reviewed, paying particular attention to the market design in connection with Distribution Network Operators. A number of relevant aspects are discussed, such as the incentives for the Operators to optimize network performance, as well as the means available to the Operators to stimulate third parties to do so. Finally, the perspectives for storage operators to enter directly on the different power markets are treated. Generally, one can conclude that the administrative aspects for storage facilities leave room for improvement

  9. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  10. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper...... discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the......The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve...

  11. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be tota...

  12. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  13. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Zhiwei; YE, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are inv...

  14. Performance Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ghedamsi; D. Aouzellag; E. M. Berkouk

    2008-01-01

    The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. In this paper, a flywheel energy storage system associated to a grid connected variable speed wind generation (VSWG) scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic...

  15. Nanocellulose and Polypyrrole Composites for Electrical Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    To meet the predicted increase in demand for energy storage in tomorrow's society, the development of inexpensive, flexible, lightweight and sustainable energy-storage materials is essential. In this respect, devices based on electroactive organic molecules, such as conducting polymers, are highly interesting. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of nanocellulose as a matrix material in composites of cellulose and the electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy), and the use of these com...

  16. Reducing DMU fuel consumption by means of hybrid energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Hülsebusch, Dirk; Ungethüm, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses a hybrid energy storage concept and its control strategy for hydro-mechanical DMUs. The hybrid energy storage consists of double layer capacitors and batteries. The new concept aims on reducing fuel consumption and avoiding unhealthy emissions during idling in station area. Methods: Development of a hybrid propulsion concept and control strategy requires adequate methods for modeling system behavior. The simulation environment Dymola is ...

  17. Electrochemical supercapacitors for energy storage and delivery fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as an important component of all energy storage and conversion technologies, electrochemical supercapacitators (ES) still face development challenges in order to reach their full potential. A thorough examination of development in the technology during the past decade, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to the ES from technical and practical aspects and crystallization of the technology, detailing the basics of ES as well as its components and characterization techniques. The b

  18. The economics of energy storage in 14 deregulated power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regulated power markets, electricity is stored to better utilize existing generation and to defer costly investment in generation. The justification is a reduction in the overall regulated price of power compared to the alternative investment in new primary generation. However, any storage of electrical power also involves a capital investment and incurs the cost of inefficiency. In deregulated energy markets, the sale of electricity or ancillary services from pumped storage can be evaluated based on each individual project. The economic basis for power storage is that power is purchased during periods of low price and resold during periods of high price. This study used historical power price data from 14 deregulated markets around the world to evaluate the economic incentive to use pumped storage for electrical energy. Each market was shown to have a unique average diurnal power price profile that results in a unique price spread for pumped storage. The diurnal price pattern and efficiency of storage was used to assess the net income potential from energy sales from pumped storage for each market. The markets were ranked in terms of the incentive to invest in pumped energy storage as well as on available revenue, and on potential return on investment. An optimal operating profile was illustrated in detail based on historical price patterns for one of the markets. The net income potential was then combined with the capital and operating cost of pumped storage. The adequacy of return on investment for pumped storage was analyzed by two different methods. The differences between markets stem from different diurnal power price patterns that reflect the generation mix, market design and participant behaviours. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  19. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  20. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.