WorldWideScience

Sample records for air cushion vehicle

  1. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  2. Method for calculating steady-state waves in an air cushion vehicle. Part 2; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Discussions were given on a method to estimate resistance constituents in wave resistance made in an air chamber of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point and is made dimensionless by using cushion length. Flow around the ACV is supposed as an ideal flow, whereas speed potential is defined in the flow field. Then, a linear free surface condition is hypothesized on water surface Z = 0. Number and density of waves were used to introduce a condition to be satisfied by the speed potential. A numerical calculation method arranged a blow-out panel on the water surface, and used a panel shift type Rankine source method which satisfies the free surface condition at Z = 0. Cushion pressure distribution becomes a step-like discontinuous function, and mathematical infinity is generated in the differentiation values. Under an assumption that the pressure rises per one panel where pressure jump is present, the distribution was approximated by providing one panel with inclination of the finite quantity therein. Estimation on wave height distribution in the cushion chamber showed a tendency of qualitatively agreeing with the experimental result, but the wave heights shown in the experiment had the average level decreased as it goes toward the rear of the hull. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  4. A Study of Maneuvering Control for an Air Cushion Vehicle Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; HUANG Guo-liang; LI Shu-zhi

    2009-01-01

    A back propagation (BP) neural network mathematical model was established to investigate the maneuvering control of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). The calculation was based on four-freedom-degree model experiments of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. It is necessary for the ACV to control the velocity and the yaw rate as well as the velocity angle at the same time. The yaw rate and the velocity angle must be controlled correspondingly because of the whipping, which is a special characteristic for the ACV. The calculation results show that it is an efficient way for the ACV's maneuvering control by using a BP neural network to adjust PID parameters online.

  5. Air-cushion vehicles as an alternative to conventional industrial trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective shieldings must be used for the transportation of radioactive materials, such as drums and containers within the control area, in order to observe the activity classes of the rooms. As a result of the change in the radiation protection ordinance, the operating areas of the floor conveyors have to be protected even more, i.e. transportation weights are becoming even bigger. When using pallet lift trucks without drive, weights over 2 tons are virtually unable to be operated. A fork-lift truck must be used for higher loads. If the transportation weight (transportation load and net weight of the lift truck) is doubled, usage within buildings is very restricted through the ceiling net load. This is the range of application of air cushion vehicles, in particular if positioning accuracy and remote-controlled driving become necessary. (orig.)

  6. Proceedings of the 1994 CACTS conference on air cushion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laframboise, J.E. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The conference held by the Canadian Air Cushion Technology Society (CACTS) was attended by 56 specialists in the field from around the world. CACTS is devoted to the development and application of air cushion technology, primarily in the transportation domain, but also in industry and other fields where the technology may be of benefit. Some uses for the technology include rescue operations in natural disasters such as flooding and oil spill clean up operations in coastal waters. A total of 20 papers were presented at this meeting. Subjects included air cushion spray booms, amphibious transporters in oil spill events, unconventional propulsion systems for air cushion vehicles, ride control systems, and high-speed hovercraft design. Refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Air-cushioning in impact problems

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2013-05-12

    This paper concerns the displacement potential formulation of the post-impact influence of an air-cushioning layer on the 2D impact of a liquid half-space by a rigid body. The liquid and air are both ideal and incompressible and attention is focussed on cases when the density ratio between the air and liquid is small. In particular, the correction to classical Wagner theory is analysed in detail for the impact of circular cylinders and wedges. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  8. 变压器气垫车托盘强度计算及变形原因分析%Pallet Strength Calculation and Deformation Analysis of Transformer Air Cushion Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莲环; 韩志伟; 王永刚; 王明胜

    2013-01-01

    利用通用有限元软件ANSYS对运输特高压变压器产品的气垫车托盘结构强度进行了计算,并结合现场使用情况,对气垫车被变形后的托盘卡住的现象进行了原因分析.%The structural strength of the pallet in EHV transformer air cushion vehicle is calculated with ANSYS.According to on-site application,the clamping phenomenon of the pallet after its deformation is analyzed.

  9. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macewen, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  10. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwen, W. R.

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENT AIR-CUSHION-CASCADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of air-cushion-cascade were conducted and described. The SIMPLE algorithm combined with the normal k-ε turbulence model was adopted to simulate the air-phase flow. The experiment was carried out an IFA 300 anemometer. The flow field was measured for different ratios of main-stream velocity to jet velocity, different numbers of gaps and a couple of gap widths. The contur of the air-cushion was obtained, and the numerical calculations gave a closed-form result. The results show that the air-cushion thickness would increase with the increase of the jet volcoity, gap width and gap number mainly determined by the jet in the former half cascade. The possibility to achieve anti-erosion by the turbulent jet was examined and confirmed.

  12. Research of air-cushion isolation effects on high arch dam reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Jie Zhang; Jiang Chen; Yuan-Ze Zhang; Hao-Wu Liu

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of air-cushion isolated arch dam is presented with the nonlinear gas-liquid-solid multi-field dynamic coupling effect taken into account.In this model,the displacement formulation in Lagrange method,pressure formulation in Euler method,nonlinear contact model based on Coulomb friction law are applied to the air-cushion,reservoir and contraction joint domain,respectively.The dynamic response of Jinping I arch dam with a height of 305m is analyzed using the seismic records of the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008.Numerical resuits show that the air-cushion isolation reduces significantly the hydrodynamic pressure as well as the opening width for the contraction joints of high arch dam.

  13. Fluid (Air/Water) Cushion Transportation Technology for Emplacing Heavy Canisters into Horizontal Disposal Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of certain types of radioactive waste canisters in a deep repository involves handling and emplacement of very heavy loads. The weight of these particular canisters can be in the order of 20 to 50 metric tons. They generally have to be handled underground in openings that are not much larger than the canisters themselves as it is time consuming and expensive to excavate and backfill large openings in a repository. This therefore calls for the development of special technology that can meet the requirements for safe operation at an industrial scale in restrained operating spaces. Air/water cushion lifting systems are used world wide in the industry for moving heavy loads. However, until now the technology needed for emplacing heavy cylindrical radioactive waste packages in bored drifts (with narrow annular gaps) has not been previously developed or demonstrated. This paper describes the related R and D work carried out by ANDRA (for air cushion technology) and by SKB and Posiva (for water cushion technology) respectively, mainly within the framework of the European Commission (EC) funded Integrated Project called ESDRED (6. European Framework Programme). The background for both the air and the water cushion applications is presented. The specific characteristics of the two different emplacement concepts are also elaborated. Then the various phases of the Test Programmes (including the Prototype phases) are detailed and illustrated for the two lifting media. Conclusions are drawn for each system developed and evaluated. Finally, based on the R and D experience, improvements deemed necessary for an industrial application are listed. The tests performed so far have shown that the emplacement equipment developed is operating efficiently. However further tests are required to verify the availability and the reliability of the equipment over longer periods of time and to identify the modifications that would be needed for an industrial application in a

  14. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  15. 1985 Joint International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Rockville, MD, September 24-26, 1985, Preprints and Late Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyot, J. R.

    1985-12-01

    Papers are presented on the effect of a resonant skirt on ACV seakeeping, aerodynamic characteristics of a bag-cone skirt, and a calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts. Also considered are tactical problems relating to the hovercraft application of marine gas turbines, development of the Air Cushion Equipment Transporter, prevention of propeller Foreign Object Damage, and air propellers and their environmental problems on ACVs. Other topics include the maneuvering simulation of an Antarctic hovercraft, computer-aided conceptual design of air ACVs, the use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance, and passive control of air cushion heave dynamics. Papers are also presented on hovercraft in low enforcement, managing LCAC in the evolving acquisition environment, and SES and ACV for naval mission.

  16. Systematic Review: Is Prescription of Pressure-relieving Air Cushions Justified in Acute and Subacute Settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyce Folan

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Whilst there is currently preliminary evidence to support the effectiveness of pneumatic pressure-relieving cushions as compared to standard foam, specific recommendations as to a preferred make/model of cushion for use within general hospital settings are not supported at this time.

  17. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

    2014-03-01

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

  18. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode

  19. Finding the optimal setting of inflated air pressure for a multi-cell air cushion for wheelchair patients with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamanami K

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure distribution patterns of the seating interface on the multi-cell air cushion (ROHO High Profile of 36 adults with spinal cord injury (SCI (Neurological level Th3 -L1 were measured at different air pressure levels by a pressure mat measurement system. Stress distribution relative to the inflated air pressure in the air cushion on the patients' wheelchairs was analyzed to determine the appropriate inflated air pressure of the cushion for patients. The maximum pressure points in all subjects were at the areas of the ischial tuberosities (82 to 347 mmHg. The optimal reduction in interface pressure at the ischial tuberosities was obtained just before bottoming out. The cushion air pressure at that point was between 17 and 42 mmHg, and correlated well to body weight (r = 0.495, P = 0.0021. In contrast, the maximum pressure levels did not correlate to body weight or the Body Mass Index (BMI. Pressure at the ischial area could be reduced, but not eliminated, by adjusting the air pressure. The maximum pressure levels seemed to be related to the shape of the buttocks, especially the amount of soft tissue, and exceeded the defined threshold for pressure ulcers (> 80 g/cm2.

  20. Effect of a Multi-Air-Cushion Biofeedback Device (MABD) on Shoulder Muscles during the Dynamic Hug Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] We developed a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device (MABD) to assist the dynamic hug exercise, and investigated the effects of MABD on the shoulder muscles during the dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the right side serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and upper trapezius muscle activities during the dynamic hug exercise with and without MABD. [Results] The serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscles activities sign...

  1. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  2. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  3. Application of the air/water cushion technology for handling of heavy waste packages in Sweden and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of certain types of radioactive waste canisters in a deep repository involves handling and emplacement of very heavy loads. The weight of these particular canisters can be in the order of 20 to 50 metric tons. They generally have to be handled underground in openings that are not much larger than the canisters themselves as it is time consuming and expensive to excavate and backfill large openings in a repository. This therefore calls for the development of special technology that can meet the requirements for safe operation in an industrial scale in restrained operating spaces. Air/water cushion lifting systems are used world wide in the industry for moving heavy loads. However, until now the technology needed for emplacing heavy cylindrical radioactive waste packages in bored drifts (with narrow annular gaps) has not been developed or demonstrated previously. This paper describes the related R and D work carried out by ANDRA (for air cushion technology) and by SKB and Posiva (for water cushion technology) respectively, mainly within the framework of the European Commission (EC) funded Integrated Project called ESDRED (6th European Framework Programme). The background for both the air and the water cushion applications is presented. The specific characteristics of the two different emplacement concepts are also elaborated. The various phases of the Test Programmes (including the Prototype phases) are detailed and illustrated for the two lifting media. Conclusions are drawn for each system developed and evaluated. Finally, based on the R and D experience, improvements deemed necessary for an industrial application are listed. The tests performed so far have shown that the emplacement equipment developed is operating efficiently. However further tests are required to verify the availability and the reliability of the equipment over longer periods of time and to identify the modifications that would be needed for an industrial application in a nuclear

  4. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  5. Modification of an Aquila unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, John E. C.

    1995-01-01

    The requirement exists at the Naval Postgraduate School Unmanned Air Vehicle Laboratory for an air vehicle capable of carrying a 60 pound payload. To that end, an air vehicle from the canceled Army Aquila program was modified to become the payload carrier. The modifications involved designing and building landing gear and an empennage. The landing gear design consisted of determining the anticipated loads and designing a structure to withstand those loads. The construction process was compris...

  6. Practicality study on air-powered vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIU; Xiaoli YU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and outlook of air-powered vehicles including compressed air-powered vehicle and liquid nitrogen-powered vehicle, thermodyn-amic analysis and experiment data were used to analyze the energy density, performance, safety, running effi-ciency, fuel circulation economy and consumer accep-tance, etc. The results show that compressed air and liquid nitrogen have similar energy density as Ni-H battery; the characteristics of an air-powered engine is suitable for driving a vehicle; the circulation efficiency of liquid nitrogen is 3.6%-14% and that of compressed air is 25%-32.3% in practice, and existing technology can assure its safety. It is concluded that though the performance of an air-powered engine is inferior to that of the traditional inert combustion engine, an air-powered vehicle is fit for future green cars to realize the sustainable development of society and environment.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Landing Cushion Process for Airborne Vehicle%空降车着陆缓冲过程仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝贵祥; 王红岩; 洪煌杰

    2012-01-01

    To acquire the responses of airborne vehicle and test the performance of airbag system, finite element models of hull and airbag system for airdrop were established. The penalty function method and Johnson Cook mate- rial constitutive model were used in numerical simulation of landing cushion process. The comparison between simu- lation results and experiment data was carried out, and the error of maximum hull acceleration is smaller than 5%. Thus, the accuracy of simulation model was verified. Under normal airdrop mode and worse airdrop mode, the de- celeration data and stress distribution were also obtained by simulation. The results demonstrated that the structural strength of airborne vehicle and the performance of airbag system meet the demand of airdrop.%为获得某型空降车在空投着陆缓冲过程的冲击响应和检验气囊系统的缓冲性能,采用有限元方法建立了空降车-气囊有限元模型,结合罚函数法和Johnson Cook材料本构模型,对空降车着陆缓冲过程进行了仿真。仿真的最大加速度与试验数据的误差在5%以内,验证了模型的精度。在正常着陆工况和恶劣着陆工况下,得到了车体的冲击加速度数据和结构应力分布情况。结果表明:车体结构强度足够,气囊系统的性能良好,可满足空投需要。

  8. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft...

  9. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  10. Air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) based ship to shore movement simulation: A decision aid for the amphibious commander. A (SMMAT) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Edward P., III

    1994-09-01

    Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.

  11. Mini Rukma Vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Vineeta; V.V.S.Nikhil Bharadwaj

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of ancient Indian Knowledge of Vimanas, the Mini Rukma Vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle designs make a several advantages for many purposes as mentioned. The MRV UAV concept is proposed mainly to create VTOL, the lift fans configuration similar to Rukma vimana, hence the name Mini Rukma vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle. Lift fans are the main part of the MRV UAV. They can be used to go through mountainous regions. And fans are preferred other than wings for Vertical ...

  12. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  13. Analysis of Unmmanned Air Vehicles Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Rudinskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analyzed questions of information security transferable by the radio connection link are presented in this article. This safety it is especially important for design of unmanned air vehicles (UAV and for other remote control vehicles. Also questions about UAV communication systems structure, security treats of radio connection system, possible menaces for secure information transferring, security and integrity are discussed in our presentation. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  15. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

      Full Paper presented by Sara Hanghøj 24.9.2008 at the International Conference "Crafticulation &Education"  University of Helsinki 23.-26.  September 2008 Session: Gendered Textiles     THE CONSTITUTIVE SOFA CUSHION - MATERIALIZATION ANALYSED FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE   Abstract How can...... personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...... female handcraft-teachers, was generated and constituted with the sofa cushion as one of many actors.      ...

  16. Covert air vehicle 2003 LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Callow, Diane Schafer; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical work carried out under a 2003 Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a covert air vehicle. A mesoscale air vehicle that mimics a bird offers exceptional mobility and the possibility of remaining undetected during flight. Although some such vehicles exist, they are lacking in key areas: unassisted landing and launching, true mimicry of bird flight to remain covert, and a flapping flight time of any real duration. Current mainstream technology does not have the energy or power density necessary to achieve bird like flight for any meaningful length of time; however, Sandia has unique combustion powered linear actuators with the unprecedented high energy and power density needed for bird like flight. The small-scale, high-pressure valves and small-scale ignition to make this work have been developed at Sandia. We will study the feasibility of using this to achieve vehicle takeoff and wing flapping for sustained flight. This type of vehicle has broad applications for reconnaissance and communications networks, and could prove invaluable for military and intelligence operations throughout the world. Initial tests were conducted on scaled versions of the combustion-powered linear actuator. The tests results showed that heat transfer and friction effects dominate the combustion process at 'bird-like' sizes. The problems associated with micro-combustion must be solved before a true bird-like ornithopter can be developed.

  17. Model Identification of a Micro Air Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Ni(n)o; Flavius Mitrache; Peter Cosyn; Robin De Keyser

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the model identification of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) in straight steady flight condition. The identification is based on input-output data collected from flight tests using both frequency and time dontain techniques. The vehicle is an in-house 40 cm wingspan airplane. Because of the complex coupled, multivariable and nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft, linear SISO structures for both the lateral and longitudinal models around a reference state were derived. The aim of the identification is to provide models that can be used in future development of control techniques for the MAV.

  18. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  19. Mini Rukma Vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Vineeta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of ancient Indian Knowledge of Vimanas, the Mini Rukma Vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle designs make a several advantages for many purposes as mentioned. The MRV UAV concept is proposed mainly to create VTOL, the lift fans configuration similar to Rukma vimana, hence the name Mini Rukma vimana Unmanned Air Vehicle. Lift fans are the main part of the MRV UAV. They can be used to go through mountainous regions. And fans are preferred other than wings for Vertical takeoff. The lift fans configuration is similar to Rukma vimana Mentioned in Vimanika shasthra. Based on Analysis for VTOL, UAVs are having lift fans embedded in Wings. But MRV UAV has simpler configuration, enabling the UAV to lift off with fans provided at the top of the UAV directly connected to the base of UAV with the help of Ducts. The Direction control can be achieved by operating the maneuvering fans acting as propellers, the UAV can move 360 degrees in at mid air in single position. Using the MRV UAV, the missions become much more simpler and easier to be carried out.

  20. Lethal unmanned air vehicle feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Green, John K.; Kaminer, Isaac I.

    1995-01-01

    The 1991 Gulf War revealed to U.S. military planners a serious weakness in the ability of our nation's armed forces to detect and destroy mobile theater ballistic missiles systems before an enemy has the chance to use these weapons at least once, and in some cases, multiple times. Since that time there have been various studies done to show that unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) could be used to more effectively locate these mobile missile threats. However, few, if any studies, have addressed the ...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of biomimetic micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FMAV) are new conceptual air vehicles that mimic the flying modes of birds and insects. They surpass the research fields of traditional airplane design and aerodynamics on application technologies, and initiate the applications of MEMS technologies on aviation fields. This paper studies a micro flapping mechanism that based upon insect thorax and actuated by electrostatic force. Because there are strong nonlinear coupling between the two physical domains, electrical and mechanical, the static and dynamic characteristics of this system are very complicated. Firstly, the nonlinear dynamic model of the electromechanical coupling system is set up according to the physical model of the flapping mechanism. The dynamic response of the system in constant voltage is studied by numerical method. Then the effect of damping and initial condition on dynamic characteristics of the system is analyzed in phase space. In addition, the dynamic responses of the system in sine voltage excitation are discussed. The results of research are helpful to the design, fabrication and application of the micro flapping mechanism of FMAV, and also to other micro electromechanical system that actuated by electrostatic force

  2. Public attitudes to air pollution from road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ian D. Williams

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental effects of any new road scheme is currently recommended by the Department of Transport, but the existing appraisal does not include an evaluation of public nuisance from vehicle-derived air pollution. This research project has investigated the subjective nuisance effects of air pollution from road traffic on the public through the simultaneous measurement of public attitudes towards vehicle-generated nuisance and air quality in residential and commercial are...

  3. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  4. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... cars, light-duty trucks, medium- duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. This...

  5. Effects of different seat cushions on interface pressure distribution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Park, Ji-Su; Jung, Bong-Keun; Lee, Sung-A

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate pressure redistribution on the supporting area of healthy volunteers when using different cushions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy individuals ranging in age from 19-23 years old and 20 older adults age 60 or above participated in the study. All participants lived in urban communities in South Korea. Group differences according to gender, age, and cushion types were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis. [Results] Statistically significant differences in peak pressure and mean pressure were identified between age, gender, and cushion types. Peak pressure and mean pressure were higher on firm surfaces and on the air cushion than other cushion types. The pressure ratio was lower when an air cushion was used in the buttock area and was higher when it was used under the thighs compared to that in other conditions. [Conclusion] This study showed that interface pressure can be distributed differently depending on what cushions are used. Therefore, when using seat cushions, individuals should seek advice to help them choose the appropriate cushion for their needs. PMID:26957763

  6. How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

  7. 21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flotation cushion. 890.3175 Section 890.3175 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3175 Flotation cushion. (a) Identification. A flotation cushion is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of plastic, rubber,...

  8. Automatic Pipeline Surveillance Air-Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Alqaan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the developments of a vision-based system for aerial pipeline Right-of-Way surveillance using optical/Infrared sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The aim of research is to develop a highly automated, on-board system for detecting and following the pipelines; while simultaneously detecting any third-party interference. The proposed approach of using a UAV platform could potentially reduce the cost of monitoring and surveying pipelines when...

  9. Design Optimization of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV Fixed Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.A. Rama Sastry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air vehicles are gaining attention due to their wide range of applications in civilian and defense fields. The wings of these vehicles generate a particular flow regime which is to be explored further. Since the theories on the aerodynamics of all affects are still to be investigated, simulation based computational fluid dynamics is a good approach rather than wind tunnel experiments which involves cost and long periods of experimentation. This study mainly emphasize on the lift, lift coefficient, drag and drag coefficient with respect to Reynold’s number and angle of attack, by modelling and analyzing the fixed wing of a micro air vehicle. The analysis has been done selecting NACA25411 air foil. Modelling has been done in Gambit and analysis is taken up using Fluent. Angle of attack and Reynold’s number have been optimized to increase the lift and decrease the drag.

  10. Dynamic stiffness and transmissibility of commercially available wheelchair cushions using a laboratory test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Garcia-Mendez, BS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that wheelchair (WC users are exposed to unhealthy levels of vibration during WC use. Health risks associated with vibration exposure include vertebral disc degeneration and back pain, which may consequently decrease the function and independence of WC users. Some evidence suggests that the cushions used in WCs may amplify vibrations, although conclusive evidence has not been presented in the literature. This study evaluated and compared the transmissibility of commercially available WC cushions with two laboratory test methods: (1 direct measurement of transmissibility while human subjects propelled a WC over a road course with different cushions and (2 characterization of cushions with a material testing system (MTS combined with mathematical models of the apparent mass of the human body. Results showed that although dynamic characterization of WC cushions is possible with an MTS, the results did not correlate well with the transmissibility obtained in the WC road course. Significant differences were found for transmissibility among the cushions tested, with the air-based cushions having lower transmissibility than the foam- or gel-based cushions.

  11. Design, Fabrication and Testing Of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Preethi Manohari Sai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flapping flight has the potential to revolutionize micro air vehicles (MAVs due to increased aerodynamic performance, improved maneuverability and hover capabilities. The purpose of this project is to design and fabrication of flapping wing micro air vehicle. The designed MAV will have a wing span of 40cm. The drive mechanism will be a gear mechanism to drive the flapping wing MAV, along with one actuator. Initially, a preliminary design of flapping wing MAV is drawn and necessary calculation for the lift calculation has been done. Later a CAD model is drawn in CATIA V5 software. Finally we tested by Flying.

  12. Yaw rate control of an air bearing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a 6 week project which focused on the problem of controlling the yaw (rotational) rate the air bearing vehicle used on NASA's flat floor facility are summarized. Contained within is a listing of the equipment available for task completion and an evaluation of the suitability of this equipment. The identification (modeling) process of the air bearing vehicle is detailed as well as the subsequent closed-loop control strategy. The effectiveness of the solution is discussed and further recommendations are included.

  13. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  14. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Larry G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  15. Cushioning medium for discarding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cushioning medium for discarding radioactive wastes is disposed in a discarding hole formed underground. The cushioning medium is formed by drying and solidifying a mixture of clays and sands. A lower cushioning medium has a cylindrical containing hole at the central portion of a cylindrical bottomed cushioning medium main body. A cylindrical metal overpack containing radioactive wastes such as glass solidification materials is contained in the containing hole. An upper cushioning medium situated above the lower cushioning medium has an communication hole having a circular cross section at the central portion of the cylindrical buffer main body. A protection member formed of a metal plate is disposed on the inner surface of the containing hole of the lower cushioning medium and the communication hole of the upper cushioning medium. A plug cushioning medium situated in the upper cushioning medium is formed of a solid cylindrical body, and fitted into the communication hole of the upper cushioning medium to close the communication hole, being situated above the overpack. (I.N.)

  16. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  17. Fuzzy Logic Unmanned Air Vehicle Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Sabo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of scenarios in which the mission objectives rely on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV being capable of maneuvering in an environment containing obstacles in which there is little prior knowledge of the surroundings. With an appropriate dynamic motion planning algorithm, UAVs would be able to maneuver in any unknown environment towards a target in real time. This paper presents a methodology for two-dimensional motion planning of a UAV using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy inference system takes information in real time about obstacles (if within the agent's sensing range and target location and outputs a change in heading angle and speed. The FL controller was validated, and Monte Carlo testing was completed to evaluate the performance. Not only was the path traversed by the UAV often the exact path computed using an optimal method, the low failure rate makes the fuzzy logic controller (FLC feasible for exploration. The FLC showed only a total of 3% failure rate, whereas an artificial potential field (APF solution, a commonly used intelligent control method, had an average of 18% failure rate. These results highlighted one of the advantages of the FLC method: its adaptability to complex scenarios while maintaining low control effort.

  18. Trajectory Optimisation of Long Range and Air-to-Air Tactical Flight Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manickavasagam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents formulation and solution of long range flight vehicle and tactical air-to-air flight vehicle trajectory optimisation. The first case study is of a long range flight vehicle. Here an optimum steering program during powered phase has been evolved as control input for achieving maximum range with available propulsions in the presence of path and terminal constraints. The second case study is of a tactical flight vehicle for air-to-air application. Here a minimum flight time trajectory has been generated for covering a specified range pertaining to a specified air-to-air engagement by evolving pitch lateral acceleration as control input. Here also, there are many path and terminal constraints consisting of launch aircraft, pursuer, and evader. The studies have been carried out as part of system design activity of both flight vehicles. Both are real-life optimisation problems under several constraints. Through it is very difficult to solve such practical problems in flight dynamics using classical optimal control theory, it has been solved successfully using direct transcription method based on nonlinear programming. Rapid convergence has been achieved in four passes with minimum grids in first pass, to start with, and increasing the grids in subsequent passes. Solving such a real-life problem with proper convergence subjected to many constraints is claimed as novelty of present research.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 2, March 2015, pp.107-118, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8238

  19. A Novel Approach to Implement Self-Controlled Air Pollution Detection in Vehicles using Smoke Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    V V R Kishore Ch; Suman M

    2014-01-01

    vehicles became important in human life. This air pollution mainly caused by vehicles and industries. This paper mainly concentrated on controlling the air pollution from vehicles by using semi-conductor gas sensor for detecting the emission level from vehicles. If the vehicle do not get service regularly, then pollution level higher than standard emission level. In this paper, smoke sensor has been used to detect carbon monoxide from vehicles. Smoke sensor senses the pollution level from veh...

  20. 76 FR 17487 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives... Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New... expanding the list of acceptable substitutes for use in the motor vehicle air conditioning end-use as...

  1. Vehicle emissions and effects on air quality: indoors and outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions of non-regulated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, can form a major contribution to pollution of the indoor as well as the outdoor environment. Several of these compounds are considered to be a health risk and are important factors in the production of photochemical smog. The introduction of unleaded and particularly 'super unleaded' fuels has significantly increased levels of aromatic compounds in petrol world-wide and has led to changes in fuel composition with respect to olefins and the use of oxygenates. Increased aromatics, olefins and other compounds in fuels used in vehicles not fitted with catalytic converters have shown to increase emissions of benzene, 1,4-budatiene and other VOCs as well as contributing to increases in photochemical smog precursors. Increases in VOC levels in ambient air clearly produce increased indoor air pollution, particularly in naturally ventilated buildings. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 30 refs

  2. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  3. Emerging technologies for micro unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijaya Mohan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "Technology,which has attracted the interest of engineers and scientists in recent times, is the development of micro-unmanned air vehicles (MAVs, with the largest linear dimension no greater than 15 cm. MAVs are a great challenge to scientists and technologists. Current technology is underway to meet the design and development of MAV. So in this paper, a literature survey of various emerging technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, controls, navigation, communication, and payloads for MAVs, is presented.

  4. Flight mechanism and design of biomimetic micro air vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper summaries the investigations on natural flyers and development of bio-mimetic micro air vehicles(MAVs)at NUAA,China,where the authors have led a group to conduct research for a decade. The investigations include the studies of low Reynolds number aerodynamics,unsteady computational fluid dynamics and flight control for the fixed-wing MAVs,the bird-like MAVs,the dragonfly-like MAVs and the bee-like MAVs.

  5. Flisht mechanism and design of biomimetic micro air vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANG HaiSong; XIAO TianHang; DUAN WenBo

    2009-01-01

    This paper summaries the investigations on natural flyers and development of bio-mimetic micro air vehicles(MAVs)at NUAA,China,where the authors have led a group to conduct research for a decade.The investigations include the studies of low Reynolds number aerodynamics,unsteady computational fluid dynamics and flight control for the fixed-wing MAVs,the bird-like MAVs,the dragonfly-like MAVs and the bee-like MAVs.

  6. In-vehicle particle air pollution and its mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Czerwinski, J.; Gutman, M.; Kasper, M.; Popescu, D.; Veinblat, M.; Zvirin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of particle mass, number and size measurements inside passenger cars (PCs), vans and urban buses. Effects of the in-cabin air purifier on particle concentrations and average size inside a vehicle are studied. Use of the air purifier leads to a dramatic reduction, by 95-99%, in the measured ultrafine particles number concentration inside a vehicle compared with outside readings. Extremely low particle concentrations may be reached without a danger of vehicle occupants' exposure to elevated CO2 levels. The lowest values of particle concentrations inside a PC without air purifier are registered under the recirculation ventilation mode, but the issue of CO2 accumulation limits the use of this mode to very short driving events. Lower PM concentrations are found inside newer cars, if this ventilation mode is used. Great differences by a factor of 2.5-3 in PM10 concentrations are found between the PCs and the buses. Smoking inside a car leads to a dramatic increase, by approximately 90 times, in PM2.5 concentrations.

  7. Analysis for Spent Nuclear Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the Multi-Canister Overpack - Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit between the MCO and the cask and the air entrapment the MCO fall velocity is slowed. The shipping cask is resting on an impact absorber at the time of impact. The energy absorbing properties of the impact absorber are included in this analysis

  8. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...This action would establish more stringent vehicle emissions standards and reduce the sulfur content of gasoline beginning in 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health. The proposed gasoline sulfur standard would make emission control systems more effective for both existing and new vehicles, and would enable more......

  9. Magnetic cushioning and pressure applying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a novel cushioning and pressure applying means for compressing sheets of film in an X-ray cassette. The cushioning means is provided by two sheets of rubber or plastics material each of which contains an array of magnets, the sheets being held together so that like magnetic poles are in opposition. (author)

  10. Mechanical Cushion Design Influence on Cylinder Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghi, Massimo; Milani, Massimo; Conrad, Finn

    . experimental comparison, involving the piston velocity and the cylinder chambers pressure. After, with the aim of highlighting the effect of mechanical cushions design on a two effect linear actuator dynamic performances, the characteristics modulation of four alternative cushioning systems are determined and...

  11. Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail. (paper)

  12. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lester B. Lave

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions ...

  13. Development of an 18cm Micro Air Vehicle : QUARK

    OpenAIRE

    Bronz, Murat; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Hattenberger, Gautier

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the development of the QUARK micro unmanned air vehicle. The main objective of the study is to show the feasibility of designing an autonomous MAV smaller than 20 cm by using open-source programs and off-the-shelf components. Effort is given to show how to choose the system components and the design variables correctly in order to end up with an optimum design. An open-source multi-disciplinary conceptual aircraft design program called CDSGN is u...

  14. Development of lithium air novel materials for electrical vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucher, Christophe; Knipping, E.; Amantia, D.; Almarza, A.; Faccini, M.; Gutierrez-Tauste, D.; Saez, J.A.; Aubouy, L. [Leitat Technological Center, Terrassa (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Fluctuation of oil prices and effects of global warming have forced the scientific-technical community to look for the alternative energy storage and conversion systems, such as the smart grid. The maximum energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is limited because of the intercalation chemistry of each electrode. Then actual LIBs are not fully satisfactory for the practical application of electric vehicles (EV). Therefore metal-air batteries have attracted much attention as a possible alternative, especially for the replacing of the diesel or gasoline, because of their energy density is extremely high compared to that of other rechargeable batteries and theoretically close to the energy density of the fossil energy. This technology leads to a very light dispositive where the limited intercalation chemistry is avoided. Li-air batteries are suitable for the development of the new generation of EVs. It is estimated that a well optimized Li-air battery can yield a specific energy of up to 3000 Wh/Kg, over a factor of 15 greater than the state of the art lithium ion batteries. Electrical cars today typically can travel only about 150 km on current LIB technology. The development of the lithium air batteries stands chance of being light enough to travel 800 km on a single charge and cheap enough to be practical for a typical family car. This problem is creating a significant barrier to electric vehicle adoption. However, the impact of this technology has so far fallen short of its potential due to several daunting challenges which must be overcome as the cyclability or the wide gap between the practical (362 Wh/kg) and the theoretical (11 kWh/g) values of the specific energy.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01... be expected to influence emissions include, but are not limited to: air conditioning, power steering...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a...

  16. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  17. GPS Auto-Navigation Design for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Caroline C. A.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

    2003-01-01

    A GPS auto-navigation system is designed for Unmanned Air Vehicles. The objective is to enable the air vehicle to be used as a test-bed for novel flow control concepts. The navigation system uses pre-programmed GPS waypoints. The actual GPS position, heading, and velocity are collected by the flight computer, a PC104 system running in Real-Time Linux, and compared with the desired waypoint. The navigator then determines the necessity of a heading correction and outputs the correction in the form of a commanded bank angle, for a level coordinated turn, to the controller system. This controller system consists of 5 controller! (pitch rate PID, yaw damper, bank angle PID, velocity hold, and altitude hold) designed for a closed loop non-linear aircraft model with linear aerodynamic coefficients. The ability and accuracy of using GPS data, is validated by a GPS flight. The autopilots are also validated in flight. The autopilot unit flight validations show that the designed autopilots function as designed. The aircraft model, generated on Matlab SIMULINK is also enhanced by the flight data to accurately represent the actual aircraft.

  18. Visual navigation in unmanned air vehicles with simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the theory and implementation of visual navigation techniques for Autonomous Air Vehicles in outdoor environments. The target of this study is to fuse and cooperatively develop an incremental map for multiple air vehicles under the application of Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM). Without loss of generality, two unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are investigated for the generation of ground maps from current and a priori data. Each individual UAV is equipped with i...

  19. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  20. A Structurally-Integrated Ice Detection and De-Icing System for Unmanned Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more prevalent for Suborbital Scientific Earth Exploration, which often involves high altitude, long endurance flight...

  1. Vehicle expectations in air transportation for the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearth, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the air transportation system for the year 2000 in terms of vehicle expectations. Emphasis is placed on civil air transportation with the time period approached from the standpoint of evolutionary changes for the near term and also with the assumption of more revolutionary changes for the far term. The view along the evolutionary path begins with a historical review of airline market growth and the impact that technologies have had on airplane designs. Projections of the life expectancy of existing, derivative, and new airplanes are examined in terms of their productivity and fuel efficiency in view of the present and projected fuel usage and availability. The factors influencing airline growth are outlined and some views on whether another new generation of subsonic airplanes are in the offing are given along with an assessment of the economic viability of an advanced commercial supersonic transport in terms of its higher speed, higher productivity, and higher fuel usage. With regard to revolutionary changes, major technology breakthroughs are assumed to occur at a specified date. As an example, the impact of a dramatic reduction in skin friction drag is examined in terms of its effect on the airplane configuration, its propulsion systems, it projected fuel usage, and the air transportation system in which it must operate.

  2. Flow sensitive actuators for micro-air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A macrofiber piezoelectric composite has been developed for boundary layer management of micro-air vehicles (MAVs). Specifically, a piezoelectric composite that is capable of self-sensing and controlling flow has been modeled, designed, fabricated, and tested in wind tunnel studies to quantify performance characteristics, such as the velocity field response to actuation, which is relevant for actively managing boundary layers (laminar and transition flow control). A nonlinear piezoelectric plate model was utilized to design the active structure for flow control. The dynamic properties of the piezoelectric composite actuator were also evaluated in situ during wind tunnel experiments to quantify sensing performance. Results based on velocity field measurements and unsteady pressure measurements show that these piezoelectric macrofiber composites can sense the state of flow above the surface and provide sufficient control authority to manipulate the flow conditions for transition from laminar to turbulent flow

  3. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  4. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  5. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... 6x4 tractor with a 190-inch wheelbase, equipped with a hybrid disc brake configuration. The vehicle... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems...

  6. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  7. Virginia Tech teams with Wright State, Air Force to design future aerospace vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech, Wright State University (WSU), and the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio, specializing in the design of aerospace vehicles, are teaming to form a collaborative center for the development of future aerospace vehicles (FAVs). The new center will be based at Virginia Tech.

  8. A Predictive Model for Vehicle Air Exchange Rates based on a Large, Representative Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Fruin, Scott A.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    The in-vehicle microenvironment is an important route of exposure to traffic-related pollutants, particularly ultrafine particles. However, significant particle losses can occur under conditions of low air exchange rate (AER) when windows are closed and air is recirculating. AERs are lower for newer vehicles and at lower speeds. Despite the importance of AER in affecting in-vehicle particle exposures, few studies have characterized AER and all have tested only a small number of cars. One reas...

  9. Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xi-bin Zhang; Qun Zong

    2014-01-01

    By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can captur...

  10. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of the developed world are increasingly including green technologies and processes that consider social, environmental and economic consequences. Hybrid electric vehicles and other fuel-efficient vehicle types can supply consumers with vehicles that decrease their ecological footprint and reduce the cost of fuel. However, one of the societal concerns often overlooked is the impact of alternative-fuel vehicle usage on the air quality in the urban environment. This paper presented a study that assessed the impact on air quality stemming from the operation of alternative fuel vehicles in urban environments. The study specifically focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The paper considered the life-cycle impacts of using alternative fuels for transportation purposes in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicles that were studied were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles was completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. The scope of the study and discussion of health effects was first presented followed by data gathering and usage, methodology, results of supportable penetration and vehicle growth, and pollution abatement results. It was concluded that fuel cell vehicles have an advantage over, or near-equality with, PHEVs in almost every aspect of their emissions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  12. Development of the NWPU20 Micro Air Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhanke; Song Bifeng; Zhang Yafeng; Zhang Wei; Zhang Yizhe

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the design, construction, and operation of NWPU20 Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), which is the smallest that has, up to now, been developed in PR China. The miniaturization level in PR China makes smaller MAV, in our opinion, not possible to implement. The NWPU20 is a 20-centimeter span, battery powered, fixed-wing aircraft with an off-the-shelf color video camera that can transmit live video back to the ground station. The on-board electronic subsystems are smallest and lightest among the commercial products, including an 8-gram wireless video camera, an 8-gram receiver, a 5-gram electronic speed controller (ESC), two 4.5-gram fully proportional radio frequency control servos, and the total mass of NWPU20 is less than 80 grams. An experimental model was fabricated and tested in the Low Turbulent Flow Wind Tunnel (LTFWT) at Northwestern Polytechnical University (NWPU) to research low Reynolds number flow characteristics of the NWPU20. The result of the wind tunnel test shows that stall angle of attack of NWPU20 can reach 30°, which is higher than that of the general aircrafts, and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio of NWPU20 can nearly reach 6 at the angle of attack of 10°, which can satisfy design requirements of the NWPU20. A small-sized propulsion/torque testing system was developed to measure and analyze the propulsion and torque performances of the motor-propeller combination used in the NWPU20. A center of gravity (c.g.) testing apparatus was developed and used to adjust the c.g. of the NWPU20 so that it has good longitudinal static stability and control. The NWPU20 prototype has undergone successfully flight tests many times; it flies at 32 kilometers per hour, with an endurance of 15 minutes, and a maximum communications range of 300 meters. With the color video camera, NWPU20 successfully transmits real-time video back to the ground station. The success of NWPU20 proves preliminarily that 20-centimeter span micro air vehicle is feasible and

  13. Analysis of air flow distribution and thermal comfort in a hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Ningbai, Ningbai

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) affects the vehicle mileage and battery durability. Air conditioning is the most energy consuming system after the electric motor in HEVs. Air flow distribution and thermal comfort in an HEV is studied and simulations are performed to investigate the optimum air distribution pattern for providing thermal comfort while maintaining energy efficiency. To acquire a preliminary understanding of the problem, an analytical model is developed for ai...

  14. Complete endocardial cushion defects in pregnancy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangjuan; Xiao, Biru; Yang, Weiyu; Chen, Yunqin; Zhang, Wenmiao; Zhu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Complete endocardial cushion defect is a congenital heart disease characterized by a variable deficiency of the atrioventricular area in the developing heart. The mortality rate for an unrepaired endocardial cushion defect in pregnancy and the postpartum period is high. Case presentation We present a rare case of a pregnant woman with complete endocardial cushion defect. A 20-year-old Chinese woman with unrepaired complete endocardial cushion defect delivered a premature male bab...

  15. Dynamics of Micro-Air-Vehicle with Flapping Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sibilski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Small (approximately 6 inch long, or hand-held reconnaissance micro air vehicles (MAVs will fly inside buildings, and require hover for observation, and agility at low speeds to move in confined spaces. For this flight envelope insect-like flapping wings seem to be an optimal mode of flying. Investigation of the aerodynamics of flapping wing MAVs is very challenging. The problem involves complex unsteady, viscous flow (mainly laminar, with the moving wing generating vortices and interacting with them. At this early stage of research only a preliminary insight into the nature of the little known aerodynamics of MAVs has been obtained. This paper describes computational models for simulation of the controlled motion of a microelectromechanical flying insect – entomopter. The design of software simulation for entomopter flight (SSEF is presented. In particular, we will estimate the flight control algorithms and performance for a Micromechanical Flying Insect (MFI, a 80–100 mm (wingtip-to-wingtip device capable of sustained autonomous flight. The SSEF is an end-to-end tool composed of several modular blocks which model the wing aerodynamics and dynamics, the body dynamics, and in the future, the environment perception, control algorithms, the actuators dynamics, and the visual and inertial sensors. We present the current state of the art of its implementation, and preliminary results. 

  16. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC denture cushion or pad. 872.3540 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3540 OTC denture cushion or pad. (a) Identification. An OTC denture cushion or pad is a prefabricated or noncustom made disposable device that...

  17. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  18. 77 FR 33315 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Alternative for the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY...) within the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector. This final rule only concerns the use of CO 2 in... their suppliers with a refrigerant option subject to use conditions for motor vehicle air...

  19. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  20. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  1. Target location by self-organizing autonomous air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kim; Bowyer, Richard S.; Koks, Don

    2002-08-01

    Target location is a problem where the application of multiple sensors that are geographically distributed can determine or improve the location estimate of a target. If these sensors are capable of cooperative behaviour then the information from each sensor can be autonomously fused to provide an estimate of the target position. The individual sensors may be quite unsophisticated, yet the observation system that is created through cooperation and adaptive networking of these sensors provides sufficient process gain to achieve target location accuracies similar to those of expensive centralized sensor systems. The accuracy of target location estimates depends heavily on the separation distance between the sensors. Large baseline geometry takes advantage of many seemingly unsophisticated bearing measurements that are organised into a coordinated observation system to locate a target. Team formation is one method to address coordination of distributed sensors, data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control based on the concept of cooperating machines1,2,3. We apply an algorithm for agent team formation4 inspired by the self-organising behaviour observed in colonies of ants, to the problem of integrating the sensors of a group of networked mini-Autonomous Air Vehicles (AAVs). The mini-AAVs are tasked to locate targets within a region of interest. The challenge we address is to make the location estimation system adaptive to a dynamic environment and robust to failure. Simulation results are presented which address issues in distributed data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control, for a group of mini-AAVs.

  2. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The California Air Resource Board (CARB) recently reported that due to exposure to particle emissions, 9,000 people die annually in California alone [11]. A method for quantifying the exposure during a daily commute as well as reducing the exposure for the passengers has been developed. A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3,...

  3. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario, Canada and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The life-cycle impacts of utilizing alternative fuels for transportation purposes is considered in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicle considered are plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles has been completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. Results show that the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from adoption of either vehicle type will exceed 3% of the current emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario. Both vehicles exhibit similar impacts on the precursors for photochemical smog although the province-wide effects differ significantly. (author)

  4. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  5. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  6. Control vane guidance for a ducted-fan unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Control of airborne vehicles was originally conceived to be done entirely by human pilots. Improvements in electronics in the last 50 years have allowed many flight control functions to become automated, with the pilot continuously monitoring flight parameters from within the vehicle cockpit. With the advent of small unmanned air vehicles (UAV's) which are limited in size and weight-carrying capacity, a pilot is now able to fly an airb...

  7. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  8. AIR PHOTOGRAPHY WITH USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE FOR SOLUTION OF AGRICULTURE AND CADASTRE TASKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sutugina, I.; Mamin, R

    2013-01-01

    Issues of information provision for agriculture and cadastre according to air photography materials from unmanned aerial vehicle are considered in the article. Materials of experimental air photography from air plane and copter were used. The work suggests technology of executing works on photography and processing of materials. Air photography parameters were proposed according to image quality and requirements for ground images resolutions for solving tasks of cadastre and agriculture.

  9. Proposed architecture for the UAV family of air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Louis; Bazow, Steve

    1993-12-01

    As an integral part of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) interoperability and commonality program, Vitro Corporation and the UAV Systems Engineering Directorate developed a UAV family architecture which lays the foundation for future UAV systems.

  10. Arctic cushion plants as fallout 'monitors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal distribution of fallout 137Cs was determined for arctic cushion plants Dryas integrifolia, Silene acaulis and the bryophytes Rhacomitrium lanuginosum and Polytrichum juniperinum collected at various latitudes in Canadian Arctic. The results indicate that these plants have functioned as biological monitors of radioactive fallout and it is suggested that analysis of the internal distribution of 137Cs could serve as a model for other airborne contaminants. (author)

  11. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  12. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  13. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  14. Distributed sensing and actuation over bluetooth for unmanned air vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, José A.; Coelho, Ezequiel T.; Carvalhal, Paulo; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Luís F.; Almeida, Heitor

    2006-01-01

    A short range wireless network platform, based on Bluetooth technology and on a Round Robin scheduling is presented. The objective is to build an application independent platform, to support a distributed sensing and actuation control system, which will be used in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This platform provides the advantages of wireless communications while assuring low weight, small energy consumption and reliable communications.

  15. Unmanned air vehicle/remotely piloted vehicle analysis for lethal UAV/RPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenberger, Burke R.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide a comprehensive evaluation of current Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle/Remotely Piloted Vehicle (UAV/RPV) system and its applicability as a lethal weapon system. Numerous systems were evaluated while concentrating on the Department of Defense more prominent programs, the Pioneer UAV, Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) UAV and BQM-147A (EXDRONE) UAV. Israel has proven time and time again, that UAVs/RPVs, when properly integrated into the combat arena as a le...

  16. Review on Conventional Air Conditioning, Alternative Refrigerants, and CO2 Heat Pumps for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Dong-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    With the reinforced ODP and GWP regulations, clean refrigerants including CO2, energy saving technology for fuel economy, especially focused on development and control strategy for the effective air conditioning system, and heat pump for vehicles have been widely investigated. Recently, the automotive CO2 heat pump for the next generation vehicles as an alternative to that of internal combustion engines has been evaluated and studied as a good option. In this paper, first part is reviewed on ...

  17. An Advanced Open-Source Aircraft Design Platform for Personal Air Vehicle Geometry, Aerodynamics, and Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators working to revolutionize air travel through personal aviation pioneers need innovative aircraft design tools. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an aircraft...

  18. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  19. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2013-09-10

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras, sensors, or communication devices of micro air vehicles and to aid in the management of their power. The aerodynamic loads on flapping wings are simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method. Active wing shape morphing is considered to enhance the performance of the flapping motion. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to pinpoint the optimal kinematics maximizing the propellent efficiency. To benefit from the wing deformation, we place piezoelectric layers near the wing roots. Gauss law is used to estimate the electrical harvested power. We demonstrate that enough power can be generated to operate a camera. Numerical analysis shows the feasibility of exploiting wing morphing to harvest energy and improving the design and performance of micro air vehicles.

  1. PV-ETFE 气枕结构温度实测研究%Field measurement of temperature of PV-ETFE cushion structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建辉; 陈务军; 赵兵; 宋浩

    2015-01-01

    To investigate temperature characteristics of the ethylene‐tetra‐fluoro‐ethylene (ETFE) cushion integrated flexible amorphous silicon photovoltaic panels (PV‐ETFE for short), two types of PV‐ETFE cushions were designed. Cushion 1 was a three‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on sur‐face of its middle layer and cushion 2 was a double‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on surface of its top layer. Then, temperature of the two PV‐ETFE cushions in summer was field‐measured. The re‐sults show that temperature differences between the two PV‐ETFE cushions were 35. 4 ℃ for PV and 26. 2℃ for ETFE foils, the major influencing factors for ETFE foil of cushion 1, ETFE foil of cushion 2 and PV are the air temperature in cushion 1, air flow outside the cushion 2, and shade and angle of incidence of the solar irradiance, respectively.%为了研究柔性非晶硅薄膜光伏电池‐乙烯四氟乙烯共聚物(简称PV‐ETFE)气枕结构的温度特征,设计了由三层ET FE气枕与集成于其中层膜上表面PV组成的气枕1及由双层ET FE气枕与集成于其上层膜上表面PV组成的气枕2,实测了两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜的夏季温度数据.通过分析得到:两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜温度差分别为35.4℃和26.2℃;气枕1和气枕2 ET FE薄膜受气枕内空气温度和气枕外空气流动影响明显;PV温度受阴影及太阳光入射角影响.

  2. Distributed pheromone-based swarming control of unmanned air and ground vehicles for RSTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, John A.; Mathews, Robert S.; Yinger, Andrew; Robinson, Joshua S.; Moody, John; Riddle, Stephanie

    2008-04-01

    The use of unmanned vehicles in Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) applications has received considerable attention recently. Cooperating land and air vehicles can support multiple sensor modalities providing pervasive and ubiquitous broad area sensor coverage. However coordination of multiple air and land vehicles serving different mission objectives in a dynamic and complex environment is a challenging problem. Swarm intelligence algorithms, inspired by the mechanisms used in natural systems to coordinate the activities of many entities provide a promising alternative to traditional command and control approaches. This paper describes recent advances in a fully distributed digital pheromone algorithm that has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing the complexity of swarming unmanned systems. The results of a recent demonstration at NASA's Wallops Island of multiple Aerosonde Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Pioneer Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) cooperating in a coordinated RSTA application are discussed. The vehicles were autonomously controlled by the onboard digital pheromone responding to the needs of the automatic target recognition algorithms. UAVs and UGVs controlled by the same pheromone algorithm self-organized to perform total area surveillance, automatic target detection, sensor cueing, and automatic target recognition with no central processing or control and minimal operator input. Complete autonomy adds several safety and fault tolerance requirements which were integrated into the basic pheromone framework. The adaptive algorithms demonstrated the ability to handle some unplanned hardware failures during the demonstration without any human intervention. The paper describes lessons learned and the next steps for this promising technology.

  3. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jingming Liang; Zefeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT) model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, based on which, the...

  4. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  5. The influence of tyre air cavities on vehicle acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Torra i Fernàndez, Èric

    2006-01-01

    The tonal character of the low frequency internal noise in cars is often due to energy transmission through the tyre at the first few eigenfrequencies of the air cavity of the tyre. The first acoustic mode in the air cavity of a typical stationary car tyre is approximately 224 Hz. At this frequency the tyre is comparatively stiff resulting in a high transmission of energy from the road wheel contact to the car body itself. In order to investigate possible means of reducing this effect, the ac...

  6. Configuration Studies of Personal Air Vehicles. Personal Air Vehicle and Flying Jeep Concepts: A Commentary on Promising Approaches or What Goes Around Comes Around (About Every Twenty Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Langley Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) Exploration (PAVE) and the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Dual Air/Road Transportation System (DARTS) projects were established to investigate the feasibility of creating vehicles which could replace, or at the very least augment, personal ground and air transportation schemes. This overall goal implies integrating several technology areas with practical everyday transportation requirements to design a class of vehicles which will achieve the following goals: (1) Vertical, Extremely Short, or Short Takeoff and Landing (VTOL, ESTOL, STOL) capability; (2) Operation at block speeds markedly faster than current combinations of land and air transportation, particularly in critical market areas; (3) Unit cost comparable to current luxury cars and small general aviation aircraft; (4) Excellent reliability; (5) Excellent safety; (6) Ability to integrate with existing land and air transportation systems. The conclusions of these configuration studies are summarized as follows: (1) Creation of the five assigned configurations prompted added explorations, some of which were dead-ends; (2) Some components could be common to all configurations such as avionics and dual-mode suspension schemes; (3) Single-Mode PAVs can be created by removing dual-mode-specific items; (4) Aviation history provided some intriguing starting points, as in what goes around comes around; (5) CTOL (Conventional Take-off and Landing) and STOL dual-mode PAVs look feasible with single-mode PAVs being simplifications of the dual-mode approach; (6) VTOL PAVs will require development; (7) More exotic collapsing mechanisms mechanisms need development; (8) As a teaching tool, PAVs are not yet a well-enough bounded design problem.

  7. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  8. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  9. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  10. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  11. Improving the aluminum-air battery system for use in electrical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua

    The objectives of this study include improvement of the efficiency of the aluminum/air battery system and demonstration of its ability for vehicle applications. The aluminum/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to that of gasoline powered cars. Therefore has the potential to be a power source for electrical vehicles. Aluminum/air battery vehicle life cycle analysis was conducted and compared to that of lead/acid and nickel-metal hydride vehicles. Only the aluminum/air vehicles can be projected to have a travel range comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). From this analysis, an aluminum/air vehicle is a promising candidate compared to ICE vehicles in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life cycle cost. We have chosen two grades of Al alloys (Al alloy 1350, 99.5% and Al alloy 1199, 99.99%) in our study. Only Al 1199 was studied extensively using Na 2SnO3 as an electrolyte additive. We then varied concentration and temperature, and determined the effects on the parasitic (corrosion) current density and open circuit potential. We also determined cell performance and selectivity curves. To optimize the performance of the cell based on our experiments, the recommended operating conditions are: 3--4 N NaOH, about 55°C, and a current density of 150--300 mA/cm2. We have modeled the cell performance using the equations we developed. The model prediction of cell performance shows good agreement with experimental data. For better cell performance, our model studies suggest use of higher electrolyte flow rate, smaller cell gap, higher conductivity and lower parasitic current density. We have analyzed the secondary current density distributions in a two plane, parallel Al/air cell and a wedge-type Al/air cell. The activity of the cathode has a large effect on the local current density. With increases in the cell gap, the local current density increases, but the increase is

  12. Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.

  13. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M) systems and fuel quality monitorin...

  14. Autonomous Soaring for Improved Endurance of a Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A relatively unexplored method to improve the endurance of an autonomous aircraft is to use buoyant plumes of air found in the lower atmosphere called thermals or updrafts. Glider pilots and birds commonly use updrafts to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. This report presents a quantitative analysis of a small electric-powered uninhabited air vehicle using updrafts to extend its endurance over a target location. A three-degree-of-freedom simulation of the uninhabited air vehicle was used to determine the yearly effect of updrafts on performance. Surface radiation and rawinsonde balloon measurements taken at Desert Rock, Nevada, were used to determine updraft size, strength, spacing, shape, and maximum height for the simulation. A fixed-width spiral path was used to search for updrafts at the same time as maintaining line-of-sight to the surface target position. Power was used only when the aircraft was flying at the lower-altitude limit in search of updrafts. Results show that an uninhabited air vehicle with a nominal endurance of 2 hours can fly a maximum of 14 hours using updrafts during the summer and a maximum of 8 hours during the winter. The performance benefit and the chance of finding updrafts both depend on what time of day the uninhabited air vehicle is launched. Good endurance and probability of finding updrafts during the year was obtained when the uninhabited air vehicle was launched 30 percent into the daylight hours after sunrise each day. Yearly average endurance was found to be 8.6 hours with these launch times.

  15. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Knickle, Harold

    Aluminum (Al)/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to gasoline powered cars. From our design analysis, it can be seen that the cost of aluminum as an anode can be as low as US 1.1/kg as long as the reaction product is recycled. The total fuel efficiency during the cycle process in Al/air electric vehicles (EVs) can be 15% (present stage) or 20% (projected) comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEs) (13%). The design battery energy density is 1300 Wh/kg (present) or 2000 Wh/kg (projected). The cost of battery system chosen to evaluate is US 30/kW (present) or US$ 29/kW (projected). Al/air EVs life-cycle analysis was conducted and compared to lead/acid and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) EVs. Only the Al/air EVs can be projected to have a travel range comparable to ICEs. From this analysis, Al/air EVs are the most promising candidates compared to ICEs in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost.

  16. Design of an air sampler for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a nuclear accident or malevolent act, it is of paramount importance to have the capability to monitor airborne radioactive substances by collecting air samples. For potentially dangerous missions, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) has developed an air sampler to be used on a small unmanned aerial vehicle. When a Petrianov or Fluoropore filter is used in the sampler and the air velocity is 71 km h-1, the air flow rate through the filter is 0.73 m3 h-1 or 0.23 m3 h-1, respectively. The present article introduces the developed air sampler using fluid dynamic simulations and wind tunnel data. The operation of the system was validated by collecting airborne radioactive aerosols from air. (authors)

  17. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...EPA issued a proposed rule in the Federal Register of October 19, 2009, proposing to find HFO-1234yf acceptable, subject to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed substitute is a non-ozone-depleting substance and consequently does not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. In response to requests from several stakeholders and to allow......

  18. An exploratory study of the human-machine interface for controlling Maritime Unmanned Air Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1995-01-01

    Under contract by the Royal Netherlands Navy an exploratory study was conducted on the design of the user interface for Maritime Unmanned Air Vehicles (MUAVs) control. The goal of this study was to gain more insight into the various parameters that may influence system performance, given the present

  19. Aerodynamics of flapping-wing Micro-Air-Vehicle: An integrated experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has stimulated continuous research activities, in view of their potential in civilian and military applications. An autonomous MAV with dedicated onboard sensors would be capable of executing mission in closed environments, such as surveillance, in door insp

  20. Challenges for micro-scale flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert J.; Finio, Benjamin; Karpelson, Michael; Pérez-Arancibia, Nestor O.; Sreetharan, Pratheev; Whitney, John P.

    2012-06-01

    The challenges for successful flight of insect-scale micro air vehicles encompass basic questions of fabrication, design, propulsion, actuation, control, and power - topics that have in general been answered for larger aircraft. When developing a flying robot on the scale of flies and bees, all hardware must be developed from scratch as there are no "off-the-shelf" sensors, actuators, or microcontrollers that can satisfy the extreme mass and power limitations imposed by such vehicles. Similar challenges exist for fabrication and assembly of the structural and aeromechanical components of insect-scale micro air vehicles that neither macro-scale techniques nor MEMS can adequately solve. With these challenges in mind, this paper presents progress in the essential technologies for micro-scale flapping-wing robots.

  1. Seacoaster advanced marine vehicle. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, D.

    1998-08-18

    The Seacoaster combines the high efficiencies of Surface Effect Ships (SES) with simple catamaran hull construction. It has blower pressurized air cushions that support some 80-90 percent of displacement and hence the high efficiencies. However, unlike the SES, there are no expensive and high maintenance flexible seals. Each catamaran sidehull has a simple recess molded or built into its underside. Powered blowers direct pressurized air into such recesses and thereby create lifting air cushions. There are no flexible seals of any kind and there is no air cushion between the sidehulls. Extensive towed model tests were conducted that showed the viability of the invention.

  2. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  3. Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, KT; Cui, W.; Jiang, JZ; Wang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence resulting in an asymmetric air gap. Thus, for a specified rotational direction, the distortion of air gap flux density and hence the torque ripple can be significantly suppressed. Also,...

  4. 7 CFR 1785.68 - Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account... FOR ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS RUS Cushion of Credit Account Computations and Procedures § 1785.68 Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account. A cushion of credit account shall...

  5. The Effects of Body Mass Composition and Cushion Type on Seat-Interface Pressure in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Hee; Beom, Jaewon; Yuk, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of body mass composition and cushion type on seat-interface pressure in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Twenty SCI patients and control subjects were included and their body mass composition measured. Seat-interface pressure was measured with participants in an upright sitting posture on a wheelchair with three kinds of seat cushion and without a seat cushion. We also measured the pressure with each participant in three kinds of sitting postures on each air-filled cushion. We used repeated measure ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman correlation coefficient for statistical analysis. Results The total skeletal muscle mass and body water in the lower extremities were significantly higher in the control group, whilst body fat was significantly higher in the SCI group. However, the seat-interface pressure and body mass composition were not significantly correlated in both groups. Each of the three types of seat cushion resulted in significant reduction in the seat-interface pressure. The SCI group had significantly higher seatinterface pressure than the control group regardless of cushion type or sitting posture. The three kinds of sitting posture did not result in a significant reduction of seat-interface pressure. Conclusion We confirmed that the body mass composition does not have a direct effect on seat-interface pressure. However, a reduction of skeletal muscle mass and body water can influence the occurrence of pressure ulcers. Furthermore, in order to minimize seat-interface pressure, it is necessary to apply a method fitted to each individual rather than a uniform method. PMID:26798612

  6. Preliminary development of a VTOL unmanned air vehicle for the close-range mission.

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary development of a full-scale Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the Close-Range mission was completed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The vehicle was based on half-scale ducted-fan investigations performed at the UAV Flight Research Lab. The resulting design is a fixed-duct, tail-sitter UAV with a canard-configured horizontal stabilizer. Major airframe components are used from previous UAVs and include the wings from a U...

  7. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings are able to produce sufficient lift to fly. The differences in the flapping aerodynamics were also detailed. Experiments on different wing designs and materials were conducted and a paramount wing was built for a test flight. The first prototype has a length of 46.5 cm, wing span of 88 cm, and weighs 161 g. A mechanism which produced a flapping motion was fabricated and designed to create flapping flight. The flapping flight was produced by using a single motor and a flexible and light wing structure. A force balance made of load cell was then designed to measure the thrust and lift force of the ornithopter. Three sets of wings varying flexibility were fabricated, therefore lift and thrust measurements were acquired from each different set of wings. The lift will be measured in ten cycles computing the average lift and frequency in three different speeds or frequencies (slow, medium and fast. The thrust measurement was measure likewise but in two cycles only. Several observations were made regarding the behavior of flexible flapping wings that should aid in the design of future flexible flapping wing vehicles. The wings angle or phase characteristic were analyze too and studied. The final ornithopter prototype weighs only 160 g, has a wing span of 88.5 cm, that could flap at a maximum flapping frequency of 3.869 Hz, and produce a maximum thrust and lift of about 0.719 and 0.264 N respectively. Next, we proposed resonance type flapping wing utilizes the near

  8. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario

  9. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  10. Development of a method for manufacturing customized nasal mask cushion for CPAP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ding-Yang; Cheng, Yih-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2015-12-01

    A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is considered one of the most effective treatments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, many patients receiving this treatment complain of mask discomfort and other issues. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a customized nasal mask cushion to reduce the discomfort associated with conventional masks. First, a 3D face scanner was used to obtain 3D facial data of participants. Second, a model of the face was created by reverse-engineering and then used for the computer-aided design (CAD) of the cushion. Finally, computer numerical control (CNC) was used to manufacture the mold, into which silicone was then injected slowly. A perceived comfort questionnaire was used to compare the customized and conventional cushions. 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the control group used a conventional cushion, and the remaining 20 patients used the customized cushion. The customized cushion was found to be superior to the conventional cushion. There are clear differences in the headgear force of the two cushion types (P = 0.001). The customized cushion applied less force to a patient’s face than a conventional cushion. Furthermore, there were obvious differences in the fit of the cushions (P = 0.001). Patients using the customized cushions experienced a better fit than those using the conventional cushions. This study has developed a new method for manufacturing customized cushions with better cushion fit through rapid tooling. PMID:26462680

  11. Investigating the use of wing sweep for pitch control of a small unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Small Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile tools with both civilian and military applications. Fixed wing UAVs require forward airspeed to remain airborne, usually resulting in constant energy expenditure to loiter over targets. A UAV capable of perching could reduce energy expenditure by settling on a site near the target, thus increasing mission duration. Avian perching techniques were observed to build a hypothesis for the biological control techniques employed during the landing man...

  12. Intake fraction of primary pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Marshall; W. J. Riley; McKone, T.E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposu...

  13. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Li Hai-Jun; Zhou Guang-Hui; Li An-Gui; Li Xu-Ge; Li Ya-Nan; Chen Jie

    2014-01-01

    When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system i...

  14. Simulation of air-supply systems efficiency in refrigerated vehicles to prevent food spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarma, R. A.; Ramos, J. E.; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    An improper air distribution within refrigerated truck chambers is the major cause of inadequate road transport of perishable products under controlled temperature. Inadequate temperature control permits microbial and/or enzymatic deterioration. Experimental results in refrigerated long road vehicles show temperatures differences in the cargo of as much as 12ºC. This paper presents a computational model to predict, and visualize, the temperature conditions (e.g. velocity, temperat...

  15. The design and construction of a shiplaunched VTOL unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchette, Bryan M.

    1990-01-01

    A Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) was designed to serve as a shiplaunched reconnaissance and over the horizon targeting aircraft. Modeled after the U.S. Army's Aquila, the aircraft features a unique tilting ducted fan propulsion unit. The duct contains the engine, propeller, and control vanes used to provide the VTOL capability and is designed to be rotated as a unit for transition into horizontal flight. The duct also provides a measure of shipboard safety ...

  16. Aircraft Design Automation and Subscale Testing : With Special Reference to Micro Air Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation concerns how design automation as well as rapid prototyping and testing of subscale prototypes can support aircraft design. A framework for design automation has been developed and is applied specifically to Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). MAVs are an interesting area for design automation as they are an application where the entire design, from requirements to manufacturing, can indeed be automated. From a complexity point of view it can be considered to be similar to conceptual ...

  17. Impact of NOx vehicle emission standards failure on Air Quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Kiesewetter, G.; Papageorgiou, T.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emission standards have been tightened in the EU for several decades now, in order to protect health and the environment. This has led to a substantial decrease in total pollutant emissions, despite the growing volumes of passenger and freight transport. However, national emissions, particularly of NOx, exceed the ceilings accorded under the Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (EEA 2012) in twelve EU Member States. T...

  18. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Towards Flight Autonomy: Vision-Based Horizon Detection for Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechyba, Michael C.; Ettinger, Scott M.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Recently substantial progress has been made towards design building and testifying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). This progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to flight at very small scales has, unfortunately, not been matched by similar progress in autonomous MAV flight. Thus, we propose a robust, vision-based horizon detection algorithm as the first step towards autonomous MAVs. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for the horizon detection task by examining the flight of birds (biological MAVs) and considering other practical factors. We then describe our vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30 Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification, over terrain that includes roads, buildings large and small, meadows, wooded areas, and a lake. We conclude with some sample horizon detection results and preview a companion paper, where the work discussed here forms the core of a complete autonomous flight stability system.

  19. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  20. Development of Air Vehicle with Active Flapping and Twisting of Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangyol Yoon; Lae-Hyong Kang; Sungho Jo

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses mechanisms for active flapping and twisting of robotic wings and assesses flying effectiveness as a function of twist angle. Unlike the flapping motion of bird wings, insects generally make a twisting motion at the root of their wings while flapping, which makes it possible for them to hover in midair. This work includes the development of a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) because a flapping-wing air vehicle should be assembled with a compact actuator to decrease size and weight. A linkage mechanism is proposed to transform the linear motion of the VCM into the flapping and twisting motions of wings. The assembled flapping-wing air vehicle, whose weight is 2.86 g, produces an average positive vertical force proportional to the twist angle. The force saturates because the twist angle is mechanically limited. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a flapping-wing air vehicle that can hover in midair using a mechanism that actively twists the roots of wings during flapping.

  1. A hybrid approach to modeling and control of vehicle height for electronically controlled air suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    The control problems associated with vehicle height adjustment of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) still pose theoretical challenges for researchers, which manifest themselves in the publications on this subject over the last years. This paper deals with modeling and control of a vehicle height adjustment system for ECAS, which is an example of a hybrid dynamical system due to the coexistence and coupling of continuous variables and discrete events. A mixed logical dynamical (MLD) modeling approach is chosen for capturing enough details of the vehicle height adjustment process. The hybrid dynamic model is constructed on the basis of some assumptions and piecewise linear approximation for components nonlinearities. Then, the on-off statuses of solenoid valves and the piecewise approximation process are described by propositional logic, and the hybrid system is transformed into the set of linear mixed-integer equalities and inequalities, denoted as MLD model, automatically by HYSDEL. Using this model, a hybrid model predictive controller (HMPC) is tuned based on online mixed-integer quadratic optimization (MIQP). Two different scenarios are considered in the simulation, whose results verify the height adjustment effectiveness of the proposed approach. Explicit solutions of the controller are computed to control the vehicle height adjustment system in realtime using an offline multi-parametric programming technology (MPT), thus convert the controller into an equivalent explicit piecewise affine form. Finally, bench experiments for vehicle height lifting, holding and lowering procedures are conducted, which demonstrate that the HMPC can adjust the vehicle height by controlling the on-off statuses of solenoid valves directly. This research proposes a new modeling and control method for vehicle height adjustment of ECAS, which leads to a closed-loop system with favorable dynamical properties.

  2. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (fleet emissions: 100, 100, 81, and 77 % for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co-emitted pollutants as well.

  3. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  4. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  5. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  6. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  7. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects. PMID:24195736

  8. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  9. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  10. Indoor air as a vehicle for human pathogens: Introduction, objectives, and expectation of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Airborne spread of pathogens can be rapid, widespread, and difficult to prevent. In this international workshop, a panel of 6 experts will expound on the following: (1) the potential for indoor air to spread a wide range of human pathogens, plus engineering controls to reduce the risk for exposure to airborne infectious agents; (2) the behavior of aerosolized infectious agents indoors and the use of emerging air decontamination technologies; (3) a survey of quantitative methods to recover infectious agents and their surrogates from indoor air with regard to survival and inactivation of airborne pathogens; (4) mathematical models to predict the movement of pathogens indoors and the use of such information to optimize the benefits of air decontamination technologies; and (5) synergy between different infectious agents, such as legionellae and fungi, in the built environment predisposing to possible transmission-related health impacts of aerosolized biofilm-based opportunistic pathogens. After the presentations, the panel will address a set of preformulated questions on selection criteria for surrogate microbes to study the survival and inactivation of airborne human pathogens, desirable features of technologies for microbial decontamination of indoor air, knowledge gaps, and research needs. It is anticipated that the deliberations of the workshop will provide the attendees with an update on the significance of indoor air as a vehicle for transmitting human pathogens with a brief on what is currently being done to mitigate the risks from airborne infectious agents. PMID:27590701

  11. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervan Stjepan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  12. Design of a Six-link Mechanism for a Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukherjee

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro air vehicle (MAV is a small flight vehicle that uses lift-generating mechanism different from the mechanism used for a larger aircraft. The MAV may require configurations that are more unusual and approaches, ranging from low aspect ratio fixed wings to rotary wings, or even flapping wings. One of the most efficient lift-generating mechanism in small geometries is observed in the one species of insects Encarsia formosa, as reported by Weis Fogh. This is achieved by generating lift prior to setting up of net circulation. In this paper, the design of a flapping mechanism used to realise the Weis Fogh mechanism of lift generation is described. A single-drive design using concepts of motion synthesis by kinematic inversion technique, followed by dynamic analysis, is presented. This simplification opens the way for future miniaturisation of these devices at economic costs.

  13. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  14. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  15. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system increases more than 20% of the heating capacity; when the outside environment temperature is negative 20 degrees, the discharge temperature of compressor is below 60 degrees.

  16. Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method

  17. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  18. Design and Fuel Consumption Optimization for a Bio-Inspired Semi-floating Hybrid Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannan Luo; Yansong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Based on a bionic concept and combing air-cushion techniques and track driving mechanisms, a novel semi-floating hybrid concept vehicle is proposed to meet the transportation requirements on soft terrain. First, the vehicle scheme and its improved duel-spring flexible suspension design are described. Then, its fuel consumption model is proposed accordingly with respect to two vehicle operating parameters. Aiming at minimizing the fuel consumption, two Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are designed and implemented. For the initial one (GA-1), despite getting an acceptable result, there still existed some problems in its optimization process. Based on an analysis of the defects ofGA-l, an improved algorithm GA-2 was developed whose effectiveness and stability were embodied in the optimization process and results. The proposed design scheme and optimization approaches can provide valuable references for this new kind of vehicle with promising applications in the areas of agriculture, petroleum industry, military or scientific exploitations, etc.

  19. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...... desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an...

  20. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  1. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  2. Air Pollution Prevention Applications for the Transport Sector by Integrating Urban Area Transport and Vehicle Emission Models with the Case Study of Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Padet Praditphet

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes air pollution prevention applications for urban area transportation aimed at minimizing pollution and meeting ambient air quality standards through the use of transport and vehicle emissions models that account for air pollution changes resulting from prevention strategies. This study combines pollution prevention techniques and transport and vehicle emissions models to enhance air pollution prevention in an urban area. The amount of air emissions from transportation conti...

  3. Neighborhood-scale air quality impacts of emissions from motor vehicles and aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonsik; Hu, Shishan; He, Meilu; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    2013-12-01

    A mobile monitoring platform (MMP) was used to measure real-time air pollutant concentrations in different built environments of Boyle Heights (BH, a lower-income community enclosed by several freeways); Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA, adjacent to BH with taller buildings and surrounded by several freeways); and West Los Angeles (WLA, an affluent community traversed by two freeways) in summer afternoons of 2008 and 2011 (only for WLA). Significant inter-community and less significant but observable intra-community differences in traffic-related pollutant concentrations were observed both in the residential neighborhoods studied and on their arterial roadways between BH, DTLA, and WLA, particularly for ultrafine particles (UFP). HEV, defined as vehicles creating plumes with concentrations more than three standard deviations from the adjusted local baseline, were encountered during 6-13% of sampling time, during which they accounted for 17-55% of total UFP concentrations both on arterial roadways and in residential neighborhoods. If instead a single threshold value is used to define HEVs in all areas, HEV's were calculated to make larger contributions to UFP concentrations in BH than other communities by factors of 2-10 or more. Santa Monica Airport located in WLA appears to be a significant source for elevated UFP concentrations in nearby residential neighborhoods 80-400 m downwind. In the WLA area, we also showed, on a neighborhood scale, striking and immediate reductions in particulate pollution (˜70% reductions in both UFP and, somewhat surprisingly, PM2.5), corresponding to dramatic decreases in traffic densities during an I-405 closure event (“Carmageddon”) compared to non-closure Saturday levels. Although pollution reduction due to decreased traffic is not unexpected, this dramatic improvement in particulate pollution provides clear evidence air quality can be improved through strategies such as heavy-duty-diesel vehicle retrofits, earlier retirement of HEV

  4. Production of inert gas for substitution of a part of the cushion gas trapped in an aquifer underground storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural gas storage reservoir operating over the different seasons, a varying fraction of the injected gas, the cushion gas, remains permanently trapped. This cushion gas may represent more than half the total gas volume, and more than 50% of the initial investment costs for the storage facility. Studies conducted by Gaz de France, backed up by experience acquired over the years, have shown that at least 20% of the cushion gas could be replaced by a less expensive inert gas. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or a mixture of the two, satisfy the specifications required for this inert gas. Two main production methods exist: recovery of natural gas combustion products (mixture of 88% N2 and 12% Co2) and physical separation of air components (more or less pure N2, depending on industrial conditions). For the specific needs of Gaz de France, the means of production must be suited to its programme of partial cushion gas substitution. The equipment must satisfy requirements of autonomy, operating flexibility and mobility. Gaz de France has tested two units for recovery of natural gas combustion products. In the first unit, the inert gas is produced in a combustion chamber, treated in a catalytic reactor to reduce nitrogen oxide content and then compressed by gas engine driven compressors. In the second unit, the exhaust gases of the compressor gas engines are collected, treated to eliminate nitrogen oxides and then compressed. The energy balance is improved. A PSA method nitrogen production unit by selective absorption of nitrogen in the air, will be put into service in 1989. The specific features of these two methods and the reasons for choosing them will be reviewed. (author). 1 fig

  5. A thermal model for amorphous silicon photovoltaic integrated in ETFE cushion roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A thermal model is proposed to estimate temperature of a-Si PV integrated in ETFE cushion. • Nonlinear equation is solved by Runge–Kutta method integrated in a new program. • Temperature profiles varying with weather conditions are obtained and analyzed. • Numerical results are in good line with experimental results with coefficients of 0.821–0.985. • Reasons for temperature difference of 0.9–4.6 K are solar irradiance and varying parameters. - Abstract: Temperature characteristics of amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) integrated in building roofs (e.g. the ETFE cushions) are indispensible for evaluating the thermal performances of a-Si PV and buildings. To investigate the temperature characteristics and temperature value, field experiments and numerical modeling were performed and compared in this paper. An experimental mock-up composed of a-Si PV and a three-layer ETFE cushion structure was constructed and experiments were carried out under four typical weather conditions (winter sunny, winter cloudy, summer sunny and summer cloudy). The measured solar irradiance and air temperature were used as the real weather conditions for the thermal model. On the other side, a theoretical thermal model was developed based on energy balance equation which was expressed as that absorbed energy was equal to converted energy and energy loss. The corresponding differential equation of PV temperature varying with weather conditions was solved by the Runge–Kutta method. The comparisons between the experimental and numerical results were focusing on the temperature characteristics and temperature value. For the temperature characteristics, good agreement was obtained by correlation analysis with the coefficients of 0.821–0.985, which validated the feasibility of the thermal model. For the temperature value, the temperature difference between the experimental and numerical results was only 0.9–4.6 K and the reasons could be the dramatical

  6. Chitosan cushioned phospholipid membrane and its application in imaging ellipsometry based-biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yibang, E-mail: ybzhang2007@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Yanyan, E-mail: yychen2006@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China); Jin Gang, E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Chitosan cushion can support the air stability of phospholipid membrane, but the problem of serum solubility of phospholipid membrane prevents it from use in serum detection applications. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) shielding promises both stability and non-specific adsorption resistance for phospholipid membrane. An air stable phospholipid membrane microarray has been successfully fabricated on chitosan modified silicon wafer. We have demonstrated the potential application of PEGylated phospholipid membrane in imaging ellipsometry-based protein biosensor. Because of the strong resistance against non-specific adsorption of serum, antigens are immobilized onto the membrane surface through chemical activation and further bind their antibodies without using blocking agent. Taking advantage of the multiple and parallel reaction capabilities of microfluidic reactor system, we have assayed the binding by varying both the density of antigen on the membrane surface and the concentration of antibody in solution.

  7. Chitosan cushioned phospholipid membrane and its application in imaging ellipsometry based-biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan cushion can support the air stability of phospholipid membrane, but the problem of serum solubility of phospholipid membrane prevents it from use in serum detection applications. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) shielding promises both stability and non-specific adsorption resistance for phospholipid membrane. An air stable phospholipid membrane microarray has been successfully fabricated on chitosan modified silicon wafer. We have demonstrated the potential application of PEGylated phospholipid membrane in imaging ellipsometry-based protein biosensor. Because of the strong resistance against non-specific adsorption of serum, antigens are immobilized onto the membrane surface through chemical activation and further bind their antibodies without using blocking agent. Taking advantage of the multiple and parallel reaction capabilities of microfluidic reactor system, we have assayed the binding by varying both the density of antigen on the membrane surface and the concentration of antibody in solution.

  8. Real-Time Fixed-Order Lateral H2 Controller for Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a fixed low-order, robust H2 controller for a micro air vehicle (MAV named Sarika-2. The controller synthesis uses strengthened discrete optimal projection equations and frequency-dependent performance index to achieve robust performance and stability. A single fixed gain low-order dynamic controller provides simultaneous stabilization, disturbance rejection, and sensor noise attenuation over the entire flight speed range of 16 m/sec to 26 m/sec. Comparative study indicates that the low-order H2-controller achieves robust performance levels similar to that of full order controller. Subsequently, the controller is implemented on a digital signal processor-based flight computer and is validated through the real time hardware in loop simulation. The responses obtained with hardware in loop simulation compares well with those obtained from the offline simulation.

  9. Improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control for morphing unmanned air vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Doebbler, James; Tandale, Monish D; Meade, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control methodology for the problem of unmanned air vehicle morphing control. The reinforcement learning morphing control function that learns the optimal shape change policy is integrated with an adaptive dynamic inversion control trajectory tracking function. An episodic unsupervised learning simulation using the Q-learning method is developed to replace an earlier and less accurate Actor-Critic algorithm. Sequential Function Approximation, a Galerkin-based scattered data approximation scheme, replaces a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method and is used to generalize the learning from previously experienced quantized states and actions to the continuous state-action space, all of which may not have been experienced before. The improved method showed smaller errors and improved learning of the optimal shape compared to the KNN. PMID:18632393

  10. Novel adaptive neural control of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles based on sliding mode differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive neural control strategy is exploited for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV. By utilizing functional decomposition method, the dynamics of FAHV is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. For each subsystem, only one neural network is employed for the unknown function approximation. To further reduce the computational burden, minimal-learning parameter (MLP technology is used to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements. By introducing sliding mode differentiator (SMD to estimate the newly defined variables, there is no need for the strict-feedback form and virtual controller. Hence the developed control law is considerably simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping scheme. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties and varying disturbances.

  11. Robust tracking control design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垚; 鲜斌; 刁琛; 赵勃; 郭建川

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear robust controller was presented to improve the tracking control performance of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) which is subjected to system parametric uncertainties and unknown additive time-varying disturbances. The longitudinal dynamic model for the flexible AHV was used for the control development. High-gain observers were designed to compensate for the system uncertainties and additive disturbances. Small gain theorem and Lyapunov based stability analysis were utilized to prove the stability of the closed loop system. Locally uniformly ultimately bounded tracking of the vehicle’s velocity, altitude and attack angle were achieved under aeroelastic effects, system parametric uncertainties and unknown additive disturbances. Matlab/Simulink simulation results were provided to validate the robustness of the proposed control design. The simulation results demonstrate that the tracking errors stay in a small region around zero.

  12. INTEGRATED USE OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND METAL PLATING TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ELANGOVAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synergistic application of rapid prototyping and metal plating technologies for development of micro air vehicles (MAV with high strength-to-weight characteristic. Stereolithography and fused deposition techniques are employed to fabricate complex thermoplastic MAV prototypes with significant time-compression in production cycle. Electroless and electrolytic deposition processes are custom developed to deposit thin metallic foils of nickel and chromium over thermoplastic MAV prototypes. Plating plant with inherent provision for variation of process parameters is established and proof-of-concept studies are carried on plating of MAV prototypes. Experiments are conducted on metal plated thermoplastic test specimens for evaluating the mechanical behaviour and structural integrity properties. Present study is a conclusive demonstration of the use of layered manufacturing techniques in quick realisation of flight-worthy MAV systems.

  13. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  14. Q-learning approach to automated unmanned air vehicle (UAV) demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia; Daugherty, Greyson

    2010-04-01

    This paper develops a Q-learning approach to Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) navigation, or path planning, for sensing applications in which an infrared (IR) sensor or camera is installed onboard the UAV for the purpose of detecting and classifying multiple, stationary ground targets. The problem can be considered as a geometric sensor-path planning problem, because the geometry and position of the sensor's field of view (FOV) determines what targets can be detected and classified at any given time. The advantage of this approach over existing path planning techniques is that the optimal guidance policy is learned via the Q-function, without explicit knowledge of the system models and environmental conditions. The approach is demonstrated through a demining application in which a UAV-based IR sensor is capable of determining the optimal altitude for properly detecting and classifying targets buried in a complex region of interest.

  15. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. J.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Liu, H. L.; Jing, B. Y.; Yu, Y.; Ren, P. P.; Feng, C.; Liu, X. H.

    2015-07-01

    In a companion paper (Jing et al., 2015), a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for 2013 in Beijing has been established based on near real time (NRT) traffic data and bottom up methodology. In this study, based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modeling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, CUACE model had good performance of pollutants concentration simulation. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes over moment. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2, while 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013, respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be caused by easily dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in near-surface layer compared to elevated source emission.

  16. Investigations on an energy efficient air conditioning of hybrid vehicles and electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur energieeffizienten Klimatisierung von Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Unwerth, Thomas von [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe

    2012-11-01

    The energy-efficient air conditioning of passenger cells is an ever-increasing challenge in the development of electric vehicles because the electric heating in particular reduces the cruising range significantly. For this reason, a simulation model has been developed at Chemnitz University of Technology, which simulates the whole air conditioning system including the passenger cell and the complete powertrain in electric cars. Using this model, different optimization approaches have been analyzed and evaluated concerning the cruising range. This paper first illustrates how much the cruising range of an exemplary electric vehicle is reduced by using the electric heating under different wintery weather conditions. Afterwards, the exploitation of the waste heat produced by the powertrain components (electric motor and power electronics) will be explained. Finally, it shall be described to what extent this exploitation increases the cruising range. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear Adaptive Equivalent Control Based on Interconnection Subsystems for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonminimum phase behavior of the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model caused by elevator-to-lift coupling, a nonlinear adaptive equivalent control method based on interconnection subsystems is proposed. In the altitude loop, the backstepping strategy is applied, where the virtual control inputs about flight-path angle and attack angle are designed step by step. In order to avoid the inaccurately direct cancelation of elevator-to-lift coupling when aerodynamic parameters are uncertain, the real control inputs, that is, elevator deflection and canard deflection, are linearly converted into the equivalent control inputs which are designed independently. The reformulation of the altitude-flight-path angle dynamics and the attack angle-pitch rate dynamics is constructed into interconnection subsystems with input-to-state stability via small-gain theorem. For the velocity loop, the dynamic inversion controller is designed. The adaptive approach is used to identify the uncertain aerodynamic parameters. Simulation of the flexible hypersonic vehicle demonstrates effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s−1, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 105 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  19. Preliminary development of a VTOL unmanned air vehicle for the close-range mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Gregory A.

    1992-09-01

    The preliminary development of a full-scale Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the Close-Range mission was completed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The vehicle was based on half-scale ducted-fan investigations performed at the UAV Flight Research Lab. The resulting design is a fixed-duct, tail-sitter UAV with a canard-configured horizontal stabilizer. Major airframe components are used from previous UAV's and include the wings from a U.S. Army Aquila and the ducted fan from the U.S. Marine Corps AROD. Accomplishments include: (1) the design and fabrication of a carry-through spar, and (2) the design and construction of an engine test stand. The through spar was designed using finite element analysis and constructed from composite materials. The purpose of the test stand is to measure torque, horsepower, and thrust of an entire ducted fan or an individual engine. Completion of this thesis will pave the way for future NPS research into the growing interest in VTOL UAV technology.

  20. Aeroservoelastic modeling and analysis of a canard-configured air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Kaichun; Xiang Jinwu; Li Daochun

    2013-01-01

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles (HSVs) are typically characterized by interactions ofelasticity,propulsion and rigid-body flight dynamics,which may result in intractable aeroservoelas-tic problem.When canard is added,this problem would be even intensified by the introduction oflow-frequency canard pivot mode.This paper concerns how the aeroservoelastic stability of acanard-configured HSV is affected by the pivot stiffnesses of all-moveable horizontal tail (HT)and canard.A wing/pivot system model is developed by considering the pivot torsional flexibility,fuselage vibration,and control input.The governing equations of the aeroservoelastic system areestablished by combining the equations of rigid-body motion,elastic fuselage model,wing/pivotsystem models and actuator dynamics.An unsteady aerodynamic model is developed by steadyShock-Expansion theory with an unsteady correction using local piston theory.A baseline control-ler is given to provide approximate inflight characteristics of rigid-body modes.The vehicle istrimmed for equilibrium state,around which the linearized equations are derived for stability anal-ysis.A comparative study of damping ratios,closed-loop poles and responses are conducted withvarying controller gains and pivot stiffnesses.Available bandwidth for control design is discussedand feasible region for pivot stiffnesses of HT and canard is given.

  1. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Hong-Phil Won; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas c...

  2. Comparison and Evaluation of a New Innovative Drive Concept for the Air Conditioning Compressor of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Ackermann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of an energy efficient air conditioning system for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger cell reduces the cruising range dramatically. Almost always the compressor of the air conditioning system in electric cars is a scroll compressor with a separate electric motor and appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. There...

  3. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Liu, Hongli; Jing, Boyu; Yu, Ye; Ren, Peipei; Feng, Cheng; Liu, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A companion paper developed a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) with a bottom-up methodology based on local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of COPERT model and near-real-time (NRT) traffic data on a specific road segment for 2013 in urban Beijing (Jing et al., 2016), which is used to investigate the impact of vehicle pollution on air pollution in this study. Based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modelling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing's main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, the CUACE model had good performance of the concentration simulation of pollutants. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes with time. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2 and 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013 respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while it is 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than the PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be due to dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in the near-surface layer occuring more easily than from elevated source emission.

  4. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  5. Design of anti bedsore cushion controller based on AVR MCU%基于AVR的防褥疮气垫控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 单纯玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti bedsore cushions have certain disadvantages such as simple work mode, unfriendly user interface,lack of fault alarm measurement. This paper presents a microcontroller of anti bedsore cushion based on AVR MCU. Methods The microcontroller consists of Atemegal6 as the core and peripheral circuits including pressure sensor,air pressure detection circuit,LCD display circuit,air pump drive circuit and other circuits. The microcontroller controls the air pump to make the air cushion produce adjustable fluctuations following the input parameters such as weight, period, work time. We connect an air pump to inflate the air cushion under different work parameters for test. Results The test results show that the microcontroller works steadily and makes air cushion produce regular fluctuations that could prevent bedsores. Conclusions The user interface of the anti bedsore cushion with the microcontroller is friendly, the work mode is various and steady, and the cost is low.%目的 针对防褥疮气垫工作模式单一、故障报警措施缺乏、操作界面呆板等不足,本文提出基于AVR单片机的防褥疮气垫微控制器设计方案.方法 该微控制器以Atmega16为核心,外设电路包括压力传感器、气压检测电路、液晶显示电路、气泵驱动电路等,可根据体重、周期、工作时间参数设置不同,控制气泵使气垫产生幅度、周期、时间可调的波动式翻滚达到防治褥疮的作用.连接气泵对气垫充气测试,设置不同的工作参数,观察并比较测试结果.结果 控制器运行稳定,可使气垫产生规律的波动式翻滚,符合防治褥疮的要求.结论 基于该微控制器的防褥疮气垫操作界面友好,工作模式多样,并且工作安全可靠,成本低廉.

  6. Design and fabrication of microflap actuators for steering of micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbru, George C.; Lee, Woo Ho; Popa, Dan O.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, and fabrication of an array of microflap actuators that can produce a substantial aerodynamic force for course corrections of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) and low speed projectiles. In the past, several actuation principles, including microjet, magnetic and bubble actuators, and flapping wings have been proposed, and had varying degrees of success. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of past attempts, and the technology that can be used to address the microflap steering problem. We propose a hybrid microflap actuation scheme that combines two types of actuators including: 1) a MEMS fabricated "active" microactuator connected to a microflap, and 2) a "passive" fluidic channel system that harvests the potential energy in the high pressure field on the leading edge of the MAV or high speed projectile to achieve a desired deflection. An array of microflap actuators was prototyped using silicon MEMS fabrication and microassembly. A Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer with 100 micron thick device layer was used to as a substrate material to fabricate microflap structures with springs. Front and back side DRIE process was used to etch and release the microstructures including microflaps. Then, the microactuator was assembled on top of the microflap. The static and dynamic behaviors of a microflap were measured using a laser displacement sensor and were compared to the analytic model. In the near future, a prototyped microflap will be tested inside of a wind tunnel to measure the lift and drag at various air speeds.

  7. The impact of China's vehicle emissions on regional air quality in 2000 and 2020: a scenario analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saikawa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly. We evaluate the impact of current and possible future vehicle emissions from China on Asian air quality. We modify the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS for China's road transport sector in 2000 using updated Chinese data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, and emission factors. We develop two scenarios for 2020: a scenario where emission factors remain the same as they were in 2000 (No-Policy, NoPol, and a scenario where Euro 3 vehicle emission standards are applied to all vehicles (except motorcycles and rural vehicles. The Euro 3 scenario is an approximation of what may be the case in 2020 as, starting in 2008, all new vehicles in China (except motorcycles were required to meet the Euro 3 emission standards. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem, we examine the regional air quality response to China's vehicle emissions in 2000 and in 2020 for the NoPol and Euro 3 scenarios. We evaluate the 2000 model results with observations in Japan, China, Korea, and Russia. Under NoPol in 2020, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC from China's vehicles more than double compared to the 2000 baseline. If all vehicles meet the Euro 3 regulations in 2020, however, these emissions are reduced by more than 50% relative to NoPol. The implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards leads to a large, simultaneous reduction of the surface ozone (O3 mixing ratios and particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations. In the Euro 3 scenario, surface O3 is reduced by more than 10 ppbv and surface PM2.5 is reduced by more than 10 μg m−3 relative to NoPol in Northeast China in all seasons. In spring, surface O3 mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations in

  8. Interface shear and pressure characteristics of wheelchair seat cushions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Akins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer incidence rates have remained constant despite advances in support surface technology. Interface shear stress is recognized as a risk factor for pressure ulcer development and is the focus of many shear reduction technologies incorporated into wheelchair cushions; however, shear reduction has not been quantified in the literature. We evaluated 21 commercial wheelchair seat cushions using a new methodology developed to quantify interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. Interface shear stress increased significantly with applied horizontal indenter displacement, while no significant difference was found for interface pressure. Material of construction resulted in significant differences in interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. This study shows that the existing International Organization for Standardization (ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure provides similar information to the new horizontal stiffness measure. The lack of a relationship between interface shear stress and the overall horizontal stiffness measure, however, suggests that a pressure and shear force sensor should be used with the ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure to fully quantify a cushion's ability to reduce interface shear stress at the patient's bony prominences.

  9. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  10. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  11. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. PMID:27219504

  12. Short communication: Genetic characterization of digital cushion thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, G; Banos, G; Machado, V; Caixeta, L; Bicalho, R C

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow lameness is a serious animal welfare issue. It is also a significant cause of economic losses, reducing reproductive efficiency and milk production and increasing culling rates. The digital cushion is a complex structure composed mostly of adipose tissue located underneath the distal phalanx and has recently been phenotypically associated with incidence of claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL); namely, sole ulcers and white line disease. The objective of this study was to characterize digital cushion thickness genetically and to investigate its association with body condition score (BCS), locomotion score (LOCO), CHDL, and milk production. Data were collected from 1 large closely monitored commercial dairy farm located in upstate New York; 923 dairy cows were used. Before trimming, the following data were collected by a member of the research team: BCS, cow height measurement, and LOCO. Presence or not of CHDL (sole ulcer or white line disease, or both) was recorded at trimming. Immediately after the cows were hoof trimmed, they underwent digital sonographic B-mode examination for the measurement of digital cushion thickness. Factors such as parity number, stage of lactation, calving date, mature-equivalent 305-d milk yield (ME305MY), and pedigree information were obtained from the farm's dairy management software (DairyCOMP 305; Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA). Univariate animal models were used to obtain variance component estimations for each studied trait (CHDL, BCS, digital cushion thickness average, LOCO, height, and ME305MY) and a 6-variate analysis was conducted to estimate the genetic, residual, and phenotypic correlations between the studied traits. The heritability estimate of DCTA was 0.33±0.09, whereas a statistically significant genetic correlation was estimated between DCTA and CHDL (-0.60±0.29). Of the other genetic correlations, significant estimates were derived for BCS with LOCO (-0.49±0.19) and ME305MY (-0.48±0.20). Digital

  13. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  14. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  15. A novel clear foil cushion construction incorporating an additional water layer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pneumatic clear foil cushion systems, notably as ETFE foil cushions have been developed as an alternative technology to large-scale glass glazing systems for wide-span buildings. The systems display better thermal performance and have advantages of extremely low dead-weight constructions compared to conventional glazing systems, and thereby the increasing popularity of foil cushion cladding systems have been witnessed in the last decades. However due to their lightweight and thinness, the the...

  16. Multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system using Micro Air Vehicle for dangerous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaoxun; He, Chengcheng; Lai, Chenlong; Liu, Yuanchao

    2015-11-01

    For overcoming the problems such as remote operation and dangerous tasks, multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system based on STC89C52 Micro Control Unit and wireless communication technique was proposed. The system with MCU as its core adopted multiple sets of sensor device to monitor environment parameters of different locations, such as temperature, humidity, smoke other harmful gas concentration. Data information collected was transmitted remotely by wireless transceiver module, and then multi-channel data parameter was processed and displayed through serial communication protocol between the module and PC. The results of system could be checked in the form of web pages within a local network which plays a wireless monitoring and warning role. In a remote operation, four-rotor micro air vehicle which fixed airborne data acquisition device was utilized as a middleware between collecting terminal and PC to increase monitoring scope. Whole test system has characteristics of simple construction, convenience, real time ability and high reliability, which could meet the requirements of actual use.

  17. Quantum Wind Driven Optimization for Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV path planning aims to calculate the optimal or suboptimal flight path considering the different threats and constraints under the complex battlefield environment. This flight path can help the UCAV avoid enemy threats and improve the efficiency of the investigation. This paper presents a new quantum wind driven optimization (QWDO for the path planning of UCAV. QWDO algorithm uses quantum rotation gate strategy on population evolution and the quantum non-gate strategy to realize the individual variation of population. These operations improve the diversity of population and avoid premature convergence. This paper tests this optimization in two instances. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible in these two cases. Compared to quantum bat algorithm (QBA, quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO, wind driven optimization (WDO, bat algorithm (BA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and differential evolution (DE, the QWDO algorithm exhibited better performance. The simulation results demonstrate that the QWDO algorithm is an effective and feasible method for solving UCAV path planning.

  18. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV

  19. Design and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the structural design, actuation and performance of an insect-inspired nano air vehicle. For this purpose, an original design concept of resonant wings using indirect actuation and concise transmission to allow large and symmetrical bending angles, passive wing torsion and to minimize energy expenditure is presented. A simplified analytical model and a numerical approach for the transmission between the actuator and the wings are then proposed to validate the design. The all-polymer prototypes were obtained using micromachining SU-8 photoresist technology. An electromagnetic actuator was added to control the vibrating amplitudes and create passive wing torsion. The actuator was optimized to make it more effective whilst at the same time minimizing its mass. Prototypes with a global wingspan of 3.5 cm and a mass of 22 mg due to the structure and actuator are presented. Bending amplitudes of the wings up to 60° were measured with these prototypes. The resonant frequency of the wings varied according to the design and mass. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, without an important driving mechanism a very promising kinematics. (paper)

  20. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Wong, Franklin; Kernaghan, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV.

  1. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Combes, S A, E-mail: rjwood@seas.harvard.ed [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  2. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  3. Roof Modelling Potential of Unmanned Air Vehicle Point Clouds with Respect to Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakis, Serkan; Gunes Sefercik, Umut; Atalay, Can

    2016-07-01

    In parallel with the improvement of laser scanning technologies, dense point clouds which provide the detailed description of terrain and non-terrain objects became indispensable for remotely-sensed data users. Owing to the large demand, besides laser scanning, point clouds were started to achieve using photogrammetric images. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) images are one of the most preferred data for creating dense point clouds by the advantage of low cost, rapid and periodically gain. In this study, we tried to assess the roof modelling potential of UAV point clouds by comparing three dimensional (3D) roof models produced from UAV and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds. In the study, very popular low cost action camera SJ4000 and Faro Laser Scanner Focus3D X 330 were used to provide point clouds and the roof of Bulent Ecevit University Civil Aviation Academy building was utilized. For the validation of horizontal and vertical geolocation accuracies, standard deviation was used as the main indicator. The visual results demonstrated that UAV roof model is almost coherent with TLS roof model after the filtering-based refinement on noisy pixels and systematic bias correction. Moreover, the horizontal geolocation accuracy is approx. |5cm| both in X and Y directions and bias corrected vertical geolocation accuracy is approx. 17cm for zero roof slope.

  4. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  5. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual e – continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper

  6. The Role of Design-of-Experiments in Managing Flow in Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Gridley, Marvin C.; Agrell, Johan

    2003-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate the viability and economy of Design-of-Experiments methodologies to arrive at microscale secondary flow control array designs that maintain optimal inlet performance over a wide range of the mission variables and to explore how these statistical methods provide a better understanding of the management of flow in compact air vehicle inlets. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the robustness properties of low unit strength micro-effector arrays. Low unit strength micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion. The term robustness is used in this paper in the same sense as it is used in the industrial problem solving community. It refers to minimizing the effects of the hard-to-control factors that influence the development of a product or process. In Robustness Engineering, the effects of the hard-to-control factors are often called noise , and the hard-to-control factors themselves are referred to as the environmental variables or sometimes as the Taguchi noise variables. Hence Robust Optimization refers to minimizing the effects of the environmental or noise variables on the development (design) of a product or process. In the management of flow in compact inlets, the environmental or noise variables can be identified with the mission variables. Therefore this paper formulates a statistical design methodology that minimizes the impact of variations in the mission variables on inlet performance and demonstrates that these statistical design concepts can lead to simpler inlet flow management systems.

  7. Bio-inspired multi-mode optic flow sensors for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seokjun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Cho, Jihyun; Yoon, Euisik

    2013-06-01

    Monitoring wide-field surrounding information is essential for vision-based autonomous navigation in micro-air-vehicles (MAV). Our image-cube (iCube) module, which consists of multiple sensors that are facing different angles in 3-D space, can be applied to the wide-field of view optic flows estimation (μ-Compound eyes) and to attitude control (μ- Ocelli) in the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) platforms. In this paper, we report an analog/digital (A/D) mixed-mode optic-flow sensor, which generates both optic flows and normal images in different modes for μ- Compound eyes and μ-Ocelli applications. The sensor employs a time-stamp based optic flow algorithm which is modified from the conventional EMD (Elementary Motion Detector) algorithm to give an optimum partitioning of hardware blocks in analog and digital domains as well as adequate allocation of pixel-level, column-parallel, and chip-level signal processing. Temporal filtering, which may require huge hardware resources if implemented in digital domain, is remained in a pixel-level analog processing unit. The rest of the blocks, including feature detection and timestamp latching, are implemented using digital circuits in a column-parallel processing unit. Finally, time-stamp information is decoded into velocity from look-up tables, multiplications, and simple subtraction circuits in a chip-level processing unit, thus significantly reducing core digital processing power consumption. In the normal image mode, the sensor generates 8-b digital images using single slope ADCs in the column unit. In the optic flow mode, the sensor estimates 8-b 1-D optic flows from the integrated mixed-mode algorithm core and 2-D optic flows with an external timestamp processing, respectively.

  8. The impact of the emissions inspection of motor vehicles on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades there was significant increase of inactive, passive and also in ecological safety of motor vehicles. The tax for increasing vehicle safety is the fact that in the current produced vehicle there is more electronics than at the Apollo, which landed on the Moon. Current motor vehicles produce (with the exception of CO2) about 10 to 100 times fewer emissions (depending on the issue) as vehicles produced in the 60s and TOs . In developing these vehicles, their manufacturers try to develop vehicles with the lowest production not only of harmful emissions, but also with the lowest fuel consumption. Therefore by minimizing production of carbon dioxide CO2, which is on the one hand so-called 'Green house gas' and on the other hand is an indicator of quality of oxidative process. The problem now is to control these vehicles in use and adjustment of control methods and technological requirements for instruments, that the information of emission control of vehicles in use will be the highest.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in complete type endocardial cushion defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value and limitation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in complete type endocardial cushion defect (ETECD). Methods: Eight patients (male 5, female 3) were scanned by MRI with ECG-gated spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GE) cine techniques. The diagnosis of CTECD was made by X-ray plain film, echocardiography, X-ray right cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography, as well as MRI four patients were treated with operation. Results: Every chamber of the heart was enlarged, more serious in the right atrium and ventricle, with thickening of right ventricular wall on MRI in majority of cases. The endocardial cushion disappeared, so the four chambers of the heart were directly connected with each other, and presented a cross shape. Ventricular septal membrane defect and type I atrial septal defect were depicted also. The normal structure of mitral and tricuspid valves were not intact. There were 6 cases with pulmonary hypertension, 2 cases with Tetralogy of Fallot, 4 cases with right aorta arch and descending aorta, 1 patient with dextroverted heart and another with persistent left superior vena cava connected with coronary sinus. The cine MRI could directly depict the situation of left-right or right-left shunt at atrial and ventricular levels, and regurgitation from ventricles to atria, meanwhile the valves were depicted clearly. Conclusions: MRI can clearly demonstrate all anatomic deformation and complicated hemodynamic change of CTECD, as well as other coexistent deformations

  10. Simulation research on carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas underground reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yu-fei; LIN Tao

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of mixing working gas and cushion gas in carbon sequestration technology, the feasibility of using cation dioxide as the cushion gas in reservoirs is discussed firstly. At the usual condition of reservoirs, carbon dioxide is a kind of supercritieal fluid with high condensability, high viscosity and high density. Secondly, this article studies the laws of formation and development of mixing zone by numerical simulation and analyses the impact on mixing zone brought by different injection modes and rational ratios of cushion gas in reservoirs. It is proposed that the appropriate injection ratio of cushion gas is 20% - 30%. Using carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas reservoirs is able to make the running of natural gas reservoirs economical and efficient.

  11. Energy balance and temperature relations of Azorella compacta, a high-elevation cushion plant of the central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleier, C; Rundel, P

    2009-05-01

    The environmental relationships and ecophysiology of Azorella compacta, a giant cushion plant, were investigated in Parque Nacional Lauca, Chile (18 degrees 10'-18 degrees 25' S and 69 degrees 16' W, 4400 m asl). The diurnal temperature range can reach 42 degrees C on some days of the year. The surface temperature of A. compacta was 13 degrees C below that of the air temperature of -7 degrees C at dawn, but from midmorning to late afternoon, the plant surface temperature remained within a few degrees of the air temperature. Soil surface temperatures did not differ between north- and south-facing slopes, but a model showed an increase in radiation reception by north-facing slopes throughout most of the year. Gas exchange measurements of A. compacta measured at the onset of the wet season ranged from -0.6662 to 11.4 micromol.m(-2).s(-1), and maximum stomatal conductance (Gs) was 410 mmol.m(-2).s(-1). The estimated light compensation point was 89 micromol.m(-2).s(-1) and estimated light saturation occurred at about 1280 mumol.m(-2).s(-1). Diurnal water potential measurements for A. compacta ranged from -1.67 to -2.65 MPa. This is one of the first ecophysiological studies of a tropical alpine cushion plant. PMID:19470106

  12. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  13. Performance of an air sampler and a gamma-ray detector in a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of an air sampler and a small gamma-ray spectrometer was tested in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) able to carry payload with mass up to 0.5 kg. Operation of the sampler was investigated with the aid of radon progeny normally present in outdoor air. Detection limits for several transuranium nuclides in air are of the order of 0.3 Bq m-3 assuming 0.5 h sampling time and 1 h counting time in direct alpha spectrometry. Unshielded 137Cs and 60Co point sources at the ground level were used to test the CsI spectrometer. Detection limits are approximately 1 GBq or larger depending on the flying altitude. (author)

  14. Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) for Elastically Shaped Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and Boeing Phantom Works have been working on the Elastically Shaped Future Vehicle Concept (ESFVC) and have shown that aircraft with elastically shaped wings...

  15. Slung Load Control and User Interfaces for a Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Rudner, Mikael; Hansson, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    The use of small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is quickly becomingcommonplace in many domains. Operating such vehicles often requires using aspecialized radio control (RC) transmitter. One objective of this thesis is toinvestigate the use of other means of controlling a particular type of a UAV - aquadrotor. Two types of alternative devices are investigated, a standard gamingconsole controller PlayStation 3 gamepad (PS3 gamepad) and a smartphone(Android OS based). The purpose of subst...

  16. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  17. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  18. A systematic review of the recent ecological literature on cushion plants: champions of plant facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Reid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushion-forming plant species are found in alpine and polar environments around the world. They modify the microclimate, thereby facilitating other plant species. Similar to the effectiveness of shrubs as a means to study facilitation in arid and semi-arid environments, we explore the potential for cushion plant species to expand the generality of research on this contemporary ecological interaction. A systematic review was conducted to determine the number of publications and citation frequency on relevant ecological topics whilst using shrub literature as a baseline to assess relative importance of cushions as a focal point for future ecological research. Although there are forty times more shrub articles, mean citations per paper is comparable between cushion and shrub literature. Furthermore, the scope of ecological research topics studied using cushions is broad including facilitation, competition, environmental gradients, life history, genetics, reproduction, community, ecosystem and evolution. The preliminary ecological evidence to date also strongly suggests that cushion plants can be keystone species in their ecosystems. Hence, ecological research on net interactions including facilitation and patterns of diversity can be successfully examined using cushion plants, and this is particularly timely given expectations associated with a changing climate in these regions.

  19. The effects of foundation species on community assembly: a global study on alpine cushion plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Brooker, Robin W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Callaway, Ragan M; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Cook, Bradley J; Lortie, Christopher J; Michalet, Richard; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Xiao, Sa; Anthelme, Fabien; Björk, Robert G; Cranston, Brittany H; Gavilan, Rosario G; Kanka, Robert; Lingua, Emanuele; Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Noroozi, Jalil; Parajuli, Rabindra; Phoenix, Gareth K; Reid, Anya; Ridenour, Wendy M; Rixen, Christian; Schöb, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Foundation species can change plant community structure by modulating important ecological processes such as community assembly, yet this topic is poorly understood. In alpine systems, cushion plants commonly act as foundation species by ameliorating local conditions. Here, we analyze diversity patterns of species' assembly within cushions and in adjacent surrounding open substrates (83 sites across five continents) calculating floristic dissimilarity between replicate plots, and using linear models to analyze relationships between microhabitats and species diversity. Floristic dissimilarity did not change across biogeographic regions, but was consistently lower in the cushions than in the open microhabitat. Cushion plants appear to enable recruitment of many relatively stress-intolerant species that otherwise would not establish in these communities, yet the niche space constructed by cushion plants supports a more homogeneous composition of species than the niche space beyond the cushion's influence. As a result, cushion plants support higher α-diversity and a larger species pool, but harbor assemblies with lower β-diversity than open microhabitats. We conclude that habitats with and without dominant foundation species can strongly differ in the processes that drive species recruitment, and thus the relationship between local and regional species diversity. PMID:26405732

  20. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Inai

    Full Text Available Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM components, versican and hyaluronan (HA, and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  1. Estimation of the ability to use a mass of air from a moving vehicle in wind turbine propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam BAWORSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents division and classification of wind turbines according to the location of the axis of rotation and generated power. The work introduces applications of the wind turbines in electric energy generation with their direct development. The paper discusses indicators and exploitation parameters that characterize particular types of wind rotators. Dimension and construction factors, as well as work parameters, have been analyzed in order to choose the optimal rotator in the road infrastructure application. The aim of the analysis was to conduct further investigation to restore a mass of air from passing vehicles.

  2. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing – Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Jing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT model and near real time (NRT traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015.

  3. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  4. Cooperative Electronic Attack for Groups of Unmanned Air Vehicles based on Multi-agent Simulation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of path planning is addressed for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs cooperative joint-forces electronic attack operating in a hostile environment. Specifically, the objective is to plan path to a target location in a way that minimizes exposure to threats while keeping fuel usage at acceptable levels. We consider a scenario where a group of UAVs flies in a close formation and cooperates in their use of jamming resources to prevent being tracked by Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM tracking radars. The main goal of this research effort is develop cooperating UAVs within multi-agent simulation environment. Simulations were generated to test the path planning and control strategies given UAVs/SAM tracking radar network scenarios, and overall UAVs cooperative electronic attack performance in each simulation was analyzed.

  5. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Longo; Wahiba Yaïci; Dario Zaninelli

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sou...

  6. Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Harish

    The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous

  7. On aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover for micro air vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowski, Rafał

    2002-02-15

    This theoretical paper discusses recent advances in the fluid dynamics of insect and micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and considers theoretical analyses necessary for their future development. The main purpose is to propose a new conceptual framework and, within this framework, two analytic approaches to aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover in the context of MAVs. The motion involved is periodic and is composed of two half-cycles (downstroke and upstroke) which, in hover, are mirror images of each other. The downstroke begins with the wing in the uppermost and rearmost position and then sweeps forward while pitching up and plunging down. At the end of the half-cycle, the wing flips, so that the leading edge points backwards and the wing's lower surface becomes its upper side. The upstroke then follows by mirroring the downstroke kinematics and executing them in the opposite direction. Phenomenologically, the interpretation of the flow dynamics involved, and adopted here, is based on recent experimental evidence obtained by biologists from insect flight and related mechanical models. It is assumed that the flow is incompressible, has low Reynolds number and is laminar, and that two factors dominate: (i) forces generated by the bound leading-edge vortex, which models flow separation; and (ii) forces due to the attached part of the flow generated by the periodic pitching, plunging and sweeping. The first of these resembles the analogous phenomenon observed on sharp-edged delta wings and is treated as such. The second contribution is similar to the unsteady aerodynamics of attached flow on helicopter rotor blades and is interpreted accordingly. Theoretically, the fluid dynamic description is based on: (i) the superposition of the unsteady contributions of wing pitching, plunging and sweeping; and (ii) adding corrections due to the bound leading-edge vortex and wake distortion. Viscosity is accounted for indirectly by imposing the Kutta condition

  8. Variable Speed CMG Control of a Dual-Spin Stabilized Unconventional VTOL Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Shin, J-Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach based on using both bias momentum and multiple control moment gyros for controlling the attitude of statically unstable thrust-levitated vehicles in hover or slow translation. The stabilization approach described in this paper uses these internal angular momentum transfer devices for stability, augmented by thrust vectoring for trim and other outer loop control functions, including CMG stabilization/ desaturation under persistent external disturbances. Simulation results show the feasibility of (1) improved vehicle performance beyond bias momentum assisted vector thrusting control, and (2) using control moment gyros to significantly reduce the external torque required from the vector thrusting machinery.

  9. Cabin air temperature of parked vehicles in summer conditions: life-threatening environment for children and pets calculated by a dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Johannes; Schmerold, Ivo; Wimmer, Kurt; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-07-01

    In vehicles that are parked, no ventilation and/or air conditioning takes place. If a vehicle is exposed to direct solar radiation, an immediate temperature rise occurs. The high cabin air temperature can threaten children and animals that are left unattended in vehicles. In the USA, lethal heat strokes cause a mean death rate of 37 children per year. In addition, temperature-sensitive goods (e.g. drugs in ambulances and veterinary vehicles) can be adversely affected by high temperatures. To calculate the rise of the cabin air temperature, a dynamic model was developed that is driven by only three parameters, available at standard meteorological stations: air temperature, global radiation and wind velocity. The transition from the initial temperature to the constant equilibrium temperature depends strongly on the configuration of the vehicle, more specifically on insulation, window area and transmission of the glass, as well as on the meteorological conditions. The comparison of the model with empirical data showed good agreement. The model output can be applied to assess the heat load of children and animals as well as temperature-sensitive goods, which are transported and/or stored in a vehicle.

  10. Air Pollution Prevention Applications for the Transport Sector by Integrating Urban Area Transport and Vehicle Emission Models with the Case Study of Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padet Praditphet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes air pollution prevention applications for urban area transportation aimed at minimizing pollution and meeting ambient air quality standards through the use of transport and vehicle emissions models that account for air pollution changes resulting from prevention strategies. This study combines pollution prevention techniques and transport and vehicle emissions models to enhance air pollution prevention in an urban area. The amount of air emissions from transportation continues to rise as travel patterns expand, necessitating reduced pollution emissions from the transportation sector. This study aims to probe the major causes for the increase in air pollutants in the transportation sector of Bangkok and proposes a feasible method capable of reducing and controlling its associated air pollution. Furthermore, the results suggest that the most effective countermeasures to transportation-based air emissions include four potential solutions that promote the use of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV buses and the institution of rerouting existing services. The current study can be used to formulate policies related to air pollution on a macro scale.

  11. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. [Complete endocardial cushion defect and bone malformations of the hands. Holt-Oram syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, L; Vannini, A; De Marco, S; Gnesi, A; Pentimone, F

    1991-10-01

    A 44 year old woman with upper limb skeletal malformations and endocardial cushion defect is described. This congenital heart disease was rarely reported in association with Holt-Oram syndrome. PMID:1745380

  13. Alpine cushion plants inhibit the loss of phylogenetic diversity in severe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, B J; Cavieres, L A; Callaway, R M; Cook, B J; Kikvidze, Z; Lortie, C J; Michalet, R; Pugnaire, F I; Schöb, C; Xiao, S; Zaitchek, B; Anthelme, F; Björk, R G; Dickinson, K; Gavilán, R; Kanka, R; Maalouf, J-P; Noroozi, J; Parajuli, R; Phoenix, G K; Reid, A; Ridenour, W; Rixen, C; Wipf, S; Zhao, L; Brooker, R W

    2013-04-01

    Biotic interactions can shape phylogenetic community structure (PCS). However, we do not know how the asymmetric effects of foundation species on communities extend to effects on PCS. We assessed PCS of alpine plant communities around the world, both within cushion plant foundation species and adjacent open ground, and compared the effects of foundation species and climate on alpha (within-microsite), beta (between open and cushion) and gamma (open and cushion combined) PCS. In the open, alpha PCS shifted from highly related to distantly related with increasing potential productivity. However, we found no relationship between gamma PCS and climate, due to divergence in phylogenetic composition between cushion and open sub-communities in severe environments, as demonstrated by increasing phylo-beta diversity. Thus, foundation species functioned as micro-refugia by facilitating less stress-tolerant lineages in severe environments, erasing a global productivity - phylogenetic diversity relationship that would go undetected without accounting for this important biotic interaction. PMID:23346919

  14. The effects of foundation species on community assembly : a global study on alpine cushion plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Brooker, Robin W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Callaway, Ragan M.; CAVIERES, LOHENGRIN A.; Cook, Bradley J; Lortie, Christopher J.; Michalet, Richard; Francisco I. Pugnaire; Xiao, Sa; Anthelme, Fabien; Björk, Robert G.; Cranston, Brittany H; Gavilán, Rosario G.; Kanka, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    Foundation species can change plant community structure by modulating important ecological processes such as community assembly, yet this topic is poorly understood. In alpine systems, cushion plants commonly act as foundation species by ameliorating local conditions. Here, we analyze diversity patterns of species' assembly within cushions and in adjacent surrounding open substrates (83 sites across five continents) calculating floristic dissimilarity between replicate plots, and using linear...

  15. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus) foot pad

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Eid Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes...

  16. Ingredient of Biomass Packaging Material and Compare Study on Cushion Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fangyi Li; Kaikai Guan; Peng Liu; Gang Li; Jianfeng Li

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the white pollution caused by nondegradable waste plastic packaging materials, the biomass cushion packaging material with straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials had been synthesized. The orthogonal experiment was used to study the impact of mass ratio of fiber to starch, content of plasticizer, active agent, and foaming agent on the compressive strength of cushion material. Infrared spectrometer and theory of water’s bridge-connection were used to study the hydro...

  17. Interactions between a cushion plant ( Azorella selago) and surface sediment transport on sub-Antarctic Marion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, N. S.; McGeoch, M. A.; Boelhouwers, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    On sub-Antarctic Marion Island cushions of the dominant vascular plant species, Azorella selago, interact with the geomorphology of fellfield landscapes by affecting sediment distribution and ultimately terrace formation. Here, to understand the consequences of Azorella cushions for substrate movement and sorting, we quantified the size and shape of Azorella cushions and the grain size distribution of sediment surrounding these cushions, using a combination of image analysis approaches. Results show that as cushions become larger, they tend to become more elongated and grow more perpendicular to the slope. Mean and variance of grain size were greater upslope of Azorella cushions, while the number of particles was higher downslope of cushions, although these differences were not significant at all sites studied. Differences between upslope and downslope particle sizes were, however, not related to cushion elongation or growth angle as had been expected. The observed sediment partitioning is likely caused by a combination of frost-related sediment transport and Azorella cushions acting as sediment obstructions. Understanding these interactions between Azorella cushions and the landscape is especially important in the light of recent warming and drying on the island, as particle size affects soil properties such as water-holding capacity and frost susceptibility.

  18. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  19. Effects of conventional and alternating cushion weight-shifting in persons with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Wu, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A repeated-measures study of 13 adult full-time wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI was carried out to determine whether alternating-pressure air cushion (APAC use compared with independent pressure relief (IPR provides reliable, effective pressure relief for individuals with SCI. Bilateral mean ischial interface pressure (IP, transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2, and unilateral laser Doppler blood flow were evaluated. Blood flow component contributions were determined using short-time Fourier transform (STFT-based spectral analysis. IPR assessment was carried out at recruitment. Study participants then used an APAC for 2 wk every 3 mo for 18 mo. IPR weight-shifting decreased mean ischial IP (p < 0.05 and increased mean TcPO2 (p < 0.05. All variables rapidly returned to preintervention levels following weight-shifting except for the cardiac component of blood flow. APAC-induced weight-shifting decreased mean ischial IP (p < 0.05. Mean TcPO2 increased and was higher than for IPR. STFT analysis indicated that quiet sitting following APAC-induced weight-shifting produced a higher neurogenic component of blood flow than following IPR (p = 0.02. Thus, IPR positively affects multiple aspects of tissue health but produces transient improvements and must be repeated regularly. APAC activation dynamically and continuously alters IP distribution with more sustained positive tissue health effects.

  20. Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided...

  1. Method and system for estimating and predicting airflow around air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-12-31

    A method, system, and sensor for air flow sensing. The system can include a cantilever, a transducer, and a processing module. The method can include measuring beam deflections of one or more cantilevers, extracting information about air flow, and determining one or more of an airspeed, an angle of attack, and a sideslip, based on extracted information. The system and method can exploit nonlinearities in the behavior of the cantilever in fluid flow.

  2. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  3. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Brahim Mebarki; Belkacem Draoui; Boumediène Allaou; Lakhdar Rahmani; Elhadj Benachour

    2013-01-01

    The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric ...

  4. Air pollution of hydrocarbons exhausted from vehicle in tunnels, bridges of Istanbul and detection of 3-nitrophthalic in seawater near the side of boat

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Selin Cumalı and Kasım Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The air pollution due to exhausted gas from vehicles was studied in tunnels, bridges in Istanbul city and the contribution of exhausted gas from boat to the seawater in Golden Horn. The component of hydrocarbons of fuels and exhausted gas from vehicles was also compared. The gas samples were collected in tubes containing Tenax GR or activated charcoal adsorbent. They were extracted with dichloro-methane and analysis performed by UVF, GC/MS and HPLC. The petroleum hydrocarbon amounts ...

  5. 车内空气污染特点及改善措施%The Characters of air Pollution in Vehicles and Related Strategies for Improvement ,

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建伟; 林忠平; 吴昌甫

    2012-01-01

    综述了我国目前汽车车内空气污染状况和各种污染物对人体健康的危害;通过对室内空气污染和车内空气污染对比,认为车内空气污染与室内空气污染的差异较大,应区别对待j根据汽车污染的特点,提出了适用于汽车的新风风量。通过对不同通风方式和过滤器效率车内污染物浓度的讨论,提出了改进的适合汽车的空调送风方案,即司机与乘客分开送风,根据车外污染浓度控制新风量、回风量。%The situation of air pollution in vehicles and the related health effects were reviewed. It is considered that the air pollution in vehicles be different from those indoors. The fresh air requirement applicable in vehicles is suggested based on the characteristics the air quality in vehicles. The relationship of the air pollutant concentration and ventilation modes and cabin air filters with different efficiency was analyzed. An optimized ventilation strategy was proposed, with different proportion of fresh air and return air to driver and passengers respectively according to the concentration of pollutants out of vehicle.

  6. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  7. An evaluation of a novel alternating mattress and cushion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanga, Edwin; Butcher, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Pressure ulcer prevention and management remain a challenge across all health-care settings, and the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in nursing homes and residential homes continues to remain unknown. The use of suitable support surfaces has been found to be beneficial in the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Carrying out a holistic assessment of the patient and recording the patient's at-risk score would help the clinician to determine the most suitable pressure-relieving surface for the patient. The clinician's clinical experience and judgment are also important. The Domus Auto (by APEX) mattress system and Dynamic Seat Cushion (by APEX) are effective dynamic, support surfaces in the prevention and management of pressure ulceration. They meet the recommendations by both national and international guidelines; they also partly fulfil the SSKIN bundle. From a four-week evaluation carried out in a nursing home, it has been demonstrated that, together with regular assessments and repositioning of the patients, these devices are useful tools in preventing patients' risk of tissue damage and improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:26940731

  8. No free polluting anymore: The impact of a vehicle pollution charge on air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cerruti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of a vehicle pollution charge (Ecopass), enforced at peak time, on nitrogen oxides concentration in Milan. Using hourly data on pollution concentration and a vector auto regressive model, I estimate the short and long run effects of the policy, the effects outside the Ecopass area and during off-peak time. Results suggest that Ecopass reduced pollution in the short run, but had no effect in the long run. The effect on zones outside Ecopass area is not homogeneous...

  9. Operational Modes and Capability Requirements for Cooperative Air Combat of Manned Vehicle and Unmanned Vehicle%有人/无人战斗机协同空战模式及能力需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付昭旺; 寇英信; 于雷; 李战武

    2012-01-01

    针对未来空战的特点对有人/无人战斗机协同空战的作战模式及能力需求进行了研究.从信息链到武器链时空过渡的角度分析了有人/无人机协同空战的作战优势;提出了两种典型的有人/无人机协同空战方式,并给出了作战过程描述及功能结构分析;基于“观测-评估-决策-执行”指挥控制环分析了有人/无人机协同空战的指挥控制流程;基于协同空战的任务需求提出各参与平台的能力需求.此研究对有人/无人机协同空战的发展具有一定的指导意义.%Cooperative modes and capability requirements for cooperative air combat of manned vehicle and unmanned vehicle are proposed based on the characteristics of the future air combat. Firstly, the operational advantage of manned vehicle and unmanned vehicle cooperative air combat is deeply analyzed based on the information transformation style, then, two cooperative combat mode are proposed and the combat process and functional structure are analyzed separately. Third, the command and control problem is searched based on the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act command and control circle. At last the capability requirements for each platform of cooperative combat system are analyzed. This research will be certain significance for the development of cooperative air combat of manned vehicle and unmanned vehicle.

  10. Polymer packaging for arrayed ionic polymer–metal composites and its application to micro air vehicle control surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuators arrayed in horizontal as well as vertical directions were investigated for more effective actuation performance. A very thin polymer packaging structure named 'glove' was designed and fabricated, and the IPMC package, composed of the glove and the arrayed IPMCs, was applied to the multifunctional control surface of a micro air vehicle (MAV). The IPMC package is light and space-saving, and therefore appropriate for the application of a MAV which has a limitation in weight and size. A wind tunnel test was performed to demonstrate the capability of the IPMC package for the control surface of a MAV and it was confirmed that the package generates enough force to maneuver a MAV

  11. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  12. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy. PMID:26456727

  13. Use of advanced regional airshed models to study the effect of alternatively fueled vehicles in urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strict, ambient level standards concerning ozone and particulate matter2.5 (particulate matter) have recently been introduced in Canada. The formation of these substances is dependent on chemical reactions in the atmosphere among primary emitted substances like nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide. Therefore ozone and particulate matter have been classed as secondary. Complex modelling systems were created in an effort to better understand the origin of the ozone and particulate matter levels. The models include MC2/Calgrid, PATH framework in Hong Kong and the Models 3 Framework in the United States. The modelling systems enable scientists to assess air quality problems on a regional basis as well as the determination of appropriate potential solutions. The results of recent modelling efforts in Canada were reported on in this paper. The results of an assessment of the effects of alternatively fuelled vehicles on the ozone levels in the Vancouver area were included. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Real-time approaches to the estimation of local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three real-time approaches to estimating local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle are presented in this study. All three methods work around the navigation equations with added wind components. The first approach calculates the local wind speed by substituting the ground speed and ascent rate data given by the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the navigation equations. The second and third approaches utilize the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively. The results show that, despite the nonlinearity of the navigation equations, the EKF performance is proven to be on a par with the UKF. A time-varying noise estimation method based on the Wiener filter is also discussed. Results are compared with the average wind speed measured on the ground. All three approaches are proven to be reliable with stated advantages and disadvantages

  15. 77 FR 75388 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Motor Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... carbon monoxide (see 72 FR 46148, August 17, 2007), Metro-Denver for PM 10 (see 72 FR 62571, November 6, 2007), or Greeley for carbon monoxide (see 70 FR 48650), or the approved attainment plan for Metro... Protection Agency. (iii) The initials NAAQS mean national ambient air quality standard. (iv) The initials...

  16. 77 FR 1892 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Motor Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... affect the approved maintenance plans for Metro-Denver and Longmont for carbon monoxide (see 72 FR 46148... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... monoxide (see 70 FR 48650), or the approved attainment plan for Metro-Denver/NFR for the 1997 8-hour...

  17. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Boyu; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Gong, Sunning; He, Jianjun; Zou, Chao; Song, Guohua; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016).

  18. Near-optimal order-reduced control for A/C (air-conditioning) system of EVs (electric vehicles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to investigate the regulation problem for thermal comfortableness and propose control strategies for cabin environment of EVs (electric vehicles) by constructing a reduced-scale A/C (air-conditioning) system which mainly consists of two modules: ECB (environmental control box) and AHU (air-handling unit). Temperature and humidity in the ECB can be regulated by AHU via cooling, heating, mixing air streams and adjusting speed of fans. To synthesize the near-optimal controllers, the mathematical model for the system thermodynamics is developed by employing the equivalent lumped heat capacity approach, energy/mass conservation principle and the heat transfer theories. In addition, from the clustering pattern of system eigenvalues, the thermodynamics of the interested system can evidently be characterized by two-time-scale property. That is, the studied system can be decoupled into two subsystems, slow mode and fast mode, by singular perturbation technique. As to the optimal control strategies for EVs, by taking thermal comfortableness, humidity and energy consumption all into account, a series of optimal controllers is synthesized on the base of the order-reduced thermodynamic model. The feedback control loop for the experimental test rig is examined and realized by the aid of the control system development kit dSPACE DS1104 and the commercial software MATLAB/Simulink. To sum up, the intensive computer simulations and experimental results verify that the performance of the near-optimal order-reduced control law is almost as superior as that of standard LQR (Linear-Quadratic Regulator). - Highlights: • A reduced-scale test rig for A/C (air-conditioning) system to imitate the temperature/humidity of cabin in EV (electric vehicle) is constructed. • The non-linear thermodynamic model of A/C system can be decoupled by singular perturbation technique. • The temperature/humidity in cabin is regulated to the desired values by proposed optimal

  19. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  20. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  1. Experimental analysis of artificial dragonfly wings using black graphite and fiberglass for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Praveena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the suitability of two different materials which are black graphite carbon fiber and red pre-impregnated fiberglass from which to fabricate artificial dragonfly wing frames. These wings could be of use in Biomimetic Micro Aerial Vehicles (BMAV. BMAV are a new class of unmanned micro-sized air vehicles that mimic flying biological organisms. Insects, such as dragonflies, possess corrugated and complex vein structures that are difficult to mimic. Simplified dragonfly wing frames were fabricated from these materials and then a nano-composite film was adhered to them, which mimics the membrane of an actual dragonfly. Experimental analysis of these results showed that although black graphite carbon fiber and red pre-impregnated fiberglass offer some structural advantages, red pre-impregnated fiberglass was a less preferred option due to its warpage and shrinking effects. Black graphite carbon fiber with its high load bearing capability is a more suitable choice for consideration in future BMAV applications.

  2. Novel adaptive neural control design for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Guangjun; Huang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the design of a novel adaptive neural controller for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with control input constraints. To reduce the complexity of controller design, the vehicle dynamics is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem, respectively. For each subsystem, only one neural network is utilized to approach the lumped unknown function. By employing a minimal-learning parameter method to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements, there are only two adaptive parameters required for neural approximation. Thus, the computational burden is lower than the ones derived from neural back-stepping schemes. Specially, to deal with the control input constraints, additional systems are exploited to compensate the actuators. Lyapunov synthesis proves that all the closed-loop signals involved are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulation results show that the adopted compensation scheme can tackle actuator constraint effectively and moreover velocity and altitude can stably track their reference trajectories even when the physical limitations on control inputs are in effect.

  3. Micro air vehicle-motivated computational biomechanics in bio-flights: aerodynamics, flight dynamics and maneuvering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Gao, Na; Maeda, Masateru; Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Aiming at developing an effective tool to unveil key mechanisms in bio-flight as well as to provide guidelines for bio-inspired micro air vehicles (MAVs) design, we propose a comprehensive computational framework, which integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, vehicle stability and maneuverability. This framework consists of (1) a Navier-Stokes unsteady aerodynamic model; (2) a linear finite element model for structural dynamics; (3) a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for coupled flexible wing aerodynamics aeroelasticity; (4) a free-flying rigid body dynamic (RBD) model utilizing the Newtonian-Euler equations of 6DoF motion; and (5) flight simulator accounting for realistic wing-body morphology, flapping-wing and body kinematics, and a coupling model accounting for the nonlinear 6DoF flight dynamics and stability of insect flapping flight. Results are presented based on hovering aerodynamics with rigid and flexible wings of hawkmoth and fruitfly. The present approach can support systematic analyses of bio- and bio-inspired flight.

  4. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  5. Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P.; Saiet, E., II

    2014-12-01

    Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) Numerous scientific and logistical applications exist in Alaska and other arctic regions requiring analysis of expansive, remote areas in the near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. These include characterization of wild land fire plumes and volcanic ejecta, detailed mapping of lava flows, and inspection of lengthy segments of critical infrastructure, such as the Alaska pipeline and railroad system. Obtaining timely, repeatable, calibrated measurements of these extensive features and infrastructure networks requires localized, taskable assets such as UAVs. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) provides practical solutions to these problem sets by pairing various IR sensors with a combination of fixed-wing and multi-rotor air vehicles. Fixed-wing assets, such as the Insitu ScanEagle, offer long reach and extended duration capabilities to quickly access remote locations and provide enduring surveillance of the target of interest. Rotary-wing assets, such as the Aeryon Scout or the ACUASI-built Ptarmigan hexcopter, provide a precision capability for detailed horizontal mapping or vertical stratification of atmospheric phenomena. When included with other ground capabilities, we will show how they can assist in decision support and hazard assessment as well as giving those in emergency management a new ability to increase knowledge of the event at hand while reducing the risk to all involved. Here, in this presentation, we illustrate how UAV's can provide the ideal tool to map and analyze the hazardous events and critical infrastructure under extreme environmental conditions.

  6. The best for the guest: high Andean nurse cushions of Azorella madreporica enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal status in associated plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Torres-Mellado, Gustavo Adolfo; Palfner, Goetz; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2011-10-01

    Positive interactions between cushion plant and associated plants species in the high Andes of central Chile should also include the effects of fungal root symbionts. We hypothesized that higher colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi exists in cushion-associated (nursling) plants compared with conspecific individuals growing on bare ground. We assessed the AM status of Andean plants at two sites at different altitudes (3,200 and 3,600 ma.s.l.) in 23 species, particularly in cushions of Azorella madreporica and five associated plants; additionally, AM fungal spores were retrieved from soil outside and beneath cushions. 18 of the 23 examined plant species presented diagnostic structures of arbuscular mycorrhiza; most of them were also colonized by dark-septate endophytes. Mycorrhization of A. madreporica cushions showed differences between both sites (68% and 32%, respectively). In the native species Hordeum comosum, Nastanthus agglomeratus, and Phacelia secunda associated to A. madreporica, mycorrhization was six times higher than in the same species growing dispersed on bare ground at 3,600 ma.s.l., but mycorrhiza development was less cushion dependent in the alien plants Cerastium arvense and Taraxacum officinale at both sites. The ratio of AM fungal spores beneath versus outside cushions was also 6:1. The common and abundant presence of AM in cushion communities at high altitudes emphasizes the importance of the fungal root symbionts in such situations where plant species benefit from the microclimatic conditions generated by the cushion and also from well-developed mycorrhizal networks. PMID:21384201

  7. Visual Servoing of Quadrotor Micro-Air Vehicle Using Color-Based Tracking Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrad, Syaril; Kendoul, Farid; Nonami, Kenzo

    This paper describes a vision-based tracking system using an autonomous Quadrotor Unmanned Micro-Aerial Vehicle (MAV). The vision-based control system relies on color target detection and tracking algorithm using integral image, Kalman filters for relative pose estimation, and a nonlinear controller for the MAV stabilization and guidance. The vision algorithm relies on information from a single onboard camera. An arbitrary target can be selected in real-time from the ground control station, thereby outperforming template and learning-based approaches. Experimental results obtained from outdoor flight tests, showed that the vision-control system enabled the MAV to track and hover above the target as long as the battery is available. The target does not need to be pre-learned, or a template for detection. The results from image processing are sent to navigate a non-linear controller designed for the MAV by the researchers in our group.

  8. Design and development of an unconventional VTOL micro air vehicle: The Cyclocopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the systematic experimental and vehicle design/development studies conducted at the University of Maryland which culminated in the development of the first flying Cyclocopter in the history. Cyclocopter is a novel Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft, which utilizes cycloidalrotors (cyclorotors), a revolutionary horizontal axis propulsion concept, that has many advantages such as higher aerodynamic efficiency, maneuverability and high-speed forward flight capability when compared to a conventional helicopter rotor. The experimental studies included a detailed parametric study to understand the effect of rotor geometry and blade kinematics on cyclorotor hover performance. Based on the experimental results, higher blade pitch angles were found to improve thrust and increase the power loading (thrust per unit power) of the cyclorotor. Asymmetric pitching with higher pitch angle at the top than at the bottom produced better power loading. The chordwise optimum pitching axis location was observed to be around 25-35% of the blade chord. Because of the flow curvature effects, the cycloidal rotor performance was a strong function of the chord/radius ratio. The optimum chord/radius ratios were extremely high, around 0.5-0.8, depending on the blade pitching amplitude. A flow field investigation was also conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to unravel the physics behind thrust production of a cyclorotor. PIV studies indicated evidence of a stall delay as well as possible increases in lift on the blades from the presence of a leading edge vortex. The goal of all these studies was to understand and optimize the performance of a micro-scale cyclorotor so that it could be used in a flying vehicle. An optimized cyclorotor was used to develop a 200 gram cyclocopter capable of autonomous stable hover using an onboard feedback controller.

  9. Implementation of the Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother for Sensor Compatibility Correction of a Fixed-Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Bin Hsiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete procedure for sensor compatibility correction of a fixed-wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV. The sensors consist of a differential air pressure transducer for airspeed measurement, two airdata vanes installed on an airdata probe for angle of attack (AoA and angle of sideslip (AoS measurement, and an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS that provides attitude angles, angular rates, and acceleration. The procedure is mainly based on a two pass algorithm called the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS smoother, which consists of a forward pass Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and a backward recursion smoother. On top of that, this paper proposes the implementation of the Wiener Type Filter prior to the RTS in order to avoid the complicated process noise covariance matrix estimation. Furthermore, an easy to implement airdata measurement noise variance estimation method is introduced. The method estimates the airdata and subsequently the noise variances using the ground speed and ascent rate provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS. It incorporates the idea of data regionality by assuming that some sort of statistical relation exists between nearby data points. Root mean square deviation (RMSD is being employed to justify the sensor compatibility. The result shows that the presented procedure is easy to implement and it improves the UAV sensor data compatibility significantly.

  10. Ingredient of Biomass Packaging Material and Compare Study on Cushion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the white pollution caused by nondegradable waste plastic packaging materials, the biomass cushion packaging material with straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials had been synthesized. The orthogonal experiment was used to study the impact of mass ratio of fiber to starch, content of plasticizer, active agent, and foaming agent on the compressive strength of cushion material. Infrared spectrometer and theory of water’s bridge-connection were used to study the hydroxyl groups among the fiber and starch. The results were demonstrated as follows: the mass ratio of fiber to starch had the most significant impact on compressive strength. When the contents of the plasticizer, the foaming agent, and the active agent were, respectively, 12%, 0.1%, and 0.3% and the mass ratio of fiber to starch was 2 : 5, the compressive strength was the best up to 0.94 MPa. Meanwhile, with the plasticizer content and the mass ratio of fiber to starch increasing, the cushioning coefficient of the material decreased first and then increased. Comparing the cushion and rebound performance of this material with others, the biomass cushion packaging material could be an ideal substitute of plastic packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.

  11. Numerical simulation on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion in rigid-pile composite foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolei; Li, Yaokun; Ji, Jing; Ying, Junhao; Li, Weichen; Dai, Baicheng

    2016-06-01

    In order to quantitatively study the seismic absorption effect of the cushion on a superstructure, a numerical simulation and parametric study are carried out on the overall FEA model of a rigid-pile composite foundation in ABAQUS. A simulation of a shaking table test on a rigid mass block is first completed with ABAQUS and EERA, and the effectiveness of the Drucker-Prager constitutive model and the finite-infinite element coupling method is proved. Dynamic time-history analysis of the overall model under frequent and rare earthquakes is carried out using seismic waves from the El Centro, Kobe, and Bonds earthquakes. The different responses of rigid-pile composite foundations and pile-raft foundations are discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thickness and modulus of cushion, and ground acceleration on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion are analyzed. The results show that: 1) the seismic absorption effect of a cushion is good under rare earthquakes, with an absorption ratio of about 0.85; and 2) the seismic absorption effect is strongly affected by cushion thickness and ground acceleration.

  12. Rotating wheels as active components in the enhancing of air handling in road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Márquez, Florencio

    2008-01-01

    Automotive engineering is a very competitive field and find new ways of innovation is difficult. Use an existing element for a new use, far from his normal use can give more chances for this innovation. With a new design, it is possible to take profit of the existing rotating movement of the wheels, and make them work as turbomachines. The objective of this new use is to reduce the air pressure beneath the car, increasing then the downforce. This extra downforce achieved with t...

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Ventilated Design for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, G Q; Yu, S. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the “ventilation” in reduci...

  14. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (φ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (Fnet) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms−1. (paper)

  15. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  16. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of the ventilated design for flapping wing micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G Q; Yu, S C M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the "ventilation" in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  18. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  19. BATMAV: a biologically inspired micro air vehicle for flapping flight: kinematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    The overall objective of the BATMAV project is the development of a biologically inspired bat-like Micro-Aerial Vehicle (MAV) with flexible and foldable wings, capable of flapping flight. This first phase of the project focuses particularly on the kinematical analysis of the wing motion in order to build an artificial-muscle-driven actuation system in the future. While flapping flight in MAV has been previously studied and a number of models were realized using light-weight nature-inspired rigid wings, this paper presents a first model for a platform that features bat-inspired wings with a number of flexible joints which allows mimicking the kinematics of the real flyer. The bat was chosen after an extensive analysis of the flight physics of small birds, bats and large insects characterized by superior gust rejection and obstacle avoidance. Typical engineering parameters such as wing loading, wing beat frequency etc. were studied and it was concluded that bats are a suitable platform that can be actuated efficiently using artificial muscles. Also, due to their wing camber variation, they can operate effectively at a large range of speeds and allow remarkably maneuverable flight. In order to understand how to implement the artificial muscles on a bat-like platform, the analysis was followed by a study of bat flight kinematics. Due to their obvious complexity, only a limited number of degrees of freedom (DOF) were selected to characterize the flexible wing's stroke pattern. An extended analysis of flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg and the engineering theory of robotic manipulators resulted in a 2 and 4-DOF models which managed to mimic the wingbeat cycle of the natural flyer. The results of the kinematical model can be used to optimize the lengths and the attachment locations of the wires such that enough lift, thrust and wing stroke are obtained.

  20. Design, fabrication, and characterization of multifunctional wings to harvest solar energy in flapping wing air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Gehlhar, Rachel D.; Nolen, Savannah; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a., ornithopters or robotic birds) sustain very short duration flight due to limited on-board energy storage capacity. Therefore, energy harvesting elements, such as flexible solar cells, need to be used as materials in critical components, such as wing structures, to increase operational performance. In this paper, we describe a layered fabrication method that was developed for realizing multifunctional composite wings for a unique robotic bird we developed, known as Robo Raven, by creating compliant wing structure from flexible solar cells. The deformed wing shape and aerodynamic lift/thrust loads were characterized throughout the flapping cycle to understand wing mechanics. A multifunctional performance analysis was developed to understand how integration of solar cells into the wings influences flight performance under two different operating conditions: (1) directly powering wings to increase operation time, and (2) recharging batteries to eliminate need for external charging sources. The experimental data is then used in the analysis to identify a performance index for assessing benefits of multifunctional compliant wing structures. The resulting platform, Robo Raven III, was the first demonstration of a robotic bird that flew using energy harvested from solar cells. We developed three different versions of the wing design to validate the multifunctional performance analysis. It was also determined that residual thrust correlated to shear deformation of the wing induced by torsional twist, while biaxial strain related to change in aerodynamic shape correlated to lift. It was also found that shear deformation of the solar cells induced changes in power output directly correlating to thrust generation associated with torsional deformation. Thus, it was determined that multifunctional solar cell wings may be capable of three functions: (1) lightweight and flexible structure to generate aerodynamic forces, (2

  1. Use of leaves as cushions to sit on wet ground by wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S; Myowa, M; Matsuzawa, T

    1998-01-01

    A new type of tool use, leaf cushion, by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was found. We report two cases: one is indirect evidence; the other is direct observation of a chimpanzee who used the tool. Both cases indicate that chimpanzees used a set of leaves as a cushion while sitting on wet ground. Chimpanzees at Bossou show various kinds of tool use, some of which are unique to the community. Most of these behavioral patterns are substance tool use for obtaining food, as at other study sites. The use of leaves as a cushion adds to the few instances of nonsubstance, elementary technology seen used by wild chimpanzees. PMID:9519241

  2. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  3. Applying ISO 16840–2 Standard to differentiate impact force dissipation characteristics of selection of commercial wheelchair cushions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ferguson-Pell, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from applying the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 16840–2 test method for determining the impact damping characteristics of 35 wheelchair cushions plus a high resilience (HR70 polyurethane reference foam sample are reported. The generation of impact forces when a wheelchair user either transfers onto a cushion or the wheelchair encounters rough terrain or bumps down a step can endanger the viability of tissues, especially if these forces occur repeatedly. The results demonstrate significant differences in the impact force dissipation characteristics of different cushion products but do not reliably identify differences in performance that can be attributed to descriptive information about cushion composition alone. Instead, these results demonstrate that the materials, proprietary design, and construction features of wheelchair cushions in combination dictate impact force dissipation properties. The results of a cluster analysis are used to generate a model that can be used to compare the impact damping properties obtained from the ISO 16840–2 test method with those of a range of cushions and the reference cushion. Manufacturers will therefore be able to provide users and clinicians with information about the impact force dissipation properties of the cushions that will enable them to make more informed product choices for achieving improved comfort and to protect skin integrity.

  4. ISO 16840-2:2007 load deflection and hysteresis measurements for a sample of wheelchair seating cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, James; Hillman, Susan J; Torres-Sánchez, Carmen; Boeckx, Jens; Crossan, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Load deflection and hysteresis measurements were made on 37 wheelchair seating cushions according to ISO 16840-2:2007. Load deflection plots for all 37 cushions are reported and fundamental aspects of graph interpretation discussed. ISO hysteresis data are also reported and interpretation discussed. PMID:24230981

  5. Applying ISO 16840-2 Standard to differentiate impact force dissipation characteristics of selection of commercial wheelchair cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Pell, Martin; Ferguson-Pell, Grace; Mohammadi, Farhood; Call, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Results from applying the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 16840-2 test method for determining the impact damping characteristics of 35 wheelchair cushions plus a high resilience (HR70) polyurethane reference foam sample are reported. The generation of impact forces when a wheelchair user either transfers onto a cushion or the wheelchair encounters rough terrain or bumps down a step can endanger the viability of tissues, especially if these forces occur repeatedly. The results demonstrate significant differences in the impact force dissipation characteristics of different cushion products but do not reliably identify differences in performance that can be attributed to descriptive information about cushion composition alone. Instead, these results demonstrate that the materials, proprietary design, and construction features of wheelchair cushions in combination dictate impact force dissipation properties. The results of a cluster analysis are used to generate a model that can be used to compare the impact damping properties obtained from the ISO 16840-2 test method with those of a range of cushions and the reference cushion. Manufacturers will therefore be able to provide users and clinicians with information about the impact force dissipation properties of the cushions that will enable them to make more informed product choices for achieving improved comfort and to protect skin integrity. PMID:26230038

  6. Using thermal infrared imagery produced by unmanned air vehicles to evaluate locations of ecological road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Gülci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial photos and satellite images are widely used and cost efficient data for monitoring and analysis of large areas in forestry activities. Nowadays, accurate and high resolution remote sensing data can be generated for large areas by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV integrated with sensors working in various spectral bands. Besides, the UAV systems (UAVs have been used in interdisciplinary studies to produce data of large scale forested areas for desired time periods (i.e. in different seasons or different times of a day. In recent years, it has become more important to conduct studies on determination of wildlife corridors for controlling and planning of habitat fragmentation of wild animals that need vast living areas. The wildlife corridors are a very important base for the determination of a road network planning and placement of ecological road structures (passages, as well as for the assessment of special and sensitive areas such as riparian zones within the forest. It is possible to evaluate wildlife corridors for large areas within a shorter time by using data produced by ground measurements, and remote sensing and viewer systems (i.e. photo-trap, radar and etc., as well as by using remote sensing data generated by UAVs. Ecological behaviors and activities (i.e. sheltering, feeding, mating, etc. of wild animals vary spatially and temporally. Some species are active in their habitats at day time, while some species are active during the night time. One of the most effective methods for evaluation of night time animals is utilizing heat sensitive thermal cameras that can be used to collect thermal infrared images with the night vision feature. When the weather conditions are suitable for a flight, UAVs assist for determining location of corridors effectively and accurately for moving wild animals at any time of the day. Then, the most suitable locations for ecological road structures can be determined based on wildlife corridor

  7. Study of Several Cushioning Materials Commonly Used for Cushioning Pallet%几种常见缓冲托盘的缓冲材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈训乐; 刘乘

    2012-01-01

    对应用于大型工业设备的缓冲托盘的常用缓冲材料:防振垫圈、单层发泡聚乙烯、乙烯-醋酸乙烯共聚物进行了介绍。试验研究了其中2种泡沫材料的静态压缩、跌落冲击性能曲线,为缓冲托盘的设计提供理论根据。%Skid-mate, planked EPE, and EVA which were commonly used for cushioning pallet of large industrial facilities were introduced. Static compression, dynamic compression and vibration transmissibility curves of 2 kinds of foam were obtained from experiments. The purpose was to provide theoretic basis for cushion pallet design.

  8. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M.; Karakas, Zeynep N.; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω μɛ-1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was -5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle.

  9. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  10. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω με−1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was −5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle. (paper)

  11. Infection cushion formation by Rhizoctonia spp. on peanut and wheat root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of infection cushions by Rhizoctonia solani (isolate G-24) and R. cerealis (isolate Fellers) was examined on cellophane membranes in response to stimulation by roots of peanut (Okrun, Tamspan 90, Southwest runner and Line 209) and hard red winter wheat (Jagger, 2137, and 2174). Root s...

  12. Development status of zinc air power battery for electric vehicles%汽车用锌空气动力电池研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景义军; 郭际; 孟宪玲; 武彩霞

    2011-01-01

    锌空气电池具有高比能量、低成本、无污染、不燃爆、可循环利用等优势,适宜用作城市电动汽车的动力电源.目前国内外电动汽车用锌空气动力电池主要采用机械充电式锌空气电池和锌膏循环式锌空气电池两种结构,这两种结构都是通过更换锌负极使电池连续工作.论述了锌空气动力电池还需要解决一些问题,并分析了其发展前景.%Zinc air battery can be an alternative power source for urban electric vehicles due to its high specific energy, low cost, non-pollution, non-explosion and recycle. Now, zinc air battery structures for electric vehicles mainly include mechanically rechargeable zinc air battery and zinc air battery with zinc slurry cycle system. The batteries with both structures continuously work by replacing the discharged zinc electrode with the new zinc electrode or the zinc slurry. The problems of zinc air power battery needed to be solved further were discussed, and its development prospect was analyzed.

  13. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas and air emissions of electric vehicles: A comparison between China and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) of electric vehicles (EVs) in China and the United States (U.S.), two of the largest potential markets for EVs in the world. Six of the most economically developed and populated regions in China and the U.S. were selected. The results showed that EV fuel-cycle emissions depend substantially on the carbon intensity and cleanness of the electricity mix, and vary significantly across the regions studied. In those regions with a low share of coal-based electricity (e.g., California), EVs can reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions (except for PM) significantly compared with conventional vehicles. However, in the Chinese regions and selected U.S. Midwestern states where coal dominates in the generation mix, EVs can reduce GHG emissions but increase the total and urban emissions of air pollutants. In 2025, EVs will offer greater reductions in GHG and air pollutant emissions because emissions from power plants will be better controlled; EVs in the Chinese regions examined, however, may still increase SO2 and PM emissions. Reductions of 60-85% in GHGs and air pollutants could be achieved were EVs charged with 80% renewable electricity or the electricity generated from the best available technologies of coal-fired power plants, which are futuristic power generation scenarios.

  14. 微型旋翼无人机的磁操纵研究%Magnetic Operation of Rotor Micro Air Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富立; 王浩明; 杨丹迪

    2012-01-01

    磁操纵是微型无人机领域的一种新型控制方式,通过外界磁场的改变控制无人机的稳定。本文设计了一种磁动力控制微型旋翼飞行器,采用方形Helmholtz线圈产生匀强磁场来控制该飞行器的稳定,采用方形Maxwell线圈产生均匀梯度的磁场来控制飞行器的运动。在此基础上设计了框架式的磁场生成系统,该飞行器在框架之中飞行。经过理论计算及仿真,设计的磁场生成系统可以产生满足要求的磁场控制该飞行器使其稳定,进而沿水平方向运动。%Magnetic operation is a new kind of control method of micro air vehicle(MAV),which is to control its stability by changing the external magnetic field.In this thesis,we designed a new magnetic-controlling single rotor-wing MAV.We intended to use two square-Helmholtz coils to control the attitude of MAV by generating uniform magnetic field while two square-Maxwell coils to control the moving by generating magnetic gradient field.All the square coils are mountable on a cubic frame that has an opening to accommodate the MAV.In theory,the attitude of MAV can be controlled and the MAV can move horizontally through simulation.

  15. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  16. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  17. Ethical and economic issues in the use of zero-emission vehicles as a component of an air-pollution mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Tim; Englander, Fred; Englander, Valerie; Hodson, Thomas J; Marpet, Mark

    2002-10-01

    The air pollution generated by motor vehicles and by static sources is, in certain geographic areas, a very serious problem, a problem that exists because of a failure of the marketplace. To address this marketplace failure, the State of California has mandated that by 2003, 10% of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (LDV) be composed of Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). However, the policy-making process that was utilized to generate the ZEV mandate was problematic and the resulting ZEV mandate is economically unsound. Moreover, an ethical analysis, based primarily upon the work of John Rawls, suggests that implementation of the California ZEV mandate is--in spite of the wide latitude that ought to be given to policy decision makers--unethical. A more ethical and economically efficient approach to the pollution caused by marketplace failure is one that relies on market incentives and thereby achieves the desired improvement in air quality by appealing both to the self-interest of motorists and to those businesses that are directly or indirectly involved with the automobile industry. Such an approach would take better advantage of the creative forces of the market and improvements in technology over time and avoid the infringements on individual liberty and fairness embodied in the ZEV mandate. PMID:12501725

  18. The valuation of air emission externalities of vehicles: a comparison between fossil fuels and ethanol in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Alcohol Program, Proalcool has had an important strategic role as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, Proalcool has faced economic difficulties that endanger the Program's future. From the environmental point of view, the introduction of hydrated ethanol as an automobile fuel was beneficial because initially it reduced vehicle emissions. The lack of investment in technology for a neat-alcohol vehicle has delayed further development of an alcohol engine relative to the gasoline engine, which is reflected in current exhaust gas emissions. This paper discusses the evolution of ethanol vehicle emissions and the monetary effect of these emissions in the urban area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. (author)

  19. Motion analysis of wheelchair propulsion movements in hemiplegic patients: effect of a wheelchair cushion on suppressing posterior pelvic tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Kyohei; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Takanashi, Akira; Miyazima, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Sumiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to ascertain whether, in hemiplegic patients, the effect of a wheelchair cushion to suppress pelvic posterior tilt when initiating wheelchair propulsion would continue in subsequent propulsions. [Subjects] Eighteen hemiplegic patients who were able to propel a wheelchair in a seated position participated in this study. [Methods] An adjustable wheelchair was fitted with a cushion that had an anchoring function, and a thigh pad on the propulsion side was removed. Pro...

  20. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Molenda

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Interface between Composite Geomembrane and Permeable Cushion Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate description of composite geomembrane-cushion interface behavior is of great importance for stress-deformation analysis and stability assessment of geomembrane surface barrier of rock-fill dam. A series of direct shear tests were conducted to investigate the friction behaviors of interfaces between composite geomembrane and two different permeable cushion materials (crushed stones and polyurethane mixed crushed stones. The shear stress-displacement relationships of the two interfaces show different characteristics and were described by the nonlinear-elastic model and nonlinear-elastic perfectly plastic model, respectively. Then the two models were implemented into the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in Three Dimensions (FLAC3D procedure correctly. By verification of a numerical example, numerical calculation results showed a good agreement with the theoretical solutions and test results.

  2. Use of weight-bearing MRI for evaluating wheelchair cushions based on internal soft-tissue deformations under ischial tuberosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gefen, PhD

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep tissue injury (DTI is a severe type of pressure ulcer, in which damage initiates under intact skin, in soft tissues that are mechanically deformed by load-bearing bony prominences. Sitting-acquired DTI typically occurs in the gluteus muscles that could sustain deformations by the weight-bearing ischial tuberosities (ITs. No clinical method currently exists for measuring internal tissue deformations; so design and selection of wheelchair cushions are based mostly on meas-uring sitting pressures. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of different commercial cushions on internal soft-tissue deformations under the ITs, using weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We specifically compared muscle, superficial fat, and effective (muscle and fat together tissue deformations while subjects (n = 10 sat on four cushions (two viscoelastic and two foam and directly on a rigid support. Deformations were maximal in muscle tissue (mean ~70%, twice more the amount than in fat (~30%. Effective soft-tissue deformations were ~50% to ~60%. Although cushions mildly reduced muscle deformations in the order of 10%, theoretically, our interpretation suggests that this deformation level adds safe sitting time. This study demonstrated that weight-bearing MRI is applicable for evaluating wheelchair cushions and, in the future, may be a tool to systematically support cushion design and selection.

  3. Safety analysis of railway vehicle in leakage process of air spring%车辆系统空气弹簧失气安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高浩; 罗仁; 池茂儒; 戴焕云

    2012-01-01

    The leakage model of air spring with stiffness decay characteristics and the nonlinear stick-slip contact model were established. The dynamic process in loss of gas and the state of emergency after loss of gas were simulated by combining the two models with vehicle system dynamics. The stability of vehicle system with air spring failure was analyzed. The impact of air spring's sudden leakage on the dynamics performance of vehicle was simulated. The running safeties of vehicle under different times of loss of gas, different speeds and curve negotiation conditions were studied. Analysis result shows that the critical speed of vehicle system with air spring failure significantly decreases from 623 km ·h^-1 to 351 km ·h^-1. Because of air spring's sudden leakage, wheel-rail vertical force decreases and reduction rate of wheel load increases. The shorter the leakage process is, the greater reduction rate of wheel load is. It reaches 0. 651 when the leakage time is 0.2 s. The influence of speed on reduction rate of wheel load and wheelrail force is not obvious when vehicle speed is less than 300 km ·h^-1. But, when it is greater than 300 km ·h^-1 , reduction rate of wheel load increases rapidly with speed increase. Leakage occuring on circular curve is most dangerous when vehicle runs, and the maximum of reduction rate of wheel load is 0. 652. 2 tabs, 12 figs, 15 refs.%建立了具有刚度衰变特性的空气弹簧失气模型和非线性粘滑接触模型,结合车辆系统动力学,模拟空气弹簧失气动态过程与失气后的应急状态,分析了空气弹簧失气后车辆系统的稳定性与空气弹簧突然失气对车辆动力学性能的影响,研究了不同失气过程时长、运行速度与曲线通过工况下空气弹簧失气车辆的安全性。计算结果表明:空气弹簧失气后车辆临界速度由623km.h-1大幅降低为351km.h-1。空气弹簧突然失气导致轮轨垂向力减小,轮重减载率增大,且失气过程越短,

  4. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  5. BMP type II receptor regulates positioning of outflow tract and remodeling of atrioventricular cushion during cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Hideyuki; Malhotra, Rajeev; Beppu, Yuko; Lepore, John J; Parmacek, Michael S; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2009-07-15

    Signaling of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) via type I and type II receptors is involved in multiple processes contributing to cardiogenesis. To investigate the role of the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) in heart development, the BMPRII gene was deleted throughout the embryo during gastrulation using a Mox2-Cre transgene. BMPRII(flox/-);Mox2-Cre mice exhibited cardiac defects including double-outlet right ventricle, ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular (AV) cushion defects, and thickened valve leaflets. To characterize the tissue-specific functions of BMPRII in cardiogenesis, a series of Cre transgenes (alphaMHC-, Tie2-, Wnt1-, and SM22alpha-Cre) was employed. Interestingly, myocardial development was normal when the BMPRII gene was deleted in myocardial cells using Mox2-Cre, alphaMHC-Cre, or SM22alpha-Cre transgenes, suggesting that signaling by other BMP type II receptors may compensate for the absence of BMPRII in the myocardial cells. AV cushion defects including atrial septal defect, membranous VSD, and thickened valve leaflets were found in BMPRII(flox/-);Tie2-Cre mice. Abnormal positioning of the aorta was observed in BMPRII(flox/-);Wnt1-Cre and BMPRII(flox/-);SM22alpha-Cre mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endocardial BMPRII expression is required for septal formation and valvulogenesis. Moreover, mesenchymal BMPRII expression in the outflow tract cushion is required for proper positioning of the aorta. PMID:19409885

  6. Determination of turnover and cushion gas volume of a prospected gas storage reservoir under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubik, Alexander [RAG-AG, Wien (Austria); Baffoe, James; Schulze-Riegert, Ralf [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    In this article an existing depleted gas reservoir and the operation target as a gas storage are described. Key input data to the reservoir model description and simulation are reviewed, including production history and geological uncertainties based on large well spacing, limited core and well data and a limited seismic resolution. Target delivery scenarios of the prospected gas storage are evaluated under uncertainty. As one key objective, optimal working gas and cushion gas volumes are described in a probabilistic context reflecting geological uncertainties. Several work steps are defined and included in an integrated workflow design. Equiprobable geological models are generated and evaluated based on key performance indicators.Models are simulated and ranked according to their history matching quality. One representative simulation model is used in a constraint optimization process predicting the optimal balance between working gas and cushion gas volume as well as target plateau rate duration. The robustness of the optimized operation scenario is verified based on alternative geological realizations. Results are presented and practical work steps are described in detail. The work has shown the importance of extending gas storage modeling and simulation workflows to a full uncertainty description. A traditional deterministic interpretation of alternative operation scenarios of a gas storage with variable working gas and cushion gas volumes is re-formulated as an optimization process under uncertainty. Results and conclusions for gas storage management processes under uncertainty are presented. (orig.)

  7. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  8. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  9. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  10. Sterilized PP/HMSPP cushion foams for medical and food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment with gamma radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. Packaging materials may be irradiated either prior or after filling; the irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Cushion foams are used to help protect fragile items during moving transport. Shock, vibration and damage are avoided by the cushioning effect and chances of product damage are reduced. It is easy to use and perforated for easy tearing. Cushion foams are employed to wrap glasses, plates, crockery, lamps, electronics and other breakable items. This paper presents special cushion foams to be used for medical and food packaging applications; so, these foams will be gamma irradiated before getting in contact with these special articles. Foams were previously produced from a 50% blending Polypropylene homopolymer / High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) thereof, that presented following results for properties assessed: melt flow index, 230 deg C - 3.67 g/10 minutes; crystallinity = 47%; melt strength, at 200 deg C = 7.3 cN. This admixture was further fed into the barrel of a single-screw extruder, Rheomex 332 p, equipped with 3:1,33 d screw and 19/33 special screw for foaming, with standard controller and monitored panel, temperature controller (2 channels), melt temperature (2 channels) and melt pressure (4 channels). By using a 175/200/210/220/165/25 (deg C) profile temperature, and after attaining a homogeneous melting, a given amount of physical blowing agent (nitrogen) was injected and mixed with the polymer melt stream to produce the foam. Foamed extrudate was subjected to sterilization radiation doses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy and further evaluated as per: appearance (whiteness / yellowness) and temperature dependent oxidative-induction time (TOIT) tests, by comparing

  11. Sterilized PP/HMSPP cushion foams for medical and food packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lima, L. Filipe C.P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Bueno, N.R.; Gasparin, Eleosmar, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Treatment with gamma radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. Packaging materials may be irradiated either prior or after filling; the irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Cushion foams are used to help protect fragile items during moving transport. Shock, vibration and damage are avoided by the cushioning effect and chances of product damage are reduced. It is easy to use and perforated for easy tearing. Cushion foams are employed to wrap glasses, plates, crockery, lamps, electronics and other breakable items. This paper presents special cushion foams to be used for medical and food packaging applications; so, these foams will be gamma irradiated before getting in contact with these special articles. Foams were previously produced from a 50% blending Polypropylene homopolymer / High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) thereof, that presented following results for properties assessed: melt flow index, 230 deg C - 3.67 g/10 minutes; crystallinity = 47%; melt strength, at 200 deg C = 7.3 cN. This admixture was further fed into the barrel of a single-screw extruder, Rheomex 332 p, equipped with 3:1,33 d screw and 19/33 special screw for foaming, with standard controller and monitored panel, temperature controller (2 channels), melt temperature (2 channels) and melt pressure (4 channels). By using a 175/200/210/220/165/25 (deg C) profile temperature, and after attaining a homogeneous melting, a given amount of physical blowing agent (nitrogen) was injected and mixed with the polymer melt stream to produce the foam. Foamed extrudate was subjected to sterilization radiation doses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy and further evaluated as per: appearance (whiteness / yellowness) and temperature dependent oxidative-induction time (TOIT) tests, by comparing

  12. Determination of turnover and cushion gas volume of a prospected gas storage reservoir under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubik, A. [RAG-AG Wien (Austria); Baffoe, J.; Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Gas storages define a key contribution for building a reliable gas supply chain from production to consumers. In a competitive gas market with short reaction times to seasonal and other gas injection and extraction requirements, gas storages also receive a strong focus on availability and precise prediction estimates for future operation scenarios. Reservoir management workflows are increasingly built on reservoir simulation support for optimizing production schemes and estimating the impact of subsurface uncertainties on field development scenarios. Simulation models for gas storages are calibrated to geological data and accurate reproduction of historical production data are defined as a prerequisite for reliable production and performance forecasts. The underlying model validation process is called history matching, which potentially generates alternative simulation models due to prevailing geological uncertainties. In the past, a single basecase reference model was used to predict production capacities of a gas storage. The working gas volume was precisely defined over a contracted plateau delivery and the required cushion gas volume maintains the reservoir pressure during the operation. Cushion and working gas Volume are strongly dependent on reservoir parameters. In this work an existing depleted gas reservoir and the operation target as a gas storage is described. Key input data to the reservoir model description and simulation is reviewed including production history and geological uncertainties based on large well spacing, limited core and well data and a limited seismic resolution. Target delivery scenarios of the prospected gas storage are evaluated under uncertainty. As one key objective, optimal working gas and cushion gas volumes are described in a probabilistic context reflecting geological uncertainties. Several work steps are defined and included in an integrated workflow design. Equiprobable geological models are generated and evaluated based on

  13. Energy absorption capability of foam-based composite materials and their applications as seat cushions in aircraft crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kh. Beheshti, Hamid

    This study is focusing on the application of foam materials in aviation. These materials are being used for acoustic purposes, as padding in the finished interior panels of the aircraft, and as seat cushions. Foams are mostly used in seating applications. Since seat cushion is directly interacting with the body of occupant, it has to be ergonomically comfortable beside of absorbing the energy during the impact. All the seats and seat cushions have to pass regulations defined by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In fact, all airplane companies are required to certify the subcomponents of aircrafts before installing them on the main structure, fuselage. Current Federal Aviation Administration Regulations require a dynamic sled test of the entire seat system for certifying the seat cushions. This dynamic testing is required also for replacing the deteriorated cushions with new cushions. This involves a costly and time-consuming certification process. AGATE group has suggested a procedure based on quasi-static testing in order to certify new seat cushions without conducting full-scale dynamic sled testing. AGATE subcomponent methodology involves static tests of the energy-absorbing foam cushions and design validation by conducting a full-scale dynamic seat test. Microscopic and macroscopic studies are necessary to provide a complete understanding about performance of foams during the crash. Much investigation has been done by different sources to obtain the reliable modeling in terms of demonstration of mechanical behavior of foams. However, rate sensitivity of foams needs more attention. A mathematical hybrid dynamic model for the cushion underneath of the human body will be taken into consideration in this research. Analytical and finite element codes such as MADYMO and LS-DYNA codes have the potential to greatly speed up the crashworthy design process, to help certify seats and aircraft to dynamic crash loads, to predict seat and occupant response to impact

  14. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  15. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  16. Crystallization Behavior of M97 Series Silicone Cushions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, A.; DeTeresa, S.; Cohenour, R.; Schnieder, J.; LeMay, J.; Balazs, B.

    2000-09-07

    M97 series siloxanes are poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes that are reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers which are blended in through the addition of a short chain polydimethylsiloxane processing aid. M97 silicones exhibit crystallization at -80.25 C by thermal (modulated differential scanning calorimetry) and mechanical (dynamic mechanical analysis) techniques. Isothermal dynamic mechanical analysis experiments illustrated that crystallization occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.8 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30 minute incubation/nucleation period. {gamma}-radiation caused the crystallization rate to decrease proportionally with dosage, but did not decrease the amount of crystallization that ultimately occurred. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in slower overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation due to increased crosslinking of the polymer matrix under vacuum. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the M97 base polymer and helped determine which component of the composite was the origin of the crystallization phenomena.

  17. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...\\ See, e.g., 71 FR 44027 at 44028 (August 3, 2006)(``EPA believed it possible that CARB's amendments do... Resources Board (CARB) its request to confirm that its amendments to California's heavy-duty vehicle and... upon in making this decision, including those submitted to ] EPA by CARB, are contained in the...

  18. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  19. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  20. Effects of floral neighborhood on seed set and degree of outbreeding in a high-alpine cushion plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Lea R; Waser, Nickolas M; Graf, René; Gugerli, Felix; Landergott, Urs; Erhardt, Andreas; Linder, Hans Peter; Holderegger, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Plants flowering together may influence each other's pollination and fecundity over a range of physical distances. Their effects on one another can be competitive, neutral, or facilitative. We manipulated the floral neighborhood of the high-alpine cushion plant Eritrichium nanum in the Swiss Alps and measured the effects of co-flowering neighbors on both the number of seeds produced and the degree of inbreeding and outbreeding in the offspring, as deduced from nuclear microsatellite markers. Seed set of E. nanum did not vary significantly with the presence or absence of two Saxifraga species growing as near neighbors, but it was higher in E. nanum cushions growing at low conspecific density than in those growing at high density. In addition, floral neighborhood had no detectable effect on the degree of selfing of E. nanum, but seeds from cushions growing at low conspecific density were more highly outbred than seeds from cushions at high density. Thus, there was no evidence of either competition or facilitation between E. nanum and Saxifraga spp. as mediated by pollinators at the spatial scale of our experimental manipulation. In contrast, the greater fecundity of E. nanum cushions at low density was consistent with reduced intraspecific competition for pollinators and might also represent a beneficial effect of highly outbred seeds as brought about by more long-distance pollinator flights under low-density conditions. PMID:21484399

  1. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-01-01

    The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from...

  2. Design/Development of Mini/Micro Air Vehicles through Modelling and Simulation: Case of an Autonomous Quadrotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin K. Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Design and development of an autonomous quadrotor micro aerial vehicle is undertaken following a systematic approach. A fairly detailed model was constructed and simulations were then carried out with the purpose of refining the baseline design, building a controller, and testing the flying qualities of the vehicle on a ground-based flight simulator. Following this, a smooth transition to rig and flight testing has been enabled in a cost- and time-effective manner, meeting all the design requirements.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.337-345, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1086

  3. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  4. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  5. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from belt roads, bypass roads and pedestrian areas situated in city centers is noted.

  6. Modeling and Implementation of a 1 kW, Air Cooled HTPEM Fuel Cell in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael;

    2008-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of using the PBI-based, HTPEM fuel cell technology in automotive applications. This issue was investigated through computational modeling and an experimental investigation. A hybrid fuel cell system, consisting of a 1 kW stack and lead acid batteries, was...... implemented in a small electrical vehicle. A dynamic model was developed using Matlab-Simulink to describe the system characteristics, select operating conditions and to size system components. Preheating of the fuel cell stack with electrical resistors was investigated and found to be an unrealistic approach...

  7. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  8. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  9. High Resistivity Lipid Bilayers Assembled on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Cushions: An Impedance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Eleftheria; Gregurec, Danijela; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio A; Azzaroni, Omar; Moya, Sergio E

    2016-06-28

    Supported membranes on top of polymer cushions are interesting models of biomembranes as cell membranes are supported on a polymer network of proteins and sugars. In this work lipid vesicles formed by a mixture of 30% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 70% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) are assembled on top of a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) cushion of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sodium sulfonate) (PSS). The assembly results in the formation of a bilayer on top of the PEM as proven by means of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) and by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The electrical properties of the bilayer are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer supported on the PEMs shows a high resistance, on the order of 10(7) Ω cm(2), which is indicative of a continuous, dense bilayer. Such resistance is comparable with the resistance of black lipid membranes. This is the first time that such values are obtained for lipid bilayers supported on PEMs. The assembly of polyelectrolytes on top of a lipid bilayer decreases the resistance of the bilayer up to 2 orders of magnitude. The assembly of the polyelectrolytes on the lipids induces defects or pores in the bilayer which in turn prompts a decrease in the measured resistance. PMID:27267089

  10. Formation flight control for unmanned air vehicle during aerial refueling%无人机空中加油过程中编队飞行控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红建; 袁锁中; 戴文正

    2014-01-01

    To keep the position of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during autonomous aerial refueling, we develop the dynamic model and put forward a nonlinear controller for the UAV with time-varying mass. By comprehensively considering the effect of fuel transfer on the UAV mass, the inertia matrix and the center of mass, we derive the time-varying mass dynamic equations of UAV based on state variables relative to inertial reference frame. Through analyzing the dynamic characteristic effect of fuel transfer, we design neural network dynamic inversion control law to keep the position of unmanned air vehicle, and nonlinear simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the flight control law.%针对空中加油中无人机位置保持问题,进行了时变质量UAV的动力学建模与非线性控制设计。综合考虑了燃油传输对UAV的质量、惯性矩阵和质心位置的影响,基于相对于惯性系的状态变量,推导了UAV时变质量动力学方程。分析燃油传输带来的动力学影响,并设计神经网络动态逆控制律来实现UAV的位置保持,通过非线性仿真验证了控制律的有效性。

  11. A ballistic investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a blunt vehicle at hypersonic speeds in carbon dioxide and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, James D.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Yates, Leslie A.; Strawa, Anthony W.

    1992-01-01

    Missions to Mars require the successful development of aerobraking technology, and therefore a blunt cone representative of aerobrake shapes is investigated. Ballistic tests of the Pioneer Venus configuration are conducted in carbon dioxide and air at Mach numbers from 7 to 20 and Reynolds numbers from 0.1 x 10 exp 5 to 4 x 10 exp 6. Experimental results show that for defined conditions aerodynamic research can be conducted in air rather than carbon dioxide, providing savings in time and money. In addition, the results offer a prediction of flight aerodynamics during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Also discussed is a comparison of results from two data-reduction techniques showing that a five-degree-of-freedom routine employing weighted least-squares with differential corrections analyzes ballistic data more accurately.

  12. 3D Flapping Trajectory of a Micro-Air-Vehicle and its Application to Unsteady Flow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Jieh Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A three‐dimensional (3D trajectory detection framework using two high‐speed cameras for the flapping flexible wing of a micro‐air‐vehicle (MAV is presented. This MAV, which is called the “Golden Snitch”, has a successful flight record of 8 minutes. We embed the flexible wingskin with a nine light emitting diode (LED array as the light enhancing marker and capsulate it with parylene (poly‐para‐xylylene as the protection layer. We confirm an oblique figure of eight trajectory of this MAV’s wing with time‐varying coordinate data. The corresponding aerofoil of the main wings’ profiles was subjected to the time‐varying coordinate data, yielding a resolution of a 1/70 wing beating cycle of 15Hz flapping. The trajectory information is first demonstrated as the moving boundaries of an unsteady flow simulation around a flapping flexible wing.

  13. Performance study on three-stage power system of compressed air vehicle based on single-screw expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new compressed-air engine system based on three-stage single screw expander was proposed to improve the performance of power system.Three different structure styles were presented,and the studies on the power performance and the distribution of expansion ratios between stages were carried out by programming and mathematical modeling of each style.Research results indicated that the best matches of expansion ratios with equal heat temperature for the air tank of pressure 30 MPa were seven-five-three for"first-stage heating"style,eight-five-three for"two-stage heating"style and five-five-four for"three-stage heating"style,respectively.Results also showed that heating up inlet air or increasing the expander efficiency might improve the power performance.The output power of the"two-stage heating"style is far higher than that of"first-stage heating"style and is a little lower than that of"three-stage heating"style.The new system showed good structure and power performances.

  14. Computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) mounted on NASA 747 ferry air

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is an artist's conception of the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator being carried on the back of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. This was a concept for moving the X-33 from its landing site back to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-33 was a technology demonstrator vehicle for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. NASA Headquarter's Office of Space Access and Technology oversaw the RLV program, which was being managed by the RLV Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, located in Huntsville, Alabama. Responsibilities of other NASA Centers included: Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, guidance navigation and control technology, manned space systems, and health technology; Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA., thermal protection system testing; Langley Research Center, Langley, Virginia, wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic analysis; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida, RLV operations and health management. Lockheed Martin's industry partners in the X-33 program are: Astronautics, Inc., Denver, Colorado, and Huntsville, Alabama; Engineering & Science Services, Houston, Texas; Manned Space Systems, New Orleans, LA; Sanders, Nashua, NH; and Space Operations, Titusville, Florida. Other industry partners are: Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, California; Allied Signal Aerospace, Teterboro, NJ; Rohr, Inc., Chula Vista, California; and Sverdrup Inc., St. Louis, Missouri.

  15. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  16. Design and simulation of ex-range gliding wing of high altitude air-launched autonomous underwater vehicles based on SIMULINK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Changjun; Guo Yingqing

    2013-01-01

    High altitude air-launched autonomous underwater vehicle (AL-AUV) is a new anti-submarine field,which is designed on the Lockheed Martin's high altitude anti-submarine warfare weapons concept (HAAWC) and conducts the basic aerodynamic feasibility in a series of wind tunnel trials.The AL-AUV is composed of a traditional torpedo-like AUV,an additional ex-range gliding wings unit and a descending parachute unit.In order to accurately and conveniently investigate the dynamic and static characteristic of high altitude AL-AUV,a simulation platform is established based on MATLAB/SIMULINK and an AUV 6DOF (Degree of Freedom) dynamic model.Executing the simulation platform for different wing's parameters and initial fixing angle,a set of AUV gliding data is generated.Analyzing the recorded simulation result,the velocity and pitch characteristics of AL-AUV deployed at varying wing areas and initial setting angle,the optimal wing area is selected for specific AUV model.Then the comparative simulations of AL-AUV with the selected wings are completed,which simulate the AUV gliding through idealized windless air environment and gliding with Dryden wind influence.The result indicates that the method of wing design and simulation with the simulation platform based on SIMULINK is accurately effective and suitable to be widely employed.

  17. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    We study the PM2.5 and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration t...

  18. Analysis of Air Flow Past and through the 2415-3S Airfoil for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Internal Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis D. Mendoza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction of velocity fields on the 2415-3S airfoil which will be used for an unmanned aerial vehicle with internal propulsion system and in this way analyze the air flow through an internal duct of the airfoil using computational fluid dynamics. The main objective is to evaluate the effect of the internal air flow past the airfoil and how this affects the aerodynamic performance by means of lift and drag forces. For this purpose, three different designs of the internal duct were studied; starting from the base 2415-3S airfoil developed in previous investigation, basing on the hypothesis of decreasing the flow separation produced when the propulsive airflow merges the external flow, and in this way obtaining the best configuration. For that purpose, an exhaustive study of the mesh sensitivity was performed. It was used a non-structured mesh since the computational domain is three-dimensional and complex. The selected mesh contains approximately 12.5 million elements. Both the computational domain and the numerical solution were made with commercial CAD and CFD software, respectively. Air, incompressible and steady was analyzed. The boundary conditions are in concordance with experimental setup in the AF 6109 wind tunnel. The k-ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process as followed in references. Results allowed obtaining velocity contours as well as lift and drag coefficients and also the location of separation and reattachment regions in some cases for zero degrees of angle of attack on the internal and external surfaces of the airfoil. Finally, the selection of the configuration with the best aerodynamic performance was made, selecting the option without curved baffles.

  19. The hardware design of Control System of the Solar-assisted Air Conditioning for Pure Electric Vehicle%纯电动汽车太阳能辅助空调控制系统的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩; 黄菊花

    2012-01-01

    Pure electric vehicle car battery is the only source of power and very limited,auxiliary equipment reduce power consumption of the driving distance of Pure electric vehicles, especially air conditioning, so development of efficient Pure electric car air- conditioning systems is the key step for electric car can be accepted in business, the car roof is full covered with solar cells, air- conditioning system can increase the cooling capacity , while increasing driving distance of Pure electric vehicles. In this paper, studied solar-assisted air conditioning system to small Pure electric vehicles, designed for the air conditioning control system for Pure electric vehicles to create a more comfortable driving and riding environment.%纯电动汽车车载动力电池是其唯一的动力源且很有限,辅助设备消耗的电能减少了纯电动汽车的续驶里程,尤其是空调,所以开发高效的纯电动汽车空调系统是纯电动汽车能够被市场接受的关键。将纯电动汽车顶盖布满太阳电池,可以使空调系统的制冷能力增强,同时还能增加纯电动汽车的行驶距离。对小型纯电动汽车的太阳能辅助空调系统进行研究,设计出适合该空调的自动控制系统,可为纯电动汽车创造出一个更加舒适的驾驶和乘座环境。

  20. Positive interactions between alpine plant species and the nurse cushion plant Laretia acaulis do not increase with elevation in the Andes of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Badano, Ernesto I; Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Gómez-González, Susana; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2006-01-01

    In alpine habitats, positive interactions among plants tend to increase with elevation as a result of altitudinal increase in environmental harshness. However, in mountains located in arid zones, lower elevations are also stressful because of scarce availability of water, suggesting that positive interactions may not necessarily increase with elevation. Here we analysed the spatial association of plant species with the nurse cushion plant Laretia acaulis at two contrasting elevations, and monitored the survival of seedlings of two species experimentally planted within and outside cushions in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. Positive spatial associations with cushions were more frequent at lower elevations. Species growing at the two elevations changed the nature of their association with cushions from neutral or negative at higher elevations to positive at lower elevations. Survival of seedlings was higher within cushions, particularly at lower elevations. The increased facilitation by cushions at lower elevations seems to be related to provision of moisture. This result suggests that cushion plants play a critical role in structuring alpine plant communities at lower elevations, and that climatic changes in rainfall could be very relevant for persistence of plant communities. PMID:16390419

  1. A probabilistic and multi-objective conceptual design methodology for the evaluation of thermal management systems on air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian

    This thesis addresses the challenges associated with thermal management systems (TMS) evaluation and selection in the conceptual design of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles with sustained cruise. The proposed methodology identifies analysis tools and techniques which allow the proper investigation of the design space for various thermal management technologies. The design space exploration environment and alternative multi-objective decision making technique defined as Pareto-based Joint Probability Decision Making (PJPDM) is based on the approximation of 3-D Pareto frontiers and probabilistic technology effectiveness maps. These are generated through the evaluation of a Pareto Fitness function and Monte Carlo analysis. In contrast to Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), the proposed PJPDM technique does not require preemptive knowledge of weighting factors for competing objectives or goal constraints which can introduce bias into the final solution. Preemptive bias in a complex problem can degrade the overall capabilities of the final design. The implementation of PJPDM in this thesis eliminates the need for the numerical optimizer which is required with JPDM in order to improve upon a solution. In addition, a physics-based formulation is presented for the quantification of TMS safety effectiveness corresponding to debris impact/damage and how it can be applied towards risk mitigation. Lastly, a formulation loosely based on non-preemptive Goal Programming with equal weighted deviations is provided for the resolution of the inverse design space. This key step helps link vehicle capabilities to TMS technology subsystems in a top-down design approach. The methodology provides the designer more knowledge up front to help make proper engineering decisions and assumptions in the conceptual design phase regarding which technologies show greatest promise, and how to guide future technology research.

  2. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  3. Impact of increased vehicle emissions on the ozone concentrations around beach areas in summer using air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S.; Kim, Y.; Shon, Z.; Kang, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of pollutant emissions by the huge amount of road traffic around beaches on the ozone (O3) concentrations in the surrounding regions were evaluated using a numerical modeling approach during the beach opening period (BOP) (July to August). This analysis was performed based on two simulation conditions: 1) with mobile emissions during the BOP (i.e. BOP case); and 2) during the normal period (i.e. NOR case). On-road mobile emissions were estimated from the emission factors, vehicle kilometers traveled, and deterioration factors at several roads close to beaches in Busan, Korea during a 4-day observation period (29 and 31 July and 1 and 3 August) of the BOP in 2010. The emission data was then applied to the 3-D chemical transport model (i.e. the WRF-CMAQ modeling system). A process analysis (PA) was also used to assess the contributions of the individual physical and chemical processes to the production or loss of O3 in the study area. The model study suggested the possibility that road traffic emissions near the beach area can have a direct impact on the O3 concentrations in the source regions as well as their surrounding/downwind regions. The maximum negative impact of mobile emissions on the O3 concentrations between the BOP and NOR cases was predicted near the beach areas: by -4 ppb during the day due to the high NOx emissions with the high NOx/VOC ratio and -8 ppb during the late evening due to the fast titration of O3 by NO. The PA showed that the rate of O3 destruction due to the road traffic emissions around the beach areas decreased by -2.3 (weekend, 31 July) and -5.5 ppb h-1 (weekday, 3 August) during the day. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER_2012-6140. This work was also funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0021141).

  4. Force generation and wing deformation characteristics of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle 'DelFly II' in hovering flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, M; Oudheusden, B W van; Croon, G C H E de; Remes, B

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the aerodynamic performance and the relation between wing deformation and unsteady force generation of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle in hovering flight configuration. Different experiments were performed where fluid forces were acquired with a force sensor, while the three-dimensional wing deformation was measured with a stereo-vision system. In these measurements, time-resolved power consumption and flapping-wing kinematics were also obtained under both in-air and in-vacuum conditions. Comparison of the results for different flapping frequencies reveals different wing kinematics and deformation characteristics. The high flapping frequency case produces higher forces throughout the complete flapping cycle. Moreover, a phase difference occurs in the variation of the forces, such that the low flapping frequency case precedes the high frequency case. A similar phase lag is observed in the temporal evolution of the wing deformation characteristics, suggesting that there is a direct link between the two phenomena. A considerable camber formation occurs during stroke reversals, which is mainly determined by the stiffener orientation. The wing with the thinner surface membrane displays very similar characteristics to the baseline wing, which implies the dominance of the stiffeners in terms of providing rigidity to the wing. Wing span has a significant effect on the aerodynamic efficiency such that increasing the span length by 4 cm results in a 6% enhancement in the cycle-averaged X-force to power consumption ratio compared to the standard DelFly II wings with a span length of 28 cm. PMID:27194392

  5. 无人机气动力地面车载测试系统%A ground test vehicle(GTV) system to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned air vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾毅; 张永升; 刘丹; 皮祖成; 郎卫东

    2013-01-01

    介绍了中国航天空气动力技术研究院开发的一种用于测量全尺寸无人机气动力的地面车载测试系统(GTV).车载测试系统采用一辆中型卡车进行相关改造,将试验无人机机身安装在其顶部,通过汽车牵引能够达到40km/h的速度.一套专用的测试天平系统和数据采集系统用于记录试验中无人机产生的升力、阻力以及俯仰力矩等数据.主要介绍测试天平系统的设计,数据采集测试系统,测试方法和试验结果.多元静态原位校准加载结果表明天平测试系统输出信号线性度以及重复性较好.动态校准试验采用一副定常展弦比6的机翼进行,试验结果与已知的风洞试验数据进行了比对.车载测试系统试验结果的升力和俯仰力矩数据不同车次之间重复性较好,并且与风洞试验数据基本一致.但阻力数据的离散度要比风洞试验时大得多,并且试验结果比风洞试验时偏小一些,试验证明地面车载测试系统的阻力测量难度较大.%A Ground Test Vehicle (GTV) system has been developed by China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA) to provide a safe method for determining an experimental Unmanned Air Vehicle's (UAV) aerodynamic characteristics before flight.The GTV is a medium truck which has been modified to allow an UAV airframe to be mounted on top while propelling it up to 40km/h.A force balance and data acquisition system are used to measure and record the lift,drag and pitching moment of the test airframe.This paper describes the balance design,the data acquisition system,and the results of calibrations made to check the GTV data.A series of combined static loadings showed the force balance output to be linear and repeatable.A wing of constant chord aspect ratio 6 was tested,and the results were compared with available wind tunnel data.The lift and pitching moment data measured by the GTV for the test wing was repeatable for every run,and compared well with the

  6. An insect-inspired flapping wing micro air vehicle with double wing clap-fling effects and capability of sustained hovering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Viet; Chan, Woei Leong; Debiasi, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We present our recent flying insect-inspired Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle (FW-MAV) capable of hovering flight which we have recently achieved. The FW-MAV has wing span of 22 cm (wing tip-to-wing tip), weighs about 16.6 grams with onboard integration of radio control system including a radio receiver, an electronic speed control (ESC) for brushless motor, three servos for attitude flight controls of roll, pitch, and yaw, and a single cell lithium-polymer (LiPo) battery (3.7 V). The proposed gear box enables the FW-MAV to use one DC brushless motor to synchronously drive four wings and take advantage of the double clap-and-fling effects during one flapping cycle. Moreover, passive wing rotation is utilized to simplify the design, in addition to passive stabilizing surfaces for flight stability. Powered by a single cell LiPo battery (3.7 V), the FW-MAV flaps at 13.7 Hz and produces an average vertical force or thrust of about 28 grams, which is sufficient for take-off and hovering flight. Finally, free flight tests in terms of vertical take-off, hovering, and manual attitude control flight have been conducted to verify the performance of the FW-MAV.

  7. The morphological characterization of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species for the application of biomimetic flapping wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To properly model the structural dynamics of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species, it is critical that the material and structural properties of the biological specimen be understood. This paper presents the results of a morphological study that has been conducted to identify the material and structural properties of a sample of male and female Manduca sexta specimens. The average mass, area, shape, size and camber of the wing were evaluated using novel measurement techniques. Further emphasis is placed on studying the critical substructures of the wing: venation and membrane. The venation cross section is measured using detailed pathological techniques over the entire venation of the wing. The elastic modulus of the leading edge veins is experimentally determined using advanced non-contact structural dynamic techniques. The membrane elastic modulus is randomly sampled over the entire wing to determine global material properties for the membrane using nanoindentation. The data gathered from this morphological study form the basis for the replication of future finite element structural models and engineered biomimetic wings for use with flapping wing micro air vehicles. (paper)

  8. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Tasaki, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Y. Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the demands on cooling power density, temperature difference between hot and cold side, transient properties and COP, will be high.

  9. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the...

  10. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the...

  11. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.;

    2015-01-01

    the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (

  12. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  13. Polymeric capsule-cushioned leukocyte cell membrane vesicles as a biomimetic delivery platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changyong; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Zhihua; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural cell membrane camouflaged polymeric multilayer capsules with the immunosuppressive and tumor-recognition functionalities of natural leukocytes provide a new biomimetic delivery platform for disease therapy.We report a biomimetic delivery of microsized capsule-cushioned leukocyte membrane vesicles (CLMVs) through the conversion of freshly reassembled leukocyte membrane vesicles (LMVs), including membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins onto the surface of layer-by-layer assembled polymeric multilayer microcapsules. The leukocyte membrane coating was verified by using electron microscopy, a quartz crystal microbalance, dynamic light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The resulting CLMVs have the ability to effectively evade clearance by the immune system and thus prolong the circulation time in mice. Moreover, we also show that the right-side-out leukocyte membrane coating can distinctly improve the accumulation of capsules in tumor sites through the molecular recognition of membrane-bound proteins of CLMVs with those of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The natural

  14. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field. PMID:16962599

  15. Experimental investigation of the optimization of stilling basin with shallow- water cushion used for low Froude number energy dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连侠; 廖华胜; 刘达; 蒋胜银

    2015-01-01

    Energy dissipations induced by the hydraulic jump and the trajectory jet are the most widely known as the two dissipation modes at the downstream of flood discharging structures, which are often considered quite different even contradictory. However, such two energy dissipators can be used jointly and harmonically. In this paper, a new type of stilling basin with a shallow-water cushion and a triangular bottom deflector is proposed based on two different scale physical model tests of the flood discharging tunnel No.2 of Luding hydropower project. The experimental results show that the flow regime of the hydraulic jump in the presented stilling basin with bottom deflector enjoys a good and stable performance within a large range of flow rates and the energy dissipation rate is considerably high as compared to the conventional stilling basin even at a low Froude number. The results also indicate that the stilling basin with triangular bottom deflector has a better performance in improving the potential cavitation erosion according to the analysis of the pressure and the cavitation number compared to the trapezoidal one. The proposed new type of shallow-cushion stilling basin with a shallow-water cushion can be applied in similar energy dissipation projects with low Froude number and large range of flow rates.

  16. Form finding and analysis of extensible membranes attached to 2-D and 3-D frames intended for micro air vehicles via experimentally validated finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudaram, Yaakov Jack

    This work is concerned with a new method to apply consistent and known pretension to silicone rubber membranes intended for micro air vehicles as well as an understanding in the science of developed pre-tension in membranes constrained by 2- D and 3-D frames and structures. Pre-tension has a marked effect on the static and dynamic response of membrane wings and controls the overall deflections, as such control and measurement of the membrane pre-tension is important. Two different 2-D frame geometries were fabricated to evaluate the technique. For open-cell frames, the pretension was not uniform, whereas it was for closed-cell frames. Results show developed full-field stress and strain fields as a function of membrane attachment temperature and frame geometry along with experimental iterations to prove repeatability. The membranes can be stretched to a specific pretension according to the temperature at which it adheres to frames. Strain fields in membranes attached to 3-D frames at various temperatures are modeled through FEA utilizing Abaqus to be able to predict the developed membrane deformations, stresses, and strains. Rigid frames with various curvatures are built via appropriate molds and then adhered to silicone rubber membranes and elevated to various temperatures to achieve different pre-strains for experimental validation. Additional experiments are conducted for more complex frame geometries involving both convex and concave topologies embedded within frames. Results are then compared with the Abaqus outputs to validate the accuracy of the FEA model. Highly compliant wings have been used for MAV platforms, where the wing structure is determined by some combination of carbon fiber composites and a membrane skin, adhered in between the layers of composite material. Another new technique of attaching membranes firmly on wing structures is introduced, which involves the application of a technology known as corona treatment coupled with another method of

  17. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Gotlib-Vainshtein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect” of a soft intermediate layer.

  18. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40°10'S, 73°30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance. PMID:26569374

  20. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  1. Retinoic Acid Signaling Is Essential for Valvulogenesis by Affecting Endocardial Cushions Formation in Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Yue, Yunyun; Zhao, Qingshun

    2016-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in many stages of heart morphogenesis. Zebrafish embryos treated with exogenous RA display defective atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) specification. However, whether endogenous RA signaling takes part in cardiac valve formation remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of RA signaling in cardiac valve development by knocking down aldh1a2, the gene encoding an enzyme that is mainly responsible for RA synthesis during early development, in zebrafish embryos. The results showed that partially knocking down aldh1a2 caused defective formation of primitive cardiac valve leaflets at 108 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Inhibiting endogenous RA signaling by 4-diethylaminobenzal-dehyde revealed that 16-26 hpf was a key time window when RA signaling affects the valvulogenesis. The aldh1a2 morphants had defective formation of endocardial cushion (EC) at 76 hpf though they had almost normal hemodynamics and cardiac chamber specification at early development. Examining the expression patterns of AVC marker genes including bmp4, bmp2b, nppa, notch1b, and has2, we found the morphants displayed abnormal development of endocardial AVC but almost normal development of myocardial AVC at 50 hpf. Being consistent with the reduced expression of notch1b in endocardial AVC, the VE-cadherin gene cdh5, the downstream gene of Notch signaling, was ectopically expressed in AVC of aldh1a2 morphants at 50 hpf, and overexpression of cdh5 greatly affected the formation of EC in the embryos at 76 hpf. Taken together, our results suggest that RA signaling plays essential roles in zebrafish cardiac valvulogenesis. PMID:26671342

  2. A new mulinane diterpenoid from the cushion shrub Azorella compacta growing in Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azorella compacta is a rare yellow-green compact resinous cushion shrub growing from the high Andes of southern Perϊ to northwestern Argentina, and which is a producer of biologically active and unique diterpenoids. Objective: This study investigated the secondary metabolites present in a Peruvian sample of Azorella compacta and the evaluation of gastroprotective activity of the isolated compounds in a gastric- induced ulcer model in mice. Material and Methods: Six secondary metabolites (diterpenoids 1-6 present in the dichloromethane (DCM extract of A. compacta growing in Perϊ were isolated by a combination of Sephadex LH-20 permeation and silica gel chromatography and their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and molecular modeling. The gastroprotective activity of the new compound 1 was evaluated on the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesion model in mice and compared to the activity showed by the known compounds. Results: A new mulinane diterpene along with five known diterpenoids have been isolated from a Peruvian  sample of A. compacta and the gastroprotective results show that compound 1 is less active than the other known mulinane diterpenoids isolated. Conclusions: A. compacta growing in Perϊ showed the presence of the new mulinane 1, which was poorly active in the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesion model in mice. Indeed, the activity was lower than other diterpenoids (2-6 showing an oxygenated function at C-16 or/and C-20, which confirm the role of an oxygenated group (OH or carboxylic acid for the gastroprotective activity of mulinane compounds.

  3. Analysis of Cushioning Properties for Cushioning Materials via Finite Element Method%基于有限元法的缓冲材料缓冲性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓利; 张改梅; 王灿; 王俊程; 郑永龙

    2014-01-01

    为了研究不同质量、不同厚度条件下,发泡聚乙烯的最大加速度-静应力及缓冲系数变化情况,基于有限元法对EPE的缓冲性能进行了分析。结果表明:随着静应力的增加,即随着质量块质量的增加,最大加速度与静应力并不成正比,而是先减小后增加;随着缓冲材料厚度的增加,最大加速度与厚度也不成正比,厚度的增加并不一定能够改善缓冲材料的缓冲性能。%In order to study the maximum acceleration-static stress curve and cushion coefficient of expanded polyethylene (EPE) under the different quality and different thickness,the cushioning properties of EPE are analyzed based on the finite element method. The results show that with the increase of static stress, the maximum acceleration and static stress are not proportional, but the maximum acceleration first decreases and then rises. With the increasing of thickness, maximum acceleration and the thickness of EPE are not proportional. The cushioning properties of EPE do not be necessarily improved with the increase of thickness.

  4. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  5. Preparation of co-spray dried cushioning agent containing stearic acid for protecting pellet coatings when compressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Xu, De Sheng; Li, Min; Liu, Li; Heng, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the applicability of stearic acid as a co-adjuvant in cushioning agent formulated to prevent coat damage when compressing coated pellets. The co-processed and physical blended fillers were prepared by spray drying and physically blending, respectively, with filler ingredients consisting of stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, fully gelatinized starch, and corn starch. Pellets containing drug were produced by coating onto non-pariels a drug layer of metformin followed by a sustained-release layer. Drug release from tablets composed of co-processed or physical blended fillers (0, 1, 5, and 10% stearic acid levels) and coated drug containing pellets were analyzed using similarity factor F2. Under the same force and the stearic acid level, co-processed fillers produced pellet containing tablets which showed higher F2 or t50 values and tensile strengths as well as lower yield pressures as compared with tablets containing physical blended fillers. It was shown that the destructive degree of pellet coating was significantly reduced after being co-processed by homogenization and the incorporation of stearic acid in the cushioning agents, as shown by the improved F2 and t50 values. In addition, disintegrate times of tablets containing co-processed agents decreased despite the hydrophobic stearic acid. In conclusion, the inclusion of stearic acid in co-processed cushioning agents was effective at protecting compacted coated pellets from compression-induced damage without compromising disintegratability. The findings could serve as a step towards resolving the technical challenges of balancing the drug release profiles, tablet tensile strength, and disintegration time of compacting coated pellets into multi-particulate-sustained release tablets. PMID:26289006

  6. Subjective valuation of cushioning in a human drop landing task as quantified by trade-offs in mechanical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nathaniel E; Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D

    2015-07-16

    Humans can perform motor tasks in a variety of ways, yet often favor a particular strategy. Some factors governing the preferred strategy may be objective and quantifiable, (e.g. metabolic energy or mechanical work) while others may be more subjective and less measurable, (e.g. discomfort, pain, or mental effort). Subjectivity can make it challenging to explain or predict preferred movement strategies. We propose that subjective factors might nevertheless be characterized indirectly by their trade-offs against more objective measures such as work. Here we investigated whether subjective costs that influence human movement during drop landings could be indirectly assessed by quantifying mechanical work performed. When landing on rigid ground, humans typically absorb much of the collision actively by bending their knees, perhaps to avoid the discomfort of stiff-legged landings. We measured how work performed by healthy adults (N=8) changed as a function of surface cushioning for drop landings (fixed at about 0.4m) onto varying amounts of foam. Landing on more foam dissipated more energy passively in the surface, thus reducing the net dissipation required of subjects, due to relatively fixed landing energy. However, subjects actually performed even less work in the dissipative collision, as well as in the subsequent active, positive work to return to upright stance (approximately linear decrease of about 1.52 J per 1 cm of foam thickness). As foam thickness increased, there was also a corresponding reduction in center-of-mass vertical displacement after initial impact by up to 43%. Humans appear to subjectively value cushioning, revealed by the extra work they perform landing without it. Cushioning is thus worth more than the energy it dissipates, in an amount that indicates the subjective discomfort of stiff landings. PMID:25979381

  7. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  8. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... connectivity, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network...

  9. Wettability-independent bouncing on flat surfaces mediated by thin air films

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Jolet; Lagraauw, Rudy; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    The impingement of drops onto solid surfaces plays a crucial role in a variety of processes, including inkjet printing, fog harvesting, anti-icing, dropwise condensation and spray coating. Recent efforts in understanding and controlling drop impact behaviour focused on superhydrophobic surfaces with specific surface structures enabling drop bouncing with reduced contact time. Here, we report a different universal bouncing mechanism that occurs on both wetting and non-wetting flat surfaces for both high and low surface tension liquids. Using high-speed multiple-wavelength interferometry, we show that this bouncing mechanism is based on the continuous presence of an air film for moderate drop impact velocities. This submicrometre `air cushion' slows down the incoming drop and reverses its momentum. Viscous forces in the air film play a key role in this process: they provide transient stability of the air cushion against squeeze-out, mediate momentum transfer, and contribute a substantial part of the energy dissipation during bouncing.

  10. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  11. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  12. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  13. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  14. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S.

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  15. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  16. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  17. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  18. Experimental Aeroheating Study of Mid-L/D Entry Vehicle Geometries: NASA LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroheating data on mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicle configurations has been obtained through hypersonic wind tunnel testing. Vehicles of this class have been proposed for high-mass Mars missions, such as sample return and crewed exploration, for which the conventional sphere-cone entry vehicle geometries of previous Mars missions are insufficient. Several configurations were investigated, including elliptically-blunted cylinders with both circular and elliptical cross sections, biconic geometries based on launch vehicle dual-use shrouds, and parametrically-optimized analytic geometries. Testing was conducted at Mach 6 over a range of Reynolds numbers sufficient to generate laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Global aeroheating data were obtained using phosphor thermography. Both stream-wise and cross-flow transition occured on different configurations. Comparisons were made with laminar and turbulent computational predictions generated with an algebraic turbulence model. Predictions were generally in good agreement in regions of laminar or fully-turbulent flow; however for transitional cases, the lack of a transition onset prediction capability produced less accurate comparisons. The data obtained in this study are intended to be used for prelimary mission design studies and the development and validation of computational methods.

  19. Guaianolides and a seco-Eudesmane from the Resinous Exudates of Cushion Bush (Leucophyta brownii) and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Mette G; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew D;

    2015-01-01

    A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8,12-guaian...... (+)-germacrene A, and a biosynthetic pathway is proposed for these sesquiterpenoids....

  20. Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

  1. Contact sensitization to calocephalin, a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii, Compositae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Hindsén, Monica; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Cushion bush [Leucophyta brownii Cass. = Calocephalus brownii (Cass.) F. Muell.] is an Australian Compositae shrub that has been introduced into Scandinavia as a pot plant. The first case of sensitization occurred in a gardener, and the main allergen was identified as the guaianolide calocephalin....

  2. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  3. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  4. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining...

  6. Study of Air Combat Decision for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles Based on Hybrid Game%混合对策无人战机空战决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅莉; 于梅祥

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the hybrid game, and the air combat process is regarded as a Discrete Event Dynamic System that is composed of a series of discrete-states, its discrete-state sub-model is established at the same time, in order to choose the tactics, the evaluation function is build and consisted of the air combat situation index and the air combat capability index. Finally, the maneuver generator is designed in combination with the 3 degree-of-freedom aircraft model control the moving state of aircraft, and the simulation of the fighting-turning is carried out in matlab environment as an example.%在混合对策理论的基础上,将空战过程看作是由一系列离散的状态组成的离散事件动态系统,建立了空战过程的离散状态子模型,利用空战态势指数和战机空战能力指数构造了战术评估函数,以完成对战术动作的筛选工作,并结合3DOF质点模型设计了机动指令生成器,实现对无人机运动状态的控制,并在Matlab环境下对机动实例进行了仿真.

  7. The Scout Launch Vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

  8. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  10. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Concerns regarding air pollution, energy dependence, and, increasingly, climate change continue to motivate the search for new transportation solutions. Much of the focus is on light-duty vehicles, as they account for approximately 60% of transportation energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Battery-powered, electric-drive vehicles (EVs), such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), are among the most promising of the advanced vehicle and fuel...

  11. Testing the Stress-Gradient Hypothesis at the Roof of the World: Effects of the Cushion Plant Thylacospermum caespitosum on Species Assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, Miroslav; Doležal, Jiří; Kopecký, Martin; Chlumská, Zuzana; Janatková, Kateřina; Altman, Jan; de Bello, Francesco; Řeháková, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), e53514. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA AV ČR IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cushion plants * facilitation * competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  12. Evaluation Of Potential Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: Vol. II

    OpenAIRE

    Gris, Arturo

    1991-01-01

    Identifies potentially promising market segments for electric and hybrid vehicle technologies; covers topics including energy and power requirements, battery and range extender, propulsion system, and air conditioning

  13. Evaluation Of Potential Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: Vol I

    OpenAIRE

    Gris, Arturo E.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies potentially promising market segments for electric and hybrid vehicle technologies; covers topics including energy and power requirements, battery and range extender, propulsion system, and air conditioning

  14. Linear runs faster. The air gap in rail vehicles driven by linear generators; Linear laeuft es schneller. Der Luftspalt bei Linearmotor-getriebenen Schienenfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, D.; Schmidt, A. [Paderborn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Konstruktions- und Antriebstechnik

    2005-02-01

    The contribution outlines the function and types of linear motors and describes their well-known applications in railway trains. The influence of the air gap on motor performance is gone into. (orig.) [German] Elektromagnetische Linearantriebe sind in den letzten Jahren vermehrt ins Blickfeld des oeffentlichen Interesses geraten. Neben den Anwendungen im Bereich der Werkzeugmaschinen und in der Foerdertechnik sind es vor allem Zuege wie der Transrapid oder der japanische Maglev, die einen Linearmotor als Antrieb fuer Schienenfahrzeuge verwenden und damit die Vorteile, aber auch das Weiterentwicklungspotential dieser Technologie aufzeigen. In dem Beitrag werden zunaechst die Wirkungsweise und verschiedene Ausfuehrungsformen von Linearmotoren erlaeutert. Anschliessend werden einige bekannte Bahnantriebe mit Linearantrieb vorgestellt, um dann den Einfluss des Luftspalts auf den Wirkungsgrad des Motors naeher zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  15. Chemical Degradation of Siloxane Stress Cushions (M97 and S5370) by Thermal, Mechanical and Spectroscopic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R S; Gee, R; Balazs, B; Cohenour, R; Sung, B

    2002-04-19

    We are currently investigating the long term aging of weapon organics in an effort to develop predictive capabilities for functional service life. As part of this effort, we have been studying multimechanism aging of M97 and 53370 stress cushions. Ionizing radiation, thermal degradation, and desiccation all affect the crosslink density and motional dynamics and thus the engineering performance of these materials. Our approach has been to develop molecular level understanding of the effects of such aging mechanisms on polymer properties by a combined approach utilizing solvent swelling, thermal, DMA, molecular modeling, and solid state NMR. This presentation will offer a survey of our current work, concentrating on the application of solid state NMR for correlating structure and polymer dynamics. An overview of the relationships between crosslink density, NMR relaxation times, polymer chain dynamics, and storage modulus measurements will be presented and the advantages of NMR will be discussed. It will be shown that silicone based polymers tend to crosslink upon exposure to {gamma}-radiation, undergo chain scission upon thermal degradation, and stiffen upon desiccation.

  16. A Control-Oriented Modeling for Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle%面向控制的弹性高超声速飞行器建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建峰; 张科; 吕梅柏

    2014-01-01

    The wide use of lifting body and wave-rider aerodynamic layout causes difficulty in the coupling between the rigid modal of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and its elastic modal. Hence we use the finite element method and the variable cross-section free beam to establish the control-oriented structural elastic model of the hy-personic vehicle. We apply the first-order local flow piston theory to calculate its unsteady aerodynamic force. Then we use the uniform design method and the step-by-step regression analysis method to establish its high-precision curve fitting model ( CFM) . The simulation results, given in Figs.3 and 4, and their comparison show preliminarily that:the CFM established with the control-oriented elastic modeling method agrees well with the physical model of the hypersonic vehicle, while consuming less computing time and resources than other traditional modeling methods.%高超声速飞行器广泛采用升力体、乘波体等气动布局和轻质材料,导致飞行器刚体模态与弹性模态的耦合问题突出。针对该类飞行器的特点,使用有限元方法基于变截面自由梁构建高超声速飞行器的结构弹性模型,利用当地流活塞理论计算弹性变形引起的非定常气动力,然后借助均匀设计、逐步回归等统计学方法获取弹性高超声速飞行器的高精度曲线拟合模型。仿真对比分析表明,所介绍的高超声速飞行器弹性建模方法高效、可靠,其所建立的曲线拟合模型与原始物理模型的一致程度及精度均优于现有拟合模型,而所消耗的时间与计算机资源小于现有建模方法。

  17. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  18. Sparse representation for vehicle recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnig, Nathan D.; Sakla, Wesam

    2014-06-01

    The Sparse Representation for Classification (SRC) algorithm has been demonstrated to be a state-of-the-art algorithm for facial recognition applications. Wright et al. demonstrate that under certain conditions, the SRC algorithm classification performance is agnostic to choice of linear feature space and highly resilient to image corruption. In this work, we examined the SRC algorithm performance on the vehicle recognition application, using images from the semi-synthetic vehicle database generated by the Air Force Research Laboratory. To represent modern operating conditions, vehicle images were corrupted with noise, blurring, and occlusion, with representation of varying pose and lighting conditions. Experiments suggest that linear feature space selection is important, particularly in the cases involving corrupted images. Overall, the SRC algorithm consistently outperforms a standard k nearest neighbor classifier on the vehicle recognition task.

  19. Primary Research on the Standard System of Air Vehicle Calibration Models Used in Wind Tunnel Test%飞行器风洞试验标模体系研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战培国; 罗月培

    2011-01-01

    风洞试验标模是一种评估风洞试验准度和验证CFD算法的通用校准模型.本文归纳分析了北大西洋公约组织AGARD系列、法国ONERAM系列为代表的国外风洞试验标模发展情况,阐述了我国DBM、GBM、HSCM风洞标模系列的发展现状,探讨了建立和完善风洞试验标模体系的一些问题,意在为国内风洞和试验技术发展提供参考.%The standard air vehicle calibration model is a common calibration model used for evaluating wind tunnel test results and validating CFD methods.This paper analyses the development of overseas wind tunnel calibration models,typically,NATO AGARD series and ONERA M series in France,introduces state of the art domestic calibration models,such as DBM,CBM and HSCM series,discusses some problems about setting up and consummating the system of calibration models.The purpose is to provide thoughts and references for the development of domestic wind tunnel techniques.

  20. 冷凝风扇在汽车空调怠速性能中的应用%Application of Condensing Fan Value into Vehicle Air Conditioning Idle Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛磊华; 曹皇亲; 杨菲菲

    2016-01-01

    文章主要介绍一款冷凝风扇的安装结构及控制原理,环境仓模拟试验条件,在该条件下皮卡平台搭载冷凝风扇,通过怠速工况下有无冷凝风扇两种状态试验数据对比,验证了冷凝风扇在汽车空调怠速性能提升的重要性,本冷凝风扇实现了在皮卡车上的应用,满足了客户需求。%This paper describes the installation structure and contrlol principle of a condensing fan. The environmental room simulates the condition of experiment, and in this condition Pickup platform is equipped with condensing fan. By the test data comparison of two different states, this paper verifies the importance of the condensing fan in the vehicle air conditioning idling improvement. This condensing fan has been applied in Pickup truck and the performance has satisfied the customer needs.

  1. Design of Variable Structure Controller Based on Model Reference of Air-breathing Vehicle%吸气式飞行器模型参考变结构控制律设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迪; 季海波; 严佳民; 梁卓; 雷延花

    2015-01-01

    建立吸气式飞行器的动力学模型,针对三通道耦合、正攻角飞行的特点,采用基于 BTT-180 的模型参考变结构控制方法进行控制律设计.然后选用典型工况,在考虑气动参数偏差的情况下,进行六自由度弹道仿真.仿真结果表明该控制方法能有效解决飞行器通道间的耦合现象,增强了控制系统的适应性与鲁棒性.%The dynamic model of Air-breathing vehicle is established. Then according to the characteristic of three channels' coupling and one side attack angle, the control method of model reference variable structure based on BTT-180 is adopted. The six degree of freedom simulation under the typical work situation considered aerodynamic error is performed. The results show that the control system has nice dynamic quality and track precision, which can conquer channels' coupling effectively.

  2. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  3. Trends in Aggregate Vehicle Emissions: Do We Need To Emissions Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Kahn

    1995-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are falling. As the oldest vehicles in the fleet are scrapped and are replaced by cleaner vehicles, aggregate emissions decline. Given this trend, must costly used car regulation continue? The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires more stringent used car testing without considering the counter-factual of how aggregate emissions would evolve in the absence of more regulation. This paper use data on vehicle scrappage rates, vehicle emissions by model year, and county air quality leve...

  4. Electric vehicles - The clear winner in the race to reduce vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US automakers are dedicating significant resources to developing electric vehicles, which should be commercially available within the next three to five years. One of the greatest drivers for this development push is national, state, and regional legislation to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. This paper will show that electric vehicles - the cleanest of the alternative-fuel vehicle options - have enormous potential to reduce emission from the transportation sector despite nationwide differences in the generation mix used for generating electricity to power the vehicles. Emissions reductions will be even greater in the future as power plants are required to use more stringent controls and as electric vehicle energy efficiency increases. Thus, widespread use of electric vehicles could help many urban areas reduce emissions and achieve air quality goals

  5. A theoretical remark about waves on a static water surface beneath a layer of moving air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, T.; Hayashi, R.; Yasutomi, Z.

    1990-12-01

    Grundy and Tuck (1987) treat the problem of large-amplitude waves on an air-water interface where the air is a steady nonuniform flow and the water is stationary. Both periodic nonlinear Stokes-like waves far downstream and a configuration of the water surface from the edge region of a hovercraft were computed. However, there is no work that treats the existence of such Stokes-like waves theoretically. The present work aims to prove the existence of such solutions in the case where the cushion pressure is low, that is, the depression at the upstream stagnation point from the mean water level is small.

  6. Manufacturing the electric vehicle: a window of technological opportunity for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    C O Quandt

    1995-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has mandated that by 1998 2% of new vehicles sold in California must be zero emission, effectively, electric vehicles. This requirement is largely responsible for the electric vehicle development programs run by almost every global automobile manufacturer that does business in the United States. At present, no single electric vehicle technology, from battery type, to propulsion system, to vehicle design, represents a standard for a protoelectric vehicle indu...

  7. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    OpenAIRE

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can become and important resource for the California electric utility system, with consequent air pollution, system reliability, and economic benefits. We refer to electric power resources from vehicles as “Vehicle to Grid” power (V2G). The economic value of some forms of V2G appear high, more than enough to offset the initially higher costs of electric-drive vehicles, thus having the potential to accelerate their introduction. To realize this potential, some coordi...

  8. 基于RBF神经网络的Q学习飞行器隐蔽接敌策略%Stealthy engagement maneuvering strategy with Q-learning based on RBFNN for air vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安; 寇英信; 于雷; 李战武

    2012-01-01

    基于马尔科夫决策过程框架研究了三维空间内隐蔽接敌策略的强化学习方法,定义了环境模型中的优势区域和暴露区域.针对高维状态空间策略学习所面临的维数灾问题,给出基于径向基神经网络(radial basis function neural network,RBFNN)的Q学习算法,说明了训练样本的分级采样方法,并针对不同情况下的接敌机动策略学习进行了仿真分析.仿真结果表明,借助于合理的分级采样方法,基于RBFNN的Q学习算法能有效生成隐蔽接敌策略.%Based on the Markov decision process theory, a reinforcement learning method for stealthy engagement strategy for air vehicles in 3D space is proposed. The advantage region and the exposure region for the environment modeling are established. In order to overcome the dimensional disaster problem, a Q-learning algorithm based on the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is put forward and a ranked sampling method is explained. Then simulations for two different situations are carried out,and the results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for the stealthy engagement strategy through reasonable ranked sampling methods.

  9. Cosmeceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Consumers will pay a premium for high-performance skin and hair care products. The demand exists, and in return for the high cost, consumers expect the product to perform as claimed and to meet aesthetic standards beyond many products found in the mass market. To be successful in this highly competitive market, products must function as claimed or consumers will not repurchase. Effective contemporary high-end products must be properly formulated in nonirritating vehicles that consumers will perceive as elegant. PMID:19695476

  10. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  11. Joint Delay Doppler Probability Density Functions for Air-to-Air Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Walter; Dmitriy Shutin; Uwe-Carsten Fiebig

    2014-01-01

    Recent channel measurements indicate that the wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering assumption is not valid for air-to-air channels. Therefore, purely stochastic channel models cannot be used. In order to cope with the nonstationarity a geometric component is included. In this paper we extend a previously presented two-dimensional geometric stochastic model originally developed for vehicle-to-vehicle communication to a three-dimensional air-to-air channel model. Novel joint time-varia...

  12. Joint Delay Doppler Probability Density Functions for Air-to-Air Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Michael; Shutin, Dmitriy; Fiebig, U.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent channel measurements indicate that the wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering assumption is not valid for air-to-air channels. Therefore, purely stochastic channel models cannot be used. In order to cope with the nonstationarity a geometric component is included. In this paper we extend a previously presented two-dimensional geometric stochastic model originally developed for vehicle-to-vehicle communication to a three-dimensional air-to-air channel model. Novel joint t...

  13. Application of cushion type ribbon in tracheostomy patients.%垫式系带在气管切开患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏碧; 康秀华; 何海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对气管切开患者使用垫式系带,观察其对颈部皮肤损伤的预防效果.方法:将266例气管切开患者分为对照组(普通系带)、实验组(垫式系带)进行颈部皮肤护理.结果:实验组和对照组对颈部皮肤损伤的预防效果比较存在显著差异(P<0.05).结论:垫式系带能有效预防气管切开患者颈部皮肤损伤.%Objective:To boservate the prevention effect of cushion type ribbons on neck injury for tracheostomy patients. Methods:266 tracheostomy patients were divided into the control group ( normal ties ) and experimental group ( pad - ribbons ) to given neck skin care. Results Experimental group and control group on the neck injury prevention effects exist significant differences ( P <0.05 ). Conclusion: Cushion type ribbons can effectively prevent tracheostomy patients and neck skin injury prevention.

  14. Tetraploids do not form cushions: association of ploidy level, growth form and ecology in the High Arctic Saxifraga oppositifolia L. s. lat. (Saxifragaceae in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Bronken Eidesen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Saxifraga oppositifolia L. is a common circumpolar plant species that displays considerable morphological and genetic variation throughout its range. It is mainly diploid, but tetraploids are reported from several regions. The growth form varies from prostate to cushion-shaped, and the plant thrives in wet snow beds as well as on dry ridges. This variation has triggered the curiosity of many researchers, but as yet, no one has explained the observed morphological variation using ecological and/or genetic factors. However, the ploidy level has rarely been taken into account. This is the first study that demonstrates a significant correlation between ploidy level, ecology and growth form in S. oppositifolia. We successfully analysed 193 individuals of S. oppositifolia from 15 locations in Svalbard to investigate possible relationships among growth forms (prostrate, intermediate and cushion, ecological factors (vegetation and soil characteristics and ploidy level. Results from flow cytometry reported 106 diploids, eight triploids and 79 tetraploids. Tetraploids almost exclusively showed prostrate growth, while the diploids displayed all three growth forms, evidence that growth form is at least partly genetically determined. Our analyses of environmental and vegetation data in relation to ploidy level indicated overlapping niches, but the tetraploids showed a narrower niche, and one shifted towards more benign habitats characterized by higher pH, higher soil temperatures and higher cover of vascular plants. The latter may suggest that tetraploids are slightly better competitors, but less hardy. Thus, autopolyploidy in S. oppositifolia has expanded the ecological amplitude of this species complex.

  15. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.

  16. Electric Vehicle : The Future Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Goyal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A lot is said and heard about global warming and its causes. But still the global situation is the same and nothing much changes. This paper intends to bring, what is considered as the potential savior of the world today, ELECTRIC VEHICLES in the lime light. Provided the EV are known for their non-emission of air pollutants and zero noise workings, EVs may be the first step towards the clean and sophisticated world. This paper aims to discuss the past, the present and the future of the vehicles which seems to be the solution of the desperate situation. This paper also provides brief simulation of electric vehicle in MATLAB environment.

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  20. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  1. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  2. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are small, very efficient EVs that are designed to be used for urban trips at relatively low speeds. They provide the potential for greatly reduced air pollution, energy use, petroleum imports, greenhouse gas emissions, and roadspace. Because they are very energy efficient, they are better suited to the limitations of today's batteries than are full-sized EVs designed for highway travel. As supplements to a household's group of vehicles, NEVs could be ...

  3. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are small, very efficient EVs that are designed to be used for urban trips at relatively low speeds. They provide the potential for greatly reduced air pollution, energy use, petroleum imports, greenhouse gas emissions, and roadspace. Because they are very energy efficient, they are better suited to the limitations of today’s batteries than are full-sized EVs designed for highway travel. As supplements to a household’s group of vehicles, NEVs co...

  4. Cooperative Search and Path Planning of Multi-unmanned Air Vehicles in Uncertain Environment%不确定环境下的多无人机协同搜索航路规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文超; 黄长强; 宋磊; 唐上钦; 白壬潮

    2011-01-01

    In order to resolve the cooperative search problem of multiple unmanned air vehicles ( UAV) in a uncertain environment, this paper presents a basic framework for it first, and then gives the search environment and UAV models. Based on them, a cooperative search path decision for UAV to satisfy the maximum turn radius restriction and communication delay is proposed. According to prior knowledge, the environment can be divided as unknown regions, known regions and prohibited areas, and an award function can be designed for a team of UAVs to search the unknown regions and avoid the known regions. By using an avoidance decision, UAV can get rid of the prohibited area ultimately. Finally, these ideas are simulated and compared with the uncooperative search patterns. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed cooperative approach.%为解决多架无人机(UAV)在不确定环境中搜索目标的问题,根据多UAV协同搜索的基本原则,建立了多UAV协同搜索的环境模型和UAV运动模型,提出了一种满足UAV机动限制和适应数据通讯延迟的协同路径决策算法.根据先验知识将环境分为未知环境,已知环境和禁飞区,设计了搜索回报函数,引导UAV对未知环境进行搜索,对已知环境进行规避;提出了禁飞区回避决策,实现了UAV对禁飞区的完全回避.最后进行了仿真实验,并与2种非协同搜索算法的仿真结果进行了比较,结果表明,本文提出的协同搜索算法的有效性.

  5. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  6. High-Resolution Mapping and Long-Term Trends for Motor Vehicle Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gas and other pollutant emissions that contribute to global climate change and urban and regional air pollution problems. Past efforts to develop motor vehicle emission inventories, needed for air quality planning, have been subject to significant uncertainties related to emission factors and spatial and temporal distributions of vehicle activity. The goal of this dissertation is to develop new inventories for vehicle emissions of greenhouse gas...

  7. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  8. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  9. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  10. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  11. Application of synchronous belt drive on air cushion craft%同步带传动在全垫升气垫船上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭磊

    2012-01-01

    同步带传动是一种比较高教的传动方式.以同步带作为着眼点,对其发展、优缺点、分类进行总结,介绍其在气垫船上的应用与选型计算方法,并与其他传动方式作比较,展示了该产品的优点及克服其缺点的方法,对从事船舶设计,尤其是高性能船设计有一定的参考价值.

  12. 凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用%Application of cool liquid cushion in operative position placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪清; 左育涛; 刘燕梅; 刘金秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the application effect of cool liquid cushion in the placement of operation po-sition.Methods:Each 60 cases of patients were selected whose surgical positions in operating room in our hospi-tal were respectively supine position,lateral position,lithotomy position,prone position and the placed time more than 4 hours,a total of 240 cases.They were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 120 cases in each.The patients in control group were treated by routine methods to put the operation position, and the conventional cushion protection was given in compressed sponge.In experimental group,different speci-fications of cool liquid cushion was placed in pressure areas to protect,then to compare the pressure ulcer condi-tions and required physiological bending in posture compliance between two groups of patients.Results:The in-cidence of pressure sores in experimental group patients was lower than that in control group,the compliance rate of physiological curve required for position was higher than that in control group,and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion:The cool liquid cushion applied for protecting pressured parts in position placement of operation patients can reded the incidence of pressure sore and increase the compliance rate of patient’s posture physiology bending and improve patients’comfort.%[目的]探讨凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用效果。[方法]选取在我院手术室手术体位分别是仰卧位、侧卧位、截石位、俯卧位且摆放时间超过4 h的病人各60例,共240例,随机分为对照组和试验组各120例。对照组按常规方法摆放手术体位,受压处常规给予海绵垫保护;试验组应用不同规格的凉液垫放置在受压部位进行保护,比较两组病人压疮发生情况及体位所需的生理弯曲符合情况。[结果]试验组病人压疮发生率低于对照组,体位所需的生理弯曲符合率高

  13. A deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation in a pebble bed reactor based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A deceleration system for fuel transportation in a pebble bed reactor is designed. • Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. • The effectiveness of the system is verified by the analysis and the experiment. • Some key design parameters are studied to achieve effective deceleration. • This research provides a guide for the design of a pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The fuel elements cycle occurring inside and outside the core of a pebble bed reactor is carried out by pneumatic conveying. In some processes of conveyance, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the moving fuel element in a short time to avoid damage to the fuel elements and the equipment. In this research, a deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion is designed to achieve an effective and reliable deceleration process. Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. The results show that when the fuel element is moving in the deceleration pipeline, the gas in the pipeline is compressed to create a pneumatic cushion which resists the movement of the fuel element. In this way, the velocity of the fuel element is decreased to below the target value. During this process, the deceleration is steady and reliable. On this basis some key design parameters are studied, such as the deceleration pipeline length, the ratio of the diameter of the fuel element to the internal diameter of the pipeline, etc. The experimental results are generally consistent with the analysis and demonstrate the considerable effectiveness of the deceleration process as well. This research provides a guide for the design of the fuel elements cycling system in a pebble bed reactor along with the optimization of its control

  14. Time-resolved imaging of a compressible air disc under a drop impacting on a solid surface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2015-09-07

    When a drop impacts on a solid surface, its rapid deceleration is cushioned by a thin layer of air, which leads to the entrapment of a bubble under its centre. For large impact velocities the lubrication pressure in this air layer becomes large enough to compress the air. Herein we use high-speed interferometry, with 200 ns time-resolution, to directly observe the thickness evolution of the air layer during the entire bubble entrapment process. The initial disc radius and thickness shows excellent agreement with available theoretical models, based on adiabatic compression. For the largest impact velocities the air is compressed by as much as a factor of 14. Immediately following the contact, the air disc shows rapid vertical expansion. The radial speed of the surface minima just before contact, can reach 50 times the impact velocity of the drop.

  15. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  16. Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is serious concern about the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Air Space (NAS) because of their potential to increase the risk of...

  17. Revolutionary Performance For Ultra Low Reynolds Number Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (Micro-UAVs) and...

  18. Seamless Mode Switching for Shared Control of Semiautonomous Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Whether it be a crew station, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), an unmanned ground rover (UGV) or air vehicle (UAV), or teams thereof, the controllers...

  19. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  2. Effects of boundary layer and liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Chang-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical investigations for tank sloshing, based on commercial CFD package FLUENT, are performed to study effects of boundary layer grid, liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing pressure, wave height and rising time of impact pressure. Also, sloshing experiments for liquids of different viscosity are carried out to validate the numerical results. Through comparison of numerical and experimental results, a computational model including boundary layer grid can predict the sloshing pressure more accurately. Energy dissipation due to viscous friction leads to reduction of sloshing pressure and wave elevation. Sloshing pressure is also reduced because of cushion effect of compressible air. Due to high viscosity damping effect and compressible air effect, the rising time of impact pressure becomes longer. It is also found that liquid viscosity and compressible air influence distribution of dynamic pressure along the vertical tank wall.

  3. Effects of boundary layer and liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chang-Fang; Wang, De-Yu; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, numerical investigations for tank sloshing, based on commercial CFD package FLUENT, are performed to study effects of boundary layer grid, liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing pressure, wave height and rising time of impact pressure. Also, sloshing experiments for liquids of different viscosity are carried out to validate the numerical results. Through comparison of numerical and experimental results, a computational model including boundary layer grid can predict the sloshing pressure more accurately. Energy dissipation due to viscous friction leads to reduction of sloshing pressure and wave elevation. Sloshing pressure is also reduced because of cushion effect of compressible air. Due to high viscosity damping effect and compressible air effect, the rising time of impact pressure becomes longer. It is also found that liquid viscosity and compressible air influence distribution of dynamic pressure along the vertical tank wall.

  4. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  5. Side skirt for a pulled vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Raemdonck, G.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for minimizing the aerodynamic drag that results when tractors, trailers, rigid trucks, lorries, and other vehicles are moving through air. In particular the invention relates to a plate-shaped flow conductor (31) having a front edge, a lower edge, a rear ed

  6. Novel MAV Air Data System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has received considerable attention in recent years for both military and civilian uses. MAVs typically suffer from...

  7. Frequency-based Vehicle Idling Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chao Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increases in fuel prices and environmental awareness have raised the importance of reducing vehicle emissions, with many national governments passing anti-idling laws. To reduce air pollution and fuel consumption, we propose a frequency-based vehicle idling detection method to remind drivers to turn off the engine vehicle idling exceeds a certain time threshold. The method is implemented in existing handheld devices without any modification to the car or engine, making the solution cheap and simple to implement in any type of motor vehicle. Experimental results show the proposed method can effectively differentiate idling, engine-off, and moving conditions. Two implementation cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method.

  8. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  9. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  10. Pilot project for vehicle scrapping in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Accelerated vehicle scrappage programs have been suggested as a possible means to clean the air in urban areas by allowing sponsoring entities to generate emissions credits through the purchase and scrapping of older, high-emitting vehicles. Although two previous car scrapping projects had been executed, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) decided that doing another project would be productive. The authors wanted to further explore certain aspects of vehicle scrappage and concentrate on specific characteristics of the local vehicle fleet to determine how such programs should be considered for credit generation in Illinois. The IEPA, in conjunction with two contractual consultants and a combined team from General Motors and the Environmental Defense Fund, designed a pilot project that would investigate the feasibility of a large scale vehicle scrappage program in the Chicago area. The Illinois Cash for Clunkers project introduced several attributes that had not been part of previous scrappage efforts. The project purchased 207 vehicles from southern Chicago and the southern suburbs. All vehicles were tested using an IM 240 test procedure with a purge and pressure analysis of evaporative emissions. The total average emissions per car in grams per mile for testable cars were found to be: Hydrocarbons (HC), 16.09; Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 4.81; Carbon Monoxide (CO), 62.42; and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 496.3.

  11. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  12. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative fuels Advanced gas and diesel vehicles Explaining EVs and PHEVs Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles GHG emissions ... gas emissions Routes to a lower GHG transportation future What if: Ideas for reducing transportation GHG We' ...

  13. Research on Shaping Quality of Compensation Cushion of Worm Speed Reducer%关于蜗轮减速器补偿垫成形质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅

    2014-01-01

    蜗轮减速器补偿垫采用聚氨酯橡胶冲模加工,该模具设计结构紧凑、拆装方便、制造简单,冲裁出的多种规格的补偿垫零件平整、成形一致、毛刺小、严格控制了蜗轮、蜗杆的补偿间隙,使蜗轮副转动灵活。%Compensation cushion of worm speed reducer was used polyurethane rubber punch die processing. The structure of mould has features of convenient tear open outfit, simple manufacturing, cutting out a variety of specifications of the com-pensating cushion flat parts, forming small, burr, strictly control the worm gear and worm compensation gap, which make ro-tation of worm gear pair flexible.

  14. Status of ERA Vehicle System Integration Technology Demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Khorrami, Mehdi; James, Kevin D.; Thomas, Russell; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project within the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) has the responsibility to explore and document the feasibility, benefits, and technical risk of air vehicle concepts and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. The primary goal of the ERA Project is to select air vehicle concepts and technologies that can simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions. In addition, the ERA Project will identify and mitigate technical risk and transfer knowledge to the aeronautics community at large so that new technologies and vehicle concepts can be incorporated into the future design of aircraft.

  15. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  16. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  17. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  18. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  19. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  20. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of

  1. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  2. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  3. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  4. Evaluation of thermal conditions inside a vehicle cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several important factors influencing road accidents. Temperature inside the vehicle is ranked third after alcohol and seat belts. For this reason, maintaining thermal comfort in the passenger compartment is essential. Thermal comfort is provided by the air conditioning system, which consumes much energy. In the case of electrically powered vehicles, this results in a shorter range. Optimization of such systems is therefore required. This paper proposes a set of equations describing the thermal conditions inside the vehicle, which are the result of appropriate energy balances for air, interior elements, and glass. Variable transmission conditions are included for transparent materials exposed to short and long wave radiation. The study focused on unsteady air-conditioning of the vehicle interior. The measurement data was compared with the results obtained through numerical solutions of the proposed set of equations.

  5. Evaluation of thermal conditions inside a vehicle cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Tadeusz; Skrobacki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    There are several important factors influencing road accidents. Temperature inside the vehicle is ranked third after alcohol and seat belts. For this reason, maintaining thermal comfort in the passenger compartment is essential. Thermal comfort is provided by the air conditioning system, which consumes much energy. In the case of electrically powered vehicles, this results in a shorter range. Optimization of such systems is therefore required. This paper proposes a set of equations describing the thermal conditions inside the vehicle, which are the result of appropriate energy balances for air, interior elements, and glass. Variable transmission conditions are included for transparent materials exposed to short and long wave radiation. The study focused on unsteady air-conditioning of the vehicle interior. The measurement data was compared with the results obtained through numerical solutions of the proposed set of equations.

  6. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  7. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  8. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  9. A Fuel-Based Approach to Estimating Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Brett

    1998-01-01

    Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emissions factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurement...

  10. Optimal trajectory reconfiguration and retargeting for the X-33 reusable launch vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis considers the problem of generating optimal entry trajectories for a reusable launch vehicle following a control surface failure. The thesis builds upon the work of Dr. David Doman, Dr. Michael Oppenheimer and Dr. Michael Bolender of the Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Lab Dayton Ohio. The primary focus of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of inner loop reconfiguration and outer loop trajectory retargeting and replanning for the X-33 reusable launch vehicle ...

  11. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  12. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Positive impact of electric vehicle and ngv on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric Vehicle uses electricity from batteries as fuel and is environment friendly with zero emission. The occurrence of haze in 1997 in Malaysia and neighbouring countries has called for new studies about motor vehicle emission as it aggravates the problem. In big cities like Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru where it is estimated that over 300,000 vehicles enter the city everyday, smoke pollution from vehicles is identified as the major contributor to air quality. One of the solutions to air pollution problem could be the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Natural Gas for Vehicle (NGV). The NGV uses compressed natural gas mainly methane, is lead free and clean burning with low emission. The electric vehicles use batteries as power source. These batteries are charged off-peak hour, specifically after mid-night when the electric load curve has its least demand period. The number of electric vehicles and NGV in future years is calculated considering the penetration level. The reduction in pollution is estimated considering the number of automobiles replaced by electric vehicles and NGV. Finally, it is concluded that EV and NGV could be the ultimate solution for pollution control and could improve the environment specifically that of congested cities of Malaysia. (Author)

  14. Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advertising of vehicles has been studied from a safety perspective but not in terms of vehicle air pollutants. We aimed to examine the content and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution-related information, in light passenger vehicle advertisements. Methods Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period 2001–2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements. This was supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Results The advertisements studied provided some information on fuel type (52%, and engine size (39%; but hardly any provided information on fuel efficiency (3%, or emissions (4%. Over the five-year period the reported engine size increased significantly, while fuel efficiency did not improve. For the vehicles advertised, for which relevant official website data could be obtained, the average "greenhouse rating" for carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions was 5.1, with a range from 0.5 to 8.5 (on a scale with 10 being the best and 0.5 being the most polluting. The average CO2 emissions were 50% higher than the average for cars made by European manufacturers. The average "air pollution" rating for the advertised vehicles was 5.4 (on the same 1–10 scale. The yearly averages for the "greenhouse" or "air pollution" ratings did not change significantly over the five-year period. One advertised hybrid vehicle had a fuel consumption that was under half the average (4.4 versus 9.9 L/100 km, as well as the best "greenhouse" and "air pollution" ratings. Conclusion To enhance informed consumer choice and to control greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, governments should introduce regulations on the content of vehicle advertisements and marketing (as started by the European Union. Similar regulations are already in place for the marketing of many other consumer products.

  15. Airborne rotary air separator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  16. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2014-06-01

    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  17. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are small, very efficient EVs that are designed to be used for urban trips at relatively low speeds. They provide the potential for greatly reduced air pollution, energy use, petroleum imports, greenhouse gas emissions, and roadspace. Because they are very energy efficient, they are better suited to the limitations of today’s batteries than are full-sized EVs designed for highway travel. As supplements to a household’s group of vehicles, NEVs could be...

  18. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of ai...... pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).......In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air...

  19. Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle Manned and Unmanned Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing an Unmanned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle that will give new abilities to the Manned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle, Air-Ram. A comparison between the two systems will be given, and a report to our first Unmanned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle flight. Air-Ram The Air-Ram system, figure 1, has been developed to measure and display online radiation level measurements taken above the radiation area with a chopper. The detected radiation levels are presented on a topographical map with the flight path colored with the radiation intensities. The air crew and controllers on the ground are updated every two seconds. It enables first responders to complete and real time picture of a radiological event which is essential in order to be able to activate and direct ground operations if necessary. The system measures radiation levels and produces a spectrum graph used to identify the isotopes

  20. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector