WorldWideScience

Sample records for air curtains

  1. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  2. The effectiveness of a heated air curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria

    2014-11-01

    Air curtains are high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in the doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The air curtain effectiveness E is defined as the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an opposing buoyancy force on the air curtain effectiveness. Such an opposing buoyancy force arises for example if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. We conducted small-scale experiments using water as the working fluid with density differences created by salt and sugar. The effectiveness of a downwards blowing air curtain was measured for situations in which the initial density of the air curtain was less than both the indoor and the outdoor fluid density, which corresponds to the case of a heated air curtain. We compare the effectiveness of the heated air curtain to the case of the neutrally buoyant air curtain. It is found that the effectiveness starts to decrease if the air curtain is heated beyond a critical temperature. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of the buoyant air curtain. Numerical results obtained from solving this model corroborate our experimental findings.

  3. Detailed analysis of turbulent flows in air curtains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo, Julian E.; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Castro, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent entrainment, an air curtain should provide a jet with low turbulence level, and enough momentum to counteract pressure differences across the opening. Consequently, the analysis of the discharge plenum should be taken into consideration. Hence, the main object of this paper is to

  4. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  5. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  6. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Indoor Environment Separated with Down-Feed Air Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chunmei; ZHANG Yufeng; CHANG Ru; WANG Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Indoor environment separated with down.feed air curtain was numerically simulated and experimentally researched.Indoor airflow and temperature fields separated with air curtain were numerically simulated.Resuits show that both polluted airflow and thermal air current can be separated with a down.feed air curtain to prevent contaminants from spreading in the room space.In a test chamber.the smoke of burning Tibetan incense served as the source of contaminants.and the probe test shows that 1.0 pm is the prevailing diameter of the smoke particles.During the release of the smoke.the particle concentration of the indoor air was tested with a laser particle counter at the points of three different heights from the floor when the air curtain was running or not.Experimental results show that the higher the test point is located,the lower the particle concentration is,implying that the separating or isolating eflfect decreases as the air velocity of the curtain reduces along with the height descends.According to both simulation and experimental results.down.feed air curtain can separate indoor environment effectively when the supply air velocity of air curtain is not less than 3 m/s.In order to strengthen separation effect,it is suggested that the supply air velocity be speeded up to 5 m/s.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  12. Behavior of a horizontal air curtain subjected to a vertical pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, James; Phelps, LeEllen

    2012-09-01

    We present the details on an experiment to investigate the behavior of an air curtain that is subjected to a transverse pressure gradient. The setup simulates the conditions that will be present in the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a 4-meter solar observatory that will be built on Haleakala, Hawaii. A test rig was built to replicate the region at which the optical path crosses a temperature and pressure boundary between the telescope mount region, which is at the ambient temperature and pressure, and a warmer, pressurized lab space directly below. Use of an air curtain in place of an optically-transmitting window at the interface would allow science observations at a wider range of scientific wavelengths. With the air curtain exhibiting transitional flow behavior across the boundary, and applied pressure gradients of up to 6.5 Pa, we found that the air curtain was able to hold a pressure gradient of 0.25 Pa. As the applied pressure was increased, transient turbulent regions formed at the interface, and predictable flow behavior only occurred in the region closest to the air curtain blower. Computer modeling is used to validate the test data, identify laminar regions of the air curtain where minimal image distortion would occur, and explore the relationship between the applied pressure, effective pressure difference, and air curtain profile.

  13. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination.

  14. Improving flow and spillage characteristics of range hoods by using an inclined air-curtain technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Nian, You-Cyun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The current study developed a new type of range hood, which was termed an 'inclined air-curtain range hood', in order to improve the flow and performance of the conventionally used wall-mounted range hood. The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of air-curtain and conventional range hoods under the influences of both a mannequin presence and a simulated walk-by motion were experimentally examined. The study examined flow patterns by using a laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke-flow visualization technique and diagnosed spillages by using the tracer gas concentration test method. A mannequin presented in front of the conventional hood induced turbulent dispersion of oil mists toward the chest and nose of the mannequin owing to the complex interaction among the suction, wake, and wall effect, while the inclined air-curtain hood presented excellent hood performance by isolating the oil mists from the mannequin with an air curtain and therefore could reduce spillages out into the atmosphere and the mannequin's breathing zone. Both flow visualization and the tracer gas test indicated that the air-curtain hood had excellent 'robustness' over the conventional hood in resisting the influence of walk-by motion. The air-curtain technique could drastically improve the flow characteristics and performance of the range hood by consuming less energy.

  15. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  16. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  17. Optimization and investigation of the effect of velocity distribution of air curtains on the performance of food refrigerated display cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XueHong; Chang, ZhiJuan; Ma, QiuYang; Lu, YanLi; Yin, XueMei

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on improving the performance of the vertical open refrigerated display cabinets (VORDC) by optimizing the structure of deflector, which is affected by inlet velocity and velocity distribution of air curtains. The results show that the temperature of products located at the front and at the rear reduces as the increases of inlet velocity of air curtains. The increase of the inlet velocity of air curtains can strengthen the disturbance inside the VORDC, and also decrease the temperature of products inside the VORDC; the increase of the outer velocity of air curtain will exacerbate the disturbance outside the VORDC and decrease air curtain's performance. The present study can provide a theoretical foundation for the design of VORDC.

  18. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  19. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested.

  20. Development and evaluation of an air-curtain fume cabinet with considerations of its aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R F; Wu, Y D; Chen, H D; Chen, C-C; Chen, C-W; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S

    2007-03-01

    In order to avoid the inherent aerodynamic difficulties of the conventional fume hood, an innovative design--the 'air curtain-isolated fume hood' is developed. The new hood applies a specially designed air curtain (which is generated by a narrow planar jet and a suction slot flow at low velocities) across the sash plane. The hood constructed for the study is full size and transparent for flow visualization. The aerodynamic characteristics are diagnosed by using the laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Four characteristic air-curtain flow modes are identified in the domain of jet and suction velocities when the sash remains static. Some of these characteristic flow modes have much improved flow patterns when compared with those of the conventional fume hoods. From the viewpoint of the aerodynamics and mass transport, the results indicate that the air curtain properly setup across the sash opening allows almost no sensible exchange of momentum and mass between the flowfields of the cabinet and the outside environment. Two standard sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas concentration measurement methods following the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 standard and the prEN14175 protocol for static test are employed to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Results of the rigorous examinations of leakage show unusually satisfactory hood performance. The leakage of the tracer gas can approach almost null (<0.001 p.p.m.) if the jet and suction velocities are properly adjusted.

  1. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  2. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood.

  3. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm).

  4. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  5. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1).

  6. Push-Pull Air Curtain Performances for VOCs Containment in an Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of a Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs containment system using an air curtain (push-pull type on a manual workstation. This work combines CFD numerical simulations of the air curtain system and experimental studies on a real scale test bench. The point is to evaluate whether the actual worker protection can be replaced by an air curtain system, without weakening human safety. The new system could considerably reduce energetic consumption (ventilation, heating and VOCs emissions into the atmosphere. Experimental studies of the flow using a Particle Image Velocimetry anemometer (PIV have been carried out to validate the numerical model kinematics. The containment quality obtained by the model has been validated with experimental concentration fields given by a gaseous analyzer using flame ionization (FID. Numerical simulation provides an overview of the containment efficiency in the global area of the system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate numerically, but accurately, the quality of the containment of the system. Moreover, an energetic study proves the economic benefit of the push-pull system.

  7. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood.

  8. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  11. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods.

  12. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods.

  13. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double-Skin Facade building in external air curtain mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    ’. This covers such problem areas as measurements of naturally induced air flow, measurements of air temperature under direct solar radiation exposure, etc. Finally, in order to create a solid foundation for software validation, the uncertainty and limitations in the experimental results are discussed. In part...... was carried out in a full scale test facility ‘The Cube’, in order to compile three sets of high quality experimental data for validation purposes. The data sets are available for preheating mode, external air curtain mode and transparent insulation mode. The objective of this article is to provide the reader...

  14. Investigation of industrial gateways - evaluation of energy losses and the function of air curtains; Utvaerdering av industriportar - bedoemning av energifoerluster och luftridaaers funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernstroem, Tobias; Quicklund, Henrik; Axell, Monica

    2005-07-01

    The need for reducing the energy usage and in particular the electricity-usage is increasing. Every year lot of energy is wasted when using industrial gates. It is therefore important to examine this energy loss and to evaluate solutions for preventing or reducing this occurrence. In order to design good solutions that provide the desired climate in the premise and at the same time save energy we need knowledge on how a certain parameter affects the leakage of the surrounding air into the building. The purpose of this project was to examine the energy losses that arise when using industrial gates and to evaluate solutions to reduce these losses. Numerical calculations have been applied to evaluate the following parameters effect on the air exchange through the opening; temperature difference between the building and the surrounding, the size of the gate and the size of the building. For examine the function of the air curtain the inlet velocity, the width and the inlet turbulence intensity were evaluated. The CFD calculations have been complemented with the energy simulation program Simulink and also compared with measurements from previous studies. The results show a good agreement between the CFD and the Simulink calculation after the adjustment of a coefficient in Simulink. The size of the building did not affect the energy exchange through the gate. For each gate size there is an optimal inlet velocity and width of the air curtain that results in lowest energy exchange through the gate. When dimensioning the air curtains the impulse force of the air curtain should be used since it combines the velocity and width. It was also concluded that of two air curtains with the same impulse force the wider curtain is the most efficient. With a correct installed and dimensioned air curtain it is possible to achieve an energy saving of approximately 60-85 percent.

  15. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  16. Welding Curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Concept of transparent welding curtains made of heavy duty vinyl originated with David F. Wilson, President of Wilson Sales Company. In 1968, Wilson's curtains reduced glare of welding arc and blocked ultraviolet radiation. When later research uncovered blue light hazards, Wilson sought improvement of his products. He contracted Dr. Charles G. Miller and James B. Stephens, both of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and they agreed to undertake development of a curtain capable of filtering out harmful irradiance, including ultraviolet and blue light and provide protection over a broad range of welding operation. Working on their own time, the JPL pair spent 3 years developing a patented formula that includes light filtering dyes and small particles of zinc oxide. The result was the Wilson Spectra Curtain.

  17. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  18. Simulation Algorithm of Free&Single Cold Air Curtain%自由单层冷风幕的仿真算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余克志

    2012-01-01

      The CFD algorithm has some disadvantages when it solves the flow&heat transfer equations of air curtain. Based on the jet theory, the flow and heat transfer model of free&single cold air curtain were set up andАбрамович integrated method was used to solve the velocity and temperature distribution of air curtain. The computational results show that the simulation algorithm is in more agreement with the experimental results than CFD algorithm and the simulation algorithm runs faster.%  传统CFD算法在解决风幕流动与换热问题上存在缺陷。在射流基本理论的基础上,建立了自由单层冷风幕的流动与换热模型,并采用Абрамович积分方法求出了冷风幕的流速和温度分布。相对于传统CFD算法,仿真算法与实验测试结果更为吻合,计算也更为快速。

  19. 汇聚型空气幕集尘除尘系统的实验研究%The Experimental Study of Dust Collecting and Removal System with Convergent Air Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康良麒; 王汉青; 石发恩; 万进

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of excessive fluorine dust concentration of the rare earth electrolytic furnace, proposes a management scheme of convergent air curtain dust removal system. Through experiments, studies the relationship between the installing angle of convergent air curtain device and the convergence degree and the relationship of the fan air volume and the air curtain convergence degree, gets optimum technological parameters for convergent air curtain device, and provides the basis for production design. By means of analysis and experimental condition simulation on the airflow field of the convergent air curtain dust removal system, obtains the airflow characteristics of the system, thus further verifies the feasibility of the isolation control of polluted airs for the convergent air curtain.%为了解决稀土电解炉含氟烟尘浓度严重超标的问题,提出了一种汇聚型空气幕集尘除尘系统治理方案。通过实验测试的方法,研究了汇聚型空气幕装置的安装角与汇聚度及风机风量与空气幕汇聚度之间的关系,得到汇聚型空气幕装置的最佳工艺参数,为汇聚型空气幕的设计与制作提供了参考依据。通过对汇聚型空气幕集尘除尘系统风流流场的分析及实验条件的模拟,直观地获得了此系统风流流场的特征,同时进一步验证了汇聚型空气幕对污染气体隔离控制的可行性。

  20. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in Appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  1. Subway station smoke control based on the air curtain and smoke-proof pendant wall%基于空气幕和挡烟垂壁的地铁站烟气控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应志刚

    2012-01-01

    FDS was used to analyze the smoke control measures combined with the subway station model through the research of smoke prevention performances of air curtain and smoke -proof pendant wall. The analysis was done under the considera-tion of smoke-proof pendant wall's height and wind speed of air curtain on the effects of smoke spread control. It showed that the higher smoke-proof pendant wall could effectively control the smoke spread to the station hall and appropriate increase of the air curtain wind speed could control the smoke at the station effectively. The effective combination and reasonable set of the smoke-proof pendant wall's height and air curtain wind speed could inhibit the smoke spread to the station hall.%通过研究空气幕和挡烟垂壁阻挡烟气蔓延的性能,结合地铁站模型,利用FDS对控烟措施进行研究分析.考虑挡烟垂壁的高度以及空气幕的风速大小对烟气蔓延控制效果的影响.结果表明,挡烟垂壁高度越大越能有效控制烟气蔓延至站厅层;空气幕的风速适当增大能有效地把烟气控制在站台层.二者的有效结合、合理设置能抑制烟气蔓延至站厅层.

  2. 一种新型旋风气幕式排风罩实验研究%Experimental Study on the New Type of Rotary Air Curtain Exhaust Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘毅; 王鹏飞; 王维建

    2011-01-01

    借助于模型实验对新型旋风气幕式排风罩工作流场及有害物分布情况进行了分析,并与传统排风罩进行了对比。结果表明:旋转射流屏蔽作用下的抽吸流场具有中部压力较低和提高抽吸能力的作用;新型旋风气幕式排风罩不仅能有效地控制有害物扩散,而且可以实现远距离捕集有害物及以较小的排风速度排放有害物。%The rotary air curtain exhaust hood is a new type of exhaust hood. Based on theoretical analysis, the flow field and the deleterious materials distribution of the exhaust hood in job shop are studied through model experiment, and the rotary air curtain exhaust hood is compared with the traditional exhaust hood. The results show the rotary air curtain exhaust hood can effectively control the deleterious materials, greatly improve the suction. Therefore, it realizes long-distance trapping and low velocity emission of deleterious materials.

  3. 条缝型空气幕对抽油烟机污染控制的辅助作用%Auxiliary effect of slot air curtain on pollution control performance of kitchen range hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 周斌; 刘金祥; 薛科; 徐阳; 唐徐裕

    2016-01-01

    运用数值模拟和实验测试方法,研究了住宅厨房在油烟机和送风气幕作用下的气流流动、温度分布和污染物扩散机理,并通过 CFD数值计算对比分析了射速在0~5m/s范围的空气幕对厨房污染物扩散的影响.结果表明,单独使用抽油烟机作为厨房排风系统无法有效地将烹饪产生的油烟快速排向室外.空气幕作为补风装置应用在厨房通风系统不仅可以降低厨房空气温度,提高人体热舒适,而且能合理组织气流流动,降低厨房污染物浓度.然而,当油烟机排风量一定时,空气幕射速并非与油烟机捕集效率成正比,而是存在着最佳设计风速,排风速率为5m/s的最佳空气幕射速为0.6m/s.当通过增加油烟机排风量来提高捕集效率时,应根据不同的排风量确认对应的空气幕射速.%By using numerical simulation and field test method, air movement, temperature distribution and pollutant dispersion were investigated, when air was supplied through slot air curtain into the residential kitchen. The influence of jet velocity from air curtain on pollutant dispersion inside the kitchen was analyzed, where the range of jet velocity was from 0to 5m/s. Results show that oil fume generated by cooking cannot be effectively exhausted out of the kitchen by using the range hood alone. With the application of air curtain, the air temperature can be reduced to improve human thermal comfort, and the pollutant concentration can be decreased with the improved air distribution. However, with the given exhaust air volume, there was an optimal designed air supply velocity for the air curtain, since the capture efficiency of the range hood was not proportional to the air supply velocity. The optimal air velocity of the air curtain was 0.6m/s when the exhaust rate was 5m/s. Air velocity from air curtain should be correspondingly adjusted with the exhaust air rate, so that the capture efficiency of the range hood

  4. Experiment Research and Calculation of the Hot Air Flow Inside the Energy-saving Photovoltaic Double Curtain Wall%节能型热通道光伏幕墙热气流计算与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海; 毛伙南; 王秋; 姜清海; 潘冬; 隆志军; 郭金基; 陈峰

    2011-01-01

    The liquid status and rule on the effect of the mechanical ventilation and difference in temperature inside the double curtain wall are researched. And the consecutive and temperature field equations are constituted. In summer, the conversion efficiency of solar energy battery module about the working environment temperature was investigated. The building and photovoltaic battery module's temperature decrease performance by the hot air flow inside the double curtain wall are calculated. Finally, the physical model of energy-saving photovoltaic double curtain wall is tested and the calculated results are compared and analyzed.%分析了太阳能电池的转换效率受工作环境温度的影响变化规律.研究了双层幕墙在强迫通风及温差作用下所引起的热气流流动状态和规律,建立了相关的流场和温度场状态方程组,并计算了双层玻璃幕墙夏季热气流对建筑和太阳能电池组件的降温性能.最后完成了节能型热通道光伏幕墙的一个实体模型试验,并和计算结果加以对比分析.

  5. Iron Curtains ?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vlček

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional and multi-sensorial dimensions of care within a transnational family separated by the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. It will argue that processes of supportive and compassionate engagement amongst transnational kin are not only shaped by long-distance communication, financial support and practical help within specific political and economic contexts, but also by personal desires and interpersonal conflict. The dialectics of proximity and distance are explo...

  6. 厨房内吸油烟机射流气幕的参数化研究%Parametric Study of Jet Air Curtain of Range Hood in Kitchen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小民; 王星; 席光

    2013-01-01

    The orthogonal experiment design was performed to investigate the effects of the jet velocity, the jet angle, the jet slot width, the commutated plate area and the range hood flow rate on the performance of the range hood and the kitchen environment for the range hood with a jet air curtain and a commutated plate. The optimum design parameters of the air curtain were obtained. The results show that, coupled with the commutated plate, the air curtain with the optimum parameters can effectively control the movement of the high temperature air with oil fume in the kitchen. The range hood flow rate has a significant influence on the temperature distribution and the oil fumes concentration. For the range hood studied, the optimum value of the flow rate, the commutated plate area, the jet velocity, the jet angle, and the jet slot width are 10. 5 m3/min, 0. 22 m2,1. 5 m/s,-5°, and 4 mm, respectively.%针对带有射流气幕和整流板的家用吸油烟机,采用正交试验方法,分别研究了射流速度、射流角度、射流孔宽度、整流板面积和吸油烟机风量对吸油烟机性能及其厨房内环境的影响,最终获得了能够有效控制油烟和热空气逃逸的吸油烟机气幕设计参数.结果表明:吸油烟机风量对厨房内油烟浓度和温度有重要的影响,当吸油烟机风量为10.5 m3/min、整流板面积为0.22 m2、射流速度为1.5 m/s、射流角度为-5°、射流孔宽度为4 mm时,厨房内人体舒适度最佳.

  7. Effect of Elasticity on Stability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Francis, Lorraine; Carvalho, Marcio; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Collaboration; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro Collaboration; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Curtain coating is one the preferred methods for high-speed precision application of single-layer and multi-layer coatings in industry. Despite the extensive variety of applications of curtain coating, its operation is challenging and uniform coating is only obtained in a certain range of operating parameters, called the coating window. The two main physical mechanisms that limit curtain coating are the breakup of the liquid curtain, below a critical flow rate, and the catastrophic event of air entrainment, which occurs above a certain web speed. The rheological characteristics of the coating liquid play an important role on these mechanisms, but the fundamental understanding of the role of rheology is still not complete. In this work, we analyze the relative importance of shear and extensional viscosity on both curtain breakup and dynamic contact line instability (i.e. air entrainment). Aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights were used as model liquids to obtain fluids with different levels of extensional thickening behavior. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.

  8. Iron Curtains ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlček

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the emotional and multi-sensorial dimensions of care within a transnational family separated by the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. It will argue that processes of supportive and compassionate engagement amongst transnational kin are not only shaped by long-distance communication, financial support and practical help within specific political and economic contexts, but also by personal desires and interpersonal conflict. The dialectics of proximity and distance are explored through a focus on uses of communication technology, emotional interaction during visits, long-distance engagement through distinct sensorial experiences, and imaginary interaction through the dynamics of internalised presence. The auto/biographical analysis is mainly based on letters, faxes, diaries, interviews and personal memories.

  9. APPLICATION OF THE DUST-CONTROL METHOD WITH AIR CURTAIN IN THE FUME EXHAUST SYSTEM OF THE EAF ROOF-HOOD%气幕隔尘法在电炉屋顶烟罩排烟系统中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴碧容

    2011-01-01

    The gas generated from the Electric Arc Furnace(EAF)feeding and tapping process is normally collected by the roof hood,but the effect is not satisfactory.In order to increasing the gas collection efficiency and saving the energy consumption of the exhaust fan,a more economic dust-control method with air curtain is putted forward,with which an invisible and transparent curtain can be formed under the roof hood to prevent the upward gas from interfering by the cross flow in the plant,which will spread outside of the roof hood.It is analysed the application prospect of the new dust-control method with air curtain through a practical project.%通常电炉加料和出钢时的烟气均通过屋顶烟罩捕集,但使用效果不够理想。为提高屋顶烟罩的捕集效率,节省大规模排烟量和风机能耗,提出更加经济的气幕隔尘法用于辅助电炉屋顶烟罩排烟。即在屋顶烟罩底部形成一个无形透明的屏障,以阻止电炉加料或出钢时的向上烟气不因车间横向气流的干扰而向屋顶烟罩外扩散。结合工程项目分析了气幕隔尘新技术的应用前景。

  10. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  11. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  12. Numerical Simulation for Blast Analysis of Insulating Glass in a Curtain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rong-bing; Jin, Xian-long

    2010-04-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation method for blast response calculation of insulating glass in a curtain wall based on multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation and high-performance computer. The whole analytical model consists of explosion, air, curtain wall system, and ground. In particular, detailed components including insulating glass panels, aluminum column, silicone sealant, and other parts in the curtain wall are set up in terms of actual size and actual assembly. This model takes account of the coupling between blast and structure, nonlinear material behavior, brittle failure of glass material, and non-reflecting boundary definition. Final calculation has been performed on the Dawning 4000A supercomputer using the finite-element code LS-DYNA 971 MPP. The propagation of shock wave in air and blast-structure interaction is quite well estimated by numerical calculation. The damage regions of outer and inner glass are reproduced in the numerical simulations, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. The result provides a global understanding of insulating glass panels under blast loading in the curtain wall system. It may be generated to supplement experimental studies for developing appropriate design guidelines for curtain wall systems as well.

  13. Effect of Viscosity on Liquid Curtain Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Francis, Lorraine; Carvalho, Marcio; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration; PUC Rio Collaboration; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The effect of viscosity on the stability of Newtonian liquid curtains was explored by high-speed visualization. Glycerol/water solutions with viscosity ranging from 19.1 to 210 mPa.s were used as coating liquids. The experimental set-up used a slide die delivery and steel tube edge guides. The velocity along curtain at different positions was measured by tracking small particles at different flow conditions. The measurements revealed that away from edge guides, velocity is well described by free fall effect. However, close to edge guides, liquid moves slower, revealing formation of a viscous boundary layer. The size of boundary layer and velocity near edge guides are strong function of viscosity. The critical condition was determined by examining flow rate below which curtain broke. Curtain failure was initiated by growth of a hole within liquid curtain, close to edge guides. Visualization results showed that the hole forms in a circular shape then becomes elliptical as it grows faster in vertical direction compared to horizontal direction. As viscosity rises, minimum flow rate for destabilization of curtain increased, indicating connection between interaction with edge guides and curtain stability. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Shower Curtain Biofilm Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Scott T.; Theisen, Ulrike; Angenent, Largus T.; Amand, Allison St.; Pace, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    Households provide environments that encourage the formation of microbial communities, often as biofilms. Such biofilms constitute potential reservoirs for pathogens, particularly for immune-compromised individuals. One household environment that potentially accumulates microbial biofilms is that provided by vinyl shower curtains. Over time, vinyl shower curtains accumulate films, commonly referred to as “soap scum,” which microscopy reveals are constituted of lush microbial biofilms. To dete...

  15. Visualizing biological reaction intermediates with DNA curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiling; Jiang, Yanzhou; Qi, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    Single-molecule approaches have tremendous potential analyzing dynamic biological reaction with heterogeneity that cannot be effectively accessed via traditional ensemble-level biochemical approaches. The approach of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) curtains developed by Dr Eric Greene and his research team at Columbia University is a high-throughput single-molecule technique that utilizes fluorescent imaging to visualize protein–DNA interactions directly and allows the acquisition of statistically relevant information from hundreds or even thousands of individual reactions. This review aims to summarize the past, present, and future of DNA curtains, with an emphasis on its applications to solve important biological questions.

  16. Blast Analysis of Laminated Glass Curtain Walls Equipped by Viscoelastic Dissipative Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bedon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical simulations are reported for a conventional unitized laminated glass curtain wall subjected to high- and low-level air blast loading. The studied curtain wall, spanning floor to floor, consisted of a laminated glass panel, a continuous bead of structural silicone sealant, a split screw spline frame and four rigid brackets. Firstly, a linear elastic FE-model (M01 is presented to investigate dynamic stresses and deflections due to explosion, by taking into account geometrical nonlinearities. Since, in similar glazing systems, it is important to take into account the possible cracking of glass lites, a second model (M02, calibrated to previous experimental data, is proposed. In it, glass behaves as a brittle-elastic material, whereas an elastoplastic characteristic curve is assumed for mullions. As a result, the design explosion seriously affects the main components of the curtain wall, especially the bead of silicone. To address these criticalities, additional viscoelastic (VE devices are installed at the frame corners (M03. Their effectiveness explains the additional deformability provided to the conventional curtain wall, as well as the obvious dissipation of the incoming energy due to blast loading. Structural and energy capabilities provided by devices are highlighted by means of numerical simulations.

  17. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  18. Hydraulics and Mathematics Simulation on the Weir and Gas Curtain in Tundish of Ultrathick Slab Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengfu; Xie, Xin; Long, Mujun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Leilei; Liao, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The molten steel flow pattern in continuous casting tundish could be improved if the flow control devices were properly used. With reasonable application of weir and air curtain, the disturbance at injection zone of the tundish was reduced. The flow path of the molten steel was changed, and the short-circuit flow was eliminated. Therefore, the residence time was lengthened. An air curtain with bubbles floating could promote the surface flow and improve inclusions removal. The application of weir and air curtain in an ultrathick slab continuous casting tundish was investigated with hydraulics and mathematics simulation. The residence time and dead volume fraction were studied through orthogonal experiments with different positions of the flow control devices. The efficiency of three factors was analyzed, and the optimum positions of the weir and air curtain were obtained. Besides, the discrete phase model was suitable for simulation of the interaction between gas bubbles and molten steel, and the mathematics results shown the optimum one got larger inclusion flotation rate.

  19. Scientific communication across the Iron Curtain

    CERN Document Server

    Hollings, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a concise introduction to the tangled issues of communication between Russian and Western scientists during the Cold War. It details the extent to which mid-twentieth-century researchers and practitioners were able to communicate with their counterparts on the opposite side of the Iron Curtain. Drawing upon evidence from a range of disciplines, a decade-by-decade account is first given of the varying levels of contact that existed via private correspondence and conference attendance. Next, the book examines the exchange of publications and the availability of one side's work in the libraries of the other. It then goes on to compare general language abilities on opposite sides of the Iron Curtain, with comments on efforts in the West to learn Russian and the systematic translation of Russian work. In the end, author Christopher Hollings argues that physical accessibility was generally good in both directions, but that Western scientists were afflicted by greater linguistic difficultie...

  20. The Stars behind the Curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  1. Exploratory Study of Blanket Liquid Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGang; HUANGJinhua; FENGKaiming

    2003-01-01

    Blankets and other in-vessel components are easily damaged owing to their circumstance of high radiation and high heat. To protect them, first wall design should be considered. Owing to its high heat removal nd self-refreshing capability, liquid metal first wall has been seen as a potential first wall for a fusion reactor in the future. Blanketliquid curtain is actually a special liquid metal wall to protect blanket.

  2. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning of the g...... of pinewood, processed with a 5-axis CNC router. The digital process generation and simulation is implemented with Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper and GHPython, and AlphaCAM was used for preparing the CNC-milling....

  3. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  4. Effectiveness of improved hydrogen peroxide in decontaminating privacy curtains contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Williams, David A; Weber, David J

    2014-04-01

    We tested the ability of an improved hydrogen peroxide solution to decontaminate privacy curtains in inpatient and outpatient areas. The microbial contamination of the curtains was assessed before and after the curtains were sprayed with improved hydrogen peroxide. The disinfectant reduced the microbial load on the privacy curtains by 96.8% in 37 patient rooms.

  5. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  6. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  7. Semitransparent curtains for control of optical radiation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, D. H.; Moss, C. E.; Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The purposes and functions of semitransparent eye protective curtains are analyzed. Based upon this analysis, functional requirements are developed, and design requirements are specified for optimum curtains to be used with open arc welding and arc cutting processes. Such curtains also protect against other high intensity broad-spectral-band sources such as compact arc lamps. The requirements for filtering out hazardous UV radiation and blue light must be balanced against the need for transparency in the visible spectrum and the need for reduced glare. Infrared attenuation is shown to be of very little importance.

  8. Study on new technique of rapidly following curtain filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余健; 张爱兰

    2002-01-01

    The present problem of mining of narrow and gentle dip vein was analyzed. A new technique of rapidly following curtain filling was put forward. The results show that the new technique is feasible, has the characteristic to make the whole curtain wall filter, makes relative density of the filling tailings slurry reach saturation of 78.0%-80.0% in 25 min, and keeps the roof of mined-out space stable in 60 min. The new technique of the rapidly following curtain filling has solved the difficult problem of the filling body filtering slowly and promptly controlling underground pressure, which cannot be solved in traditional ways.

  9. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  10. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard

    2006-01-01

    . The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room...... the curtains and prevents its spread from the cages into the aisle. The present study shows that the use of curtains in front of the cage racks is an efficient way to prevent spread of allergens from rodent cages to the entire animal room....

  11. An experimental study on improvement of a Savonius rotor performance with curtaining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Burcin Deda; Atilgan, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Kinikli 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Oezdamar, Aydogan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    This study introduces a new curtaining arrangement to improve the performance of Savonius wind rotors. The curtain arrangement was placed in front of the rotor preventing the negative torque opposite the rotor rotation. The geometrical parameters of the curtain arrangement were optimized to generate an optimum performance. The rotor with different curtain arrangements was tested out of a wind tunnel, and its performance was compared with that of the conventional rotor. The maximum power coefficient of the Savonius wind rotor is increased to about 38.5% with the optimum curtain arrangement. The experimental results showed that the performance of Savonius wind rotors could be improved with a suitable curtain arrangement. (author)

  12. IS Outsourcing "Behind the Curtain" - Beyond Rational to Institutional Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Pries-Heje, Jan

    explanation; but then with a more careful analysis focusing on institutional factors, other explanations "behind the curtain" were re-vealed, such as management consultants with a "best practice" agenda, people promoting out-sourcing thereby being promoted themselves, and a believe in outsourcing as a "silver...

  13. Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, George

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

  14. The use of a curtain design to increase the performance level of a Savonius wind rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Burcin Deda; Atilgan, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Kinikli 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study, a curtain design has been arranged so as to improve the low performance levels of the Savonius wind rotors. Designed to prevent the negative torque on the convex blade of the rotor, this curtain has been placed in front of the rotor, and performance experiments have been carried out when the rotor is with and without curtain. It has been determined from here that a significant increase can be achieved in the rotor performance by means of the curtain design. Experiments of the curtain design have been conducted in three different dimensions when the Savonius wind rotor is static, and the highest values have been obtained with the curtain 1. Therefore, the curtain designs and curtain angles in which the highest values obtained have been analyzed numerically with Fluent 6.0 program and the results obtained experimentally have been supported with numerical analysis. Moreover, performance experiments have been made for the curtain 1 with which the best performance values have been obtained when the rotor is in its dynamic position, and the results obtained have been given in figures. (author)

  15. Improving the performance of infrared reflective night curtains for warming field plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Larsen, Klaus S.; de Dato, Giovanbattista D.

    2013-01-01

    the curtains and (iii) reducing the lateral wind speed. We provide experimentally based replies to the major concerns raised in the literature about the passive nighttime warming method. We show (a) that using IR-reflective curtains during night does in fact not result in nighttime warming only...

  16. The acoustic absorption of textile curtains on the function of the fullness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic absorbing materials are applied to reduce noise levels in a room. They are also used to adjust the reverberation time an acoustic enclosure to use for which it´s designed. There are multi-purpose rooms for conferences, concerts, cinemas, etc. In this case, the acoustic absorbent materials should be changed according to use. Curtains can be an easy way to modify the acoustics of a room based on usage. This paper presents a study of the acoustic absorption of different curtains under actual placement. The study was performed in a reverberant chamber. It takes into account different textiles. It also takes into account different air plenums and different fullness to pucker. It can be seen in the results, good acoustic behavior of such systems. The acoustic absorption of different fabrics, air plenums and plicate of textiles (fullness are compared in this work. The good acoustic behaviour of these systems is observed in the results.Los materiales absorbentes acústicos se aplican para reducir los niveles de ruido en una sala. También se usan para ajustar el tiempo de reverberación de un recinto al uso acústico para el que está diseñado. Existen salas de uso múltiple para conferencias, conciertos, cines, etc. En este caso, los materiales absorbentes acústicos deberían cambiarse en función del uso. Las cortinas pueden ser un elemento sencillo para modificar las condiciones acústicas de una sala en función del uso. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la absorción acústica de diferentes cortinas en condiciones reales de colocación. El estudio se realiza en cámara reverberante. En él se tienen en cuenta diferentes telas. También se tienen en cuenta diferentes plenums de aire y diferentes vuelos de la tela para hacer el fruncido. En este trabajo se compara la absorción acústica de distintas posibilidades de telas, plenums y vuelos. Se observa en los resultados el buen comportamiento acústico de estos sistemas.

  17. Simulation of Material Mixing in Shocked Gas-Curtain Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowardhan, Akshay; Grinstein, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    The unique combination of shock and turbulence emulation capabilities supports direct use of implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) as an effective simulation anzatz in shock-driven mixing research. This possibility is demonstrated in the context of a prototypical case study for which available laboratory data can be used to test and validate the ILES modeling. An SF6 gas curtain is formed by forcing SF6 through a linear arrangement of round nozzles into the shocktube test section. The gas curtain is shocked (M=1.26, M=1.5), and its later evolution subject to Ritchmyer-Meshkov flow instabilities, transition, and non-equilibrium turbulence phenomena are investigated based on high resolution simulations for shocked and reshocked cases. The particular strategy tested here is based on a nominally-inviscid simulation model using the LANL RAGE code and adaptive mesh refinement. Initial conditions for ILES are based on emulating the physics of SF6 falling through the test section of the shock tube until a steady state is reached using a separate 3D Navier-Stokes code which solves incompressible flow in the Boussinesq approximation.

  18. Twisted accretion curtains in the intermediate polar FO Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, P A; Cropper, G R M; Hellier, Coel; Cropper, Gavin Ramsay & Mark

    2004-01-01

    We report on a ~37-ks XMM-Newton observation of the intermediate polar FO Aquarii, presenting X-ray and UV data from the EPIC and OM cameras. We find that the system has changed from its previously reported state of disc-overflow accretion to one of purely disc-fed accretion. We detect the previously reported `notch' feature in the X-ray spin pulse, and explain it as a partial occultation of the upper accretion pole. Maximum flux of the quasi-sinusoidal UV pulse coincides with the notch, in keeping with this idea. However, an absorption dip owing to the outer accretion curtains occurs 0.27 later than the expected phase, which implies that the accretion curtains are twisted, trailing the magnetic poles. This result is the opposite of that reported in PQ Gem, where accreting field lines were found to lead the pole. We discuss how such twists relate to the accretion torques and thus the observed period changes of the white dwarfs, but find no simple connection.

  19. Stability of an unsupported multi-layer surfactant laden liquid curtain under gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, D.

    2015-11-07

    The industrial process of curtain coating has long been an important method in coating applications, by which a thin liquid curtain is formed to impinge upon a moving substrate, due to its highly lucrative advantage of being able to coat multiple layers simultaneously. We investigate the linear stability of an unsupported two-layer liquid curtain, which has insoluble surfactants in both liquids, which are widely used in industry to increase the stability of the curtain. We formulate the governing equations, simplified by making a thin film approximation, from which we obtain equations describing the steady-state profiles. We then examine the response of the curtain to small perturbations about this steady state to identify conditions under which the curtain is unstable, finding the addition of surfactants stabilizes the curtain. Our results are then compared to experimental data, showing a favourable trend and thereby extending the works of Brown (J Fluid Mech 10:297–305, 1960) and Dyson et al. (J Eng Math 64:237–250, 2009).

  20. Effects of a liquid lithium curtain as the first wall in a fusion reactor plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cheng-Yue; J.P. Allain; Deng Bai-Quan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a liquid lithium curtain on fusion reactor plasma, such curtain is utilized as the first wall for the engineering outline design of the Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB-E). The relationships between the surface temperature of a liquid lithium curtain and the effective plasma charge, fuel dilution and fusion power production have been derived. Results indicate that under normal operation, the evaporation of liquid lithium does not seriously affect the effective plasma charge, but effects on fuel dilution and fusion power are more sensitive. As an example, it has investigated the relationships between the liquid lithium curtain flow velocity and the rise of surface temperature based on operation scenario Ⅱ of the FEB-E design with reversed shear configuration and high power density. Results show that even if the liquid lithium curtain flow velocity is as low as 0.5 m/s, the effects of evaporation from the liquid lithium curtain on plasma are negligible. In the present design, the sputtering of liquid lithium curtain and the particle removal effects of the divertor are not yet considered in detail. Further studies are in progress, and in this work implication of lithium erosion and divertor physics on fusion reactor operation are discussed.

  1. Experimental investigation of hysteresis in the break-up of liquid curtains

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2014-09-01

    Findings from an experimental investigation of the break-up of liquid curtains are reported, with the overall aim of examining stability windows for multi-layer liquid curtains composed of Newtonian fluids, where the properties of each layer can be kept constant or varied. For a single-layer curtain it is known that the minimum flow rate required for initial stability can be violated by carefully reducing the flow rate below this point, which defines a hysteresis region. However, when two or three layers are used to form a composite curtain, the hysteresis window can be considerably reduced depending on the experimental procedure used. Extensive quantitative measurements of this hysteresis region are provided alongside an examination of the influence of physical properties such as viscosity and surface tension. The origins of curtain break-up for two different geometries are analysed; first where the curtain width remains constant, pinned by straight edge guides; and second where the curtain is tapered by angled edge guides. For both cases, the rupture speed is measured, which appears to be consistent with the Taylor-Culick velocity. Observations of the typical linearly spaced jets which form after the break-up has transpired and the periodicity of these jets are compared to the Rayleigh-Taylor wavelength and previous experimental measurements. Furthermore, the curtain stability criterion originally developed by Brown (1961), summarised in terms of a Weber number, has recently been extended to multi-layer curtains by Dyson et al. (2009); thus this report provides the first experimental measurements which puts this to the test. Ultimately, it is found that only the most viscous and polymer-based liquids violate this criterion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Automated organization production and mounting of glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kalyuzhnyuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present the automation of organizational design and organizational preparation of building production is based mainly on the outdated methods. Solution of this requires the development of effective methods of technical regulation and construction scheduling. Authors use methods of technical regulation and scheduling, previously obtained in structural-functional modeling theory, for production and mounting of glass curtain walls. The article shows the application of these standards in determining the time of producing series of glass facade elements for particular building sites, as well as in the synchronized scheduling production and mounting of these structures. Authors claim that suggested methods can be used for organizational design and organizational preparation of any other construction processes. Received data can be used to create databases of organization standards of labor and time inputs for production.

  3. Optical Curtain Effect: Extraordinary Optical Transmission Enhanced by Antireflection

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yanxia; Lin, Yinyue; Li, Guohui; Hao, Yuying; He, Sailing; Fang, Nicholas X

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we employ an antireflective coating which comprises of inverted pi shaped metallic grooves to manipulate the behaviour of a TM-polarized plane wave transmitted through a periodic nanoslit array. At normal incidence, such scheme can not only retain the optical curtain effect in the output region, but also generate the extraordinary transmission of light through the nanoslits with the total transmission efficiency as high as 90%. Besides, we show that the spatially invariant field distribution in the output region as well as the field distribution of resonant modes around the inverted pi shaped grooves can be reproduced immaculately when the system is excited by an array of point sources beneath the inverted pi shaped grooves. In further, we investigate the influence of center-groove and side-corners of the inverted pi shaped grooves on suppressing the reflection of light, respectively. Based on our work, it shows promising potential in applications of enhancing the extraction efficiency as well ...

  4. Improvement of air distribution in refrigerated vertical open front remote supermarket display cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, I.; Luscombe, P.; McLean, L.; Sarathy, C.S.P.; Sheahen, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Frigrite Refrigeration Pty. Ltd, 27 Grange Road, Cheltenham, Vic. 3192 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents some of the results derived from extensive experimentation on display cases for supermarkets and derives some possible improvements to augment temperature uniformity and energy performance. The effect of the perforation pattern of the rear duct on the distribution of airflow between these and the front curtain is brought out. The critical component is air infiltration across the curtain, which is governed by internal air distribution and curtain characteristics. It is observed that a 70-30 distribution of flow between the curtain and the rear duct perforations yields a performance that satisfies the standards. Further, a judicious distribution of perforations on the rear duct at various levels and across is necessary. Correlations available in the literature are useful in making a qualitative assessment of the results. (author)

  5. The principle analysis of methane explosion suppressed by water column curtain in coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong-ling(周同龄); HE Xue-qiu(何学秋); YANG Yi(杨艺)

    2004-01-01

    The principles of fine water mist explosion-extinguishing system was introduced. The defects of current systems were analyzed. The concept of a new water column curtain and the explosion-extinguishing mechanism were given. Using water column curtain to suppress methane explosion in experiment pipes was conducted. The photos were written with schlieren photograph system. The results of experiment show that the effect is perfect.

  6. Numerical modelling and experimentation of oil-spill curtain booms: Application to a harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttin, F.; Campbell, R.; Ouansafi, A.; Benelmostafa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Oil-spill curtain booms are an important response device dedicated to containing and deviating floating pollutants. The hydrodynamic and structural limitations of curtain booms necessitate numerical modelling for efficient usage assessment. A four step model is proposed and applied during an exercise performed in the Galician region of Spain. Experimental results are used to produce a re-analysis of the model and improve contingency planning.

  7. Analysis on contaminants transport process through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; HUANG Chang-bo

    2005-01-01

    Clay-solidified grouting curtains are commonly used for remediation by containment or pollution prevention, in addition to their use as a barrier to water flow in municipal solid waste(MSW) landfills. A hydrological model.of water flow and a hydrodynamic model of contaminant are presented to simulate the migration of leachate through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills, with particular attention paid to the role of diffusive and adsorptive fluxes in contaminant transport. The models were applied to simulate the sensitivity of the curtain's behavior to changes in parameters, such as thickness, depth, permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient,resistance coefficient and concentration, and also to demonstrate the contaminant distribution on the evolution of travel time and offset distance of clay-solidified grouting curtain in landfills. It is found that a part of leachate components stays or is retarded in clay-solidified grouting curtain by precipitate or exchange, the retention rate is closely related to composition of clay-solidified grouting curtain, more than 800%, and the maximum occurs at the cementclay ratio of 2: 4 under experimental conditions. Contamination distribution is variable on travel time and offset distance, the highest concentration takes place where the contamination intensity is nearest to the pollution resource or takes place at early middle period of transport, and the pollutant attenuates gradually. The results indicate that claysolidified grouting curtain with a proper thickness, a low permeability coefficient and a high resistance coefficient might serve as a sufficiently effective vertical barrier against leachate seepage and contamination migration in MSWlandfills.

  8. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  9. Numerical prediction of underwater noise reduction during offshore pile driving by a Small Bubble Curtain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göttsche, Klaus Marco; Juhl, Peter Møller; Steinhagen, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Small Bubble Curtains are an effective technique to reduce the underwater noise being emitted during offshore pile driving. In order to protect the marine fauna, noise reduction becomes even more important, since the increasing contribution of offshore wind energy leads to a rising number......, a method is presented in order to predict the rate of noise attenuation achieved by a Small Bubble Curtain. For this purpose, the bubble distribution is determined with Computational Fluid Dynamics. The noise radiation during pile driving is simulated by Finite Element Analysis and an Effective Medium...... Approach considers the acoustic effects within the Bubble Curtain. The pressure level at an arbitrary distance from the pile is determined by a Parabolic Equation method. Furthermore, comparisons between simulations and offshore measurements are presented. This combination of four methods provides...

  10. Case study installation of a HDPE curtain wall with sheetpile tie-in on both ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, R.M.; Maltese, P.C. [Geo-Con, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The plans for eliminating the off-site migration of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from a refinery into a nearby river included the installation of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) curtain wall and an underdrain system. A 640 m (2100 lineal feet) HDPE Curtain Wall was installed along the river boundary, tying into an existing sheet pile wall on both ends. The wall varied from approximately 4.5 m (15 feet) deep at the northern end to about 7 m (23 feet) deep at the southern end, running approximately 3 to 3.6 m (10 to 12 feet) inland of an existing wooden bulkhead. The curtain wall was successfully installed through a slurry supported trench. A 930 m (3050 lineal feet) interception/collection trench was installed parallel to the HDPE Curtain Wall, continuing on beyond the curtain wall on the southern end. The depth of the trench varied from approximately 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 feet) deep. A 20.32 cm (8 inch) diameter perforated HDPE header pipe was placed in the trench to convey groundwater and product to two sumps. The trench is 53.34 cm (21 inches) wide and contained aggregate to approximately 0.9 m (3 feet) below ground. This work was accomplished using the bio-polymer slurry drainage trench (BP Drain) technique. This paper briefly describes the construction methods utilized during this project, specifically HDPE curtain wall installation thru a bentonite slurry and tie-in to the existing sheet pile wall.

  11. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  12. Relationship between the Time of Taking off and Covering the Curtain and Temperature Change in Sunlight Greenhouse%揭帘、盖帘时间与日光温室内气温变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英师; 陈建中; 陈永杰

    2014-01-01

    试验从2011年11月1日至2012年3月31日对每天揭帘时间分别为9:00和10:00、盖帘时间分别为15:00和16:00的两个日光温室内气温和室外气温进行了连续实时测量,研究了揭帘、盖帘时间对日光温室气温变化的影响。结果表明,揭帘、盖帘时间对温室气温的变化产生明显的影响,其影响程度随着季节和天气状况的变化而变化。在初冬和早春的晴天里,适当早揭帘晚盖帘,有益于延长光照时间,改善作物生长环境;在寒冷的季节,适当迟揭帘早盖帘,有利于保持和提高温室温度。在室外气温≤-9.0℃时,温室内气温将降低到5.0℃及其以下,对喜温作物产生不利影响,必要时要采取短期人工增温措施。%Two sunlight greenhouse's indoor and outdoor air temperature that the time of taking off the curtain is between 9 am and 10 am and the time of covering the curtain is between 3 pm and 4 pm from November 11, 2011 to march 31, 2012 were measured timely and successively. The effects of the time of taking off and covering the curtain on temperature change in Sunlight greenhouse was studied. The results showed that the time of taking off and covering the curtain had a ob-vious effect on the air temperature change in sunlight greenhouse, varing with the seasons and weather conditions. In the early winter and early spring sunny day, it is advised to take off the curtain early and cover the curtain late, good for the increasing of the light period length and the environment’s improvement of crop growth. In the frigid months, it is advised to take off the curtain late and cover the curtain early, which benefits to keep and improve the temperature of the Sunlight Greenhouse. When the outdoor’s temperature is below -9 degree, the indoor’s temperature would drop to less than 5 de-gree, bad for the growth of temperature-bias plants and the artificial measures should be used to increase temperature.

  13. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  14. Three dimensional MHD Modeling of Vertical Kink Oscillations in an Active Region Plasma Curtain

    CERN Document Server

    Ofman, Leon; Srivastava, Abhishek K

    2015-01-01

    Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in EUV coronal lines. The damped oscillations with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min were detected and analyzed recently. Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the MHD oscillations in the plasma curtain taking into account realistic 3D magnetic and density structure of the curtain. We also aim at testing and improving coronal seismology for more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with standard method. We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain based on Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis to initialize a 3D MHD model of its vertical and transverse oscillations by implementing the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimick...

  15. Experimental validation of a local dehumidification system based on cold water droplets and air-to-air heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hammink, H.A.J.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive humidity is a problem in Dutch growing circumstances. A traditional solution is heating and natural ventilation. To save energy a number of energy efficient dehumidification methods are developed, like mechanical ventilation with dry outside air or a curtain of cold water droplets. In this

  16. Three-dimensional MHD modeling of vertical kink oscillations in an active region plasma curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Parisi, M.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X 6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in extreme UV coronal lines with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min. Aims: Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in the plasma curtain taking the realistic 3D magnetic and the density structure of the curtain into account. We also aim to test and improve coronal seismology for a more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with the standard method. Methods: We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain, to initialize a 3D MHD model of the observed vertical and transverse oscillations. To accomplish this, we implemented the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimicking the flare-generated nonlinear fast magnetosonic propagating disturbance interacting obliquely with the curtain. The model is simplified by utilizing an initial dipole magnetic field, isothermal energy equation, and gravitationally stratified density guided by observational parameters. Results: Using the 3D MHD model, we are able to reproduce the details of the vertical oscillations and study the process of their excitation by a nonlinear fast magnetosonic pulse, propagation, and damping, finding agreement with the observations. Conclusions: We estimate the accuracy of simplified slab-based coronal seismology by comparing the determined magnetic field strength to actual values from the 3D MHD modeling results, and demonstrate the importance of taking more realistic magnetic geometry and density for improving coronal seismology into account. A movie associated to Fig. 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Optimized Simulation Design of Double Glass Curtain Wall Shading System in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha He; Lin-Sen Mu; Jie Shen

    2014-01-01

    The glass curtain wall is widely favored by the owners for its good appearance modeling effect. In using process, however, excessive energy consumption, low level indoor comfort and other problems of glass curtain wall are often exposed. Aiming at office buildings in hot Summer and cold Winter zone, taking the optimization of thermal comfort of double glass curtain wall in the summer and the reduction of building energy consumption throughout the year as the breakthrough point, using the method of energy simulation analysis, through changing the size of internal shading component in the simulated room, this paper analyzes and summarizes the variation law of its energy consumption value, to explore the relatively reasonable design plan of shading systems of the building with glass curtain wall.

  18. A virtual curtain for the detection of humans and access control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics has become a popular field for the development of techniques that aim at recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In particular, many solutions dedicated to access control integrate biometric features like fingerprinting or face recognition. This paper describes a new method designed to interpret what happens when crossing an invisible vertical plane, called virtual curtain hereafter, at the footstep of a door frame. It relies on the use...

  19. Hydraulic Modeling of A Curtain-Walled Dissipater by the Coupling of RANS and Boussinesq Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐鹏; 王永学

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid numerical method for the hydraulic modeling of a curtain-walled dissipater of reflected waves from breakwa-ters is presented. In this method, a zonal approach that combines a nonlinear weakly dispersive wave (Boussinesq-typeequation) method and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is used. The Boussinesq-type equation issolved in the far field to describe wave transformation in shallow water. The RANS method is used in the near field to re-solve the turbulent boundary layer and vortex flows around the structure. Suitable matching conditions are enforced at theinterface between the viscous and the Boussinesq region. The Coupled RANS and Boussinesq method successfully resolvesthe vortex characteristics of flow in the vicinity of the structure, while unexpected phenomena like wave re-reflection areeffectively controlled by lengthening the Boussinesq region. Extensive results on hydraulic performance of a curtain-walleddissipater and the mechanism of dissipation of reflected waves are presented, providing a reference for minimization of thebreadth of the water chamber and for determination of the submerged depth of the curtain wall.

  20. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  1. Investigation into the use of a water curtain over openings to prevent fire spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turco Matt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of several full-scale experiments to study heat radiation attenuation and shielding using sprinklers to create a water curtain between a compartment fire and a target wall. This work builds on the concept that water absorbs and scatters heat radiation and applies it as a shielding mechanism, which can be used to protect personnel and property exposed to an opening during a compartment fire. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a water curtain created using sprinkler heads in attenuating the heat flux from flames exiting a compartment fire, shielding the target wall and preventing fire spread. The results show that the water curtain reduces heat flux to the target wall which may allow for decreasing the building distance from the property line. Heat fluxes along the target wall are compared to heat fluxes required for the piloted ignition of wood products. The effects of fire size, sprinkler system flow rate, and separation distance to the target wall are discussed.

  2. CFD modeling of methane distribution at a continuous miner face with various curtain setback distances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lihong; Pritchard Christopher; Zheng Yi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the airflow patterns and methane distributions at a continuous miner face under different ventilation conditions can minimize the risks of explosion and injury to miners by accurately forecasting potentially hazardous face methane levels. This study focused on validating a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models using full-scale ventilation gallery data that assessed how curtain setback distance impacted airflow patterns and methane distributions at an empty mining face (no continuous miner present). Three CFD models of face ventilation with 4.6, 7.6 and 10.7 m (15, 25, and 35 ft) blowing curtain setback distances were constructed and validated with experimental data collected in a full-scale ventilation test facility. Good agreement was obtained between the CFD simulation results and this data. Detailed airflow and methane distribution information are provided. Elevated methane zones at the working faces were identified with the three curtain setback distances. Visualization of the setback dis-tance impact on the face methane distribution was performed by utilizing the post-processing capability of the CFD software.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Flow Characteristics at Leeside of Suspended Flexible Curtain for Sedimentation Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-hong; YU Guo-liang

    2009-01-01

    A new patent registered device-suspended flexible curtain (SFC) for sedimentation enhancement is proposed in this paper, which consists of two parts: a hght-weight curtain with sediment-passing windows and a heavy pillar for the device stability. The mechanism of trapping nearbed sediment by the SFC is such that a primary and a secondary circulations with horizontal hubs would be formed at the leeside when it is placed on beds in running flow; the velocities within the sediment-passing windows are locally accelerated, the nearbed sediments would be brought by the flow through the win-dows, and then settled down within the primary circulation zone. Experimental tests on hydraulic characteristics are con-ducted in a laboratory flume with rigid bed. It is found that the dimensions of the curtain and the sediment-passing win-dows determine the characteristics of the primary and the secondary circulations. The intensity of the primary and the sec-ondary circulations is dominated by the size of the sediment-passing window. Whether the secondary circulation would contact the bed or not depends on the level of the sediment-passing window. The length and the height of the primary cir-culation zone demonstrate quasi linear relationships with the effective height of the SFC. And the tests on sandy bed flume show that the sediment deposition happens just in the primary circulation zone.

  4. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  5. Evaluation of efficacy of impregnated curtains in experimental hen houses as a phlebotomine control tool in northeast Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteca Acosta, M; Santini, M S; Pérez, A A; Salomón, O D

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated curtains against the entry of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) flies into experimental slatted hen houses in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Three treatments in experimental dwellings containing three chickens each were applied using, respectively, an impregnated curtain (IC), a non-impregnated curtain (NIC) and no curtain (NC). A control site without chickens (WC) was included. The study used permethrin at 0.05 g/m(2) . During each month for 1 year, each experimental hen house randomly received all treatments. Phlebotomine sandflies were captured using REDILA BL traps placed inside the hen house. Significant differences in abundances of phlebotomine flies/trap/night were observed between treatments (χ(2)  = 17853.58, d.f. = 3, P house in the IC condition than in the hen house in the NC condition (P house type in northeast Argentina.

  6. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  7. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  8. A Low-cost, Light-weight Climbing Robot for Inspection of Class Curtains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design of a climbing robot for inspection of glass curtain walls. The double-chamber structure enables the robot to climb over grooves on the glasses. In order to reduce the weight, both number and shape of the chambers are specially considered, and the pressure structure is optimized by FEA method. The statics models of different adsorption situations are also analyzed and deduced for the operational safety. In addition, design of the working arm and the wireless control system are introduced in detail. Finally, experiments of the robot are illustrated, including adsorption on different surfaces, vertical and horizontal groove-crossing as well as glass inspection. These experiments fully prove the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the climbing performance of the robot.

  9. Concept and construction process of the ceramic curtain of Vila-real Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peñín Llobell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Library of Vila-real, selected in 2012 in the VIII Latin American Biennial of Architecture and Urbanism, highlights the importance of collaboration with industry for the development and application of its outer membrane. The analysis of the construction process of the ceramic cylindrical curtain that defines it, performed by white glazed ceramic, 5 cm diameter and 7.5 m height, reveals this fact. The system builds an interstitial space, essential for its use and environmental integration. At the same time it links the building to both local industrial fabric, which aims to establish itself as one of its exponents, and to the Mediterranean culture of filters. The procedure followed is ascribed to the postartesanal and pragmatic perspective that beyond the modern heroes, introduced characters like Jean Prouvé and that today, we state, should find natural and legal channels for its development, on behalf of the progress of the construction sector.

  10. THE PROTECTION CURTAINS –IMPORTANT FACTOR IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MĂNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent yearsmanyextremenatural phenomena have affected not only agriculture, but the population of the country as well. The continuous deterioration of the environmental conditions has produced irreversible effects on people’s lives and activities. Protection curtains are a solution for such phenomena. In this paper, the authors focus on the main phenomena challenging the environment and highlights a few solutions that could diminish the negative effects of such phenomena on thequality of lifeand the environment. Research shows that Romania’s population, in general, and Romania’s rural population, in particular, as well as the national economy, has been challenged these two decades by extreme meteorological phenomena of particular amplitude: heat and severe drought, abundant rainfall, land glides and catastrophic floods, and abundant stormy snow falls.

  11. Mark’s distinctive emphasis on the temple’s torn curtain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article asks several questions: What is distinctive about Mark’s description about the rending of the curtain in the Jerusalem Temple during Jesus’ crucifixion?; What is his rhetorical strategy in doing so?; What role does the temple play in Jewish religion? What role does the Temple play in Jesus’ ministry and message?; and What is the context of the narrative about the torn temple curtain? The conclusion is that Mark utilises the description to demonstrate God’s judgement on the worship at the temple, but at the same time illustrates how the way between heaven and earth is opened at the moment of the death of God’s Son.Markus se onderskeidende beskrywing van die geskeurde tempelgordyn. Verskeie vrae kom in hierdie artikel aan die bod: Wat is onderskeidend in Markus se beskrywing van die gordyn in die Jerusalemtempel wat tydens Jesus se kruisiging skeur?; Wat is die evangelis se retoriese strategie?; Watter rol speel die tempel in Joodse godsdiens?; Watter rol speel dit in Jesus se bediening en boodskap?; en Wat is die konteks vir die narratief binne die Evangelie oor die gordyn wat skeur? Die gevolgtrekking is dat Markus die beskrywing benut om God se oordeel oor die tempel te demonstreer, maar terselfdertyd illustreer dit ook hoe die weg tussen hemel en aarde oopgebreek word in die oomblikke toe God se Seun sterf.

  12. Cooling Technology of Mine Roadway Heading Face Based on Wetting Curtain%基于湿帘的掘进工作面降温技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任梅青; 陈天仲

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the high temperature hot disaster problem of the deep mine head-ing face ,the wetting curtain cooling principle was applied to the research and development of a ventila-tion cooling device .T he location of the cooling device installed near the heading face could cool the air flow sent by the local fan ,could ensure the temperature of the heading face to meet the requirements of"Safety Regulations of Coal Mine" and could improve the operation environment with the expected effect .%为有效解决矿井深部掘进工作面高温热害问题 ,利用湿帘降温原理,研制生产了一种通风降温装置 ,安装在靠近掘进工作面的位置 ,可将局部通风机送入的风流降温,确保掘进工作面温度达到《煤矿安全规程》要求 ,改善掘进工作面作业环境 ,取得了预期效果.

  13. A novel isolation curtain to reduce turbine ingress heating and an advanced model for honeycomb labyrinth seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Chun

    A combination of 3-D and 2-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling as well as experimental testing of the labyrinth seal with hexagonal honeycomb cells on the stator wall was performed. For the 3-D and 2-D CFD models, the hexagonal honeycomb structure was modeled using the concept of the baffle (zero-thickness wall) and the simplified 2-D fin, respectively. The 3-D model showed that even a small axial change of the tooth (or honeycomb wall) location, or a small circumferential change of the honeycomb wall location significantly affected the flow patterns and leakage characteristics especially for small tooth tip clearance. Also, the local details of the flow field were investigated. The seven basic procedural steps to develop a 2-D axisymmetric honeycomb labyrinth seal leakage model were shown. Clearly demonstrated for varying test conditions was the 2-D model capability to predict the 3-D honeycomb labyrinth flow that had been measured at different operating conditions from that used in developing the 2-D model. Specifically, the 2-D model showed very close agreement with measurements. In addition, the 2-D model greatly reduced the computer resource requirement needed to obtain a solution of the 3-D honeycomb labyrinth seal leakage. The novel and advanced strategy to reduce the turbine ingress heating, and thus the coolant requirement, by injecting a "coolant isolation curtain" was developed numerically using a 3-D CFD model. The coolant isolation curtain was applied under the nozzle guide vane platform for the forward cavity of a turbine stage. Specifically, the isolation curtain serves to isolate the hot mainstream gas from the turbine outer region. The effect of the geometry change, the outer cavity axial gap clearance, the circumferential location of the injection curtain slot and the injection fluid angle on the ingress heating was investigated. Adding the chamfer to the baseline design gave a similar or higher maximum temperature T*max than did the

  14. Removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by adsorption on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; ZOU Yin-sheng; DENG Fei-yue

    2006-01-01

    Pb2+ and Cd2+ in leachate were adsorbed on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills with equilibrium experiment. The cation exchange capacity was determined with ammonium acetate. And the concentration of heavy metal cations in leachate was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Their equilibrium isotherms were measured, and the experimental isotherm data were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The results show that the adsorption capacities of the heavy metal cations are closely related to the compositions of clay-solidified grouting curtain, and the maximum adsorption appears at the ratio of cement to clay of 2: 4 in the experimental conditions. At their maximum adsorption and pH 5.0, the adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 16.19 mg/g and 1.21 mg/g. The competitive adsorption coefficients indicate that the adsorption of clay-solidified grouting curtain for Pb2+ is stronger than that for Cd2+. The adsorption process conforms to Freundlich's model with related coefficient higher than 0. 996.

  15. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  16. Treatment effect investigation of underground continuous impervious curtain application in water-rich strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Xiangling; Ma Jinrong; Zeng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Serious shaft lining failures often occur when shaft linings are constructed by passing them through the deep topsoil of Quaternary strata. This approach also leads to the formation of an aquifer at the bottom. Based on the theory of the additional stress which is the main reason for these failures, this study focuses on the treatment effect of underground continuous impervious curtain (UCIC) in terms of different fac-tors, namely, the location, shape, range, and width, by using numerical simulation. Results show that the UCIC can reduce the stress concentration in the shaft lining formed in the bottom aquifer. The UCIC can also reinforce the shaft lining at different angles and can be applied in actual situations. The strength factors of the inner surface of the shaft lining increase after the UCIC are used. The material strength and width of the UCIC show an obvious effect on the stability of the shaft lining. Results proved that the UCIC could effectively strengthen the stability of the shaft lining when it was built in the aquifer or built in the aquifer and above and below the layer.

  17. Real-Time Grouting Monitoring and Visualization Analysis System for Dam Foundation Curtain Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵超; 钟登华; 任炳昱; 崔博; 李晓超; 岳攀

    2016-01-01

    A real-time monitoring and 3D visualization analysis system is proposed for dam foundation curtain grouting. Based on the real-time control technology, the optimization method and the set theory, a mathematical model of the system is established. The real-time collection and transmission technology of the grouting data pro-vides a data foundation for the system. The real-time grouting monitoring and dynamic alarming method helps the system control the grouting quality during the grouting process, thus, the abnormalities of grouting, such as jacking and hydraulic uplift, can be effectively controlled. In addition, the 3D grouting visualization analysis technology is proposed to establish the grouting information model(GIM). The GIM provides a platform to visualize and ana-lyze the grouting process and results. The system has been applied to a hydraulic project of China as a case study, and the application results indicate that the real-time grouting monitoring and 3D visualization analysis for the grouting process can help engineers control the grouting quality more efficiently.

  18. Development and experimental study on glass-curtain wall cleaning robot driven by flexible rope%柔索驱动的玻璃幕墙清洗机器人研制及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永德; 姜金刚; 张舒; 罗春玲; 陈耀

    2013-01-01

    玻璃幕墙由于保温防潮性能好、实用美观,在城市建筑物中被广泛采用.但是目前对于玻璃幕墙的清洗,还主要是采用人工吊篮作业,工人劳动强度大、危险性高、效率低.受蜘蛛在空中拉动吐丝实现移动的启发,研制了一种由2根柔索驱动的玻璃幕墙清洗机器人.介绍了机器人的基本结构组成,设计了采用蜗杆减速器实现自锁保护功能、多槽主从动辊轮增大绳索摩擦力的机器人驱动部分,由储水罐、控制阀、喷头、清洗刷组成的清洗部分,以及由旋翼实现的机器人墙壁吸附部分.进行了机器人的工作空间计算、机器人运动时柔索收放控制分析和旋翼工作时机器人的受力分析.最后基于双柔索驱动的玻璃幕墙清洗机器人模型样机,进行了沿给定轨迹移动的实验和清洗实验.实验证明机器人满足了设计功能,达到了满意的清洗效果,结果验证了该模型样机的有效性和实用性.%Glass-curtain wall is widely used in city buildings because of its good damp-proof,aesthetic,practical and heat preservation properties. At present,the main way of the glass-curtain wall cleaning is manual cleaning by workers with suspended platform, which has the shortcoming of heavy worker labor intensity, high risk and low efficiency. Inspired by spider moving through pulling the silks in the air,the basic structure of a glass-curtain wall cleaning robot driven by double flexible ropes is presented. The design adopts worm reducer to realize self locking protection; and the robot drive part is designed, which adopts multislot master-slave roller to increase the rope friction. The cleaning part is composed of water storage tank, control valve, shower nozzle and brush. The wall sucking part is realized by double rotor. The workspace of the robot is calculated. The flexible rope winding and unreeling control of cleaning robot is deduced. The force analysis of cleaning robot is obtained

  19. Research on Design of Curtain Wall in Building Movement Joint%论建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2014-01-01

    The design of building curtain wal in movement joint is an important part of the modern architecture, which has a profound impact on the shape and the safety of buildings. In this paper, the movement joint of deformation in building cu-rtain wal is briefly introduced, and the importance and pri-nciples of design of building curtain wal in movement joint is analyzed.%建筑物变形缝位置的幕墙设计是现代建筑中的重要组成部分,对于建筑物的外形和安全性有着深远的影响。本文主要对建筑物的变形缝进行简单概述,并对变形缝位置幕墙设计的重要性及原则进行分析。

  20. Analysis of the Building Energy-saving Design of Glass Curtain Wall%建筑玻璃幕墙的节能设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程忆加; 王建国

    2014-01-01

    Glass curtain wal has been widely used in building envelope structure because of its beautiful, lucency, grand and other characteristics, which is one of the more common forms of building facades. This article elaborates the principles of bu-ilding glass curtain wal energy-saving design, and combines with instances to analysis the energy-saving design technology of glass curtain wal .%玻璃幕墙因其美观、通透、宏伟等特点,被广泛应用于建筑外围护结构之中,是一种比较常见的建筑立面形式。本文阐述了建筑玻璃幕墙节能设计应遵循的原则,并结合实例分析了玻璃幕墙的节能设计技术。

  1. THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO Regina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2 was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

  2. Expanding Curtain Observations of Cloud Vertical Structure and Layering to Model-Relevant Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Bankert, R.; Forsythe, J.; Mitrescu, C.; Reinke, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-12-01

    Clouds, representing perhaps the most obvious physical manifestations of atmospheric dynamics at work, remain in many ways an enigmatic and unifying intellectual challenge to researchers of all disciplines within the atmospheric sciences. Given the universally acknowledged importance of cloud systems in determining the state of current and future climate through radiative, chemical, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes tied intimately to the hydrological cycle, it is no wonder that so much recent attention has been given to better understanding the non-linear feedbacks involving clouds and ways to improve their handling in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In terms of operational community interests, knowledge of cloud vertical structure, ceiling (cloud base) height, and phase is key to aviation safety assurance in the private, commercial, and defense-agency sectors alike. The launch of the NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder CloudSat (cloud radar; 3 mm wavelength) mission in 2006 changed forever the way we view cloud systems from the space platform--providing vertically-resolved 'cuts' through the cloudy troposphere. The Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) system resolves nearly all radiatively significant cloud structures present in the column at vertical resolutions sufficient to afford scientists the opportunity to examine new hypotheses on cloud formation (leading potentially to new/improved cloud process parameterizations) and make observationally-based discoveries bordering on the frontiers of our current understanding. At the same time, the non-scanning nature of the CPR (providing so-called 'curtain' observations) represents in some respects a frustrating tease to the potential of a three-dimensional scanning system, relegating its utility to the realms of research as opposed to full spatial environmental characterization and data assimilation. This research examines ways to extend via statistical methods the curtain slices provided by CloudSat into the

  3. Factors Associated with Correct and Consistent Insecticide Treated Curtain Use in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Alexander, Neal; Halsey, Eric S; McCall, Philip J; Lenhart, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne virus of great public health importance, and control of its mosquito vectors is currently the only available method for prevention. Previous research has suggested that insecticide treated curtains (ITCs) can lower dengue vector infestations in houses. This observational study investigated individual and household-level socio-demographic factors associated with correct and consistent use of ITCs in Iquitos, Peru. A baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was administered to 1,333 study participants, and ITCs were then distributed to 593 households as part of a cluster-randomized trial. Follow up KAP surveys and ITC-monitoring checklists were conducted at 9, 18, and 27 months post-ITC distribution. At 9 months post-distribution, almost 70% of ITCs were hanging properly (e.g. hanging fully extended or tied up), particularly those hung on walls compared to other locations. Proper ITC hanging dropped at 18 months to 45.7%. The odds of hanging ITCs correctly and consistently were significantly greater among those participants who were housewives, knew three or more correct symptoms of dengue and at least one correct treatment for dengue, knew a relative or close friend who had had dengue, had children sleeping under a mosquito net, or perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home. Additionally, the odds of recommending ITCs in the future were significantly greater among those who perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home (e.g. perceived the ITCs to be effective). Despite various challenges associated with the sustained effectiveness of the selected ITCs, almost half of the ITCs were still hanging at 18 months, suggesting a feasible vector control strategy for sustained community use.

  4. Investigating occupant safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-of-position occupant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag

  5. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double-Skin Facade building in external air curtain mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... final compliance date, you must complete emission control retrofits and meet the emission limitations...

  7. On the area of accretion curtains from fast aperiodic time variability of the intermediate polar EX Hya

    CERN Document Server

    Semena, Andrey N; Buckley, David A H; Kotze, Marissa M; Khabibullin, Ildar I; Breytenbach, Hannes; Gulbis, Amanda A S; Coppejans, Rocco; Potter, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a study of the fast timing variability of the magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV) EX Hya. It was previously shown that one may expect the rapid flux variability of mCVs to be smeared out at timescales shorter than the cooling time of hot plasma in the post shock region of the accretion curtain near the WD surface. Estimates of the cooling time and the mass accretion rate, thus provide us with a tool to measure the density of the post-shock plasma and the cross-sectional area of the accretion funnel at the WD surface. We have probed the high frequencies in the aperiodic noise of one of the brightest mCV EX Hya with the help of optical telescopes, namely SALT and the SAAO 1.9m telescope. We place upper limits on the plasma cooling timescale $\\tau<$0.3 sec, on the fractional area of the accretion curtain footprint $f<1.6\\times10^{-4}$, and a lower limit on the specific mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}/A \\gtrsim $3 g/sec/cm$^{-2}$. We show that measurements of accretion column footprints v...

  8. Integral Facade Construction. Towards a new product architecture for curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Curtain wall constructions are one of the most applied facade constructions today. Independently attached to the primary load bearing structure of the building they protect the building’s interior from external climate conditions and allow great design freedom.With continuously rising requirements in terms of energy savings the constructional principle has reached its limits and strategies for improvement are needed.Incrementally evolved over time it is closely related to the architectural design and building processes. Based on literature research and stakeholder interviews the dissertation maps out the traditional and craftsmanship related facade design and construction process currently employed. In a next step, future challenges for facade constructions to cope with a changing market environment are identified.A facade function tree is developed and the theory of product architecture is applied to create a comparative basis for analysing different historical and contemporary facade products and systems. The function tree as well as the analysis clearly show how the fragmented market structures has influenced contemporary facade construction and leads to extremely modular product architectures.Numerous case studies for a new approach are conducted and summarised in several matrices. The case studies show how different modular and integral constructional strategies can respond to the future challenges. The pros and cons of different facade solutions, their potential for innovation and robustness in terms of market conditions are investigated.The dissertation concludes that a greater diversity of fa.ade types with a more integral construction is needed to meet the sometimes conflicting future challenges. If this can be realised, a greater diversity of more integral design and construction processes will evolve simultaneously. The role of the different stakeholders will change and a new way of educating architects or facade specialists will be

  9. 石材幕墙安装技术要点控制%The Control Points of Stone Curtain Wall Installation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧

    2013-01-01

      随着经济的发展,城市建筑外墙结构采用天然石材幕墙的不断增多。石材幕墙具有独特的艺术风格、高雅的外在造型,能使城市景观得到进一步的提升。石材幕墙的施工方法分为干挂法和湿挂法。本文着重针对干挂法石材幕墙安装的技术要点与质量控制进行探讨。%With the development of economy, exterior wal st-ructure of urban architecture using the natural stone curtain wal structure is increasing. The external appearance of stone curtain wal has a unique artistic style, elegant, can make the city landscape has been further improved. Construction metho-d for stone curtain wal is divided into dry hanging method and wet hanging method. This paper discusses focused on the law of dry hanging stone curtain wal technology points and the quality control of instal ation.

  10. The numerical simulation for corn curtain roller drying box based on CFD-EDEM coupling%基于CFD-EDEM耦合的小区玉米帘式滚筒干燥箱数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石林榕; 吴建民; 赵武云; 孙伟; 孙步功; 张峰伟

    2014-01-01

    increased 7 .9 K about 75 corn models;the rmove of the curtain in the roller will have the disturbance accelerate function for heat air flow ,the air speed near the curtain plate was increased from 0 .50 m·s-1 up to 0 .63 m·s-1 .

  11. 驻波电帘除尘效率的实验研究%Experimental Study on Efficiency of Dust Removal by Standing Wave Electric Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旗霞; 杨宁宁; 肖志坤; 蔡小兵; 胡更开

    2012-01-01

    月尘将对在月球表面进行巡视探测的设备产生严重不利影响。文章分析了利用驻波电帘对探测器的太阳电池板进行尘埃清除和防护,给出了电帘表面的电场分布,颗粒在电帘表面的受力状态和起跳、跃移过程,通过实验测量给出了电帘结构各参数对除尘效率的影响,制备了自清洁演示系统,对电帘的能耗进行了测定;表明驻波电帘是月表探测任务中尘埃防护的有效方法。%Lunar dust is expected to pose great harm to the instruments for lunar surface explora- tion. In this paper, dust removal from solar panel by using standing wave electric curtain is stud- ied. The electric field distribution on surface of the curtain is revealed, forces and levitation and transportation processes of the dust particles are investigated. Through experimental measure- ment, the influence of the structural parameters of electric curtain on the dust removal efficiency is characterised. A selbclean solar panel demonstration system is manufactured, and the energy consumption of the electric curtain measured. The results convey that electric curtain is an effec- tive technology for dust control in lunar surface exploration mission.

  12. 软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术%Leakage Detection in Waterproof Curtain of Soft Soil Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆生; 韩凯; 刘涛; 高镇

    2016-01-01

    隔水帷幕渗漏是影响软土基坑稳定性的关键问题。针对隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术,开展了数值模拟和物理模型试验,深入研究了不同采集装置类型三维电阻率法和探地雷达法对渗漏异常的反映能力及在探测剖面上表现出来的异常特征,给出了判断帷幕是否渗漏和确定渗漏点位置的解释方法。结果表明:温纳装置、偶极装置和温纳施龙贝格装置都能有效反映渗漏点的存在;降水后帷幕未发生渗漏时,与基坑外侧软土含水层相比,内侧软土层电阻率表现为高阻异常;帷幕渗漏后基坑内侧底部软土层电阻率降低,外侧电阻率升高,并呈现漏斗状异常,两侧低阻异常与帷幕的交叉点可正确指示渗漏点位置;帷幕发生渗漏后,基于基坑外侧的探地雷达探测剖面中会出现双曲型反射波同相轴,通过其顶点可确定渗漏点的位置。研究结果证实了两种地球物理手段开展软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测的可行性。%The leakage of waterproof curtain is a serious problem for the stability of soft soil foundation pit. In respect of the leakage detection methods of waterproof curtain, the numerical simulation and indoor physical model test were performed to verify the ability to determine the leakage position of the three different arrays of 3D resistivity methods and GPR method,and to discuss the anomaly characteristics in detecting profile.At the same time,the judgment of whether the waterproof curtain leak or not and the interpretation method of leakage position were also made.The research shows that:the resistivity method can reflect the existence of leakage position effectively by Wenner array,dipole-dipole array,and Wenner-Schlumberger array;it reveals high resistivity of soil inside foundation pit compared with that of outside the foundation pit without leakage of waterproof curtain;on the contrary,the resistivity will decrease at the

  13. Towards a Casa Segura: a consumer product study of the effect of insecticide-treated curtains on Aedes aegypti and dengue virus infections in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Nájera-Vázquez, Maria del Rosario; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K; Black, William C; Keefe, Thomas J; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J

    2013-08-01

    The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission.

  14. Active flow management in preparative chromatographic separations: a preliminary investigation into enhanced separation using a curtain flow inlet fitting and segmented flow outlet fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Ritchie, Harald J; Ladine, James R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Active flow management in the form of curtain flow sample introduction and segmented outlet flow control has been shown to enable sample to elute through a chromatography column under the principles of the "infinite diameter column". Such an elution process avoids the detrimental effects of the heterogeneity of particle-packed chromatographic columns by injecting the sample directly into the radial core region of the column, thus avoiding wall effects. The process described herein illustrates how the principles of the infinite diameter column can be applied using conventional injection devices suitable for long-term analysis that requires robust protocols. Using this approach, sensitivity in separation was 2.5 times greater than conventional chromatography, yielding a product at twice the concentration. Benefits of curtain flow injection are thus relevant to both preparative-scale and analytical-scale separations.

  15. The nuclear waste disaster. A view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power; Das Atommuell-Desaster. Blicke hinter die Kulissen der angeblich sauberen Atomenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Armin; Stay, Jochen (comps.)

    2015-04-15

    The brochure on the nuclear waste disaster - a view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power discusses the following topics: Thuringia and Saxony - radiating landscapes, Gronau - 100.000 tons for eternity, Gundremmingen - nuclear waste records and castor shortage, Brunsbuettel - castor storage facility without licensing, Juelich the pebble bed drama, Karlsruhe - the hall is filled, Obrigheim - radioactive waste for cooking pots, Asse - the ticking bomb, final repositories - an illusion without solution, stop the waste production, Germany - endless nuclear waste.

  16. Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia: a cluster randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Juliana; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortés, Sebastian; García, Diana; Alcalá, Lucas; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) window and door curtains alone or in combination with LLIN water container covers were analysed regarding effectiveness in reducing dengue vector density, and feasibility of the intervention. Methods A cluster randomised trial was conducted in an urban area of Colombia comparing 10 randomly selected control and 10 intervention clusters. In control clusters, routine vector control activities were performed. The intervention delivered first, LLIN curtains (from July to August 2013) and secondly, water container covers (from October to March 2014). Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out at baseline (February 2013 to June 2013), 9 weeks after the first intervention (August to October 2013), and 4–6 weeks after the second intervention (March to April 2014). Results Curtains were installed in 922 households and water container covers in 303 households. The Breteau index (BI) fell from 14 to 6 in the intervention group and from 8 to 5 in the control group. The additional intervention with LLIN covers for water containers showed a significant reduction in pupae per person index (PPI) (p=0.01). In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Costs were high but options for cost savings were identified. Conclusions Short term impact evaluation indicates that the intervention package can reduce dengue vector density but sustained effect will depend on multiple factors. PMID:25604762

  17. Curtain-Lifting Winds Allow Rare Glimpse into Massive Star Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    the earliest ones (astronomers here refer to "protostars"), high-mass stars evolve much faster than low-mass stars. It is therefore more difficult to "catch" massive stars in the critical phases of early formation. And, what is even worse, due to this rapid development, young high-mass protostars are usually very deeply embedded in their natal clouds and therefore not detectable at optical wavelengths during the (short) phase before nuclear reactions start in their interior. There is simply not enough time for the cloud to disperse - when the curtain finally lifts, allowing a view of the new star, it is already past those earliest stages. Is there a way around these problems? "Yes", says Dieter Nürnberger of ESO-Santiago, "you just have to look in the right place and remember Bob Dylan...!". This is what he did. "The answer, my friend, is blowing by the wind..." Imagine that it would be possible to blow away most of the obscuring gas and dust around those high-mass protostars! Even the strongest desire of the astronomers cannot do it, but there are fortunately others who are better at it! Some high-mass stars form in the neighbourhood of clusters of hot stars, i.e., next to their elder brethren. Such already evolved hot stars are a rich source of energetic photons and produce powerful stellar winds of elementary particles (like the "solar wind" but many times stronger) which impact on the surrounding interstellar gas and dust clouds. This process may lead to partial evaporation and dispersion of those clouds, thereby "lifting the curtain" and letting us look directly at young stars in that region, also comparatively massive ones at a relatively early evolutionary stage. The NGC 3603 region ESO PR Photo 16a/03 ESO PR Photo 16a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 70k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 938 pix - 544k] Caption: PR Photo 16a/03 shows the sky region around NGC 3603, a cluster of young, hot stars (of the "OB-type") still partly embedded in its natal cloud of gas and

  18. Curtain grouting gushing water treatment under special geological conditions%特殊地质条件下的帷幕灌浆涌水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁时伟; 唐正前

    2013-01-01

      大型水电站的基础帷幕灌浆作为工程设计的重要组成部分,其施工质量关系到工程后期的安全运行。大多数工程坝基帷幕灌浆施工时,受坝基地质条件和承受的河床水头影响,涌水压力和涌水量不同。向家坝水电站因特殊的地质条件和河床水位较高,在帷幕灌浆施工中有近85%的孔段出现涌水,且涌水压力和涌水量较大,给施工造成很多困难,国内其它工程较为少见。通过对向家坝水电站坝基帷幕灌浆各类涌水情况施工详细研究和大量试验,取得了大涌水量和特殊地质条件下帷幕灌浆成功的施工技术和施工经验,供其他类似工程参考。%The foundation of large-scale hydropower curtain grouting as an important part of the engineering design,its construction quality is related to the safe operation of the project built.The most engineering Curtain Grouting construction,the dam foundation geological conditions and withstand the riverbed head impact,the gushing pressure and water inflow different.Xiangjiaba hydropower station because of the special geological conditions and the high water level of the river bed,curtain grouting nearly 85% of the hole section gushing and gushing water pressure and water inflow and cause a lot of difficulties to the construction and other do-mestic works.By a detailed study and a large number of tests of the various types of water gushing to the Xi-angjiaba hydropower dam foundation curtain grouting.It achieved many successful construction technologys and construction experiences in large inflow and special geological conditions curtain grouting,which provides ref-erence to similar projects.

  19. 薄膜光伏技术在双层幕墙中的应用%Application of Photovoltaic Technology in Double-skin Curtain Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莹莹; 李书琴

    2011-01-01

    建筑节能既要主动利用太阳能,还要从结构上减少热损失,以获得最佳的经济效益.本文在双层幕墙和光发电系统工程实例的基础上,提出了一种新的光伏建筑一体化结构--光伏双层幕墙,并给出了相关设计经验.光伏双层墙采用薄膜光伏组件作为发电系统,双层幕墙作为主体结构,融合了热通道技术和光伏发电技术,具有明显的隔热、隔音、分阳光、节能和装饰等功能,还可将太阳能转化成电能,与环境有着很好的相容性.%In order to obtain the best economic benefits on building energy-saving,not only the solar energy should be forwardly utilized, but also the heat loss through the building envelope should be reduced. In this paper, based on the project cases of double-skin curtain wall and photovoltaic engineering,the double-skin curtain wall integrated with photovoltaic (PV) technology was proposed and the relevant design experiences were introduced. In the photovoltaic double-skin curtain wall ( PVDCW ), the thin-film solar cells was used as the PV components, and the double-skin curtain wall was taken as the main structure. In this curtain wall, the hot channel technology and PV technology were adopted. Therefore,the PVDCW had several advantages, such as heat insulation, sound insulation,plenty sunlight, energy-saving and perfect decoration, etc. Furthermore, it could translate the solar energy into electricity and had good compatibility to the environment.

  20. The viscous curtain: General formulation and finite-element solution for the stability of flowing viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigou, C.; Audoly, B.

    2016-11-01

    The stability of thin viscous sheets has been studied so far in the special case where the base flow possesses a direction of invariance: the linear stability is then governed by an ordinary differential equation. We propose a mathematical formulation and a numerical method of solution that are applicable to the linear stability analysis of viscous sheets possessing no particular symmetry. The linear stability problem is formulated as a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem in a 2D domain and is solved numerically using the finite-element method. Specifically, we consider the case of a viscous sheet in an open flow, which falls in a bath of fluid; the sheet is mildly stretched by gravity and the flow can become unstable by 'curtain' modes. The growth rates of these modes are calculated as a function of the fluid parameters and of the geometry, and a phase diagram is obtained. A transition is reported between a buckling mode (static bifurcation) and an oscillatory mode (Hopf bifurcation). The effect of surface tension is discussed.

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: computational fluid dynamic analyses and evaluation of the air knife model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, Isaac; Phelps, LeEllen; Warner, Mark; Hubbard, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Implementation of an air curtain at the thermal boundary between conditioned and ambient spaces allows for observation over wavelength ranges not practical when using optical glass as a window. The air knife model of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) project, a 4-meter solar observatory that will be built on Haleakalā, Hawai'i, deploys such an air curtain while also supplying ventilation through the ceiling of the coudé laboratory. The findings of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and subsequent changes to the air knife model are presented. Major design constraints include adherence to the Interface Control Document (ICD), separation of ambient and conditioned air, unidirectional outflow into the coudé laboratory, integration of a deployable glass window, and maintenance and accessibility requirements. Optimized design of the air knife successfully holds full 12 Pa backpressure under temperature gradients of up to 20°C while maintaining unidirectional outflow. This is a significant improvement upon the .25 Pa pressure differential that the initial configuration, tested by Linden and Phelps, indicated the curtain could hold. CFD post- processing, developed by Vogiatzis, is validated against interferometry results of initial air knife seeing evaluation, performed by Hubbard and Schoening. This is done by developing a CFD simulation of the initial experiment and using Vogiatzis' method to calculate error introduced along the optical path. Seeing error, for both temperature differentials tested in the initial experiment, match well with seeing results obtained from the CFD analysis and thus validate the post-processing model. Application of this model to the realizable air knife assembly yields seeing errors that are well within the error budget under which the air knife interface falls, even with a temperature differential of 20°C between laboratory and ambient spaces. With ambient temperature set to 0°C and conditioned temperature set to 20

  3. Development of curtain wall technology in China%高歌猛进三十年——我国幕墙技术的发展(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西安

    2011-01-01

    本文从工程和技术的角度回顾了我国幕墙行业发展三十年的光辉历程,简述了我国高层建筑和大型公共建筑中幕墙的应用、新型幕墙的发展、新材料和新做法、幕墙科研工作和技术水平的提高等方面的情况。%This article reviews, in terms of engineering and technology, the glorious 30 years in which China's curtain wall industry keeps developing. It sketches the application of curtain wall in China's high-rise buildings and large-scale public structures, new types of curtain walls, new materials and new methods, as well as the improvements in technology and scientific research in this field.

  4. Development of curtain wall technology in China%高歌猛进三十年——我国幕墙技术的发展(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西安

    2011-01-01

    本文从工程和技术的角度回顾了我国幕墙行业发展三十年的光辉历程,简述了我国高层建筑和大型公共建筑中幕墙的应用、新型幕墙的发展、新材料和新做法、幕墙科研工作和技术水平的提高等方面的情况。%This article reviews, in terms of engineering and technology, the glorious 30 years in which China's curtain wall industry keeps developing. It sketches the application of curtain wall in China's high-rise buildings and large-scale public structures, new types of curtain walls, new materials and new methods, as well as the improvements in technology and scientific research in this field.

  5. COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT METHOD OF AFTER SPINNING FAN WATER CURTAIN COOLING SYSTEM%后纺风机水帘降温系统控制与管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利忠

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzed the working principle of after spinning the fan water curtain cooling system , and clarified the effect of fan water curtain cooling system on the after spinning production status , so proposing the control method of after spinning fan water curtain cooling system and management methods , so as to meet the requirements of production process.%通过对后纺风机水帘降温系统工作原理的分析,阐述水帘降温系统对后纺生产状态的影响,提出风机水帘降温系统的控制方法及管理方法,以满足后纺的生产工艺要求。

  6. Calculate method of thermal transmittance for frames of curtain wall%幕墙框的传热系数计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立鹏; 梁凯生; 许璐琳

    2012-01-01

    The whole curtain wall thermal transmittance is calculated by the method of area weighting,but the thermal transmittance of frames and different panels are needed to be calculated separately.There is a boundary between frame and panel,the boundary not only transfers heat lengthways,which lies inside and outside of a room,but also transfers heat breadthways.How to calculate the heat transfer in the boundary accurately.It is an important issue in curtain wall thermal transmittance calculate.This article mainly tells a calculate method of thermal transmittance about frame,it takes the impact of curtain wall boundary heat transfer into account adequately.Only to be referenced.%幕墙整体传热系数的计算是通过一个面积加权的方法求得的。而幕墙中框及各种面材传热系数需要分别进行计算,在框与面材之间存在一个边界,这个边界不仅存在室内外纵向的传热,还存在框与面材之间的横向传热。如何准确的考虑这个边界的传热,是幕墙传热系数计算的关键问题。本文着重讲述一套框的传热系数计算方法,使其充分考虑边界传热在幕墙传热中的影响,仅供大家借鉴参考。

  7. A Curtain Design on Optimizing Configuration of Savonius Rotor%阻力型垂直轴风力机导风帘的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶; 王亚军; 罗秉东; 宋宁亮

    2012-01-01

    以输出功率100W的阻力型垂直轴型风力机为例,通过优化设计找寻最佳的叶片数目、高径比和折叠率等几何参量,然后加入导风帘装置,给出一个最佳结构方案。运用Fluent求解器中的有限体积法对无导风帘和三种不同长度导风帘设计的叶片周围的流场进行模拟。模拟与最佳优化方式的性能参数的计算结果表明,采用长导风帘设计的阻力型垂直轴风力机具有最好的动力学性能,可以提高运行效率。%This paper mainly studies the configuration of Savonius rotor on the basis of the output power P= 100 W, and the best parameters of the number of blade.aspect ratio and overlap ratio have been found. On this basis, a curtain arrangement has been designed, and the optimum configuration of Savonius rotor has been put forward in this study. Then, the multifarious blades of Savonius wind rotor without or with curtain have been placed in the wind tunnel and simulated by the fluid engineer simulation software Fluent with the finite volume method. And these conclusion combined with the calculation of the aerodynamic performance parameters of the optimum configuration of Savonius rotor verify the design on Savonius rotor with long curtain in the possession of the best dynamic performance. This optimum Savonius rotor in the present study has achieved the improve- ment of the operating efficiency.

  8. Transculturalidade entre fronteiras no continente norte-americano: The tortilla curtain, de T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues, de Jacques Poulin

    OpenAIRE

    Montarroyos Santos Umbelino, Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    Partindo do pressuposto de que a literatura pode ser constituída por metaficções historiográficas, este trabalho analisa comparativamente os romances The Tortilla Curtain (1995), do escritor estadunidense T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues (1984), do escritor quebequense Jacques Poulin, com o objetivo de delinear os recursos linguísticos e literários que tais autores utilizam para representar as fronteiras entre o Canadá, os Estados Unidos e o México. Para tanto, argumentamos acer...

  9. Aggressive Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma With Asymptomatic Spinal Cord Compression Revealed By A “Curtain Sign”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Housset

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a case with an unusually aggressive evolution of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. The patient presented with sciatica one year after initial diagnosis. She was otherwise asymptomatic. Complete work-up for bone involvement, included bone scan and MRI. The patient had asymptomatic thoracic (T5 vertebral metastasis revealed by a typical curtain sign on MRI. She benefited from radiotherapy and did not develop respiratory distress, paraplegia or pain but died of other metastases.

  10. 帷幕注浆堵水技术在山环煤矿的应用%Application of Curtain Grouting Water Shutoff Technology in Shanhuan Colliery, Meilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政明

    2012-01-01

    Curtain grouting technology is used to conduct Shanhuan Colliery, which enables shaft inflow to reduce tees the smooth construction of shaft. water shutoff of vertical to 5 m3/h from 35 m3/h shaft sand-gravel aquifer in before grouting, and guaran-%山环煤矿采用帷幕注浆技术,对立井井筒砂砾石含水层进行堵水,使井筒涌水量由注浆前的35rn3/h减少到5m3/h,保证了井简的顺利施工。

  11. An Analysis of "Iron Curtain Speech" from the Perspective of Realism%现实主义视角下的"铁幕演说"文献解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾喜荣

    2011-01-01

    1946年3月5日,英国前首相丘吉尔在访问美国期间发表了题为的演讲,史称"铁幕演说"."铁幕演说"在二战后历史中具有重要的文献价值,被认为是正式拉开了冷战的序幕,而其中的主要思想在一定程度上契合了现实主义国际关系理论的观点.%On March 5, 1946, during his visit to the United States former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made a speech entitled The Sinews of Peace, which is also known as Iron Curtain Speech. Iron Curtain Speech has an important documentary value in the history after World War Ⅱ,and is considered a prelude to the start of Cold War. The main ideas of this apeech to some extent fit the realistic perspective of international relations theory.

  12. 基于单片机的智能防雨帘控制系统%Intelligent Rainproof Curtain Control System Based on SCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马泽文; 陈玥玮; 徐力; 杨赟卿

    2011-01-01

    Introduces a kind of intelligent rainproof curtain control system. It have automatic lifting function with humidity sensor. It consists of data acquisition module, infrared remote control module, controller and motor drive and other components. Realized curtain automatic lifting by collecting and analyzing the rainy signal. This paper mainly introduces the overall design of this control system, in particular, manual, remote and automatic control system of the working principle and design methods.%介绍了一种具备湿度感应自动升降功能的智能防雨帘控制系统,主要由数据采集模块、红外遥控模块、控制器和电机驱动器等组成,实现了通过采集下雨天湿度信号控制窗帘自动升降的目的.文章主要介绍了这种控制系统的总体设计,特别是手动、遥控以及自动控制系统的工作原理以及设计方法.

  13. Thermal performance test and analysis of curtain-wall form solar heating system%幕墙式太阳能供暖系统热性能测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰; 杨旭东; 王鹏苏

    2014-01-01

    With a demonstration project,tests the thermal performance of the curtain-wall form solar heating system.In the test period from January 7 to 9 in 2013,mean outdoor temperature is -7.7 ℃,the average collecting efficiency of the solar energy collection system is about 27.5%,and the average COP of heat pump as subsidiary heat source is 1.554.In the test period from March 13 to 15,mean outdoor temperature is 3 ℃,and the average COP of heat pump is 1.782.The test result of March 13th shows that the effective mean thermal efficiency of the solar energy collection system is 18.8%,and the heat loss of water tank and pipeline is comparatively less,which only takes 9.16% of effective heat collection of solar energy.When the terminal fan-coil adopts the air distribution mode of air supply downward from side, indoor heating effect is better.%结合幕墙式太阳能供暖系统示范工程,进行了系统热性能测试。在2013年1月7-9日测试期间,室外平均气温为-7.7℃,太阳能集热系统的平均集热效率约为27.5%,补热系统的热泵平均COP 为1.554;在3月13-15日测试期间,室外平均温度为3℃,热泵平均COP 为1.782;3月13日的测试结果表明,集热系统的有效平均热效率为18.8%,系统的水箱和管路热损失较小,仅占太阳能有效集热量的9.16%。末端风机盘管采用侧面向下送风的气流组织形式时,室内供暖效果较好。

  14. Development of air conditioning system and labor saving technology for efficient hydroponic cultivation; Konoritsuna suiko saibai no tame no kucho to shoryokuka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, T.; Terazoe, H.; Shoji, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, K.; Otani, F. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sekiyama, T.; Kosakai, K.; Sato, H.

    1997-06-01

    Equipment which made experiments on air conditioning and hydroponic cultivation possible was set up at the technical research center of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., to study an air conditioning system using night power and energy saving technology for the cultivation. Vegetables suitable to the cultivation were selected. For air conditioning, adopted was a water heat storage air conditioning system using night power. The space between the shade curtain and the greenhouse roof was ventilated to prevent increase in cooling load caused by rise in curtain temperature. Moreover, the cultivation equipment was covered with transparent vinyl film to cool the inside of the equipment. The hydroponic cultivation equipment was trially manufactured which makes the continued production by one worker possible. The cultivation of spinach, leaf lettuce and chingensai throughout the year became possible. The yield of chingensai reached the target, but those of spinach and leaf lettuce were approximately 70% of the targets. Vegetables to be produced in the air-conditioned greenhouse by hydroponic cultivation are thought to be those that can have added values such non-pesticides and ingredients, young plants which were increased by cutting or tissue culturing, etc. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of curtain grouting in the dam bedrock based on binghamian grouts%大坝基岩帷幕宾汉姆浆液灌浆的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓韶辉; 王晓玲; 敖雪菲; 任炳昱; 李瑞金

    2016-01-01

    Because of the grouting engineering of masking and the complexity of geological conditions, how to accurately determine the diffusion regularity of grout under complicated geological conditions is the key and difficult point of grouting numerical simulation analysis. Binghamian grouts two-phase flow characteris⁃tics in the process of grout diffusion and complex geological conditions of dam bedrock is not considered in the present numerical simulation research of grouting in the hydraulic engineering. These research objects mainly focus on a single fracture or a single grout hole, while the simulation of grout front has not in⁃volved. Aim at the above-mentioned problems,a three-dimensional refined geological information model,in⁃cluded different formations,unfavorable geological body, curtains, grouting holes, was firstly established in this paper. Then, coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the CFD commercial software STAR-CCM+, a three-dimensional grouting mathematical model of Binghamian grouts air-grout two-phase flow was developed to achieve the numerical simulation of the multiple holes and sequencing grouting in the dam bedrock,also analyzing the grout diffusion rule and curtain lap after grouting. Finally,a hydropow⁃er station of bedrock curtain grouting process was taken as a case. The results show that the grout diffu⁃sion radius increases with time in a certain time range,but its rate of change shows a decline trend. After grouting completion of each sequence hole,grout front laps well. Furthermore,comparing the simulation val⁃ue with the actual measuring value of the grouting quantity and time, the average errors were 9.08% and 6.32% respectively,which verified the reliability of the method.%由于灌浆工程的掩蔽性和地质条件的复杂性,如何准确地确定复杂地质条件下浆液的扩散规律是灌浆数值模拟分析的关键及难点。目前,在水利工程中灌浆数值模拟的

  16. Simulation Study on Light Pollution Characteristics of Glass Curtain Wall%玻璃幕墙光污染特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 王璐

    2015-01-01

    According to the theory of sunshine and space geometry , the characteristics of light pollution of glass curtain wall are calculated and analyzed .The results show that the light pollution of glass curtain wall toward the south occurred in the winter solstice and equinoxes ,winter solstice to secondary pollution ,long duration; equinox to slight grades ,short duration; the glass walls toward the north throughout the year without light pollution; other toward the glass curtain wall light pollution all the year round , winter solstice mainly in the south to east toward ,the equinoxes heading south to northeast ,the summer solstice in southern and Northern Dynasties outward all towards;light pollution duration was affected by impact towards the ,winter solstice,equinox and solstice small . Light pollution affects the size of the region ,the location of the change ,the winter solstice,the spring and autumn and summer ease and stability.%根据日照理论和空间几何理论,对玻璃幕墙光污染特征进行计算分析. 结果表明,南向玻璃幕墙光污染发生在冬至和春秋分,冬至以中等污染为主,上下午持续时间长;春秋分以轻微污染等级为主,上下午持续时间短;北向玻璃幕墙全年无光污染;其他朝向玻璃幕墙光污染全年均有,冬至主要在南至东的朝向,春秋分在南至东北朝向,夏至除南北朝向外所有朝向;光污染持续时间受朝向影响,冬至大,春秋分和夏至小. 光污染影响区域大小、位置随朝向变化,冬至剧烈,春秋分和夏季缓和且稳定.

  17. Perforating the Iron Curtain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection, based upon contributions to the "Copenhagen Cold War Conference 2007", provides a detailed analysis of important aspects of the European détente process between East and West, as it is reflected in the most recent archival based research. It suggests that this process was far mor...

  18. The Curtain Falls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Once an event is finished,all big international event organizers have a headache trying to figure out what to do with old facilities and venues,such as stadiums,pavilions and the like.High maintenance costs usually pose severe financial burdens for host cities.Will the 5.28-square-km Shanghai Expo site face a similar problem? Expo Weekly talked to Wn Zhiqiang,Chief Planner of the Shanghai World Expo and Dean of the College of Architecture and Planning at Shanghai's Tongji University.

  19. Disks, Winds, and Veiling Curtains: Dissecting the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Dwarf Nova Z Camelopardalis in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Christian; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Wade, Richard A.

    1997-02-01

    a vertically extended, dense, slow-moving ``transition region'' between the disk photosphere and the fast-moving wind. Using a static LTE slab to crudely model this region, we find many of the absorption features in Z Cam's line spectrum that we have not modeled with our Monte Carlo code. The physical conditions expected in the extended disk atmosphere--ne ~ 1012 cm-3, NH ~ 1022 cm-2, and T ~= few × 104 K--are similar to those in the ``Fe II curtain'' that has been found to veil the white dwarf in the dwarf nova OY Car in quiescence. Based on observations obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope as part of the Astro-2 mission.

  20. VISIOMETRICS OF 2D SHOCK-PLANAR S/F/S CURTAIN INTERACTIONS: VORTEX DOUBLE LAYERS, VORTEX PROJECTILES AND DECAYING STRATIFIED TURBULENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vortex double layers (VDLs) and vortex projectiles (VPs) are the essential coherent structures which emerge in the shock excited (s/f/s) planar-parallel "curtain" simulations of a 2D shock tube with PPM. These opposite signed layers, formed by shock induced baroclinic deposition of vorticity, "ind" and are strongly affected by secondary reflected shocks and vortex interactions. In our visiometric mode of working, we quantify several of these processes and introduce time epochs to discuss the emerging phenomena and normalizations to scale (collapse) the data at M= 1. 5 and 2. 0. This versatile configuration,easily obtained in the laboratory, allows us to study the formation, evolution and reacceleration of VPs and stratified turbulence and mixing.``

  1. Finite Element Method Numeral Simulation for Air-Curtain Cleanroom%气幕洁净室流场的有限单元法数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏学孟; 周祖东

    2001-01-01

    运用计算流体力学的有限单元法对气幕洁净室内的三维流场进行数值模拟,并对模拟结果进行分析和比较,以期揭示气幕洁净室真正的流动机理;最后给出了一些设计参数。

  2. 农用加工机械安全光幕保护系统设计%Design of Safety Light Curtain Protection System for Agricultural Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任黎明; 刘瑞娟; 于红

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of agro-technology, agricultural machinery has been widely applied in practical life and agricultural production, but it still faces lots of safety issues. Based on expounding the harms of agricultural machinery, the safety light curtain, that is, the photoelectric safety device, is introduced, according to the safety status of agricultural machinery, the human safety protection system is designed based on light curtain. The tasks of controller are converted according to different stages of agricultural machinery protection system, which guarantees the high-speed and precise safety of the system.%随着农业技术的迅速发展,农用设备在现实生活中和农业生产中被广泛应用.然而,农用加工机械也存在着很多安全问题.在阐述了农用加工机械的危害的基础上,介绍了安全光幕即光电式安全装置.根据农用机械设备的安全现状,提出了基于光幕保护人身安全系统的设计.设计的控制程序根据农用机械保护系统所处的不同阶段对控制器的任务实行转换连锁的方法,保证了系统的高速、高精度安全.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations on reliability of air barrier on oil containment in flowing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinshu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Xu, Song; Xie, Sensen; Wu, Haoxiao; Yang, Zhenbo; Liu, Xueqiang

    2015-06-15

    Air barriers have been recently developed and employed as a new type of oil containment boom. This paper presents systematic investigations on the reliability of air barriers on oil containments with the involvement of flowing water, which represents the commonly-seen shearing current in reality, by using both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Both the numerical and experimental investigations are carried out in a model scale. In the investigations, a submerged pipe with apertures is installed near the bottom of a tank to generate the air bubbles forming the air curtain; and, the shearing water flow is introduced by a narrow inlet near the mean free surface. The effects of the aperture configurations (including the size and the spacing of the aperture) and the location of the pipe on the effectiveness of the air barrier on preventing oil spreading are discussed in details with consideration of different air discharges and velocities of the flowing water. The research outcome provides a foundation for evaluating and/or improve the reliability of a air barrier on preventing spilled oil from further spreading.

  4. 陶土板幕墙体系的设计与施工工艺%The Design of Terra-cotta Panel Curtain Wall System and Technology of Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁涛

    2012-01-01

    随着科学技术日新月异的发展,新技术的发展带来了大量的新型建筑材料,引起了建筑施工的技术革命.陶土板即为近年来出现的全新的外幕墙建筑材料,此材料可以适用于室内外墙面装修,同时由于其颜色可以随意调配以及模具性生产,可以带给墙面丰富色彩及立体造型.本文通过一个实际工程将干挂陶土板幕墙与石材幕墙体系进行对比,阐述陶土板幕墙体系的先进性、施工工艺及卡控重点.%With the rapid development of science and technology, the development of new technologies has brought a lot of new materials for building, caused the construction technical revolution. The terra-cotta panel is emerging in recent years, which is a new curtain wall construction material, the material can be applied to indoor and outdoor wall decoration, at the same time because its color can be deployed freely and the mold production of wall, can bring rich colors and solid modeling. This article uses a practical works to make terra-cotta panel curtain wall natural stone curtain wall system for purposes of comparison, and elaborates on the advanced terracotta panel curtain wall system, the construction technology and control.

  5. 既有建筑幕墙的安全隐患及整改技术方案%ALSO HAS CONSTRUCTION CURTAIN WALL SAFE HIDDEN DANGER AND REORGANIZES TECHNICAL PROGRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓锦振

    2011-01-01

    针对既有玻璃幕墙的安全隐患,从材料、技术、施工、验收等方面提出改造和出新的方案和思路.%In view of already has the glass curtain wall safe hidden danger , From aspects and so on material, technology, construction, approval proposes the transformation and the new proposal and the mentality.

  6. 既有玻璃幕墙内置智能电动百叶系统%Built-in Intelligent Electric Louver System Attached to Existing Glass Curtain Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉志; 鲍忠炎; 刘志刚; 陈庆丰; 田利军

    2014-01-01

    “既有玻璃幕墙内置智能电动百叶系统”是以智能化的控制方式应用于幕墙工程的遮阳系统,它标志着“既有玻璃幕墙”节能改造新技术的研究取得了重要的成果,并向“绿色建筑与低碳设计”的目标迈出了突破性的一步。%"Existing glass curtain wal built-in inteligent ele- ctric louver system" is a sun shading system based on the inte- ligent control methods which is used in curtain wal engine- eering, thus it marks that the research of the new energy-saving technology on existing glass curtain wal" has made great achievements, and which has made a breakthrough towards the target concept -green building and low carbon design.

  7. 模拟火星灰在行波电帘中的运动特性%Characteristics of the Motion of Martian Dust Simulant on the Travelling-Wave Electric Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘关卿; 李水清; 柳冠青; 姚强

    2011-01-01

    电帘由一系列的连通交流电源的平行电极组成,在清除月球、火星表面或外空间中的尘埃颗粒方面具有潜在的应用前景。连接多相交流电的电帘叫做行波电帘。本文研究了模拟火星灰颗粒在行波电帘中的运动传输模式,测量了颗粒在行波电帘中的宏观输运速度,发现电压对颗粒传输速度影响较大,并提出中频区间是行波电帘的理想操作条件。%The electric curtain, consisted of a series of parallel electrodes, has received much attention because of its potential benefits from cleaning or mitigating dust in Moon, Mars and terrestrial environments. The technology which is excited by a multi-phase AC voltage source is called as travelling electric curtain. This research identified the different moving modes of dust particles on travelling electric curtain and measured the macro transport velocity of dust particles. The results indicate that the voltage has a great effect on the particle moving velocity and the medium frequency has a better performance for particle removing.

  8. Discussion on Technical Requirements and Methods of Building Curtain Wall Engineering Joint Sealing%浅谈建筑幕墙工程接缝处理的技术要求和方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑艳; 张龙

    2011-01-01

    This article put forward constructive suggestions aiming at problems may appear in building curtain walls. In the construction of the walls, connection of floor, ceiling and wall is a very important issue, where leaving gaps causing problems in the upper and lower interior space insulation, therefore, curtain division will affect connection of floor and ceiling and curtain wall. Decoration should set horizontal frame here, so that floor and ceiling decoration can connect with it, and do thermal insulation treatment.%本文针对建筑幕墙可能出现的问题,提出了建设性的建议.在幕墙的构造中,楼面和吊顶与幕墙的连接是一个非常重要的问题,此处经常留有缝隙造成室内上下空间保温和隔声出现问题,因此,幕墙的分格将影响楼面和吊顶与暮墙的连接.装修设计时,应在此处设置横框,使楼面和吊顶的装修与其连接,并做保温隔热处理.

  9. Light curtain sensor based on laser reflection%激光反射式光幕探测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟; 董涛; 倪晋平

    2013-01-01

    针对现有天幕靶探测灵敏度低、易受天空亮度影响、夜间不能工作等问题,提出了一种基于激光反射的主动式光幕探测方案,该方案采用一字线结构光半导体激光器作为主动光源,采用光学镜头、狭缝光阑、滤光片和光电倍增管组成光路探测系统.当飞行弹丸穿越一字线结构光半导体激光器和光路探测系统共同组成的探测光幕时,弹体表面反射回的部分光线被光路探测系统接收,经光电探测器件光电转换,并经后续信号处理电路对光电探测器件产生的电信号进行处理,输出与飞行弹丸穿越探测光幕面时刻相对应的模拟信号和脉冲信号.对系统光能量进行分析和计算,并通过实弹试验测试,结果表明:系统能够在夜间正常使用,灵敏度达到200倍以上弹径.%For the problems of low detection sensitivity, susceptibility to sky brightness and inability to work at night of existing sky screens, a detecting method was put forward which was an active light curtain based on laser reflection.A line laser semiconductor was adopted as the active light source in the design, and the light path detection system consisted of optical lens, slit diaphragm, optical filter and photomultiplier tube.When the flying projectile passed through the light curtain composed of the line laser semiconductor and the optoelectronic detection system, part of the light reflected from the surface of projectile body were received by the optoelectronic detection system.After the process of photovoltaic conversion by photovoltaic detectors and the processing of electrical signal generated by photovoltaic detectors using the subsequent signal processing circuit, the corresponding analog signal and pulse signal indicating the moment when the flying projectile passed through the light curtain were output.Light energy was analyzed and calculated, and finally tested by experiment.The results show that the method can be used at

  10. 广州市规划馆幕墙细部设计%On detail design for curtain wall of Guangzhou Planning Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞雪璠

    2012-01-01

    针对广州市规划展览馆采用的双层穿孔铝板的幕墙形式进行了介绍,指出该设计在材料及尺度上创新,利用新技术分析采光节能,改进常规做法,并且在岭南花窗的传统上找出共同点,将广州城市风貌融入了外墙立面,对今后大型政府建筑节能设计具有指导意义。%The paper introduces the curtain wall of the double-layer perforation aluminum plate is adopted in Guangzhou Planning Museum,points out the innovation of the design in the materials and sizes,adopts the new technique to analyze the lighting and the energy-saving,improves the regular methods,finds its common points with flowery windows in South of Five Ridges,and integrates the landscape of Guangzhou into the external wall's elevation,so as to direct the energy-saving design for large government buildings in future.

  11. 工作研究在窗帘包装线优化中的应用%Application of the Work Study in Curtain Packing Line Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏开放; 朱柏青; 李东波

    2011-01-01

    文章采用工作研究的方法对某公司窗帘包装线进行分析,通过程序分析、动作分析、动素分析,运用5W1H方法及ECRS(取消、合并、重排、简化)原则和人机工程学,找出包装线上存在的问题并给出改善方案.运用模特法计算合理的作业时间;通过分析改善包装作业平面布置,运用动作经济原则和动素分析法减少了工人的动作浪费和时间浪费,使得包装线的生产效率提高48.1%.%The methods of work study are applied to analyze curtain packing line for a certain company. Through procedure analysis, action analysis, motion analysis, using 5W1H check list and ECRS (elimination, combination, rearrangement, simplicity) principles and ergonomics, finds out the problems and gives solution to improve packaging line. Using model method to calculate the reasonable operation time; Through the analysis of plane layout, by using motion rule of economy and motion analysis improves packing process and reduces action waste and time waste, makes the packaging line efficiency pt 48.1% beating.

  12. EPANET在电厂水幕消防设计中的应用%Application of EPANET to Design of Curtain Fire Controlin The Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张康年; 黄家林; 程彩霞

    2013-01-01

    This article introduce an example of hydraulic calculation using EPANET software for water curtain system in a power plant. Both the pipe diameter and node pressure can be controlled precisely by adjusting the lfow velocity in a section to optimize the design. Moreover, it can help on decompression oriifce plate positioning and speciifcation choosing. The software operation is simple and the calculation is fast and accurate which can meet the design requirement.%以某电厂水幕消防系统设计为例,运用EPANET软件进行水力计算,通过对管段内流速的调整,精确控制管径以及节点压力,达到优化设计的效果,同时帮助设计人员对减压孔板进行准确定位及规格型号的选择,软件操作简便,计算快速准确,满足工程设计的要求。

  13. Langley mobile ozone lidar: ozone and aerosol atmospheric profiling for air quality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Ganoe, Rene; Pliutau, Denis; Gronoff, Guillaume; Berkoff, Timothy; Kuang, Shi

    2017-01-20

    The Langley mobile ozone lidar (LMOL) is a mobile ground-based ozone lidar system that consists of a pulsed UV laser producing two UV wavelengths of 286 and 291 nm with energy of approximately 0.2  mJ/pulse and repetition rate of 1 kHz. The 527 nm pump laser is also transmitted for aerosol measurements. The receiver consists of a 40 cm parabolic telescope, which is used for both backscattered analog and photon counting. The lidar is very compact and highly mobile. This demonstrates the utility of very small lidar systems eventually leading to space-based ozone lidars. The lidar has been validated by numerous ozonesonde launches and has provided ozone curtain profiles from ground to approximately 4 km in support of air quality field missions.

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  15. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  16. Smart curtain research of technologies of hand gesture recognition on vision%基于视觉手势识别技术的智能窗帘研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利新; 王阿川; 张亨; 占露瑶

    2012-01-01

    在Visual Studio 2010开发环境中以C++为编程语言,使用计算机视觉计算中的开源OpenCV库处理图像,判定手势运动方向,构造基于视觉手势识别技术的智能窗帘系统。通过调用Windows API函数实现PC与LPC2131之间的串口通信,从而通过控制步进电机的转动方向来实现窗帘的打开和关闭操作。系统具有人机交互界面良好、操作简单、窗帘的长度可自行设定等优点。%For the smart curtain system based on the technology of vision gesture recognition, C++ as the programming lan- guage in Visual Studio 2010 development environment, it takes OpenCV library which is the open source of the computer vision computing to process images and determine the direction of movement of the gesture. It is to achieve serial communication between the PC and the LPC2131 by calling Windows API functions ,and to make the curtains open and close by controlling the direction of rotation of the stepper motor. This system has the advantages of good human-computer interact interface, easy operation, the length of the curtain could be set freely and so on.

  17. 上海中心大厦幕墙支撑结构的选型分析%Selection of Curtain Wall Support Structures of Shanghai Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡殷; 何志军; 丁洁民

    2011-01-01

    上海中心大厦由倒圆角的三段圆弧旋转收缩上升形成的平滑扭曲面作为外轮廓.该工程采用独特的分区双层幕墙体系,其中外幕墙采用柔性的分区吊挂系统.首先介绍了其幕墙支撑结构的体系构成,然后结合典型区两种方案(无伸缩节点方案和有伸缩节点方案)在温度敏感性、抗扭性能以及变形特性、振动特性和施工便捷性五个方面的对比,论述了两种方案的优劣,最后对两种方案做了扼要的评价并作出优选,以期对将来类似工程提供经验.%Shanghai Tower has a smooth warped surface as the outer surface contour which is formed by three filleted arcs contracting and rotating as the floor increases. The project uses a unique double-wall system, the outer of which adopts flexible zonal hanging system. In this paper the composition of Shanghai Tower' s curtain wall support structures is introduced first. Then two structural schemes in typical zone ( non-expansion joint scheme and expansion joint scheme ) in temperature sensitivity, torsion performance, deformation, vibration characteristics and construction convenience are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of both schemes are discussed. Finally a brief evaluation of the two schemes is conducted.

  18. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs and insecticide-treated house screening (ITS against Chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Tropical Disease Bulletin databases were searched using intervention, vector- and disease-specific search terms. Cluster or individually randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials with pre- and post-intervention data and rotational design studies were included. Analysis assessed the efficacy of ITNs, ITCs or ITS versus no intervention. Meta-analysis of clinical data was performed and percentage reduction in vector density calculated.Twenty-one studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of clinical data could only be performed for four cutaneous leishmaniasis studies which together showed a protective efficacy of ITNs of 77% (95%CI: 39%-91%. Studies of ITC and ITS against cutaneous leishmaniasis also reported significant reductions in disease incidence. Single studies reported a high protective efficacy of ITS against dengue and ITNs against Japanese encephalitis. No studies of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis or onchocerciasis were identified.There are likely to be considerable collateral benefits of ITN roll out on cutaneous leishmaniasis where this disease is co-endemic with malaria. Due to the low number of studies identified, issues with reporting of entomological outcomes, and few studies reporting clinical outcomes, it is difficult to make strong conclusions on the effect of ITNs, ITCs or ITS on other VBDs and therefore further studies be conducted. Nonetheless, it

  19. 地铁深基坑工程抗突涌准幕灌浆技术研究%Study on Curtain Grouting Technology for Preventing Water Gushing in Works of Metro Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏宇

    2012-01-01

    杭州某地铁深基坑工程由于地连墙在圆砾层中成槽困难,使得地下连续墙(以下简称“地连墙”)插入深度减小,不能满足承压水抗突涌稳定性要求,基于此,依托该地铁深基坑实例,通过现场灌浆对比试验,确定帷幕灌浆参数,并按此参数设置帷幕灌浆,填充地连墙未隔断的圆砾层,与地连墙搭接形成封闭的阻水帷幕,解决承压水抗突涌问题。研究表明:圆砾层的孔隙度大、渗透性好,可进行灌浆处理;帷幕灌浆能够节省工期,节约造价,有效地解决圆砾层的承压水抗突涌问题。%Some difficulties occurred in trough work in the round gravel layer for metro deep foundation pit with floor- wall transition make the floor-wall insert depth reduced, therefore it can not meet the requirements on the stability under the pressure of water gushing. Based on these and by taking a metro deep fbundation pit as an instance, curtain grouting parameters are determined after the cornparison tests on the field grouting. The parameter is set to guide curtain grouting, fill the floor-wall no- separated gravel layer, and to form a closed water-blocking curtain of the floor-wall overlap to solve the problems occurred in pressure water to stop water gushing. The study shows that the satisfactory round gravel porosity and permeability help grouting treatment; and curtain grouting shortens construction duration with less cost, effectively providing gravel layers some solutions on pressure water preventing-gushing issues.

  20. Application of hanging anti-seepage curtain combined with recharge wells in deep foundation pit%悬挂式防渗帷幕与回灌井在深基坑施工工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宗彦

    2015-01-01

    In permeable ground, hanging anti-seepage curtain combined with recharge wells were used to control the underground water altitude surrounding the deep foundation pit during its excavation and lowering underground water in it.this technique is proved effective by practice.%在透水地层中的基坑降水工程,利用悬挂式防渗帷幕与回灌井对基坑周边地下水水位进行控制。工程实例表明,该技术效果显著。

  1. Physical modeling of steel flow in a tun dish equipped with a turbulence inhibitor and a gas curtain; Modelacion fisica del flujo de acero en un distribuidor de colada continua equipado con un inhibidor de turbulencia y una cortina de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Labra, M.; Diaz-Cruz, M.; Palafox-Ramos, J.; Avila-Davila, E. O.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2005-07-01

    A 2/5 scale model with a transparent plastic sheet was built based on Froude criterion in which eight cases were studied by PIV technique, maintaining a constant gas flow rate of 596 ml/min and only varying the gas curtain position. The results permitted to get Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves, and from the data processing it was found that combining Turbulence Inhibitor (TI) with the adequate gas curtain position it is enhanced the plug volume. The case VII presented the best results increasing the plug volume in 131.85% in comparison with the case IV which was taken as the reference one. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. 机械排烟作用下无机防烟卷帘防烟特性的实验研究%Experimental Study on Smoke-proof Characteristics of Inorganic Smoke-proof Rolling Curtain under Mechanical Exhaust Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易蕾; 姚斌; 李元洲; 陈素娜

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale simulation experiment was carried out to study smoke-proof characteristics of inorganic smoke-proof rolling curtain under mechanical exhaust condition, and the average unexposed surface temperature of rolling curtain and smoke flow passing inter-curtain' s slot were measured. The results show that the inorganic smoke-proof rolling curtain automatically fall to the ground when the fire break out, and within the 20 min's test time, the smoke could be controlled in the fire area by inorganic smoke-proof rolling curtains, only little smoke enters into atrium; the unexposed surface temperature of rolling curtain is close to ambient temperature. Because of the good behavior in block smoke and heat-resistant, the inorganic smoke-proof rolling curtains can make sure the safe evacuation in the case of fire. This study provides the experimental support for application of the new inorganic smoke-proof rolling curtains to complex atrium.%采用全尺寸模拟实验,通过测量机械排烟作用下无机防烟卷帘背火面壁面的平均温升、卷帘缝隙处的烟气流动等,对无机防烟卷帘在机械排烟作用下的防烟特性展开研究.结果表明:无机防烟卷帘在发生火灾时自动下降至地面,在机械排烟作用下,在20 min的实验时间内,基本上能将烟气阻挡在模拟着火房间内,只有极少量烟气进入模拟中庭,卷帘背火面壁面温度接近环境温度;该无机防烟卷帘具有良好的挡烟耐热性能,火灾时可以保证非着火区域人员的安全疏散.本文研究可为该种新型无机防烟卷帘在复杂中庭防火设计中的应用提供实验支持.

  3. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  5. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  6. Status of bacterial contamination of bedside curtains in some hospitals of Shanghai%上海市部分医院病床隔帘病原菌污染的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春妹; 胡必杰; 崔扬文; 沈燕; 朱晨迪; 单玉璋; 叶相如; 高晓东

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the status of bacterial contamination of bedside curtains of ICUs and common wards in some general hospitals of Shanghai so as to reduce the rate of bacterial contamination of bedside curtains .METHODS A total of 120 bedside curtains specimens were collected from 8 hospitals by using standard cotton swab wiping method and were spread on the blood and MRSA agar plates ,then the samples were uniformly submitted to the clinical microbiological laboratory of Zhongshan Hospital ,the growth of pathogens on the plates was observed after 48 hours of culture in 35℃condition ,the bacterial colony counts on the plates were recorded , and the suspected pathogens or opportunistic pathogens were identified by using VITEK MS .RESULTS Of the 120 bedside curtains samples ,48 were collected from the ICUs ,and 72 were collected from the common wards .The qualified rate (<10CFU/100 cm2 )of the collected samples was 45 .8% in the ICUs ,6 .9% in the common wards (P<0 .01);the rate of severe contamination (≥50 CFU/100 cm2 ) was 12 .5% in the ICUs ,44 .4% in the com‐mon wards (P<0 .01) .The rate of bacterial contamination (≥10 CFU/100 cm2 )of the bedside curtains of the ICUs that were cleaned within one week was 25 .0% ,significantly lower than 68 .8% of the bedside curtains of the ICUs that were not cleaned for more than one week ,and there was statistically significant difference (P<0 .05) . Totally 342 strains of pathogens have been isolated from the bedside curtains samples ,of which 40 .3% (138 strains) were the coagulase‐negative Staphylococcus (CNS) ,followed by the Micrococcus luteus/lira micrococcus ( 71 strains ,20 .8% ) and bacillus ( 48 strains ,14 .0% ) .CONCLUSIONS The rate of bacterial contamination of the bedside curtains is significantly lower in the ICUs than in the common wards .The CNS and gram‐positive bacilli are most common among the bacteria causing the contamination , and regular cleaning can significantly reduce the

  7. Construction of the curtain wall made of carbon fiber reinforced concrete. Sangenjaya Carrot Tower; Tanso sen`i hokyo konkurito wo mochiita katen uoru no seko - sangenjaya kyarotto tawa -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, H.; Sasaki, M.; Honda, Y. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The characteristics of the carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) for the construction of the above-titled curtain walled tower, its full-size property test and the result of building work are reported. In the beginning, the composition of CFRC materials and their blending are described and the relationship between the mixing time with a mixer destined for that purpose and the mortar flow and the quality control on the CFRC control specimens are explained, followed by a description on the CFRC weight, water content, the use of stainless reinforcement bars to suppress corrosion, dry shrinkage, the relationship between bending strength and Young coefficient, durability, the bonding state obtained by traction test and so forth, together with an outline of the test result, It is also clarified that an ultimate strength taken in member design is assumed to be the one at the moment of bending crack at a high-wind occurring once during 150 years, and the safety is assured by the reinforcement of deformed stainless bars. Further, the working steps from the form construction to the fluorocarbon resin painting are indicated enumerating requirements for the curtain wall properties in terms of water-tightness, windresisting, aseismicity and so on. Lastly, some improvements made through the experiments and the state of construction work are noted. 5 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Seepage Control Design of Dam Diaphragm Wall Combined with Grout Curtain for Danger-removing and Consolidating Project of Taiping Reservoir%太平水库除险加固工程墙幕结合防渗设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩丽

    2012-01-01

    太平水库于1975年建成,已运行30多年,枢纽建筑物存在诸多问题,其中问题之一就是坝肩及坝基渗漏问题,已影响到水库经济效益及运行安全,为此采取了防渗墙与帷幕灌浆相结合的防渗处理措施以解决这一问题。文中介绍了水库的防渗设计,帷幕灌浆和防渗墙的施工工艺及质量控制。%The Taiping Reservoir had been completed in the year 1975,and its operation has lasted for 30-odd years.But there are many problems in building of hydroproject,one of which is seepage in dam shoulder and dam foundation.This problem has impacted the reservoir's economical benefit and operation safety.Therefore,a seepage control measure of dam diaphragm wall combined with grout curtain is adopted to solve this problem.In this paper,the reservoir's seepage control design,the construction techniques and the quality control measures of grout curtain and diaphrage wall are expounded.

  9. 基于涂层结构的阻燃纤维织物设计与性能测试%Design and P erformance Test of Fire Retardant Curtain Fabric Based on Coating Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆浩杰; 陈洋洋; 徐彩娣

    2015-01-01

    以上浆的方式对长丝进行聚氯乙烯( PVC)涂层处理,可制得一种环境友好型新型阻燃纤维。以这种新型阻燃纤维为原料,设计开发单层、双层、三层组织结构的阻燃窗帘织物并对其进行阻燃性能的测试,实验结果表明,采用这种阻燃纤维织成的窗帘织物具有良好的阻燃性能;双层结构的阻燃性能优于单层和三层结构的。%This paper uses a kind of environmentally-friendly fire retardant fiber made by sizing and coating pol-yvinyl chloride ( PVC) . This paper designs and develops the fire retardant curtain fabric respectively with single-, double-, three-layer structures, together with a fire retardant performance test provided. The experimental results show that this kind of curtain fabric made of coating fire retardant fibers embraces good flame retardant properties;the flame retardant performance of the double-layers fabric excels that of the single-layer or three-layer structures.

  10. On security measure of Shimao international square curtain wall project in Shanghai%浅谈上海世茂国际广场幕墙工程安全措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宗远; 张丽新

    2011-01-01

    本文简要介绍了上海世茂国际广场幕墙工程的安全措施。重点研究其安全施工和安全防护措施,包括职业健康安全生产管理体系、安全管理程序、安全管理制度,安全检查的内容和方法,从而为幕墙工程中的安全管理提供一种有效的思路。%This paper introduced the security measure of curtain wall for Shanghai shimao international square curtain wall project. Focused on safety construction and security protection measures, including the occupational health and safety production management system、safety management procedures、afety management system, the content and method of the security check. This can fprovide an effective way of safety management for curatin wall.

  11. Application of High Pressure Jet Waterproof Curtain to Dock Cofferdam Project%高压旋喷止水帷幕在船坞围堰工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东俊

    2013-01-01

    泉州船厂船坞围堰工程采用基床双排高喷连续墙和帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺。本文对主围堰基床采用2排高压旋喷桩、土石坝围堰采用1排高压旋喷桩的帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺进行简要叙述,对施工过程质量控制和成果、以及工程中出现的几个问题进行了分析。%Dock cofferdam phase-1 project in the ship-repairing zone of Quanzhou shipyard adopts the construction technologies of two-row high-pressure jet diaphragm wall supported on the bedding and curtain grouting waterproofing. The construction technology of curtain grouting waterproofing is briefly described in which two rows of high pressure jet grouting piles are used for main cofferdam bedding and one row for earth-and-rock dam cofferdam. In addition,the construction quality control,results and problems are analyzed in detail.

  12. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2016-10-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  13. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  14. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  15. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  16. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  17. 基于粒子法的侧气帘静爆的模型仿真%Model simulation of curtain airbag deployment based on corpuscular method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宇飞; 蒋斌庆; 鞠春贤; 岳国辉; 陈现岭

    2015-01-01

    Curtain airbag (CAB) is an important equipment to improve vehicle safety. This paper investigated the deployment process of a CAB by using control volume method (CV) and corpuscular method (CPM) in software Primer. A CAB deployment simulation model was established based on the selected trim meshing, the CAB folding, and the CAB deployment. This model was used to simulate and compare the CAB deployment process from both the CV and the CPM method and to analyze the effect of the two methods on oriented brackets in two working conditions with or without having oriented brackets. The results show that the CAB deployment process by using CPM method is more close to the real test conditions than the deployment process by CV method. Therefore, by adding oriented brackets on B pilar and C pilar, can guide the direction of CAB deployment and avoid moveing CAB into the gap between trim and car body, this leads CAB deploy normaly and smoothly.%侧气帘(CAB)是提升车辆安全性的重要配置。该文使用Primer软件中的均压法(CV)与粒子法(CPM)两种方法,研究了侧气帘静爆展开过程。根据选择的内饰网格划分﹑侧气帘折叠﹑气囊起爆等方式,搭建了侧气帘静爆仿真模型。用该模型仿真对比了均压法和粒子法的气帘展开过程,分析了这两种方法对导向支架的影响,并对有导向支架和无导向支架两种工况进行了分析。结果表明:粒子法搭建的侧气帘模型的展开过程,比均压法的更加接近于试验真实状态;通过增加侧气帘B柱﹑C柱导向支架,可引导气帘起爆的方向,避免气帘挤入内饰与车身的缝隙中,使侧气帘能够正常顺利地展开。

  18. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air attack...properties, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  19. 薄膜硅点支承光伏幕墙和光伏采光顶实际案例分析%Case Study of Thin-Film Silicon Point Supported Photovoltaic Curtain Wall and Photovoltaic Daylight Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 刘广斌; 张远南; 陈大英; 陈文华

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic integrated architecture is one of the most important distributed photovoltaic power generation application, which obtains wide attention. The article introduces thin-film silicon photovoltaic module adopted to splicing method to meet different size of curtain wall through an existing renovation project. Through structure optimization of photovoltaic component, it ensures safety and functionality of photovoltaic component besides power loss is within the acceptable range caused by supporting hole to photovoltaic component. Otherwise, daylight roof applies large size splicing photovoltaic component with different color to realize different visual effect. The project provides reference to different split size photovoltaic curtain wall, especially its point supported photovoltaic curtain wall, meanwhile it could change photovoltaic component color to realize different visual effect.%光伏建筑一体化作为分布式光伏发电的一种重要应用形式,广受关注。通过一个既有工程改造项目,介绍了硅基薄膜光伏组件可以采用拼接方式满足幕墙不同分格尺寸的要求,并通过光伏构件的结构优化,确保了构件的安全性、功能性以及支承孔对构件带来的功率损失在可接受范围内。另外,采光顶采用了不同颜色的大尺寸拼接光伏构件,实现了不同的视觉效果。此项目可对于不同分格尺寸的光伏幕墙尤其点支承光伏幕墙提供借鉴,同时可以通过改变光伏构件的颜色来实现建筑的不同视觉效果。

  20. The controlling effects against fruit flies and quality improvement of bayberry by hanging curtains%防虫帐防控杨梅果蝇及改善果实品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜丽菊; 任海英; 戚行江; 朱潇婷; 朱建军; 朱敏华

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the controlling effects of curtains against fruit flies and quality improvement of bayberry by hanging curtains, individual bayberry cv.Dongkui tree was treated in Linhai , Zhejiang Province in 2012-2013. It was shown that the occurrence of fruit flies in bayberry was significantly decreased .The weight of bayberry fruit was increased by 2.18 g on average, and the fruit firmness was increased by 0.14 kg・cm-3 .The fruit ripening time was postponed by more than 3-4 days.The storage period was extended , and the color was brighter.The average economic value of each bayberry tree was increased by 771.9 Chinese yuan.It was a new safe measure to control pest by hanging curtains, the quality of bayberry fruits was improved , and the economic value was increased .Therefore, it has a good prospect in the production of bayberry .%为了明确防虫帐对杨梅果蝇发生以及产量品质、贮藏性、安全性和经济效益的影响,从2012-2013年连续2年对浙江临海东魁杨梅进行防虫帐单株挂帐试验。结果表明,东魁杨梅挂防虫帐对防治果蝇效果显著,有虫果率与对照相比降低了57.14~95.24个百分点。挂防虫帐杨梅单果重与对照相比平均增加2.18 g,果实硬度提高了0.14 kg・cm-3,果实成熟期也分别比对照推迟3~4 d以上,贮藏期延长,色泽更亮丽。挂防虫帐处理单株产值与对照相比平均增加771.9元。防虫帐作为一种新型的绿色防控措施,具有防虫效果好、显著延长贮存期、提高杨梅果实品质和经济效益等优势,具备在生产上规模化应用的良好前景。

  1. Increase the acceptance rate of installation of pre embedded iron parts of the curtain wall%提高幕墙预埋铁件安装验收合格率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦华; 许多富; 李向阳; 尚九平; 李德海

    2015-01-01

    The project of Lanzhou University of Technology library located in Qilihe District of Lanzhou.The construction area is 45000 square meters.On the ground of the main project is 8,building height is 41.600M.The main project on the ground is 8 floor,building height is 41.600M.Exterior wall decoration mainly adopts glass curtain wall and dry hanging stone. Facade decoration area of 18000 square meters.The numbers of embedded iron in curtain wall are 22300 pieces.This project is the key project of Lanzhou University of Technology.The curtain wall installation of embedded parts directly affects the quality of the main project decoration installation quality.However,because there are many pre embedded iron parts,the high accuracy of the installation is a big problem,so the first thing to solve this problem.%兰州理工大学图书馆工程位于兰州市七里河区,建筑面积4.5万m2。主体工程地上8层,建筑高度41.600m。本工程外墙装饰主要采用玻璃幕墙和干挂石材。外立面装饰面积共18000m2。幕墙预埋铁件总数量22300块。本工程是兰州理工大学重点项目,其中幕墙预埋件安装质量直接影响到主体工程外装饰安装质量。但是由于预埋铁件数量多,因此对高精度安装造成很大问题,所以首先要解决这一问题。

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  3. Overcoming the legal Iron curtain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses the determinants that lead national courts across EU countriesto use the preliminary reference procedure, paying special attention to the differences andsimilarities in the use of this mechanism of judicial cooperation between the old and thenew Member States incorporated...

  4. Telecoms Mobile TV's Curtain Call

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ This year's World Cup was more than a showcase of the globe's top football stars. It also represented a coming out party of sorts for mobile television. According to Informa Telecoms & Media, the 2006 World Cup was expected to garner upwards of US$300 million for the emerging mobile TV business, with millions of fanatics worldwide following the action by video streaming and packaged match highlights delivered to the palm of their hand.

  5. 基于声发射定位的三轴受压帷幕体试样裂隙演化分析%Analysis on the Fracture Evolution of the Triaxial Compression Curtain Body Based on Acoustic Emission Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国; 李跃龙; 王梅; 李柱营

    2016-01-01

    利用TAW-3000电液伺服岩石三轴试验机和PCI-II声发射监测系统对以研山铁矿东帮卵石制作的帷幕体试块进行不同围压三轴压缩条件下的声发射(AE)测试,结合声发射空间定位、AE事件能率对不同应力阶段帷幕体裂隙空间演化规律进行了分析,并对分形维数的变化规律进行了研究.试验结果表明:围压越大,帷幕体试块的抗压强度越高,到达峰值荷载所用时间越多,对应的时间-应力曲线的曲线上升段越长、曲率越小,帷幕体塑性特征越明显,累计AE定位点数越多.分形维数变化基本特征为升维、降维、再升维模式.AE事件能率和定位点数骤然增多以及二次升维标志破坏前兆.同样的应力状态下帷幕体内卵石和砂浆的结合面先起裂,其次是砂和水泥浆的结合面开裂,最后裂缝进入硬化水泥浆.%The acoustic emission (AE) testing of curtain body samples,which are made of gravels taken from the east slope of Yanshan iron ore,was carried out under different confining pressure with TAW-3000 electro-hydraulic triaxial rock mechanics testing machine and PCI-Ⅱacoustic emission monitoring system. The law of spatial evolution of fractures in curtain body sample is analyzed according to the AE location and AE event energy in different stress stage,and the change rule of frac-tal dimension was studied. The experimental results indicates that the greater the confining pressure,the greater the compressive strength and the longer the time for reaching the peak load,the longer the curve segment and the smaller the curvature of corre-sponding time-stress curve,the more obvious the plastic characteristic of curtain body sample,and the more the number of AE location points is. The basic characteristics of the fractal dimension change keep the model of ascending,descending and as-cending. The sharp increase of AE events energy and AE location points,and the second increase of fractal dimension can be the

  6. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明娟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  7. Application of Curtain Grouting in Seepage Control of Hydraulic Structure Engineering%帷幕灌浆在水工建筑物防渗工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边传伟; 葛志友

    2013-01-01

    结合南水北调中线干线易县段魏家坟沟排水倒虹吸工程,对帷幕灌浆技术在防渗施工中的运用及施工工艺流程进行了分析和探讨,并提出了相应的改进措施,为施工提供借鉴依据。%Combined the Yi Xian section of Weijia Fen ditch drainage inverted siphon project in with the middle route of south-to-north water diversion project,the curtain grouting technology are analyzed and discussed in seepage control of hydraulic structure construction and the application process,and proposed the corresponding improvement measures and provides the reference basis for the construction.

  8. 智能玻璃在建筑门窗幕墙中的应用研究及发展概述%The Summary of the Application and Development of Smart Glass in Building Curtain Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全明; 姚涛; 彭罗文

    2015-01-01

    The article elaborated the types and research status of smart glass sensing materials,described the new progress in the application of smart glass in the field of building curtain wall and industrial development status,and looked forward to the development trend and application prospect of the smart glass technology.%阐述了智能玻璃感应材料的类型和研究情况,智能玻璃在建筑门窗幕墙领域的应用研究新进展和产业发展现状,并展望了智能玻璃的技术发展趋势和应用前景.

  9. Study on curtain grouting sand-consolidating and water-shutoff technique used in overall Xiushan tunnel section%秀山隧道全断面帷幕注浆固砂止水技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先智; 韩银利

    2012-01-01

    In light of characteristics of Xiushan tunnel with complicated hydrological conditions and high surrounding water sources demands, curtain grouting water-shutoff technique is applied which is good for protecting ecological environment of the tunnel top and reducing future trou- ble. As a result, the construction difficulties including high-pressure water gushing in the tunnel and sudden sand are successfully solved.%针对秀山隧道水文地质条件较复杂,周围水资源环境要求高的特点,通过采用有利于保护洞顶生态环境、减少后患的帷幕注浆堵水技术,成功地解决了洞内高压涌水、突砂等施工难题。

  10. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  11. 松软地层防渗灌浆帷幕结构性状实验研究%FIELD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRAITS OF GROUTING IMPERVIOUS CURTAIN IN SOFT LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 潘烨; 彭春雷; 陈安重; 杨松林

    2015-01-01

    The high permeability of loose formation,the large consumption plasma of anti-seepage grouting and irregular diffusion have a great deal of uncertainty.So,it is very difficult to accurately grasp the structural traits of the formed impervious curtain,which contains impervious curtain thickness,mechanical properties,anti-seepage effect and other elements.Existing methods and techniques on the assessment of impervious quality mainly include that water pressure test,standard grout depth,coring,physical probe and other methods to access relevant information,which would impose a direct effect.In this study,injection test,hole skew measurement,coring test, whole section excavation and other methods are applied in field,the characters of anti-seepage structure include curtain effective thickness and its sphere of influence,curtain strength properties and permeability characteristic. They are revealed by experimental tests in various operating conditions.Under the condition of 1.5m pitch-row and 0.8m double-row distance,the experimental results show that it is very simple and efficient to adopt the technique of slurry sealing means and pulsating grouting ways to control the grouting process and the utilization of controllable clay grout material with appropriate grouting control parameters.Meanwhile,the periphery hole compaction zone, effective body and cemented stones curtain body are formed uniform and effective.The seepage coefficient reaches 5 lu below.The 28days stone strength after grouting reaches over 3.0MPa.In the effect contrast to pulp and stable slurry paste perfusion,it is found that if grout with stable slurry,it will be mainly with splitting permeability and the diffusion distance will be further than pulp.For higher seepage reinforcement requirements engineering,it will be the best to do the paste perfusion first,and then the stable slurry irrigation.Pulp veins mainly concentrate in the 1m radius around the grouting pipe,accounting for more than 60% of the

  12. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  13. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  14. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  15. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  16. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  17. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  19. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  20. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  1. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  2. Design and precision analysis of curtain type shutter based on timing belt%基于正时带的帘幕式快门设计与精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 丁亚林; 张洪文; 刘波; 詹磊

    2013-01-01

    考虑帘幕式快门的曝光精度和面阵CCD相机的结构尺寸,利用正时带在高速运动中能够保证高精度传动的特点,设计了以正时带为快门帘幕,以正时带轮为快门辊轴的新型单帘式焦平面快门.分析了影响快门曝光精度的主要因素,利用系统误差合成法建立了快门曝光精度的数学模型.利用齿轮综合误差组评价了驱动机构的传动误差,通过分析正时带的传动机理建立了多边形效应的几何模型,并计算了多边形效应对速度精度的影响.在接入快门负载的情况下测试得到了快门辊轴的稳速精度,并利用高斯法计算得到了快门的曝光精度0.067.最后,利用光电法测试了幅面上均匀五点的有效曝光时间,测量结果显示幅面内快门的曝光精度达到0.056,可实现宽目标照度范围航空摄影的曝光.%In consideration of the exposure precision of a curtain shutter and the dimension of a camera, a new focus-plane single curtain type shutter was designed by using a timing belt with high transmission accuracy as the curtain of shutter and a belt wheel as the roll shaft. The main reason effecting the exposure precision was analyzed, and a mathematic model was created by the system error synthesis method. Then, the series of gear-composited errors was used to evaluate the transmission errors of a driving mechanism. Furthermore, the geometric model of the polygonal effect was established by analysis of the transmission mechanism of the timing belt, and the influence of polygonal effect on the rate errors was calculated. After testing on the shutter, the speed stability of the roll shaft is obtained and the exposure precision achieves 0.067 according to the Gaussian processes. The exposure time at 5 positions on a frame was tested by the photoelectric method, and the result shows that exposure precision in the frame achieves by 0.056, which demonstrates that this shutter can exposure on the aerial photographing

  3. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  4. 中央空调与智能家居系统集成智能化项目技术浅析与探讨%Analysis and Discussion on the Intelligent System Integration of Central Air Conditioning and Intelligent Household

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃智; 郑骏玲; 彭仟能

    2013-01-01

      本文通过对别墅工程项目中的空调系统、智能家居系统进行技术集成为例,介绍了采用欧洲KNX/EIB总线协议,如何搭建系统通讯框架;如何对空调、灯光、窗帘、影视进行系统集成的技术方案。%Taking the technical integration of air conditioning system and intelligent household for a villa project as an example, this paper introduces how to set up the system communication framework by the Europe KNX/EIB bus protocol, and describes the technology scheme of system integration of air conditioning, lights, curtain, film and television.

  5. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  6. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  7. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  9. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  10. Air Power and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, V.3...et al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  11. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  12. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  13. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  14. 深层搅拌及帷幕灌浆技术在某水库加固中的应用%Application of Deep Stirring and Curtain Grouting in a Reservoir Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志成; 谢力分; 刘飞

    2012-01-01

    It is a small reservoir which is mainly used for irrigation, as well as such comprehensive utilization as flood control, breeding, tourism and so on. The reservoir has been used for many years, the filling of the dam does not meet the specification requirements and seepage of the downstream dam slope disperses. The treatment of the dam does not meet the specification reqirement, such problems as large water permeability, seepage of dam foundation, and so on. According to the project importance and field test results, deep stirring and curtain grouting tech- nology is adopted to solve leakage prblem.%某水库是一座以灌溉为主,兼有防洪、养殖、旅游等综合利用的小(2)型水库。水库运行多年,存在坝体填筑质量不满足规范要求,下游坝坡散浸,大坝坝体处理不满足规范要求,透水性较大,坝基渗漏等问题。根据工程重要性及现场试验结果,采用深层搅拌成墙及帷幕灌浆技术解决渗漏问题。

  15. Under Wind Load Function the Curtain Wall Aluminum Plate Internal Force and Distortion Calculation%风荷载作用下幕墙铝板内力和变形的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伙南

    2012-01-01

    The survey of unit type curtain wall is researched. Using the ANSYS software, the internal force and displacement of the unit type plate structure which are composed of the trough type aluminum plate and S stiffening ribs (portal type frame) are calculated. The stiffening rib and the aluminum plate corner partial rivet loosens by the rigid joint turns the hinge point is studied. The computation model is built and its biggest internal force and displacement are obtained. Finally, the practical application is in troduced.%阐述了槽型铝板和加劲肋构成的单元式幕墙的内力及变形计算.采用ANSYS软件对单元板块由槽型铝板与5条加劲肋组成的结构的内力和变形进行计算,研究了加劲肋转角处由于局部铆钉松脱由刚结点变成铰接点后其计算模型发生改变的应力及位移计算,最后介绍实际应用.

  16. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  17. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  18. A nmnerical simulation model of a pressurized smoke-removable air supply system in a subway station%正压送风防烟在地铁车站应用的模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁强; 魏东

    2011-01-01

    This paper is inclined to introduce a numerical simulation model of a pressurized smoke-removable air supply system in a subway station developed by the present authors. As is known, subway stations are a place usually congested with large crowds. Any large-scale fire accidents, once taking place, would involve serious human casualties as well as material damages. For this purpose, the present paper intended to develop a LES field simulation software FDS to simulate some sorts of fire accidents in an Island-platform of double-decked subway station. In order to test the applicability of a pressurized air supply system in the subway stations, two scenes were laid out for our purpose of simulation. Based on the common smoke-removing theory, the pressurized air curtain system has been set up at the top of the stairs so as to create air curtain with an air-current flowing at a speed of 7 m/s, and another air-current flowing at an angle of 45° from top to bottom. The process of smoke movement in the station and the vector diagram of the velocity at stairs were obtained during the simulation. The results of our simulation demonstrate that the air supply amount calculated based on the accounting code would not be enough for the control of the high-temperature smoke through the stairs for 10 MW fires. In addition, the cold air strength cannot yet overwhelm the hot smoke current caused by the buoyancy, because the smoke flu velocity at the moment may reach 1.2 m/s. If creating an air curtain at the top of stairs, it would be possible to make the airflow velocity and direction adapted to the needs of the Code of the subway design. In such cases, the direction of the airflow may just be opposite to the crowd of residents around. Besides, since the downward flow speed can be greater than 1.5 m/s but on the wall of stair, the flow speed can be as high as 0.7 - 1.0 m/s, with the rest parts in the building, the speed are above 2.1 m/s. At the center of stair the flow speed is the

  19. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  20. Air Quality Campaign Results from the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R.; Carrion, W.; Pliutau, D.; Gano, R.

    2014-12-01

    A compact differential absorption ozone lidar (DIAL) system has been developed called the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (L-MOL) which can provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric profiles from a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars, three of which are mobile, across the country. The laser transmitter consist of a Coherent Evolution 30 TEM00 1-kHz diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser. The transmitter transmits ~60 mW at two wavelengths between 280 and 293-nm for ozone and 2.5-W at 527-nm for aerosol profiling. The lidar operates at 1-kHz with 500-Hz at each 0f two UV wavelength. A fiber coupled 40-cm diameter parabolic telescope collets the backscattered return and records analog and photon counting signals. A separate 30-cm diameter telescope collects very near field returns for ozone profiles close to the surface. The lidar is capable of recording ozone profiles from 100-500-m with the very near field telescope and from 800-m to approximately 6000-m with the far field channel depending on sky background conditions. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer which is environmentally controlled, and is towed with a truck with the objective to make the system mobile such that it can be setup at remote sites to support air quality field campaigns such as the July-August 2014 Denver, CO DISCOVER_AQ campaign. Before the lidar was deployed in the DISCOVER-AQ campaign the lidar operated for 15 hours at NASA Langley in Hampton, VA to test the ability of the system to accurately record ozone profiles. The figure below shows the results of that test. Six ozonesondes were launched during this period and show reasonable agreement with the ozone (ppbv) curtain plot. Ozone of stratospheric origin at 4-14 UTC was noted as well as local ozone

  1. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  2. Contact air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  3. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  4. 高层建筑玻璃幕墙自动清洗机三维结构设计及有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis and Three-dimensional Structure Design of Automatic Cleaning Machine for Glass Curtain Wall of High-rise Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素艳

    2016-01-01

    基于自动化、 智能化、 低成本、 安全高效的理念对高层建筑玻璃幕墙自动清洗机的行走机构、 清洗机构、 转向机构及安全机构等进行三维结构设计,同时采用SolidWorks软件中的Simulation插件,对自动清洗机中受力最大的底板进行有限元分析.该自动清洗机能可靠地吸附在垂直的玻璃幕墙外表面,实现自动行走、 转向、 清洗,安全可靠,可有效解决人工清洗高层建筑玻璃幕墙危险性大、 效率低等弊端,大大提高劳动效率.%Based on automation, intelligent, low cost, safe and effective ideas for automatic cleaning machine running mechanism of glass curtain wall of high-rise building, a cleaning mechanism, a steering mechanism and security mechanism of three dimensional ( 3D) structure was designed, at the same time using SolidWorks software in the Simulation plug-in, automatic cleaning machine for floor of the largest stress of finite element analysis ( FEA) was carried out.The automatic cleaning machine could be reliably adsorped in the outer surface of the glass curtain wall vertically to realize the automatic walking, turning, clean, safe and reliable.It can effec-tively solve the problem of big risk of manual cleaning of glass curtain wall of high-rise buildings, the defects of low efficiency, and greatly improve labour efficiency.

  5. Mould Design of DN200 Water Curtain Spool and its Investment Casting%DN200水幕阀芯精密铸造模具及工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范修谦; 孙伟涛; 周琳

    2015-01-01

    Through analyzing shape ,structure of DN200 water curtain spool and its investment casting process,investment casting process was designed.For mould design,three-pushing mould was design, and precision position was realized by a cone-shape position ring as position joint.During wax pattern making process,according to the injecting volume,through hand-made lots of irregular hard wax cluster to add into cavity of the mould and then injecting,inadequate injecting volume can be overcome.In addi-tion,through adding cold wax strip,the shrinkage deformation is decreased to improve the dimension precision of the castings,so the high quality parts were produced successfully.%通过DN200水幕阀芯的形状、结构、精密铸造工艺分析,合理设计了DN200水幕阀芯蜡模,方案:模具采用三开模,通过一个锥形定位环作为定位连接的纽带精确定位。蜡模制造时,根据射蜡机的最大射蜡量,手工制作相当数量的不规则形状硬蜡团,添加到模具的型腔中再合模射蜡,从而解决了射蜡机射蜡量不足的问题。同时由于添加了冷蜡条,减少了蜡件的收缩变形,从而提高了DN200水幕阀芯蜡件的尺寸精度。

  6. 光幕测速法中微弱光信号的分析与检测%Analysis and Detection of Weak Optical Signal in Light Curtain Velocimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王壮; 蔡怀宇; 黄战华; 王铨

    2012-01-01

    构建了弹丸通过光幕的几何模型,提出了用于检测微弱光信号的边沿提取法,设计了由预处理电路、级联滤波放大电路和整流电路三部分组成的模拟电路,通过滤波的方式可有效滤除自然光和蚊虫噪声的干扰,实现微弱信号提取.该方法还可有效克服弹丸属性对测量的影响,增强检测系统的适应性.仿真实验表明,电路可以有效提取放大微弱的光信号,信噪比达到20 dB以上,满足探测的要求.%A geometric model of the projectile through the light curtain is built and the edge extraction method is used to detect the weak optical signals. The designed analog circuit consists of three parts: the pre-processing circuit, the cascade filter amplifier and the rectifier circuit. Effective signals can be extracted by filtering the interference of natural light and insert noise. The method can overcome the impact of projectile properties and enhance the adaptability of detection system. Simulation results show that the circuit can effectively extract and amplify the weak optical signals, and the signal to noise ratio can reach up to 20 dB, meets the requirement of detection.

  7. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  8. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  9. The Air We Breathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  10. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  11. Bad Air For Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  12. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  13. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  17. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  18. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  19. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  20. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  1. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  2. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  3. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  4. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  5. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  6. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  7. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  8. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  9. Olefin metathesis in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  10. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  11. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  12. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  13. Effect of a commercial air ionizer on dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari:Pyroglyphidae) in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Ho Tze Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the short and long term efficacy of a commercial air ionizer in killing Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) mites. Methods: The effect of a commercial ionizer on D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae was evaluated in the laboratory, using a specially designed test. Mortality was assessed after 6, 16 and 24 hours for direct exposure and after 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours for exposure in simulated mattress. New batches of mites were used for each exposure time. Results: LT50 for direct exposure of ionizer was 10 hours for D. pteronyssinus and 18 hours for D. farinae. The LT50 for exposure in simulated mattress was 132 hours or 5.5 days for D. pteronyssinus and 72 hours or 3 days for D. farinae. LT95 for direct exposure of ionizer was 36 hours for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Meanwhile, the LT95 for exposure in simulated mattress was 956 hours or 39.8 days for D. pteronyssinus and 403 hours or 16.8 days for D. farinae. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the increasing mite mortalities with increasing exposure time of a commercial ionizer and suggests that negative ions produced by an ionizer kill dust mites and can be used to reduce natural mite populations on exposed surfaces such as floors, clothes, curtains, etc. However, there is reduced efficacy on mites inside stuffed materials as in mattresses and furniture.

  14. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  15. Natural Air Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  16. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  17. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  18. Temporal solitons in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  19. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  20. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  1. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  2. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  3. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  4. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  5. Research on the motion pattern of dust particles and self-cleaning mechanism of solar cells under traveling-wave electric curtain%基于行波电帘的太阳能电池板微尘自清洁研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传德; 何高法; 张杰; 黎泽伦; 邓显玲

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of dust can substantially decrease efficiency and even damage solar cells. Previous research suggests that one feasible method of dust removal is high-voltage wave electric curtain, which is also confirmed by our work. This pro ject aims to investigate the movement pattern of dust particles under traveling-wave electric curtain condition and subsequent optimization of the parameters of wave electric curtain. Firstly, the property of earth dust particles is studied, including particle size distribution, charges, ionization and polarization, and especially the electronic characteristics which are the basis to study the movement rule of dust particles. Secondly, distinct element method and boundary element method are employed to build the moving model of dust particles, charged or uncharged, under the forces of electrostatic, dielectric electrophoresis, resistance and charges. As a result, the movement pattern of the dust particles in the earth's atmosphere environment and corresponding removal mechanism are revealed. Furthermore, numerical simulation and orthogonal experiment are conducted to investigate the relationship between the dust removal efficiency and the parameters of electric curtain, including electrical power parameters (waveform, voltage and frequency) , mechanical parameters (electrode width, gap, thin-film thickness) and etc. The mathemat ical model of the dust removal efficiency and the optimization method for electric curtain design are established by using multivariate function optimization methods. The research may provide theoretical basis for the development of self-clean techniques for large solar cells and other photoelectric instrument systems under the weather of western China.%微尘累积会导致太阳能电池板发电效率大幅下降甚至损坏.以微尘在行波电帘空间下的运动规律和可控操纵理论及行波电帘电极参数最优化为目标开展应用基础研究,从地球微尘电学和力学特性着

  6. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  7. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  8. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  9. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  10. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  11. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  12. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  13. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  14. 月尘累积对太阳电池阵电帘除尘效率影响的实验研究%Experimental study of dust removal efficiency of transparent electric curtain for solar array under lunar dust deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾巍; 黄三玻; 倪家伟; 王建立; 王训春; 肖杰; 陆剑峰

    2014-01-01

    月尘在月球探测器太阳电池阵表面的累积将会导致其输出功率下降甚至功能失效。近年来,电帘除尘方法被认为是月尘清除防护的有效手段。文章实验研究了月尘累积对三结砷化镓太阳电池性能影响,拟合得到了月尘累积质量与太阳电池相对输出功率的数学模型;利用电帘除尘装置,研究了不同月尘累积质量下电帘的除尘效率。研究结果表明,6 mg/cm2月尘累积质量是太阳电池阵电帘除尘装置启动的最佳工作条件。该研究成果可为开发具有自适应除尘能力的太阳电池阵提供技术支持。%The solar array output power will be decreased, which will lead to its failure, when the lunar dust is accumulated on the surface of the solar array. In recent years, the electric curtain dust removal method is considered as an effective way for the lunar dust protection. In this paper, the performance of the triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cell is analyzed through experiments of the lunar dust accumulation on the solar cell, and a trend exponential fitting function between the relative output power and the dust deposition mass is obtained. Furthermore, the dust removal efficiency of the electric curtain for different amounts of lunar dust accumulation mass is studied. The results show that the optimum operating point of the electric curtain dust removal device is 6 mg/cm2. The research provides a technical support for the solar array with adaptive dust removal capacity.

  15. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  16. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  17. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  18. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  19. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  20. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  1. Air Blast Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  2. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  3. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  4. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  5. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  6. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  7. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  8. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  9. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  10. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  11. Homeland Security Behind the Redwood Curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    drink, then put it firmly down on the porch railing and turned toward me. “You wouldn’t believe how they talk to their mama ,” he said angrily. “They...a little boy who has cancer . Keep in touch!” she said with a friendly wave good-bye. Rugged is an appropriate adjective to describe this county

  12. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  13. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  15. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  16. Studies efficiency solar air collector

    OpenAIRE

    YORKIN SODIKOVICH ABBASOV; MIRSOLI ODILJANOVICH UZBEKOV

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  17. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  18. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  19. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  20. Dynamic Response Research on Cable Truss Point-supporting Glass Curtain Wall Under Coupling Wind and Rain Loads%风雨荷载耦合作用下索桁架体系点支式玻璃幕墙的动力响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏男; 王奇

    2012-01-01

    The fluctuating wind load was got by using the harmonic wave superposition method to simulate the curve of fluctuating wind and the fluctuating rain load was obtained with the help of M-P rain together with the fluctuating wind velocity. Time history analysis of fluid-structure interaction from cable truss point supporting glass curtain walls was carried out under dynamic wind and rain loads by using ANSYS. The influence of rain load on curtain walls under wind and rain loads was studied. The results show that maximum proportion of rain load on total load increases with wind speed and rain loads. The maximum proportion is 5. 8%, while the proportion at the situation of extremum raining is 12. 4%.%应用谐波叠加法模拟了脉动风速时程曲线,进而得到了脉动风荷载;通过马歇尔-帕尔默指数分布的雨滴谱及脉动风速得到了脉动雨荷载;利用ANSYS对索桁架体系点支式玻璃幕墙进行动力风荷载和雨荷载耦合作用下的时程分析,研究在风雨荷载共同作用下雨荷载对幕墙的影响.结果表明:雨荷载占总荷载最大比重随风速级别和降雨量的增加而增加;且雨荷载占总荷载最大比重为5.8%,极值雨情况下为12.4%.

  1. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; 王雷

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  2. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  3. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  4. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  5. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  6. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  7. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  8. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  9. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  10. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  11. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  12. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to freight...free transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  13. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  14. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  15. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  16. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  17. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  18. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  19. Indoor air quality and allergy. Sick house syndrome and its strategies; Shitsunai kukishitsu to allergy. Sick house sick biru to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, S. [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes indoor air pollution issue by chemical substances. The basic strategies include the use of building materials and application materials (adhesives and paints) with less emission of chemical substances, ventilation, and use of living goods with less emission of chemical substances. The indoor concentration of chemical substances shows a positive correlation with the amount of building and application materials emitting them. In general, it is highest at the completion, and decreases with time. The emission amount increases with temperature, and the indoor concentration decreases with the ventilation amount. These are greatly affected by the interior finish materials. Such chemical substances include formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, termite-proofing agent, and plasticizer. The emission sources from life include furniture, curtains, carpets, insecticide and moth-proofing agent, wax, combustors, and smoking. For the construction, are significant the proper selection of materials such as adhesives and paints during design, and sufficient management during construction, sufficient curing and security of drying period, and ventilation before dwelling. For the bake-out method, room temperature is elevated, the emission is accelerated, and ventilation is conducted before dwelling. However, a part of this method has not been verified yet. The removal methods and decomposition methods are sometimes employed. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  1. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  2. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  3. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  4. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  5. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  6. Solid sorbent air sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  7. AIR VELOCITY SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘本琛

    1992-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  8. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  9. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  10. Ag-Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  11. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  12. Aviary heating: control of air temperature heated by a set biomass gasifier-combustor in a co-current flow, using a frequency inverter; Aquecimento de aviarios: controle da temperatura do ar aquecido por um conjunto gaseificador-combustor de biomassa de fluxo concorrente, utilizando um inversor de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, William Rosario dos [Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos (UNIPAC), Ponte Nova, MG (Brazil); Silva, Jadir Nogueira; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Martins, Marcio Aredes; Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: jadir@ufv.br, delly@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, jofran.oliveira@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    One of the problems with using the gasifier for heating purposes in poultry facilities is the waste of energy during the day, once the equipment does not have control of the thermal and power generated. During this period, the difference in temperature between the air and the standard for the birds inside the building is lower than when compared with the nocturnal period. During the day, the temperature inside the poultry house is controlled by curtains, which occurs without diminishing the biomass burning. Another way to control the temperature is the shutdown of the system, which requires the constant attention of the operator. In this way, there is a potential for energy savings if the thermal power could be controlled according to the demand, which can be represented by the temperature gradient. The purpose of this study was to control the temperature of exhaustion air from a set combustor-gasifier (down draft), based on the model developed by Martin et al. (2006), through the control of speed of the fan engine and also controlling the flow contributions of primary and secondary air in the combustor. The experiment was carried out in the Energy and Pre-processing of Agricultural Products areas, at the Department of Agricultural Engineering - Federal University of Vicosa. (author)

  13. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  14. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  15. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  16. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  17. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  18. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  19. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  20. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  1. [Air quality and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  2. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  3. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  4. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  5. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  6. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  7. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  8. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  9. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  10. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  11. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  12. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  13. Screening in humid air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  14. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  15. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  16. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  17. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  18. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  19. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  20. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  1. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  2. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  3. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  5. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  6. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  7. Air Safety Spinoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  8. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  9. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  10. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  11. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  12. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  13. Airing Out Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  14. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  15. Solar air systems - built examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [ed.] [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet efficient way of using solar energy to heat spaces, ventilation air and even domestic hot water. They offer important advantages over solar water systems, improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains compared with many passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. Solar air systems become more economical when they serve multiple functions such as providing a sound barrier, a weatherskin, sunshading, inducing cooling and even electricity supply (hybrid PV/air). Thirty-five different buildings with successfully installed exemplary solar air systems in climates ranging from Canada and Norway to Italy are described and documented. The building types cover single family houses, apartment buildings, schools, sports halls, and industrial commercial buildings with six different configurations of solar air systems used. Each building is described over several pages, with plans, performance details and illustrations provided. An accompanying product catalogue identifies suppliers of the necessary equipment and offers advice on product selection. As well as giving architects and designers invaluable advice based on the experience from these projects, this book also illustrates clearly the wide range of applications and the many benefits of solar air systems. (author)

  16. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  17. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  18. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  19. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  20. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  1. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  2. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... http://www.epa.gov/greenheart/ . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  3. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  4. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  5. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  6. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...effort to accomplish strategic 11 National Security Strategy , 12. 12 Office of the Secretary of...Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (2012), 4. 13 Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The

  7. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  8. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  9. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  10. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  11. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  12. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  14. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  15. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  16. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  17. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  18. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  19. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  20. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  1. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  2. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  3. Global air quality and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  4. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  5. Call for improving air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  6. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  7. Autonomy of the Air Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  8. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  9. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  10. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  11. Air sparging in low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, M.C. [Envirogen, Inc., Canton, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sparging technology is rapidly growing as a preferred, low cost remediation technique of choice at sites across the United States. The technology is considered to be commercially available and relatively mature. However, the maturity is based on the number of applications of the technology as opposed to the degree of understanding of the mechanisms governing the sparging process. Few well documented case studies exist on the long term operation of the technology. Sparging has generally been applied using modified monitoring well designs in uniform, coarse grained soils. The applicability of sparging for the remediation of DNAPLs in low permeability media has not been significantly explored. Models for projecting the performance of sparging systems in either soils condition are generally simplistic but can be used to provide general insight into the effects of significant changes in soil and fluid properties. The most promising sparging approaches for the remediation of DNAPLs in low permeability media are variations or enhancements to the core technology. Recirculatory sparging systems, sparging/biosparging trenches or curtains and heating or induced fracturing techniques appear to be the most promising technology variants for this type of soil. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  12. A mixed air/air and air/water heat pump system ensures the air-conditioning of a cinema; Un systeme mixte PAC air/air et air/eau climatise un cinema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the air conditioning system of a new cinema complex of Boulogne (92, France) which comprises a double-flux air processing plant and two heat pumps. Each heat pump has two independent refrigerating loops: one with a air condenser and the other with a water condenser. This system allows to limit the power of the loop and to reduce the size of the cooling tower and of the vertical ducts. This article describes the technical characteristics of the installation: thermodynamic units, smoke clearing, temperature control, air renewing. (J.S.)

  13. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  14. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gases can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for ... to evening. In cities larger than 350,000 people, state and local agencies are ... days when air quality is poor, run the air conditioning and limit your child's ...

  15. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  16. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  17. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  18. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  19. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  20. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor....

  1. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  2. Development and benefits of air/air-heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, H.W.; Cremer, P.

    1986-02-01

    After the first experiments using glass tube heat exchangers, many air/air heat exchangers have made within ten years the breakthrough as ''interior climate improvers'' in stables. Especially inexpensive synthetic panels, foils and self-construction, ribbed heat exchangers are very popular among farmers. Based on thorough installation planning and satisfactory operating results, thousands of heat exchangers were installed, through which heating oil and fuel gas are being replaced as energy sources, and through an improved interior climate, the productivity can be optimized in fattening and rearing houses. (orig.).

  3. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  4. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, A

    1996-02-01

    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  5. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  6. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  7. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  8. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  9. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  10. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  11. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  12. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  13. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  14. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate... holding of a drug product. (c) Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter...

  15. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  16. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  17. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  18. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  19. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  20. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  1. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  3. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat......Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...

  4. When water molecules meet air

    OpenAIRE

    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  5. Multizone Age-of-Air Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2007-07-01

    Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years. Age of air quantifies the time it takes for outdoor air to reach a particular location or zone within then indoor environment. Age of air is often also used to quantify the ventilation effectiveness with respect to indoor air quality. In a purely single zone situation this use of age of air is straightforward, but application of age of air techniques in the general multizone environment has not been fully developed. This article looks at expanding those single-zone techniques to the more complicated environment of multizone buildings and in doing so develops further the general concept of age of air. The results of this analysis shows that the nominal age of air as often used cannot be directly used for determining ventilation effectiveness unless specific assumptions are made regarding source distributions.

  6. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  7. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  8. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  9. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  10. Operating experiences with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers: hospitals, schools, nursing homes, swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Systems utilizing rotary air-to-air heat exchangers are discussed. Basic considerations of use (fresh air requirements, system configurations, cost considerations), typical system layout/design considerations, and operating observations by engineers, staff and maintenance personnel are described.

  11. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  12. Air Power in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    bombardment attacks with fighter offense for the control of the air.”57 Douhet commonly bucked the theory of fighter offense, relying solely on “a...morale booster as well. Now patrols could cut a landing zone with chain saws and explosives to receive a medevac chopper rather than face an extended

  13. New concepts in air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R N

    1998-03-01

    There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas and permanently seal the less susceptible areas becomes increasingly desirable.

  14. Pariisi-kiri / Aire Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Aire

    1997-01-01

    Fanny de Siversile pühendatud vastuvõtust College de France'i Sinises Salongis 27. märtsil 1997 ja temale pühendatud koguteosest 'Contacts de langues et de cultures dans l'aire Baltique' (koost. M. M. Jocelyne Fernendez ja Raimo Raag)

  15. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  16. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  17. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  18. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  19. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  20. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  1. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  2. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  3. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that i

  4. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  5. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  6. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  7. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  8. Characterization and comparison of emissions from rudimentary waste disposal technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from 2011 simulation of burn pit emissions and air curtain incinerator emissions, recent developments in methods for open air sampling, comparison of waste energy technologies, current SERDP programs in this area.

  9. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  10. TANGO ARRAY An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    CERN Document Server

    Bauleo, P; Filevich, A; Reguera, A

    2004-01-01

    A new Air Shower Observatory has been constructed in Buenos Aires during 1999, and commissioned and set in operation in 2000. The observatory consists of an array of four water \\v{C}erenkov detectors, enclosing a geometrical area of $\\sim$ 30.000 m$^{2}$, and is optimized for the observation of cosmic rays in the ``knee'' energy region. The array detects $\\sim$ 250 to $\\sim$ 1500 showers/day, depending on the selected triggering condition. In this paper, the design and construction of the array, and the automatic system for data adquisition, daily calibration, and monitoring, are described. Also, the Monte Carlo simulations performed to develop a shower database, as well as the studies performed using the database to estimate the response and the angular and energy resolutions of the array, are presented in detail.

  11. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  12. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  13. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  14. TANGO ARRAY I: An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    The TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been recently constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It became fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of 4 water ˇCerenkov detector stations enclosing a geometrical area of ˜ 30.000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of EAS produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12000-liter stainless steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400liter plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a fully automatic system, which takes advantage of the features of a 4-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection without the need of operator intervention. This automatic experiment control includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all stations. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  15. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  16. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  17. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  18. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  19. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  20. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.