Sample records for air currents

  1. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  2. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  3. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons. (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael


    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  4. Urban air quality management - current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, N. [Sheffield City Council, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Environment and Regulatory Services; Virtanen, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Mladonicky, P. [National Centre of Health Promotion, Bratislava (Slovakia)


    In 1996 the EC adopted the Ambient Air Quality and Assessment Directive, which is designed to provide a comprehensive strategy for the management of air quality in Member States, linking controls on emissions with the attainment of air quality objectives. The subsequent Daughter Directives provide limit values, based on health effects, for specified pollutants. In essence Member States have to monitor and assess air quality and where necessary draw up air pollution minimisation plans. This paper explores the practical issues facing three European cities, Sheffield, Helsinki and Bratislava as they face the challenge of implementing action necessary to bring about improvements in air quality by 2010. There are very different problems to resolve due to each City's particular characteristics, although they all share the same cause of the problem - road traffic. Although the technical solutions appear to be relatively straight forward each city faces the problems of trying to educate its citizens, to bring about changes in individual behaviour so that everyone can benefit from better air quality. Sheffield now faces an added level of complexity as its economic performance is below the European average and it has attained Objective 1 status which will introduce a huge investment to kick start the economy and make sure it continues to thrive. (orig.)

  5. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health. (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M


    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  6. Current air quality analytics and monitoring: a review. (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Tobiszewski, Marek; Zabiegała, Bożena; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek


    This review summarizes the different tools and concepts that are commonly applied in air quality monitoring. The monitoring of atmosphere is extremely important as the air quality is an important problem for large communities. Main requirements for analytical devices used for monitoring include a long period of autonomic operation and portability. These instruments, however, are often characterized by poor analytical performance. Monitoring networks are the most common tools used for monitoring, so large-scale monitoring programmes are summarized here. Biomonitoring, as a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional sample collection, is becoming more and more popular, although its main drawback is the lack of standard procedures. Telemonitoring is another approach to air monitoring, which offers some interesting opportunities, such as ease of coverage of large or remote areas, constituting a complementary approach to traditional strategies; however, it requires huge costs.

  7. Differences in regional air trapping in current smokers with normal spirometry. (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Forsslund, Helena; Mikko, Mikael; Wheelock, Åsa M; Nyrén, Sven; Sköld, C Magnus


    We investigated regional air trapping on computed tomography in current smokers with normal spirometry. It was hypothesised that presence of regional air trapping may indicate a specific manifestation of smoking-related changes.40 current smokers, 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 40 healthy never- smokers underwent computed tomography scans. Regional air trapping was assessed on end-expiratory scans and emphysema, micronodules and bronchial wall thickening on inspiratory scans. The ratio of expiratory and inspiratory mean lung attenuation (E/I) was calculated as a measure of static (fixed) air trapping.Regional air trapping was present in 63% of current smokers, in 45% of never smokers and in 8% of COPD patients (p<0.001). Current smokers with and without regional air trapping had E/I ratio of 0.81 and 0.91, respectively (p<0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was significantly higher and emphysema less frequent in current smokers with regional air trapping.Current smokers with regional air trapping had higher FEV1 and less emphysema on computed tomography. In contrast, current smokers without regional air trapping resembled COPD. Our results highlight heterogeneity among smokers with normal spirometry and may contribute to early detection of smoking related structural changes in the lungs.

  8. Current Air Force Combat Search and Rescue Challenges (United States)


    keep patients alive that had holes through them from RPGs, shrapnel, 7.62, and multiple amputations ...Army MEDEVAC birds have similar countermeasures to Air Force Pavehawks, but lack any door guns whatsoever.14 The Pavehawks, flying with mini...with the Task Force TOC as they hit checkpoints, giving ETAs and routing for the next leg . Other‟s have Personnel Locator Beacons (PLBs), SATPHONEs

  9. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei


    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  10. Study on Catastrophic Air Current Early-warning and Control System of Coalmines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fang


    Full Text Available Catastrophic air current significantly influences the stability of ventilation system, and existing studies have not considered the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current when designing the control systems. To analyze the effects of different kinds of coalmine accidents on safety production, grey relation entropy theory was used to analyze the hazard assessment of coalmine accidents. Fluent software was employed to study the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current, and the catastrophic air current early-warning and control system of coalmine was researched according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The threat of fire accidents and roof accidents were larger than other accidents. The influence of temperature and CO volume fraction distribution of fire accidents to the tailwind side was larger than that of the weather side, and gradient decreased on the weather side. This system can effectively control the spread of fire and poisonous gas,

  11. Responses of atmospheric electric field and air-earth current to variations of conductivity profiles (United States)

    Makino, M.; Ogawa, T.


    A global circuit model is constructed to study responses of air-earth current and electric field to a variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity profile. The model includes the orography and the global distribution of thunderstorm generators. The conductivity varies with latitude and exponentially with altitude. The thunderstorm cloud is assumed to be a current generator with a positive source at the top and a negative one at the bottom. The UT diurnal variations of the global current and the ionospheric potential are evaluated considering the local-time dependence of thunderstorm activity. The global distribution of the electric field and the air-earth current are affected by the orography and latitudinal effects. Assuming a variation of conductivity profile, responses of atmospheric electrical parameters are investigated. The nonuniform decrement of the conductivity with altitude increases both the electric field and the air-earth current. The result suggests a possibility that the increment of the electric field and the air-earth current after a solar flare may be caused by this scheme, due to Forbush decrease.

  12. Transport, deposition, and liftoff in laboratory density currents composed of hot particles in air (United States)

    Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.


    Understanding the dynamics of transport, deposition, and air entrainment in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for accurate predictions of future current behaviors and interpretations of ancient deposits, but directly observing the interiors of natural PDCs is effectively impossible. We model PDCs with scaled, hot, particle-laden density currents generated in a 6 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.8 m tall air-filled tank. Comparison of relevant scaling between our experiments and natural PDCs indicates that we are accurately capturing much of the dynamics of dilute PDCs: * Reynolds numbers of our experiments are lower than natural currents, 10^3 compared to 10^6, but still fully turbulent; * Densimetric and Thermal Richardson numbers are of O(1) in both natural and modeled currents; * Stokes and settling numbers for particles in the experiments fall within the expected range for natural PDCs. Conditions within the tank are monitored with temperature and humidity probes. Experiments are illuminated with sheet lighting, and recorded with high-definition video cameras. In general, currents have average velocities of 10-20 cm/s, initial thicknesses of 10-20 cm (although thickness greatly increases as currents entrain and expand air), and run out or lift off distances of 3-5 m. Large Kelvin-Helmholtz type eddies usually form along the top of the current immediately behind the head; these vortices are similar in size to the total current thickness. In currents that lift off, the distal current end typically retreats with time. Preliminary results suggest that lift off distance decreases with increasing thermal Richardson number. Analysis of turbulent structures indicates that the current heads are dominated by large coherent structures with length scales, L, comparable to the current thickness. Within 5-10 L of the current fronts, sequences of similar large eddies often occur. At greater distances behind the current fronts, turbulent structures become smaller and less

  13. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee L Guidotti


    the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding air quality issues that pertain to human health. The objective is to provide the specialist in respiratory medicine with an overview that will assist in educating patients and in responding to their inquiries, and to equip the physician to respond to requests for assistance or interpretation when called upon to comment on public policy issues involving air pollution. The implications of setting air quality standards or objectives to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  14. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka (United States)


    from small-scale mixing to the reversal of monsoonal currents, in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and around Sri Lanka and the role of regional air-sea...The program supports logistics of numerous US scientists operating in the Indian Ocean under ASIRI, EBOB and NASCAR projects. Capacity building is a

  15. Current Status of Air Toxics Management and Its Strategies for Controlling Emissions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai


    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics, have been of great concern because they can cause serious human health effects and have adverse effects on the environment. More noticeably, some of them are known to be human carcinogens. The objective of this paper is to investigate the regulatory systems and human health effects of air toxics which have been designated by the Taiwan government under the Air Pollution Control Act. These toxic air pollutants include acutely toxic gas (i.e., ammonia, chlorine, fluorides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid, gas containing heavy metals, and carcinogenic chemicals (including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, asbestos and matter containing asbestos, dioxins and furans, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In line with international concern about the carcinogenic risk and environmental persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs and heavy metals in recent years, the current status in monitoring and reducing the emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs from stationary sources was analyzed as a case study in the present study. Furthermore, the control strategies for reducing emissions of air toxics from stationary sources in Taiwan were also addressed.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of a direct current air corona discharge under atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xing-Hua; He Wei; Yang Fan; Wang Hong-Yu; Liao Rui-Jin; Xiao Han-Guang


    Air corona discharge is one of the critical problems associated with high-voltage equipment.Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the electrical insulation performance.An improved self-consistent multi-component two-dimensional plasma hybrid model is presented for the simulation of a direct current atmospheric pressure corona discharge in air.The model is based on plasma hydrodynamic and chemical models,and includes 12 species and 26 reactions.In addition,the photoionization effect is introduced into the model.The simulation on a bar-plate electrode configuration with an inter-electrode gap of 5.0 mm is carried out.The discharge voltage-current characteristics and the current density distribution predicted by the hybrid model agree with the experimental measurements.In addition,the dynamics of volume charged species generation,discharge current waveform,current density distribution at an electrode,charge density,electron temperature,and electric field variations are investigated in detail based on the model.The results indicate that the model can contribute valuable insights into the physics of an air plasma discharge.

  17. The current distribution on the feeding probe in an air filled rectangular microstrip antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, K


    The current distribution on the probe and the input impedance of the rectangular air-filled microstrip antenna are calculated using the electrical-field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. A rigorous model for the coaxial line excitation is adopted which makes the formulation valid...... for electrically thick microstrip antennas. The EFIE is solved numerically using the moment method with a piecewise linear approximation of the patch current and a polynomial approximation of the probe current. It was found by numerous calculations that operating the microstrip antenna at the resonant frequency...... of the microstrip patch gives the best results with respect to the sidelobe level and cross-polar level. To validate the calculations, the impedance of the rectangular air-filled microstrip antenna was measured for the case h=6 mm and was found to agree with the calculated impedance...

  18. Current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Europe: the AIR survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Cottin


    Full Text Available This review presents the results of the 2013 Advancing IPF Research (AIR survey, which assessed current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF by experienced physicians. A total of 149 physicians, predominantly from European countries, replied to the 28-question survey. The results of the AIR survey were compared with a similar survey of 509 French pulmonologists conducted by the French National Reference Centre and the Network of Regional Competence Centres for Rare Lung Diseases. A number of positive findings emerged from the AIR survey, including the high level of multidisciplinary team involvement in both diagnosis and management. This survey, when taken together with the French survey, suggests that there is still a need to improve earlier diagnosis of IPF.

  19. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit


    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  20. Characterization of dielectric barrier discharge in air applying current measurement, numerical simulation and emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Awakowicz, Peter


    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air is characterized applying current measurement, numerical simulation and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). For OES, a non-calibrated spectrometer is used. This diagnostic method is applicable when cross-sectional area of the active plasma volume and current density can be determined. The nitrogen emission in the spectral range of 380 nm- 406 nm is used for OES diagnostics. Electric field in the active plasma volume is determined applying the measured spectrum, well-known Frank-Condon factors for nitrogen transitions and numerically- simulated electron distribution functions. The measured electric current density is used for determination of electron density in plasma. Using the determined plasma parameters, the dissociation rate of nitrogen and oxygen in active plasma volume are calculated, which can be used by simulation of the chemical kinetics.

  1. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.


    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  2. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.


    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  3. Some features of horizontally oriented low-current electric arc in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazmeev, Kh. K., E-mail: [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (Russian Federation); Tazmeev, B. Kh., E-mail: [National Research Technical University, Naberezhnye Chelny Branch (Russian Federation)


    The properties of an electric arc operating in open air at currents of lower than 1 A were studied experimentally. The rod cathode was oriented horizontally. Cylindrical rods and plane plates either installed strictly vertically in front of the cathode end or tilted at a certain angle served as the anode. It is shown that, with such an electrode configuration, it is possible to form a discharge channel much longer than the electrode gap length. Regimes of regular oscillations are revealed, and conditions for their appearance are established. The electric field strength in the arc column and the electron temperature near the anode are calculated.

  4. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)


    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  5. Early Identification of Small Airways Disease on Lung Cancer Screening CT: Comparison of Current Air Trapping Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Isgum, I.; Gietema, H.A.; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.; Jong, P. A. de


    BACKGROUND : Lung cancer screening CT scans might provide valuable information about air trapping as an early indicator of smoking-related lung disease. We studied which of the currently suggested measures is most suitable for detecting functionally relevant air trapping on low-dose computed tomogra

  6. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer). (United States)

    Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold


    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation.

  7. Atmospheric pressure air direct current glow discharge ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry. (United States)

    Dong, Can; Wang, Weiguo; Li, Haiyang


    A new atmospheric pressure air direct current glow discharge (DCGD) ionization source has been developed for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to overcome the regularity problems associated with the conventional (63)Ni source and the instability of the negative corona discharge. Its general electrical characteristics were experimentally investigated. By equipping it to IMS, a higher sensitivity was obtained compared to that of a (63)Ni source and corona discharge, and a linear dynamic range from 20 ppb to 20 ppm was obtained for m-xylene. Primary investigations showed that alkanes, such as pentane, which are nondetectable or insensitively detectable with (63)Ni-IMS, can be efficiently detected by DCGD-IMS and the detection limit of 10 ppb can be reached. The preliminary results have shown that the new DCGD ionization source has great potential applications in IMS, such as online monitoring of environment pollutants and halogenated compounds.

  8. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de


    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system com

  9. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge; Flugreisen und Strahlenrisiken - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik


    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Flugpersonal wie Flugreisende sind kosmischer Strahlung ausgesetzt, insbesondere wenn sie auf polnahen Routen und in grossen Flughoehen reisen. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen aktuellen Ueberblick ueber Mess- und Schaetzverfahren sowie das Ausmass der kosmischen Strahlenexposition und fasst die derzeit bekannte epidemiologische Evidenz zu gesundheitlichen Aspekten der kosmischen Strahlenexposition zusammen. Die durchschnittliche jaehrliche Strahlenexposition beruflich exponierten Flugpersonals liegt in

  10. Observed air-sea interactions in tropical cyclone Isaac over Loop Current mesoscale eddy features (United States)

    Jaimes, Benjamin; Shay, Lynn K.; Brewster, Jodi K.


    Air-sea interactions during the intensification of tropical storm Isaac (2012) into a hurricane, over warm oceanic mesoscale eddy features, are investigated using airborne oceanographic and atmospheric profilers. Understanding these complex interactions is critical to correctly evaluating and predicting storm effects on marine and coastal facilities in the Gulf of Mexico, wind-driven mixing and transport of suspended matter throughout the water column, and oceanic feedbacks on storm intensity. Isaac strengthened as it moved over a Loop Current warm-core eddy (WCE) where sea surface warming (positive feedback mechanism) of ∼0.5 °C was measured over a 12-h interval. Enhanced bulk enthalpy fluxes were estimated during this intensification stage due to an increase in moisture disequilibrium between the ocean and atmosphere. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced buoyant forcing from the ocean is an important intensification mechanism in tropical cyclones over warm oceanic mesoscale eddy features. Larger values in equivalent potential temperature (θE = 365   ∘K) were measured inside the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) over the WCE, where the vertical shear in horizontal currents (δV) remained stable and the ensuing cooling vertical mixing was negligible; smaller values in θE (355   ∘K) were measured over an oceanic frontal cyclone, where vertical mixing and upper-ocean cooling were more intense due to instability development in δV . Thus, correctly representing oceanic mesoscale eddy features in coupled numerical models is important to accurately reproduce oceanic responses to tropical cyclone forcing, as well as the contrasting thermodynamic forcing of the HBL that often causes storm intensity fluctuations over these warm oceanic regimes.

  11. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt


    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  13. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent


    This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 μm). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

  14. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells. (United States)

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico


    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems.

  15. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk


    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  16. The Air Force’s Individual Mobilization Augmentee Program: Is the Current Organizational Structure Viable? (United States)


    Lt Gen George E. Stratemeyer, commander of Air Defense Command, assigned reservists to key command positions for training as understudies and...Management, 10 December 2001, http://www media /epubs/AFI36-2629.pdf; and Readiness Management Group, Readiness Management Group...Individual Reserve Guide [Robins AFB, GA: Air Force Reserve Command, March 2008], media /document /AFD-080408-050.pdf

  17. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  18. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  19. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan


    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...

  20. The Current Practices in Injury Prevention and Safety Helmet Use in an Air Force Medical Center (United States)


    Clinic at Malcom Grow Medical Center, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Preventive counseling Preventing the occurrence of both mental and physical ...of their care. The primary care provider assumes ongoing responsibility for health maintenance and therapy for illness, including consultation with...PA) or a Medical Doctor (M.D.). Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.), or Registered Nurse (R.N.). Safety helmet For the purpose of this study, the safety

  1. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines (United States)


    Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ship (MARPOL 73/78) Annex VI regulate management of air pollutant emissions, namely Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx ...of these technologies are designed to control emissions of Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx ) and Sulphur Oxides (SOx) that are regulated internationally and...undergoes ultra-low frequency electrolysis to increase NOx absorption capability and then is pumped through the exhaust stack to scrub emissions of SOx

  2. Experimental Investigation of an Automobile Air-Conditioning System using Integrated Brushless Direct Current Motor Rotary Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri M.F.


    Full Text Available The present study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of condenser air inlet temperature and dimensionless parameter of X on the performance of automobile air-conditioning (AAC system using integrated brushless direct current motor-rotary compressor and electronic expansion valve. The other components of AAC system are from original component of AAC system used for medium size passenger car. The experimental results showed that the increment of the condenser air inlet temperature and X caused an increase in condensing temperature, cooling capacity and compressor work, while decreasing the coefficient of performance (COP. Meanwhile, the evaporating temperature increase with the increment of condenser air inlet temperature, but decrease with decrement of X. In general, AAC system have to work at higher value of X in order to produce more cooling capacity, thereby increment in compressor work also occurs due to energy balance. However, at higher value of X, the COP of the system dropped due to dominant increase in compressor power, as opposed to a rise in cooling capacity. Due to this reason, the best operation of this compressor occurs at X = 4.96 for constant T5 (35ºC, or at T5 = 30ºC for constant X (4.96.

  3. Current Progresses of Midass: Microbial Detection in Air System for Space (United States)

    Abaibou, Hafid; Lasseur, Christophe; Mabilat, Claude; Storrs-Mabilat, Michele; Guy, Michel; Raffestin, Stephanie; Sole Bosquet, Jaume

    For the long term manned missions, microbial contamination is a major risk for crew members and hardware. This risk has first been documented by Russian scientists then by other organizations as a consequence of the contamination of metabolic consumables (water, air), and also the hardware degradation. Rapid molecular biology techniques offer an attractive alternative to traditional culture-based methods. They allow fast time to results for contamination detection and quick implementation of appropriate corrective action when required. However, to date, there are no such available system due to the technical challenges required to meet the sensitivity and specificity needs of the test and the requirement for full automation, from sampling to results interpretation. In response to this, over the last decade, the European Space Agency (ESA) and bioMérieux initiated a co-development of MIDASS, the world’s first fully automated system for the monitoring of the environmental microbial load in confined spaces, including clean rooms and hospital wards. The system is based on molecular technologies (sample preparation/amplification/detection) and enables rapid and simple determination of the microbiological contamination level in less than 3 hours. It relies on NASBA-amplification for the detection of selected micro-organisms (indicators or pathogens) at determined risk-levels (200 and 1 CFU /m3 air, respectively). Successful progresses were recently made for the space-application workpackage of this project: a lab-on-a-card design for air-testing in a first scope was endorsed by a successful ESA Preliminary Design Review, paving the way to spatialization steps (phases C and D). Data will be presented with regards to system design and biological performances.

  4. External costs of emissions to air from current maritime transport - economic consequences; Miljoekostnader foer sjoefartens avgasutslaepp - ekonomiska konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Joakim; Farelius, Johanna; Hoeoek, Charlotta (WSP Analys and Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden))


    An important feature of Swedish national transport policy is to base the usage of fees, charges and subsidies on the principle of economic efficiency. The implication is that marginal cost pricing should be applied, internalizing the external costs of transport. Examples of external costs of transport are the damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air. These costs could be internalized by imposing fees that equal the marginal external costs. A polluter-pay principle should be applied, implying that the costs to society should be borne (paid) by the ones causing them. Earlier studies indicate that heavy ships (maritime transport) typically bear the marginal costs to society caused by transports carried out in Swedish territorial water - by paying differentiated fairway dues. However, these ships typically carry out the majority of their transports outside of Swedish territorial water, implying that the ship owners normally do not pay the full marginal external costs if a wider geographic area is considered. The purpose of this study is to show to what extent the costs of transports would be affected if fees and charges were used to internalize the external costs of emissions of pollutants to air in wider geographic contexts. The study has been carried out by calculating/estimating the following: 1. Damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air by current maritime transports to/from Swedish ports. 2. Effects on costs of transports by internalizing the external damage costs 3. Effects on costs of transports by undertaking cost efficient emission reducing measures

  5. The current status of the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Antia, H.M.; Dugad, S.R.; Goswami, U.D. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Hayashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Iyer, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ito, N. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Karthikeyan, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Kawakami, S.; Minamino, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mohanty, P.K.; Morris, S.D.; Nayak, P.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Nonaka, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Oshima, A.; Rao, B.S.; Ravindran, K.C.; Tanaka, H. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with approx400 scintillator detectors and it also contains a 560 m{sup 2} tracking muon detector (E{sub m}u>1GeV), at Ooty in India. 25% of scintillator detectors are instrumented with two fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for extending the dynamic range to approx5x10{sup 3} particles m{sup -2}. The scintillators, signal processing electronics and data recording systems were fabricated in-house to cut costs and optimize performance. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below the 'knee', with an overlap with direct measurements. Search for multi-TeV gamma-rays from point sources is done with the aid of the muon detector. A good angular resolution of 0.7 deg. at 30 TeV, is measured from the shadow of the Moon on the isotropic flux of cosmic rays. A sensitive limit on the diffuse flux of 100 TeV gamma-rays is placed by using muon detector to filter the charged cosmic ray background. A tracking muon detector allows sensitive measurements on coronal mass ejections and solar flares through Forbush decrease events. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in the areas listed above.

  6. Numerical study of turbulence-influence mechanism on arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (United States)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yang, Fei; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Qi, Yang; Cui, Yufei; Liu, Zirui; Guo, Anxiang


    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (air DCCB). Using magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) theory, 3D laminar model and turbulence model are constructed and calculated. The standard k-epsilon model is utilized to consider the turbulence effect in the arc chamber of the DCCB. Several important phenomena are found: the arc column in the turbulence-model case is more extensive, moves much more slowly than the counterpart in the laminar-model case, and shows stagnation at the entrance of the chamber, unlike in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the arc voltage in the turbulence-model case is much lower than in the laminar-model case. However, the results in the turbulence-model case show a much better agreement with the results of the breaking experiments under DC condition than in the laminar-model case, which is contradictory to the previous conclusions from the arc researches of both the low-voltage circuit breaker and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) nozzle. First, in the previous air-arc research of the low-voltage circuit breaker, it is assumed that the air plasma inside the chamber is in the state of laminar, and the laminar-model application gives quite satisfactory results compared with the experiments, while in this paper, the laminar-model application works badly. Second, the turbulence-model application in the arc research of the SF6-nozzle performs much better and gives higher arc voltage than the laminar-model application does, whereas in this paper, the turbulence-model application predicts lower arc voltage than the laminar-model application does. Based on the analysis of simulation results in detail, the mechanism of the above phenomena is revealed. The transport coefficients are strongly changed by turbulence, which will enhance the arc diffusion and make the arc volume much larger. Consequently, the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the turbulence-model case

  7. Anomalous diurnal variation of atmospheric potential gradient and air-Earth current density observed at Maitri, Antarctica (United States)

    Jeeva, K.; Gurubaran, S.; Williams, E. R.; Kamra, A. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Guha, A.; Selvaraj, C.; Nair, K. U.; Dhar, Ajay


    The scope of this paper is to explore the mechanisms operating over Maitri (70.76°S, 11.74°E, 117 m above mean sea level), a coastal Antarctic station, that produce an anomalous fair-weather diurnal pattern of the atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG) and air-Earth current density (AEC). The anomaly in the diurnal variations of AEC and the PG is displaying an ostensible minimum at 10 UT and a diminished response to the thunderstorm over the African continent in the 14-16 UT time frame. The data sets (2005-2014, except 2012) of the PG, and to some extent, AEC, from Maitri, are used to explore this anomaly. It follows that the fair-weather electrical phenomena over Maitri can be ascribed to global electrified convection on the one hand and to regional phenomena like convection due to the replacement of warm air by katabatic winds on the other hand. The katabatic winds originate on the polar plateau and blow from 130° at Maitri which are likely to transport various elements from the mountain slopes, and space charge from the polar plateau is expected to produce various disturbances in the PG and AEC monitored over the coastal Antarctica. This mechanism may be responsible for peaks in the early UT hours and also for the anomalous behavior of atmospheric electrical parameters observed at Maitri. Maitri data are compared with that of Carnegie cruise and Vostok to explain the source of anomaly.

  8. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States. (United States)

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C


    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  9. Impacts of household coal and biomass combustion on indoor and ambient air quality in China: Current status and implication. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Rumchev, Krassi; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Morawska, Lidia; Hao, Jiming


    This review briefly introduces current status of indoor and ambient air pollution originating from household coal and biomass combustion in mainland China. Owing to low combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have significant adverse consequences for indoor and ambient air qualities, resulting in relative contributions of more than one-third in all anthropogenic emissions. Their contributions are higher in less economically developed regions, such as Guizhou (61% PM2.5, 80% BC), than that in more developed regions, such as Shanghai (4% PM2.5, 17% BC). Chimneys can reduce ~80% indoor PM2.5 level when burning dirty solid fuels, such as plant materials. Due to spending more time near stoves, housewives suffer much more (~2 times) PM2.5 than the adult men, especially in winter in northern China (~4 times). Improvement of stove combustion/thermal efficiencies and solid fuel quality are the two essential methods to reduce pollutant emissions. PM2.5 and BC emission factors (EFs) have been identified to increase with volatile matter content in traditional stove combustion. EFs of dirty fuels are two orders higher than that of clean ones. Switching to clean ones, such as semi-coke briquette, was identified to be a feasible path for reducing >90% PM2.5 and BC emissions. Otherwise, improvement of thermal and combustion efficiencies by using under-fire technology can reduce ~50% CO2, 87% NH3, and 80% PM2.5 and BC emissions regardless of volatile matter content in solid fuel. However, there are still some knowledge gaps, such as, inventory for the temporal impact of household combustion on air quality, statistic data for deployed clean solid fuels and advanced stoves, and the effect of socioeconomic development. Additionally, further technology research for reducing air pollution emissions is urgently needed, especially low cost and clean stove when burning any type of solid fuel. Furthermore, emission

  10. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.


    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  11. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions. (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L


    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  12. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  13. Influence of Surface Resistivity and Temperature on Variation with Time of Current Pulses in Air at Optimum Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Pimpale


    Full Text Available The variation of discharge current pulses with the surface nature of electrodes has been investigated by producing discharge in the intense ionizing zone of two ozonizers (A&B containing pure, dry air at a pressure of 4 & 10mm of mercury respectively. The course of reaction in the tube A showed that the periodic rise and fall of discharge counts through a series of recurrences whose amplitude varied randomly. During this reaction, steady potential, temperature of the electrolytic bath, counting time and pulse height were kept fixed. The phenomenon obtained for both the tubes is produced within a critical range of conditions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of activated adsorption at a temperature of 90 degree and 100 degree Centigrade and discussed on the theoretical grounds of change of surface resistivity upon the glass walls. Use of different coatings on annular surface in the same system with appropriate levels of electrolytic solution for a definite value of height-pulses and temperature, etc. shows significant variations in the discharge counts.

  14. Aircraft modifications: Assessing the current state of Air Force aircraft modifications and the implications for future military capability (United States)

    Hill, Owen Jacob

    How prepared is the U.S. Air Force to modify its aircraft fleet in upcoming years? Aircraft modernization is a complex interaction of new and legacy aircraft, organizational structure, and planning policy. This research will take one component of modernization: aircraft modification, and apply a new method of analysis in order to help formulate policy to promote modernization. Departing from previous small-sample studies dependent upon weight as a chief explanatory variable, this dissertation incorporates a comprehensive dataset that was constructed for this research of all aircraft modifications from 1996 through 2005. With over 700 modification programs, this dataset is used to examine changes to the current modification policy using policy-response regression models. These changes include separating a codependent procurement and installation schedule, reducing the documentation requirements for safety modifications, and budgeting for aging aircraft modifications. The research then concludes with predictive models for the F-15 and F-16 along with their replacements: the F-22 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

  15. Comparison of atmospheric air plasmas excited by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-chun; Jiang, Peng-chao; Yang, De-zheng; Jia, Li; Wang, Sen


    In this paper, atmospheric pressure air discharge plasma in quartz tube is excited by 15 ns high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge (HVNPD) and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (SACD), respectively, and a comparison study of these two kinds of discharges is made through visual imaging, electrical characterization, optical detection of active species, and plasma gas temperature. The peak voltage of the power supplies is kept at 16 kV while the pulse repetition rate of nanosecond pulse power supply is 100 Hz, and the frequency of sinusoidal power supply is 10 kHz. Results show that the HVNPD is uniform while the SACD presents filamentary mode. For exciting the same cycles of discharge, the average energy consumption in HVNPD is about 1/13 of the SACD. However, the chemical active species generated by the HVNPD is about 2-9 times than that excited by the SACD. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been obtained via fitting the simulated spectrum of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-2) with the measured one, and the results show that the plasma gas temperature in the HVNPD remains close to room temperature whereas the plasma gas temperature in the SACD is about 200 K higher than that in HVNPD in the initial phase and continually increases as discharge exposure time goes on.

  16. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies; Contribution du chauffage au bois a la qualite de l'air exterieur: donnees existantes et etudes en cours en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnemental (LCME), 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France); Allemand, N. [Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d' Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, CITEPA, 75 - Paris (France); Riberon, J. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE UMR CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  17. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs. (United States)

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu


    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  18. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü


    Full Text Available Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  19. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs


    Jiaojiao Lü; Leichao Liang; Yi Feng; Rena Li; Yu Liu


    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern i...

  20. Air-sea Energy Transfer at Mesoscale in a Coupled High-resolution Model: Impact of Resolution and Current Feedback (United States)

    Jullien, S.; Colas, F.; Masson, S. G.; Oerder, V.; Echevin, V.; Samson, G.; Crétat, J.; Berthet, S.; Hourdin, C.


    Winds are usually considered to force the ocean but recent studies suggested that oceanic mesoscale activity, characterized by eddies, filaments and fronts, could also affect the wind field. These structures feature abrupt changes in sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and surface currents that could impact the atmosphere by enhancing/reducing air-sea fluxes, accelerating/decelerating winds, modifying the wind-pressure balance… At this time, the detailed processes associated to such coupling, its intensity and significance remain a matter of research. Here, a state-of-the-art WRF-OASIS-NEMO coupled model is set up over a wide tropical channel (45°S-45°N) at various resolutions: 3/4°, 1/4° and 1/12° in both the ocean and the atmosphere. Several experiments are conducted in forced, partially or fully coupled modes, to highlight the effect of resolution and the role of SST vs. current feedback to energy injection into the ocean and the atmosphere. In strong mesoscale activity regions, a negative wind power input from the atmosphere to the ocean is seen at scales ranging from 100km to more than 1000km. Nonexistent at 3/4°, this negative forcing, acting against oceanic mesoscale activity, is almost twice more important at 1/12° than at 1/4°. In addition, partially coupled simulations, i.e. without current feedback, show that the impact of thermal coupling on this process is very limited. Energy injection to the marine atmospheric boundary layer also features imprints from oceanic mesoscale. Energy injection by scales shorter than 300km represents up to 20% of the total. Finally we show that increasing oceanic resolution, and therefore mesoscale activity, is necessary to resolve the full wind stress spectrum and has an upscaling effect by enhancing atmospheric mesoscale, which is larger scale than in the ocean. Using 1/4°oceanic resolution instead of 1/12° leads to a 50% loss of energy in the atmospheric mesoscale.

  1. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers. (United States)

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano


    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk.

  2. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo... (United States)


    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration...-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air...

  3. Assessment of Current Energy Consumption Practices, Carbon Emissions and Indoor Air Pollution in Samagaun, Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Suwal


    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emissions of GHGs in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. The main objective of the study was to investigate current energy consumption practices, to estimate particulate matter and carbon emissions from current practices and to recommend the most suitable alternative energy technologies. The fieldwork was based on primary and secondary data with a design methodology. Firewood burning was found to be the major source of energy used for cooking purposes in Samagaun. The use of this traditional fuel has negative environmental implications, such as deforestation, indoor air pollution and it ultimately affects human health. The results show that traditional cooking stoves (TCS are used more than improved cooking stoves (ICS. The total amount of firewood used per day by TCS is 2135 kg/day, and by ICS it is 349 kg/day. The average amount of firewood consumed by traditional and improved cooking stoves per day is 62.79 kg and 43.63 kg, respectively. The annual per capita firewood consumption of TCS and ICS is 4401.9 kg and 3266.7 kg, respectively. The calculation shows that per capita firewood consumption by TCS users is 1.3 times higher than that of ICS users. The annual per capita carbon emissions from TCS and ICS is 8055.47 kg CO2e and 5978.15 kg CO2e, respectively. This calculation shows that ICS emits 1.3 times less CO2 into the atmosphere than the TCS. The average mean particulate concentration at normal atmospheric conditions for a traditional cooking stove was found to be 2866 μg/Nm3 and for an improved cooking stove 1333 μg/Nm3, both of which far exceed the national standard of 230 μg/m3 TSP. Based on the study results, metallic

  4. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo... (United States)


    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration... under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting,...

  5. Occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and legacy and current-use pesticides in air from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain). (United States)

    Carratalá, A; Moreno-González, R; León, V M


    The occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and legacy and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air were characterized around the Mar Menor lagoon using both active and passive sampling devices. The seasonal distribution of these pollutants was determined at 6 points using passive samplers. Passive sampler sampling rates were estimated for all detected analytes using an active sampler, considering preferentially winter data, due to probable losses in active sampling during summer (high temperatures and solar irradiation). The presence of 28 compounds (14 CUPs, 11 PAHs and 3 organochlorinated pesticides) were detected in air by polyurethane passive sampling. The most commonly detected contaminants (>95% of samples) in air were chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and phenanthrene. The maximum concentrations corresponded to phenanthrene (6000 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos (4900 pg m(-3)). The distribution of contaminants was spatially and seasonally heterogeneous. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found close to the airport, while the highest concentrations of pesticides were found in the influence area of agricultural fields (western stations). PAH and herbicide concentrations were higher in winter than in the other seasons, although some insecticides such as chlorpyrifos were more abundant in autumn. The presence of PAHs and legacy and current-use pesticides in air confirmed their transference potential to marine coastal areas such as the Mar Menor lagoon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and creation of the simplified construction of a high-voltage heavy-current air three-electrode switchboard with graphite electrodes, intended for operation in composition the powerful generator of large impulsive current of artificial of linear lightning. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high-voltage and scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique. Results. Developed and made a new construction of a high-voltage heavy-current air three-electrode switchboard with the graphite electrodes of KATG-50 on nominal voltage ±50 kV. This construction of switchboard KATG-50 has been passed experimental approbation in composition the heavy-current bit chain of powerful high-voltage generator of the аperiodic impulses of current of artificial linear lightning rationed on operating foreign standards with amplitude of Im=±(200±20 кА at their duration τP=(350±35 μs at level 0,5∙Im. Originality. First in domestic practice of development and creation of high-voltage heavy-current switchboards for the generators of large impulse currents of artificial lightning the ground of necessity of the use for their basic and managing electrodes of electrical engineering graphite is carried out. Practical value. The developed and made high-voltage heavy-current switchboard of cascade-tray KATG-50 from application in its composition of graphite electrodes possesses an enhanceable working resource and enhanceable stability of wearing-out at the use of similar switchboard in the bit chain of powerful pulsed current of the imitated linear lightning.

  7. Aircraft Modifications: Assessing the Current State of Air Force Aircraft Modifications and the Implications for Future Military Capability (United States)


    Pre and Post-Production Aircraft Change Efforts .............................................................. 12 Figure 2.2 - Possible Relationships ...Delivery Years for Various Mission Designs ............................................ 50 Figure 4.4 - Functional Formats ofAging Relationships ...Modifications, analysis suggests that installation and procurement schedules are codependent due to an Air Force requirement to install a modification kit in

  8. Air-sea exchange of CO2 at a Northern California coastal site along the California Current upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Oechel


    Full Text Available Uncertainty in the air-sea CO2 exchange (CO2 flux in coastal upwelling zones is attributed to high temporal variability, which is caused by changes in ocean currents. Upwelling transports heterotrophic, CO2 enriched water to the surface and releases CO2 to the atmosphere, whereas the presence of nutrient-rich water at the surface supports high primary production and atmospheric CO2 uptake. To quantify the effects of upwelling on CO2 fluxes, we measured CO2 flux at a coastal upwelling site off of Bodega Bay, California, during the summer of 2007 and the fall of 2008 using the eddy covariance technique and the bulk method with pCO2 measurements from November 2010 to July 2011. Variations in sea surface temperatures (SST and alongshore wind speeds suggest that the measurement period in 2007 coincided with a typical early-summer upwelling period and the measurement period in 2008 was during a typical fall relaxation period. A strong source of CO2 (~1.5 ± 7 SD (standard deviation g C m−2 day−1 from the ocean to the atmosphere during the upwelling period was concurrent with high salinity, low SST, and low chlorophyll density. In contrast, a weak source of CO2 flux (~0.2 ± 3 SD g C m−2 day−1 was observed with low salinity, high SST and high chlorophyll density during the relaxation period. Similarly, the sink and source balance of CO2flux was highly related to salinity and SST during the pCO2 measurement periods; high salinity and low SST corresponded to high pCO2, and vice versa. We estimated that the coastal area off Bodega Bay was likely a source of CO2 to the atmosphere based on the following conclusions: (1 the overall CO2 flux estimated from both eddy covariance and pCO2 measurements showed a source of CO2; (2 although the relaxation period during the 2008 measurements were favorable to CO2 uptake, CO2 flux during this period was still a slight source, (3 salinity and SST were found to be good predictors of the CO2 flux for both eddy

  9. Development of Eddy Current Test Procedure for Non-destructive Detection of Fatigue Cracks and Corrosion in Rivets of Air-intake Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sasi


    Full Text Available Non-destructive detection of defects in countersunk of rivets in multi-layer air-intake structures is essential for ensuring structural integrity and flight safety. This paper presents an eddy current test procedure developed for reliable detection of simulated fatigue cracks and corrosion products in rivets of air-intake structures. This procedure is capable of reliably detecting 0.25 mm deep defects in 4 mm dia rivets and 0.75 mm deep defects in 5 mm dia rivets. Further, it is not influenced by thickness of the multilayers.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(2, pp.106-112, DOI:

  10. Long Term Stability Investigation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell with Infiltrated Porous YSZ Air Electrode Under High Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Ovtar, Simona; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose


    activity, due to high surface area of catalyst nano particles. Advantage of infiltration is also separate production of electrolyte backbone structure with good ionic connectivity and mechanical properties. With this study we present the results of a solid oxide cell with infiltrated porous yttria...... and the backbone, and perovskite catalyst material. Cobalt doped lanthanum nickelate was used as the perovskite catalyst due to its excellent performance. The cell was tested in steam electrolysis for at least 2000h. This initial test indicate that a stable air electrode was formed, and that the cell performance...

  11. Influence of current velocity and wind speed on air-water gas exchange in a mangrove estuary (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Coffineau, Nathalie; Hickman, Benjamin; Chow, Nicholas; Koffman, Tobias; Schlosser, Peter


    Knowledge of air-water gas transfer velocities and water residence times is necessary to study the fate of mangrove derived carbon exported into surrounding estuaries and ultimately to determine carbon balances in mangrove ecosystems. For the first time, the 3He/SF6 dual tracer technique, which has been proven to be a powerful tool to determine gas transfer velocities in the ocean, is applied to Shark River, an estuary situated in the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The mean gas transfer velocity was 3.3 ± 0.2 cm h-1 during the experiment, with a water residence time of 16.5 ± 2.0 days. We propose a gas exchange parameterization that takes into account the major sources of turbulence in the estuary (i.e., bottom generated shear and wind stress).

  12. Caractéristiques dynamiques d'un écoulement co-courant eau-huile-air Dynamic Characteristics of a Co-Current Water-Oil-Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre J.


    Full Text Available Les auteurs présentent une étude expérimentale sur la structure locale d'un écoulement quasi parallèle co-courant à trois phases : eau-huile-air. L'objectif principal de cette étude est la détermination des contraintes de cisaillement aux interfaces eau-huile et air-huile. L'écoulement est réalisé dans un canal rectangulaire équipé d'une soufflerie et d'un système pour séparer et recycler les phases liquides, en continu. Les résultats expérimentaux présentés sont relatifs aux régimes lisses des interfaces : les vitesses et leurs fluctuations sont mesurées par anémométrie laser dans l'eau et anémométrie à film chaud dans l'air. Les résultats sur l'interface gaz-liquide confirment que l'écoulement est identique à celui sur une paroi se déplaçant à la vitesse du liquide à la surface. Dans l'eau, la structure est celle d'un écoulement de Couette turbulent. Près de la paroi inférieure et près de l'interface liquide-liquide les échelles locales de vitesse et de longueur regroupent assez bien les mesures de vitesses et de fluctuations turbulentes longitudinales. This article is an experimental investigation, of the local structure of a quasi-parallel co-current three-phase flow invoiving water, oil and air. The main aim of this investigation is to determine the shear stresses on the water-oil and air-oil interfaces. Flow is induced in a rectangular channel equipped with a wind tunnel and a system for separating and recirculating the liquid phases continuously. The experimental results that are given have to do with smooth interface regimes. Velocities and their fluctuations are measured by laser anemometry in water and by hot-wire anenometry in air. The results on the gas-liquid interface confirm that flow is identical to flow over a wall moving at the velocity of the liquid on the surface. In water, the structure is that of a turbulent Couette flow. Near the bottom wall and near the liquid-liquid interface, the

  13. Island Power Management using a Marine Current Turbine Farm and an Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage System


    Sheng, Lei; ZHOU, Zibhin; Charpentier, Jean-Frederic; Benbouzid, Mohamed


    Due to the high predictability and the high energy density, marine tidal resource has become an area of increasing interest with various academic and industrial projects around the world. In fact, several Marine Current Turbine (MCT) farm projects with multi-megawatt capacity are planned to be installed in the coming years. In this paper, an MCT farm is supposed to be associated to the energy supply of a stand-aloneisland. In order to compensate the MCT farm power variation due to tidal pheno...

  14. Effects of cathodic current density and temperature on morphology and microstructure of iridium coating prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt under the air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Li' an, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Chemistry, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Bai Shuxin; Zhang Hong; Ye Yicong [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Chemistry, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'salt passivation' occurs on the anode surface at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of preferred growth crystal plane increases as increasing current density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The <1 1 1> oriented coating is smoother and denser than <2 2 0>/<3 1 1> oriented coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating compactness improves as increasing current density/decreasing temperature. - Abstract: Iridium coating was prepared on a Re/C substrate (graphite substrate coated with rhenium coating by CVD) using electrodeposition in molten salt of chlorides in the air atmosphere. The effects of cathodic current density and temperature on both the morphology and microstructure of the coating were studied, respectively. The morphology and orientation of the coating were determined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The results showed that the cathodic current density and temperature both affected the surface morphology, roughness, grain size and compactness of the iridium coating. With increasing of current density from 5 to 50 mA/cm{sup 2}, the surface roughness of the coating increased from Ra 0.98 to Ra 6.29 {mu}m, while the grain size decreased. With temperature increasing from 520 to 640 Degree-Sign C, the surface roughness of the coating decreased from Ra 4.41 to Ra 1.16 {mu}m, while the grain size increased. The preferred orientations of the coatings changed in the row <111>-<220>-<311> with current density increasing. With the increase of temperature, the preferred orientation of the coating changed from <1 1 1> to <2 2 0>, and again to <1 1 1>. The coating with <1 1 1> orientation was smoother and denser than that with <2 2 0> orientation regardless of the grain size.

  15. 基于当前节能标准公共建筑空调综合能效比分析%Based on the Current Efficiency Standards of Public Building Air Conditioning Comprehensive Efficiency Ratio Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官玲俊; 谢泽渊; 江向阳


    Based on the national the currently executing public building energy efficiency standards , analysis and evaluation of the current energy -saving standard for central air conditioning system comprehensive Energy Efficiency ratio applicable scope , through the two practical engineering projects , evaluate comprehensive Energy Efficiency ra-tio of the temperature humidity independent control air conditioning system.Through the calculation analysis , this paper concludes that the current national standards for public buildings central air conditioning system minimum EER constraint value is 2.67 W/W, In this paper is beneficial for evaluation EER of new buildings air conditioning sys -tem and existing building air conditioning system energy saving operation provides a reliable technical data support .%基于国家当前执行的公共建筑节能标准,评价分析了当前节能标准对于中央空调系统综合能效比适用范围,通过计算分析得出:现行国家标准对于公共建筑中央空调系统最低能效比约束值为2.67 W/W,本文对于评价新建筑建筑空调系统能效比和既有建筑空调系统节能运营提供了可靠的技术数据支撑。

  16. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  17. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  18. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  19. 新农村室内空气质量现状研究%Study on Current Situation of Indoor Air Quality in New Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 郑德生; 刘志强; 滕克强; 郭振


    Objective To investigate the indoor air quality in new rural areas, and to explore the effect of different fuel energies on indoor air quality. Method The indoor air quality was examined with the standard method. Results The total qualified rates of surveillance items in villages A, B, C, and D during the heating period and the non - heating period were 92%, 90%, 84%, and 93% (98%, 99%, 99%, and 94%), respectively. The five indicators, including CO2, HCHO,PM10, TVOC, and total plate count, exceeded the standard in varying degrees. There were statistically significant differences in the total items qualified rates of the four villages during the heating period and the non- heating period (x2 =20.43, P< 0.01). CO., PM10, TVOC, and total plate count in indoor air of the non - heating period were better than those in indoor air of the heating period. Conclusions The indoor air of the new villages has a slight pollution. The mixed fuel energies affect the indoor air quality. The indoor air quality during the non - heating period is better than that during the heating period.%目的 了解新农村室内空气质量和不同燃料能源对室内空气质量的影响.方法 采用标准方法对居室内空气质量进行检测.结果 A村、B村、C村、D村在采暖期(非采暖期)按监测指标总项次合格率分别为92%、90%、84%、93%(98%、99%、99%、94%);二氧化碳、甲醛、可吸入颗粒物、菌落总数五项指标各有不同程度超标;采暖期和非采暖期四村合计总项次合格率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=20.43,P<0.01);二氧化碳、可吸入颗粒物、总挥发性有机物、菌落总数非采暖期室内空气质量好于采暖期.结论 新农村室内空气质量存在轻微的污染,混合燃料为主要能源对室内空气质量影响较大,非采暖期室内空气质量好于采暖期室内空气质量.

  20. Current challenges in modelling far-range air pollution induced by the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption (Iceland) (United States)

    Boichu, Marie; Chiapello, Isabelle; Brogniez, Colette; Péré, Jean-Christophe; Thieuleux, Francois; Torres, Benjamin; Blarel, Luc; Mortier, Augustin; Podvin, Thierry; Goloub, Philippe; Söhne, Nathalie; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Hendrick, François; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Tanré, Didier


    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun lava-flood eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano (Iceland) emitted prodigious amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. This eruption caused a large-scale episode of air pollution throughout Western Europe in September 2014, the first event of this magnitude recorded in the modern era. We gathered chemistry-transport simulations and a wealth of complementary observations from satellite sensors (OMI, IASI), ground-based remote sensing (lidar, sunphotometry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and ground-level air quality monitoring networks to characterize both the spatial-temporal distributions of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosols as well as the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. Time variations of dynamical and microphysical properties of sulfate aerosols in the aged low-tropospheric volcanic cloud, including loading, vertical distribution, size distribution and single scattering albedo, are provided. Retrospective chemistry-transport simulations at low horizontal resolution (25 km × 25 km) capture the correct temporal dynamics of this far-range air pollution event but fail to reproduce the correct magnitude of SO2 concentration at ground-level. Simulations at higher spatial resolution, relying on two nested domains with finest resolution of 7.3 km × 7.3 km, improve substantially the far-range vertical distribution of the volcanic cloud and subsequently the description of ground-level SO2 concentrations. However, remaining discrepancies between model and observations are shown to result from an inaccurate representation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. Comparison with lidar observations points out a systematic under-estimation of the PBL height by the model, whichever the PBL parameterization scheme. Such a shortcoming impedes the capture of the overlying Bárðarbunga cloud into the PBL at the right time and in sufficient quantities. This study therefore demonstrates the key role played by the PBL

  1. The magnitude and spatial range of current-use urban PCB and PBDE emissions estimated using a coupled multimedia and air transport model. (United States)

    Csiszar, Susan A; Diamond, Miriam L; Daggupaty, Sreerama M


    SO-MUM, a coupled atmospheric transport and multimedia urban model, was used to estimate spatially resolved (5 × 5 km(2)) air emissions and chemical fate based on measured air concentrations and chemical mass inventories within Toronto, Canada. Approximately 95% and 70% of Σ5PCBs (CB-28, -52, -101, -153, and -180) and Σ5PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -100, -154, and -183) emissions of 17 (2-36) and 18 (3-42) kg y(-1), respectively, undergo atmospheric transport from the city, which is partly over Lake Ontario. The urban air plume was found to reach about 50 km for PCBs and PBDEs, in the direction of prevailing winds which is almost twice the distance of the wind-independent plume. The distance traveled by the plume is a function of prevailing wind velocity, the geographic distribution of the chemical inventory, and gas-particle partitioning. Soil wash-off of historically accumulated Σ5PCBs to surface water contributed ∼ 0.4 kg y(-1) (of mainly higher congeners) to near-shore Lake Ontario compared with volatilization of ∼ 6 kg y(-1) of mainly lighter congeners. Atmospheric emissions from primary sources followed by deposition to surface films and subsequent wash-off to surface water contributed ∼ 1 kg y(-1) and was the main route of Σ5PBDE loadings to near-shore Lake Ontario which acts as a net PBDE sink. Secondary emissions of PCBs and PBDEs from at least a ∼ 900,000 km(2) rural land area would be needed to produce the equivalent primary emissions as Toronto (∼ 640 km(2)). These results provide clear support for reducing inventories of these POPs.

  2. Technical conference on air, noise, and waste - current information for multipliers in industry. Current information for multipliers in industry; Fachtagung Luft, Laerm, Abfall - Aktuelle Informationen fuer Multiplikatoren der Wirtschaft. Aktuelle Informationen fuer Multiplikatoren der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Bavarian Environmental Office informed on the new information and documentation centre for environmental technology and environmental management (IDZ), new amendments to air pollution abatement legislation and their implementation, experience from the practical application of the amended TA Laerm (Noise Regulation), the Ordinance on Noise Emitted by Equipment and Machines, and methods of supervising the disposal of classified waste according to the Ordinance on Waste from Small Industries (Gewerbeabfallverordnung). [German] DAs bayerische Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz informierte in der Tagung ueber: IDZ - Informations und Dokumentationszentrum fuer Umwelttechnologie und umweltmanagement, aktuelle Aenderungen der Gesetzgebung zur Luftreinhaltung und ihre Anwendung, Erfahrungen aus dem Vollzug der Aenderung der TA Laerm, Geraete und Maschinenlaermschutzverordnung und Nachweisverfahren ueber die Entsorgung ueberwachungsbeduerftiger Abfaelle in der Gewerbeabfallverordung. (uke)

  3. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Simulation of Eddy Current Sensor Testing of Sheet Steel with Inner Air Holes%涡流传感器检测薄板内气孔型缺陷的三维仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭书涛; 陈建钧; 潘红良


    AbBased on the theory of electromagnetic-field, the calculation model of magnetic fields generated by detecting coil is deduced. This paper simulates the magnetic-field of eddy current testing of sheet steel with inner air holes. The aim is to determine the best drive frequency of testing the sheet steel by simulating the small air hole near the lower surface. According to the air hole with different diameter and different depth, analysis is made of the change rule of amplitude and phase of corresponding impedance. The result that we got is identical to the theory of electromagnetic-field, this can provide a meaningful reference and analysis method for the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of eddy current testing.%根据电磁场理论,推导出检测线圈所产生磁场的计算模型。采用ANSYS有限元软件,对涡流检测薄板内气孔型缺陷的磁场进行了数值模拟。通过仿真靠近下表面的小气孔,来确定检测该薄板的最佳激励频率。针对不同直径、不同深度的气孔,分析对应的阻抗改变值的幅值和相位角的变化规律。得出的结果与理论相吻合,可以为涡流检测的定量定性分析提供有意义的参考依据和分析方法。

  5. Air Pollution and Industry. (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. Air-cathode preparation with activated carbon as catalyst, PTFE as binder and nickel foam as current collector for microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoan; Wu, Jiancheng


    A cathode is a critical factor that limits the practical application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in terms of cost and power generation. To develop a cost-effective cathode, we investigate a cathode preparation technique using nickel foam as a current collector, activated carbon as a catalyst and PTFE as a binder. The effects of the type and loading of conductive carbon, the type and loading of activated carbon, and PTFE loading on cathode performance are systematically studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The nickel foam cathode MFC produces a power density of 1190±50 mW m(-2), comparable with 1320 mW m(-2) from a typical carbon cloth Pt cathode MFC. However, the cost of a nickel foam activated carbon cathode is 1/30 of that of carbon cloth Pt cathode. The results indicate that a nickel foam cathode could be used in scaling up the MFC system.

  7. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  8. Experimental investigation of droplet separation in a horizontal counter-current air/water stratified flow; Experimentelle Untersuchung der Tropfenabscheidung einer horizontalen, entgegengerichteten Wasser/Luft-Schichtenstroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard


    A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV

  9. The Clinical Observation of Air Current Signs in Endotracheal Intubation through Mouth%经口明视气管内插管气流征象临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彬; 吴仲烨; 任斐; 薛鹏; 高慧; 陈彬; 刘磊; 张兆伟


    Objective:To observe the practicability and dependability of air current signs in check the result of endotracheal intubation. Method:100 cases of ASA I-II who underwent endotracheal anesthesia were chosen,and the patients with too tall,too small,too fat,acromegaly and hard to intubation were excluded.Rapid sequence induction, endotracheal intubation by common bending laryngoscope. Looking steadily at the tuba,continue enter 1-2 cm and stop when the airbag posterior border get into glottis,gasing,quickly press the sternum,check the signs of air current in tube by our ears,connect to anesthetic machine,check the tidal volume by anaeshetic machine,manual control,observe etCO2,auscultation with stethoscope two lungs and stomach to make sure the tube was get into the trachea.Result:91 cases(91%)were positive,73 cases(73%)were strong positive and the tidal volume was 61-64 mL;18 cases(18%) were weak positive and the tidal volume was about 19-22 mL,some cases only hear the signs of air current and no tidal volume;9(9%)cases were negative.Conclusion:The signs of air current in tube can be one of standard to make sure the success endotracheal intubation,shortcut,easy to do,no tissue damage on cavum oropharyngeum and respiratory tract, can operate repeatedly,has certainly practicability and dependability.%目的:观察气流征象检测气管内插管成功与否的实用性和可靠性。方法:选择较为标准的国人,剔除特别高大、矮小、肥胖、肢端肥大症、困难插管患者,100例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级气管内麻醉患者,选择合适的导管,静脉快速诱导,普通弯喉镜片明视气管内插管。插管时看到导管插入声门,导管气囊后缘进入声门再进约1~2 cm停止进管,导管气囊充气,快速按压胸骨,耳听导管内是否有气流声及强弱,接麻醉机,检测潮气量大小,手控呼吸,观察呼末二氧化碳,听诊器听诊双肺和剑突下,确定导管在气管内。结果:100例插

  10. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  11. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung


    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  12. AIRE-Linux (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi


    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  13. Air/Water Purification (United States)


    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  14. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  15. Multipollutant air quality management. (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T


    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  16. Natural Air Purifier (United States)


    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  17. 78 FR 49484 - Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property (United States)


    ... Department of Air Force Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property SUMMARY: Notice identifies excess Federal real property under administrative jurisdiction of the United States Air Force it intends to exchange for real property not currently owned by the Federal government that will be...

  18. Air Pollution Control, Part I. (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  19. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  20. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  1. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: Email ...

  2. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity. (United States)


    ... of permanent supports. (3) If machine mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved... currents cannot be controlled and air measurements cannot be obtained, the air shall have perceptible... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance...

  3. Air Cleaning Technologies (United States)


    , and personal protection methods. Engineering methods that are usually carried out by the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system function to prevent the spread of airborne infectious pathogens by diluting (dilution ventilation) and removing (exhaust ventilation) contaminated air from a room, controlling the direction of airflow and the air flow patterns in a building. However, general wear and tear over time may compromise the HVAC system’s effectiveness to maintain adequate indoor air quality. Likewise, economic issues may curtail the completion of necessary renovations to increase its effectiveness. Therefore, when exposure to airborne infectious pathogens is a risk, the use of an in-room air cleaner to reduce the concentration of airborne pathogens and prevent the spread of airborne infectious diseases has been proposed as an alternative to renovating a HVAC system. Airborne transmission is the spread of infectious pathogens over large distances through the air. Infectious pathogens, which may include fungi, bacteria, and viruses, vary in size and can be dispersed into the air in drops of moisture after coughing or sneezing. Small drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplet nuclei. Droplet nuclei are about 1 to 5μm in diameter. This small size in part allows them to remain suspended in the air for several hours and be carried by air currents over considerable distances. Large drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplets. Droplets being larger than droplet nuclei, travel shorter distances (about 1 metre) before rapidly falling out of the air to the ground. Because droplet nuclei remain airborne for longer periods than do droplets, they are more amenable to engineering infection control methods than are droplets. Droplet nuclei are responsible for the airborne transmission of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, chicken pox (varicella), measles (rubeola), and dessiminated herpes

  4. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  5. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian


    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  6. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  7. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G


    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  8. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  9. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  10. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  11. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  12. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring (United States)


    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  13. Air System Information Management (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.


    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) ( NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  14. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  15. 无人机空管领域现状分析与空管系统设计%Current Situation Analysis and Air Traffic Control System Design of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪峰; 胡潇; 杨明; 王伟勋


    According to the characteristics of low-altitude airspace management, the status of air traffic control system of UAV is analyzed and depending the application of self-developed Beidou navigation system, a frame for air traffic control system of UAV based on a general aviation Compass RDSS and ADS-B is designed, which provides a means of support for general aviation flight in low-altitude airspace of UAV.%本文针对我国低空空域管理特点,分析我国无人机空管系统的现状,结合我国自主研发的北斗导航系统的应用,设计一种基于北斗RDSS和ADS-B的无人机空管系统的体系结构,为低空空域无人机的安全飞行提供了一种技术保障手段。

  16. R9 Air Districts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  17. AirData (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  18. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))


    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  20. Decadal application of WRF/chem for regional air quality and climate modeling over the U.S. under the representative concentration pathways scenarios. Part 2: Current vs. future simulations (United States)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; Campbell, Patrick; Zhang, Yang


    Following a comprehensive model evaluation, this Part II paper presents projected changes in future (2046-2055) climate, air quality, and their interactions under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using the Weather, Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem). In general, both WRF/Chem RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar increases on average (∼2 °C) for 2-m temperature (T2) but different spatial distributions of the projected changes in T2, 2-m relative humidity, 10-m wind speed, precipitation, and planetary boundary layer height, due to differences in the spatial distributions of projected emissions, and their feedbacks into climate. Future O3 mixing ratios will decrease for most parts of the U.S. under the RCP4.5 scenario but increase for all areas under the RCP8.5 scenario due to higher projected temperature, greenhouse gas concentrations and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, higher O3 values for boundary conditions, and disbenefit of NOx reduction and decreased NO titration over VOC-limited O3 chemistry regions. Future PM2.5 concentrations will decrease for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios with different trends in projected concentrations of individual PM species. Total cloud amounts decrease under both scenarios in the future due to decreases in PM and cloud droplet number concentration thus increased radiation. Those results illustrate the impacts of carbon policies with different degrees of emission reductions on future climate and air quality. The WRF/Chem and WRF simulations show different spatial patterns for projected changes in T2 for future decade, indicating different impacts of prognostic and prescribed gas/aerosol concentrations, respectively, on climate change.

  1. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  2. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  3. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative...

  4. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server


    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  5. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S


    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  6. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter


    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F.


    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of...

  7. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  8. Low-Threshold Bidirectional Air Lasing (United States)

    Laurain, Alexandre; Scheller, Maik; Polynkin, Pavel


    Air lasing refers to the remote optical pumping of the constituents of ambient air that results in a directional laserlike emission from the pumped region. Intense current investigations of this concept are motivated by the potential applications in remote atmospheric sensing. Different approaches to air lasing are being investigated, but, so far, only the approach based on dissociation and resonant two-photon pumping of air molecules by deep-UV laser pulses has produced measurable lasing energies in real air and in the backward direction, which is of the most relevance for applications. However, the emission had a high pumping threshold, in hundreds of GW /cm2. We demonstrate that the threshold can be virtually eliminated through predissociation of air molecules with an additional nanosecond laser. We use a single tunable pump laser system to generate backward-propagating lasing in both oxygen and nitrogen in air, with energies of up to 1 μ J per pulse.

  9. National Air and Space Museum Library. (United States)

    Pietropaoli, Frank A.


    A branch of Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the National Air and Space Museum Library provides materials and services to support research programs of National Air and Space Museum. Brief histories of museum and its library and summary of museum programs provide background for overview of current library users, resources, and services.…

  10. Performance testing and classification of air filters and particulate air filters. Leistungspruefung und Klassifikation von Luft- und Schwebstoffiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, W.


    Standarized rest methods are available for evaluation of the performance of air filters and particulate air filters. While air filters are tested applying the internationally accepted ASHRAE method, standard particulate air filters, or HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air), may be tested and classified based on different standards. The methods applied, however, are insufficiently accurate with ragard to high-performance particulate air filters, or ULPA filters (ultralow penetration air). Improved, European-standard test methods are currently being developed. The CEN/TC 195 committee is responsible for the European standardization of air filters and particulate air filters. Details are given about the present situation of air and particulate air filter performance testing and classification. (orig.).

  11. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel


    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  12. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part I. model evaluation for the current decadal simulations (United States)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; He, Jian; Zhang, Yang


    A version of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU) is used to simulate the current and future atmosphere following the representative concentration partway scenarios for stabilization of radiative forcing at 4.5 W m-2 (RCP4.5) and radiative forcing of 8.5 W m-2 (RCP8.5). Part I describes the results from a comprehensive evaluation of current decadal simulations. Radiation and most meteorological variables are well simulated in CESM-NCSU. Cloud parameters are not as well simulated due in part to the tuning of model radiation and general biases in cloud variables common to all global chemistry-climate models. The concentrations of most inorganic aerosol species (i.e., SO42-, NH4+, and NO3-) are well simulated with normalized mean biases (NMBs) typically less than 20%. However, some notable exceptions are European NH4+, which is overpredicted by 33.0-42.2% due to high NH3 emissions and irreversible coarse mode condensation, and Cl-, that is negatively impacted by errors in emissions driven by wind speed and overpredicted HNO3. Carbonaceous aerosols are largely underpredicted following the RCP scenarios due to low emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and anthropogenic volatile compounds in the RCP inventory and efficient wet removal. This results in underpredictions of PM2.5 and PM10 by 6.4-55.7%. The column mass abundances are reasonably well simulated. Larger biases occur in surface mixing ratios of trace gases in CESM-NCSU, likely due to numerical diffusion from the coarse grid spacing of the CESM-NCSU simulations or errors in the magnitudes and vertical structure of emissions. This is especially true for SO2 and NO2. The mixing ratio of O3 is overpredicted by 38.9-76.0% due to the limitations in the O3 deposition scheme used in CESM and insufficient titration resulted from large underpredictions in NO2. Despite these limitations, CESM-NCSU reproduces reasonably well the current atmosphere in terms of

  13. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  14. LHC data and extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierog Tanguy


    Full Text Available Currently the uncertainty in the prediction of shower observables for different primary particles and energies is dominated by differences between hadronic interaction models. The LHC data on minimum bias measurements can be used to test Monte Carlo generators and these new constraints will help to reduce the uncertainties in air shower predictions. In this article, after a short introduction on air showers we will show the results of the comparison between the updated version of high energy hadronic interaction models EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 with LHC data. Results for air shower simulations and their consequences on comparisons with air shower data will be discussed.

  15. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter. (United States)

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F


    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism.

  16. Air Sensor Toolbox (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  17. HEPA air filter (image) (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  19. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  20. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model


    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  1. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  2. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ... (United States)


    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  3. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)


    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  4. Air Filtration as Protection against Fouling of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Lajčíková, Ariana


    Currently, air filters are one of the most critical components of air treatment systems as they decontaminate the air delivered to living space. During the operation, however, the level of harmful surface deposits increases, and at certain times, an uncleaned filter can itself become a source...... of undesirable contaminents influencing negatively the IAQ of a living space. This is the phenomenon that has been a subject of the current research. The article presents a new, alternative view on indoor air contaminents and filtration requirements. It describes alternative means of filtration and assesses...... issues of inadequate maintenance and/or long term use of applied air filters. An experimental method of evealuating the air quality by means of chemical analysis and state-of-the-art spectrometer is also described....

  5. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine


    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  6. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine


    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  7. Clean air Hamilton 2001 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This community initiative called Clean Air Hamilton was established to improve air quality in Hamilton, Ontario. It has been mandated to annually report on progress and provide advice with regard to current air quality issues. The quality of life of residents is improved as a result of the work performed by Clean Air Hamilton, and it also enhances Hamilton's image. Numerous inquiries have been received from City officials in several municipalities such as Toronto, Kitchener-Waterloo and Windsor as a testament to the success of the initiative. Financial support is received from all levels of government. The funding received from the Council has helped in attracting additional donations in support of this initiative. Clean Air Hamilton was involved in one capacity or another in research, emissions reduction projects and public awareness campaigns during 2001, and its contributions were valued at approximately 500,000 dollars. The City of Hamilton was awarded the United Nations for Human Settlements award as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. In addition, the City received the Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment. Clean Air Hamilton is ready to move to the next phase, which requires moving current structures that supplements voluntary commitments with committed funding from key stakeholders. Since June 1996, the advisory level of 32 on the Air Pollution Index has not been reached, and rarely goes over 20. Throughout the 1990s, levels of toxics have decreased significantly. A three-year self-sustaining program should be developed and funding sought for those initiatives, discussions should be facilitated among industrial stakeholders when they address air quality issues, and research should continue to be supported and advice on current air quality issues be provided to City Council. 1 fig.

  8. Global air quality and climate. (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang


    the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios assume uniformly an aggressive reduction, of air pollutant emissions. New estimates from the current generation of chemistry-climate models with RCP emissions thus project improved air quality over the next century relative to those using the IPCC SRES scenarios. These two sets of projections likely bracket possible futures. We find that uncertainty in emission-driven changes in air quality is generally greater than uncertainty in climate-driven changes. Confidence in air quality projections is limited by the reliability of anthropogenic emission trajectories and the uncertainties in regional climate responses, feedbacks with the terrestrial biosphere, and oxidation pathways affecting O(3) and SOA.

  9. Global Air Quality and Climate (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.


    Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios assume uniformly an aggressive reduction, of air pollutant emissions. New estimates from the current generation of chemistry-climate models with RCP emissions thus project improved air quality over the next century relative to those using the IPCC SRES scenarios. These two sets of projections likely bracket possible futures. We find that uncertainty in emission-driven changes in air quality is generally greater than uncertainty in climate-driven changes. Confidence in air quality projections is limited by the reliability of anthropogenic emission trajectories and the uncertainties in regional climate responses, feedbacks with the terrestrial biosphere, and oxidation pathways affecting O3 and SOA.

  10. Modulation of Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Reza Arab Markadeh


    Full Text Available Direct torque control with Current Source Inverter (CSI instead of voltage source inverter is so appropriate because of determining the torque of induction motor with machine current and air gap flux. In addition, Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is a more proper method for CSI because of low order harmonics reduction, lower switching frequency and easier implementation. This paper introduces the SVM method for CSI and uses the proposed inverter for vector control of an induction motor. The simulation results illustrate fast dynamic response and desirable torque and speed output. Fast and accurate response to changes of speed and load torque reference completely proves the prominence of this method.

  11. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution (United States)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.


    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units. (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.


    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  14. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.


    underlying architecture of ground-air and air-air communications as a whole, rather than as simple "link to function" paired solutions. For the business case analysis, a number of "reference architectures" were developed for both the future technologies and the current systems, based on three typical configurations of current aircraft. Current and future costs were assigned, and various comparisons made between the current and future architectures. In general, it was assumed that if a future architecture offers lower cost than the current typical architecture, while delivering equivalent or better performance, it is likely that the future solution will gain industry acceptance. Conversely, future architectures presenting higher costs than their current counterparts must present a compelling benefit case in other areas or risk a lack of industry acceptance. The business case analysis consistently indicated lower costs for the proposed future architectures, and in most cases, significantly so. The proposed future solutions were found to offer significantly greater functionality, flexibility, and growth potential over time, at lower cost, than current systems. This was true for overall, fleet-wide equipage for domestic and oceanic air carriers, as well as for single, General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The overall research results indicate that all identified requirements can be met by the proposed solutions with significant capacity for future growth. Results also illustrate that the majority of the future communication needs can be met using currently allocated aviation RF spectrum, if used in more effective ways than it is today. A combination of such optimized aviation-specific links and commercial communication systems meets all identified needs for the 50-year future and beyond, with the caveat that a new, overall function will be needed to manage all information exchange, individual links, security, cost, and other factors. This function was labeled "Delivery Manager" (DM

  15. Air conditioning and blowers. Special issue; Airconditioning en ventilatoren. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekeman, H.E. [Multi Import, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hol, M. [Aircool Klimaattechniek, Ridderkerk (Netherlands); Bassa, E. [ed.


    In four articles several aspects of air conditioners and blowers are discussed: the application of the newly developed electronically commutated direct current engine in high-efficiency boilers, air conditioners and cooling systems, the future for flexible synthetic cooling pipes, a description of a Mitsubishi-developed air conditioner: the Inverter Driven Multi-indoor unit, also known as the KX-system, and the importance of the private sector (houses, small businesses, cars) for the use of air conditioning installations. 8 figs.

  16. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  17. Diaphragms in air-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, J.E.


    The author will present current issues related to diaphgrams in air-operated valves. Altran Materials Engineering, Inc., often performs root-cause analyses for nuclear power plant owners. The author will discuss various analyses that have been performed or are currently underway.

  18. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  19. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    The current Ph.D. thesis deals with new advanced methods of air distribution in occupied places aimed to improve the inhaled air quality and to reduce the risk from airborne cross infection among the occupants. The existing ventilation strategies nowadays are not able to provide enough clean air...... pathogens. The threat from possible bio-terrorist attacks in the last decade makes the topic quite important. So far the existing methods of indoor air cleaning rely on several basic strategies: dilution, filtration and Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI). Dilution utilizes ventilation at high flow...... rates to reduce the concentration of pollutants/pathogens to levels that would not deteriorate the air quality or be harmful for the occupants. It is also connected to certain energy limitation issues. Filtration and UVGI are efficient in protecting occupants provided the sources are located outdoors...

  20. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  1. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne


    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  2. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage


    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder


    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  3. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others


    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  4. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review. (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte


    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  5. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment


    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  6. AirCompare (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  7. Allegheny County Air Quality (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  8. Air Quality Facilities (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  11. Air quality and future energy system planning (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick


    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  12. Air pollution in mega cities in China (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  13. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  14. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  15. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  16. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  17. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base. (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi


    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU


    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  19. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/ (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  20. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  1. Air quality standards and town planning; Luchtkwaliteitsbeleid in ruimtelijk perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, C.E.; Kruyt, H.A.; Dorel, F.G. [Bureau Luchtkwaliteit en Veiligheid, Directie Water en Milieu, Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Current levels of air pollutants still cause effects on human health. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to air quality during town planning processes. A study of the Dutch Province of South Holland showed exceedances of air quality standards near motorways in 1995 as well as in 2010. Some objects should be excluded from these zones. These are objects where people either stay during a long time of the day, or are sensitive for air pollutants or places for physical exercising. Examples of these are houses, schools and hospitals. A scheme is presented for local authorities to take Dutch Air Quality Standards into account during physical planning. 7 refs.

  2. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors (United States)

    Healy, Bud


    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  3. Displacement currents in geoelectromagnetic problems (United States)

    Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Persova, Marina; Soloveichik, Yury


    The influence of displacement currents in conventional geoelectromagnetic (GEM) methods using unimodal transversal electric (TE) or multimodal TE and TM (transversal magnetic) fields is only significant at very high frequencies in the frequency domain or at extremely early times in the time domain. The transient process in the latter includes three stages: the propagation through air, the propagation through earth and the diffusion within the earth. The influence of displacement currents is significant mainly during the former two stages, normally up to several tens to a few hundreds of nanoseconds. The behavior is essentially different in novel GEM methods using a vertical electric dipole (VED) or circular electric dipole (CED) sources of unimodal TM-fields. Under certain geoelectric conditions, the influence of displacement currents in these methods might be crucial at late times as well. This happens, if the model consists of insulating layers. In the absence of displacement currents, such layers would totally mask underlying structures. However, TM-fields including displacement currents depend on geoelectric parameters below insulating layers at late times.

  4. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko


    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  5. Use of the Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) for In-Flight Water Testing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant...

  6. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  7. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach]. (United States)

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William


    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  8. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation (United States)

    Farley, Todd


    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  9. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  10. Contact air abrasion. (United States)

    Porth, R


    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  11. Olefin metathesis in air. (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P


    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  12. Is the Current Royal Australian Air Force an Air Force of Strategic Influence? (United States)


    global non-state threats including terrorism, extremism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, illegal immigration, and illegal fishing as...export markets in Asia with favourable balances of trade, and perhaps most importantly, experienced exceptionally favourable exchange rate with the, and regularly hosts, bilateral and multilateral exercises with the US, and a number of SEA nations including Brunei, Indonesia , Malaysia

  13. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.


    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  14. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution. (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy


    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  15. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room]. (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk


    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby.

  16. Coherent radiation from extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus


    The generic properties of the emission of coherent radiation from a moving charge distribution are discussed. The general structure of the charge and current distributions in an extensive air shower are derived. These are subsequently used to develop a very intuitive picture for the properties of th

  17. The Conquest of Air and Space (United States)

    Eisley, J. G.


    Describes a course for non-engineering students as an introduction to: (1) the physical principles of flight within the atmosphere and in space, (2) the major historical developments in the conquest of air and space, and (3) the current state of aeronautical developments. (Author/TS)

  18. Air-induced inverse Chladni patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerner, van Henk Jan; Weele, van der Ko; Hoef, van der Martin A.; Meer, van der Devaraj


    When very light particles are sprinkled on a resonating horizontal plate, inverse Chladni patterns are formed. Instead of going to the nodal lines of the plate, where they would form a standard Chladni pattern, the particles are dragged to the antinodes by the air currents induced by the vibration o

  19. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  20. Current measurement apparatus (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.


    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  1. Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, V.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Boer, de A.


    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are current

  2. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  3. Evaluation of reciprocating electromagnetic air pumping for portable PEMFC (United States)

    Kwon, Kilsung; Kang, Ho; Kang, Seongwon; Kim, Daejoong


    In this paper, we present a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated with an electromagnetic (EM) air pump. The EM air pump provides the PEMFC with air by reciprocating motions of the permanent magnet attached to a flexible membrane. We performed a parametric study to decide the optimal dimensions of the reciprocating EM air pump. The effects of various operating parameters on the EM air pump were investigated with the root-mean-square (RMS) flow rate and current. A core with a higher relative permeability shows better performance. The RMS current linearly increases with the applied voltage and shows no dependence on the frequency. The RMS flow rate also increases with the voltage. The RMS flow rate per power consumption is highest at the frequency around 20 Hz and decreases as the applied voltage increases. When the reciprocating EM air pump was used to supply air to the portable PEMFC, it was found that the power density of the PEMFC increases with the applied voltage and shows the highest performance at the frequency of 10 Hz. We compared the performance of the PEMFC between the flow meter and the EM air pump used as an air supplier. About 81% of the output power using the flow meter was obtained when the EM air pump is operated at the applied voltage of 5 V. The parasitic power ratio reaches at its minimum value about 0.1 with an EM applied voltage of 0.25V.

  4. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena


    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  5. Indoor air quality and health (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  7. Air-Conditioning Mechanic. (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  8. The Air We Breathe (United States)

    Davila, Dina


    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  9. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  10. Bad Air For Children (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes


    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  11. Air pollution and society


    Brimblecombe P.


    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  12. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  13. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition. (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  14. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging (United States)


    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  15. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  16. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts


    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  17. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Construction of a Wastewater Transmission Pipeline by the City of North Las Vegas on Nellis Air Force Base Clark County, Nevada (United States)



  18. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission. (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S


    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  19. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹


    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  20. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele


    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  1. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.


    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  2. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F


    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  3. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework? (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E


    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  4. Congestion transition in air traffic networks. (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio


    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  5. Circle Points Discharge Tube Current Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Jinjia; Meng Lisheng


    Circle points discharge tube current controller is a new type device to limit theoutput of high voltage discharge current. Circle points uniform corona discharge to form airionization current in the discharge tube. On the outside, even if the discharge electrode is sparkdischarging or the two discharge electrodes are short circuited, the air ionization current in the tuberemains within a stable range, and there is no spark discharge. In this case, when the dischargecurrent only increases slightly, the requirement to limited current is obtained. By installing thecontroller at a discharge pole with a small power but high voltage supply, we can realize the shiftbetween the continuous spark line discharge and corona discharge. This provides a new simpledevice for spark discharge research and is a supplement to the Townsend discharge experiment.

  6. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  7. Air Quality Management Process Cycle (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  8. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.


    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  9. STEMS-Air: a simple GIS-based air pollution dispersion model for city-wide exposure assessment. (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David


    Current methods of air pollution modelling do not readily meet the needs of air pollution mapping for short-term (i.e. daily) exposure studies. The main limiting factor is that for those few models that couple with a GIS there are insufficient tools for directly mapping air pollution both at high spatial resolution and over large areas (e.g. city wide). A simple GIS-based air pollution model (STEMS-Air) has been developed for PM(10) to meet these needs with the option to choose different exposure averaging periods (e.g. daily and annual). STEMS-Air uses the grid-based FOCALSUM function in ArcGIS in conjunction with a fine grid of emission sources and basic information on meteorology to implement a simple Gaussian plume model of air pollution dispersion. STEMS-Air was developed and validated in London, UK, using data on concentrations of PM(10) from routinely available monitoring data. Results from the validation study show that STEMS-Air performs well in predicting both daily (at four sites) and annual (at 30 sites) concentrations of PM(10). For daily modelling, STEMS-Air achieved r(2) values in the range 0.19-0.43 (pmaps either as a screening process in urban air quality planning and management, or as the basis for health risk assessment and epidemiological studies.

  10. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola


    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  11. Olefin metathesis in air (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady


    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  12. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  13. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  14. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  15. Electroculture for crop enhancement by air anions (United States)

    Pohl, H. A.; Todd, G. W.


    Electroculture, the practice of applying strong electric fields or other sources of small air ions to growing plants, has potential to markedly increase crop production and to speed crop growth. The considerable evidence for its effectiveness, and the studies of the mechanisms for its actions are discussed. A mild current of air anions (4 pA/cm2) stimulates bean crop growth and also earlier blossoming and increased growth in the annual, Exacum affine (Persian violet), as well as in seedling geraniums. The present results would indicate that the growing period required until the plants reach a saleable stage of maturity can be shortened by about two weeks under greenhouse conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Klimko


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basic description of measurements on the experimental air turbine located in the laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering (KKE. The research on this turbine focuses on the flow in a one-stage air turbine. It monitors the influence of the spatial formation of the blades on the efficiency of the stage. A new geometry with reaction blading is currently being tested. This work has been carried out in cooperation with an industrial partner, Doosan Skoda Power (DSPW.

  17. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  18. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  19. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  20. Regional Air Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  1. Temporal solitons in air (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.


    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  2. Air Data Calibration Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  3. Investigating Air Pollution (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.


    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  4. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)


    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  5. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun


    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.

  6. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío


    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  7. Indoor Air Pollution


    Smith, Kirk R.


    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  8. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics. (United States)


    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  9. Nuclear air cushion vehicles. (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.


    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.



    Wang, Xin


    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  11. Magnetic current sensor (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)


    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  12. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert


    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  13. Steady Thermal Field Simulation of Forced Air-cooled Column-type Air-core Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qiu; LI Zhenbiao; YIN Xiaogen; YUAN Zhao


    Modeling the steady thermal field of the column-type air-core reactor,and further analyzing its distribution regularity,will help optimizing reactor design as well as improving its quality.The operation mechanism and inner insulation structure of a novel current limiting column-type air-core reactor is introduced in this paper.The finite element model of five encapsulation forced air-cooled column type air-core reactor is constructed using Fluent.Most importantly,this paper present a new method that,the steady thermal field of reactor working under forced air-cooled condition is simulated without arbitrarily defining the convection heat transfer coefficient for the initial condition; The result of the thermal field distribution shows that,the maximum steady temperature rise of forced air-cooled columntype air-core reactor happens approximately 5% to its top.The law of temperature distribution indicates:In the 1/3part of the reactor to its bottom,the temperature will rise rapidly to the increasing of height,yet the gradient rate is gradually decreasing; In the 5 % part of the reactor to its top,the temperature will drop rapidly to the increasing of height; In the part between,the temperature will rise slowly to the increasing of height.The conclusion draws that more thermal withstand capacity should be considered at the 5 % part of the reactor to its top to achieve optimal design solution.

  14. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study. (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian


    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  15. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas


    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  16. Behaviour of air discharged from a sparger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    This research has been performed as a part of the project, Development of Design Verification Technology for Korea Next Generation Reactor. At first, current state of the art of the bubble dynamics and the result will be used to develop an optimum tool including computer code for analysis of air or air-steam mixture bubble, which is discharged from a sparger. Introduced are linear perturbation; spherical bubble cloud theory; bubble interaction; and Volume of Fluid, a method of tracking free surface, which is to be used in computational fluid dynamics. An analysis was performed for the oscillation of an air bubble of perfect spherical shape. The heat transfer through the bubble surface is considered, although the effect was not so significant. The effect of initial and boundary conditions were investigated and the correlation equation was developed. 42 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. Helium corona-assisted air discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

  18. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer


    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  19. Inrush Current Control Circuit (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)


    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  20. Decomposition of residue currents


    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth


    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  1. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation. (United States)


    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Utility of AIRS Retrievals for Climate Studies (United States)

    Molnar, Guyla I.; Susskind, Joel


    Satellites provide an ideal platform to study the Earth-atmosphere system on practically all spatial and temporal scales. Thus, one may expect that their rapidly growing datasets could provide crucial insights not only for short-term weather processes/predictions but into ongoing and future climate change processes as well. Though Earth-observing satellites have been around for decades, extracting climatically reliable information from their widely varying datasets faces rather formidable challenges. AIRS/AMSU is a state of the art infrared/microwave sounding system that was launched on the EOS Aqua platform on May 4, 2002, and has been providing operational quality measurements since September 2002. In addition to temperature and atmospheric constituent profiles, outgoing longwave radiation and basic cloud parameters are also derived from the AIRS/AMSU observations. However, so far the AIRS products have not been rigorously evaluated and/or validated on a large scale. Here we present preliminary assessments of monthly and 8-day mean AIRS "Version 4.0" retrieved products (available to the public through the DAAC at NASA/GSFC) to assess their utility for climate studies. First we present "consistency checks" by evaluating the time series of means, and "anomalies" (relative to the first 4 full years' worth of AIRS "climate statistics") of several climatically important retrieved parameters. Finally, we also present preliminary results regarding interrelationships of some of these geophysical variables, to assess to what extent they are consistent with the known physics of climate variability/change. In particular, we find at least one observed relationship which contradicts current general circulation climate (GCM) model results: the global water vapor climate feedback which is expected to be strongly positive is deduced to be slightly negative (shades of the "Lindzen effect"?). Though the current AIRS climatology covers only -4.5 years, it will hopefully extend much

  4. Simulation of Gravity Currents Using VOF Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建锋; 黄钰期; 应新亚; 任安禄


    By the Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase flow model two-dimensional gravity currents with three phases including air are numerically simulated in this article. The necessity of consideration of turbulence effect for high Reynolds numbers is demonstrated quantitatively by LES (the Large Eddy Simulation) turbulence model. The gravity currents are simulated for h ≠ H as well as h = H, where h is the depth of the gravity current before the release and H is the depth of the intruded fluid. Uprising of swell occurs when a current flows horizontally into another lighter one for h ≠ H. The problems under what condition the uprising of swell occurs and how long it takes are considered in this article. All the simulated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results available.

  5. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  6. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Nogueira, J Braz


    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter particles (aerodynamic diameter biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles.

  7. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices. (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang


    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  8. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L. [ICF Kaiser International, Fairfax, VA (United States)


    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars


    . One would hardly find a standards laboratory today without an instrument employing a current comparator. The NRC program, now nearing the end of its third decade, has resulted in a large number of papers in technical journals. The fact that the results of the current-comparator program are now documented in a well-written book is a most welcome development. The material in the book is well organized and divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 deals very briefly with the historical aspects of the development, including related work in other organizations. Chapter 2 is the longest, occupying one third of the book. It presents the background theory; the definitions and origins of the errors; and the related concepts and devices including two-stage current transformers, electronic methods for improving the performance of current transformers, and null detectors. The idea of the current comparator is developed starting from Ampere's law; and then progressing to the practical realization of measuring the line integral of the magnetic field surrounding an electric current. Such an approach, as opposed to the more common methods of analyzing transformers, has a tutorial value in explaining how the current balance is achieved. Such analysis is intuitive for air-core sensing coils with infinitesimal cross-sections and uniform winding densities. The intuitive understanding, however, becomes less obvious when high-permeability magnetic cores are used. The subject of errors is discussed thoroughly. For errors of magnetic origin, ample experimental data are provided to support the hypothesis for the cause of such errors. The cause is discussed in a macroscopic sense (non-uniform effective permeability along the torus) without going into design and processing details which could be responsible for the non-uniformities. For capacitive errors, equations have been developed to compute them from geometrical considerations. Techniques are presented to reduce both types of errors shielding

  10. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao


    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  11. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  12. Urban Air Pollution in India


    Narain, Urvashi


    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  13. The Value of Clean Air (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.


    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  14. Electric current locator (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR


    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  15. Air-Sea Coupling Over The Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopika, N.

    , the monthly mean ocean surface current (Ocean Surface Current Analysis- Real time - OSCAR) data during 1992 to 2006 was also used. The atmospheric data on air temperature, wind speed and direction, net heat flux, wind stress, and fresh water flux used...

  16. A synthetic zero air standard (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth


    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  17. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  18. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.


    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  19. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  1. Estimating the change of porosity in the saturated zone during air sparging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yih-jin Tsai; Yu-chia Kuo; Tsu-chi Chen; Feng-chih Chou


    Air sparging is a remedial method for groundwater. The remedial region is similar to the air flow region in the saturated zone. If soil particles are transported during air sparging, the porosity distributions in the saturated zone change, which may alter the flow path of the air. To understand better the particle movement, this study performed a sandbox test to estimate the soil porosity change during air sparging. A clear fracture was formed and the phenomenon of particle movement was observed when the air injection was started. The moved sand filled the porous around the fracture and the reparked sand filled the fracture, reducing the porosity around the fracture. The results obtained from the photographs of the sandbox, the current measurements and the direct sand sample measurements were close to each other and are credible. Therefore, air injection during air sparging causes sand particle movement of sand, altering the characteristic of the sand matrix and the air distribution.

  2. Direct current blowers with a microprocessor; Gelijkstroomventilatoren met een microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deltenre, B. [Auerhaan, Lelystad (Netherlands)


    For mechanical ventilation of a building energy is required in order to transport fresh air to the rooms. In principle this energy is completely consumed by friction, for example in the air ducting, and therefore can not be recovered. Some manufacturers have been looking into high efficiency fans in order to save as much energy as possible. One solution has been found in the form of direct-current motors directly connected to the fan shaft.

  3. Annual Report 2009 (Project Air Force) (United States)


    occurs at fas- tener holes and is marked by bubbling up or flaking of material, similar to the way lumber that has been attacked by termites flakes...were flown at higher OPTEMPOs over longer service lives. However, the option is currently not attractive for several reasons. 48 RAND Project AIR FORCE...operating at high-altitude runways and/or in hot temperatures , winglets may improve the aircraft’s climb performance and shorten the runway length

  4. Human Factors in Air Traffic Control (United States)


    leaves him in a central role but provides some automated facilitiee to help him to do his 3ob. 7he concepto therefore have different emotional...which engender favourable attitudes towards them. Considering the amount of effort which goes into marketing commercial products, air traffic control environments. Safety standards are clear and gentrally enforced, and the equipment currently marketed does not have emissions

  5. [The seventieth anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires)]. (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N; Kotsias, Basilio A


    The historical trajectory of Medicina (Buenos Aires) and the current challenges accompanying its seventieth birthday are briefly described. The initial objectives at its foundation were to contribute to the advance of medicine, and support both clinical and experimental research in Argentina. These objectives continue to be valid. The editorial presence of the journal continues to be necessary. It is published following the international quality standards, the peer review system, and it is indexed in the main international data bases for scientific journals.

  6. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F


    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  7. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  8. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  9. Ionization current sensing; Jonstroem-maetning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aengeby, Jakob; Goeras, Anders; Nytomt, Jan [Hoerbiger Control Systems AB, Aamaal, (Sweden)


    Ion current measurements give information on the combustion in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine in run time, cycle by cycle. Ion sense has been used in gasoline engines for many years for detection of knock and misfire, combustion stability and for air to fuel ratio estimation. However, the use of ion sense in industrial gas engines has been limited, despite the potential of ion sense. The objective with the project is to investigate which combustion process information that can be retrieved using ion sense applied to industrial lean burn engines using pre-chambers for the ignition in which case the spark plug is encapsulated in the pre-chamber. Experiments show that ion current measured in the pre-chamber can successfully be used to retrieve information from the in-cylinder combustion process. It is possible to detect misfire and to some extent knock. It is also possible to optimize the ignition and hence minimize emissions and optimize the performance by using the ion current measured in the pre- chamber. A statistical signal processing approach to use more than one ion current feature in the estimation of combustion parameters was evaluated on a heavy duty gas engine. By using more than one feature the performance of in cylinder air to fuel ratio estimation was improved.

  10. Electric Current Solves Mazes (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon


    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  11. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.


    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  12. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart


    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  13. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.


    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  14. Climate Strategy with CO2 Capture from the Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D.W. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ha-Duong, M. [CNRS-CIRED, Campus du Jardin Tropical, 45 bis, av. de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent sur Marne CEDEX (France); Stolaroff, J.K. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Air capture differs from conventional mitigation in three key aspects. First, it removes emissions from any part of the economy with equal ease or difficulty, so its cost provides an absolute cap on the cost of mitigation. Second, it permits reduction in concentrations faster than the natural carbon cycle: the effects of irreversibility are thus partly alleviated. Third, because it is weakly coupled to existing energy infrastructure, air capture may offer stronger economies of scale and smaller adjustment costs than the more conventional mitigation technologies. We assess the ultimate physical limits on the amount of energy and land required for air capture and describe two systems that might achieve air capture at prices under 200 and 500 $/tC using current technology. Like geoengineering, air capture limits the cost of a worst-case climate scenario. In an optimal sequential decision framework with uncertainty, existence of air capture decreases the need for near-term precautionary abatement. The long-term effect is the opposite; assuming that marginal costs of mitigation decrease with time while marginal climate change damages increase, then air capture increases long-run abatement. Air capture produces an environmental Kuznets curve, in which concentrations are returned to preindustrial levels.

  15. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications. (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie


    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  16. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child. (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp


    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality.

  17. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.


    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  18. Comparative Results of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena


    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS/AMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS/AMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of long term CrIS/ATMS CDRs using a retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRS/AMSU Version-7.

  19. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  20. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others


    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  1. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  2. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E


    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  3. Images in the Air (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz


    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  4. Air Blast Calculations (United States)


    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  5. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark


    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  6. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring. (United States)

    Wall, Dennis


    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  7. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  8. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The applied problems of SINS/GPS integration navigation system existing in midcourse guidance of air-to-air missiles have been investigated recently. In comparison with those investigations existing in current publications, a new tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration navigation system for air-to-air missiles, based on the decorrelated pseudo-range approach, is presented in this paper. Because of high jamming and dynamic of air-to-air missiles, inertial velocity aiding GPS receiver is used to provide a more accurate, jam-resistant measurement for midcourse guidance systems. A tracking error estimator is designed to distinguish the correlation that existed between pseudo-range measurements and inertial information. It is found better to regard inertial velocity aiding errors as the noise of which statistical properties are unknown. So using mixed Kalman/minimax filtering theory, one can obtain the new tracking error estimator with simple and robust algorithm through constructing a composite filter consisting of two parts: Kalman filter for the noise of known statistics and minimax filter for the unknown. In order to ensure this simple estimator stability, a new method is proposed to choose its parameters, based on Khargonekars work. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the given method also ensures the proposed estimator optimality. All the work mentioned above is involved in the tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration midcourse system design in which a set of low-accuracy inertial components is shared by SINS and autopilot. Simulation results of a certain type of air-to-air missile are presented. Due to decorrelation by the tracking error estimator, only small white noise of pseudo-range measurements remains. So it is shown that application of the new midcourse guidance system results in better guidance accuracy, higher jam-resistance.

  10. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options. (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming


    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  11. Air quality management in China: Issues, challenges, and options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao


    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality,identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future,proposed the long-term air pollution control targets,and suggested the options for better air quality in China.With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years,China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption,electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions.Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone,as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country.To protect public health and the eco-system,the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO).To achieve the air quality targets,the emissions of SO2,NOx,PM10,and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%,40%,50%,and 40%,respectively,on the basis of that in 2005.A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China.The options include development of clean energy resources,promotion of clean and efficient coal use,enhancement of vehicle pollution control,implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2,NOx,VOC,and PM emissions,joint prevention and control of regional air pollution,and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  12. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)


    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  13. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  14. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  15. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  16. Air-Coupled Vibrometry (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  17. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  18. Aviary heating: control of air temperature heated by a set biomass gasifier-combustor in a co-current flow, using a frequency inverter; Aquecimento de aviarios: controle da temperatura do ar aquecido por um conjunto gaseificador-combustor de biomassa de fluxo concorrente, utilizando um inversor de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, William Rosario dos [Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos (UNIPAC), Ponte Nova, MG (Brazil); Silva, Jadir Nogueira; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Martins, Marcio Aredes; Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails:,,,


    One of the problems with using the gasifier for heating purposes in poultry facilities is the waste of energy during the day, once the equipment does not have control of the thermal and power generated. During this period, the difference in temperature between the air and the standard for the birds inside the building is lower than when compared with the nocturnal period. During the day, the temperature inside the poultry house is controlled by curtains, which occurs without diminishing the biomass burning. Another way to control the temperature is the shutdown of the system, which requires the constant attention of the operator. In this way, there is a potential for energy savings if the thermal power could be controlled according to the demand, which can be represented by the temperature gradient. The purpose of this study was to control the temperature of exhaustion air from a set combustor-gasifier (down draft), based on the model developed by Martin et al. (2006), through the control of speed of the fan engine and also controlling the flow contributions of primary and secondary air in the combustor. The experiment was carried out in the Energy and Pre-processing of Agricultural Products areas, at the Department of Agricultural Engineering - Federal University of Vicosa. (author)

  19. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203


    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  20. The DMU-ATMI THOR Air Pollution Forecast System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Den-mark. The integrated system consists of a series of different air pollu-tion models, which cover a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities......) and applications. The goal of the system is, on continuous basis, to produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most important air pollution species on different scales. Furthermore, the system will be an integrated part of the national urban and rural monitoring programmes and will be used for emission...... reduction scenarios supporting decision-makers. Currently, the THOR system consists of a numerical weather forecast model, ETA, a long-range air pollution chemistry-transport model, DEOM, an urban background model, BUM, and an operational street pollution model, OSPM. The ETA model is initialized...

  1. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.

  2. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)


    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  3. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat (United States)


    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  4. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Palliser, Janna


    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  5. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández


    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  6. NOAA NDBC SOS - currents (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  7. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  8. Electrifying Current Events. (United States)

    Smith, Philip


    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  9. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)


    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  10. Current Resource Imagery Projects (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  11. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  12. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni


    air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant......OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic-related...

  13. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Measuring In-Air and Underwater Hearing in Seabirds. (United States)

    Crowell, Sara C


    Electrophysiological methods were used to measure the in-air hearing of 10 species of seabirds. There are currently no measures of the underwater hearing abilities of diving birds. In preparation for constructing a behavioral audiogram both in-air and underwater hearing, several species of diving ducks were raised. Because there is a considerable amount of literature on bird hearing in air, the technical setup and training methods were modeled on similar studies, with modifications to address the nature of the underwater sound field and the difficulty of the task for the birds.

  15. Studies efficiency solar air collector




    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  16. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  17. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  18. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  19. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Avanesova


    Full Text Available Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a severe ocular disorder which requires prompt treatment to prevent low vision and blindness. It is also a significant socio-economic problem as 84% of RDD patients are able-bodied. RRD grading systems (including current Machemer grading system, risk factors, and pathogenesis are reviewed. The role of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in RDD pathogenesis and recurrence is described. Macula involvement determines RDD outcome. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides the study of retina anatomy and the analysis of parameters that affect post-op best corrected visual acuity, i.e., defects of the junction between inner segments and outer segments (IS/OS, the integrity of external (ELM and internal limiting membrane (ILM, outer nuclear layer thickness (ONLT etc. Fluorescent angiography allows to understand the reasons for low vision in anatomically successful RDD surgery. Scleral buckling, balloon buckling, pneumatic retinopexy, vitrectomy, cryopexy, and laser coagulation are important tools in surgical armamentarium. In recent years, vitrectomy is growing in popularity for RDD treatment. Criteria for procedure selection and surgical success rate in phakic and pseudophakic eyes are discussed. The outcomes of vitrectomy with air/gas and silicone oil tamponade are compared. Bimanual vitrectomy benefits are discussed. 

  20. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Avanesova


    Full Text Available Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a severe ocular disorder which requires prompt treatment to prevent low vision and blindness. It is also a significant socio-economic problem as 84% of RDD patients are able-bodied. RRD grading systems (including current Machemer grading system, risk factors, and pathogenesis are reviewed. The role of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in RDD pathogenesis and recurrence is described. Macula involvement determines RDD outcome. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides the study of retina anatomy and the analysis of parameters that affect post-op best corrected visual acuity, i.e., defects of the junction between inner segments and outer segments (IS/OS, the integrity of external (ELM and internal limiting membrane (ILM, outer nuclear layer thickness (ONLT etc. Fluorescent angiography allows to understand the reasons for low vision in anatomically successful RDD surgery. Scleral buckling, balloon buckling, pneumatic retinopexy, vitrectomy, cryopexy, and laser coagulation are important tools in surgical armamentarium. In recent years, vitrectomy is growing in popularity for RDD treatment. Criteria for procedure selection and surgical success rate in phakic and pseudophakic eyes are discussed. The outcomes of vitrectomy with air/gas and silicone oil tamponade are compared. Bimanual vitrectomy benefits are discussed. 

  1. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells


    Wang, Lei; 王雷


    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  2. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)


    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  3. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  4. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs


    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  5. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  6. Aeromicrobiology/air quality (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.


    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  7. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia


    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  8. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  9. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration. (United States)

    Monk, Brian


    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  10. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education. (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  11. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland


    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  12. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert


    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  13. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor (United States)


    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  14. Air Cargo Security (United States)


    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  15. Dental Compressed Air Systems. (United States)


    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  16. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  17. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  18. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan


    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  19. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim


    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  20. Progress Towards AIRS Science Team Version-7 at SRT (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Kouvaris, Louis


    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS that have been proven useful to scientists in understanding climate processes. CDRs are gridded level-3 products which include all cases passing AIRS Climate QC. SRT has made significant further improvements to AIRS Version-6. At the last Science Team Meeting, we described results using SRT AIRS Version-6.22. SRT Version-6.22 is now an official build at JPL called 6.2.4. Version-6.22 results are significantly improved compared to Version-6, especially with regard to water vapor and ozone profiles. We have adapted AIRS Version-6.22 to run with CrIS/ATMS, at the Sounder SIPS which processed CrIS/ATMS data for August 2014. JPL AIRS Version-6.22 uses the Version-6 AIRS tuning coefficients. AIRS Version-6.22 has at least two limitations which must be improved before finalization of Version-7: Version-6.22 total O3 has spurious high values in the presence of Saharan dust over the ocean; and Version-6.22 retrieved upper stratospheric temperatures are very poor in polar winter. SRT Version-6.28 addresses the first concern. John Blaisdell ran the analog of AIRS Version-6.28 in his own sandbox at JPL for the 14th and 15th of every month in 2014 and all of July and October for 2014. AIRS Version-6.28a is hot off the presses and addresses the second concern.

  1. An air gap moderates the performance of nanowire array transistors (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Mehta, Jeremy S.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.


    Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance. The air gap acts as an additional dielectric layer that reduces the accumulation of charge carriers due to a gate voltage. Conventional determination of the charge carrier mobility ignores the presence of an air gap, resulting in an overestimate of charge carrier accumulation and an underestimate of charge carrier mobility. It is shown that the larger the air gap, the larger the mobility correction (which can be greater than an order of magnitude) and the larger the degradation in on–off current ratio. These results demonstrate the importance of minimizing the air gap and of taking the air gap into consideration when analyzing the electrical performance of transistors consisting of stacked nanowires. This finding is applicable to all types of stacked one-dimensional materials including organic and inorganic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes.

  2. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael


    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  3. 空调列车内空气品质改善途径探讨%Approaching Ways to Improve Air Quality of Air-conditioning Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Strengthening fresh air effect is one of the best ways to improve air quality of air-conditioning train in our country. In view of the problems exiting in fresh air treatment of the current passenger train air conditioning system, setting up independent fresh air treatment system and sending high quality fresh air to passenger directly is supposed to attain that goal.%加强新风效应是改善我国铁路空调客车空气品质最有效的途径之一。针对现有的客车空调系统在处理新风上存在的问题,提出设置独立的新风处理系统,将高品质的新风直接送入乘客呼吸区,以达到加强新风效应的目的。

  4. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  5. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡凡; 王秀丽


    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator’s contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff’s laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm .

  6. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  7. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  8. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)


    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  9. Current concepts in osteolysis. (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Wimhurst, J A; Clark, I M; Donell, S T


    The most frequent cause of failure after total hip replacement in all reported arthroplasty registries is peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Osteolysis is an active biological process initiated in response to wear debris. The eventual response to this process is the activation of macrophages and loss of bone. Activation of macrophages initiates a complex biological cascade resulting in the final common pathway of an increase in osteolytic activity. The biological initiators, mechanisms for and regulation of this process are beginning to be understood. This article explores current concepts in the causes of, and underlying biological mechanism resulting in peri-prosthetic osteolysis, reviewing the current basic science and clinical literature surrounding the topic.

  10. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.


    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  11. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal) (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  13. Air pollution - reduction of air pollution for plants to produce and process vegetable oils. Emissionen - Emissionsminderung bei Anlagen zur Gewinnung und Bearbeitung pflanzlicher Oele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, M. (Broekelmann und Co., Oelmuehle und Raffinerie KG, Hamm (Germany, F.R.))


    The waste gas flows and the connected air pollution for a typical plant to process softseeds up to a capacity of about 50 t/h and refinery of about 15 t/h are given and suited measures for the reduction of air pollution are described. On current occasion the paper refers to the VDI-Richtlinie Nr. 2592. (orig.).

  14. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao


    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  15. [Acromegaly: current view]. (United States)

    Kršek, Michal


    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  16. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran


    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  18. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  19. Solid sorbent air sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  1. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac


    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  3. Ag-Air Service (United States)


    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  4. Current management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis A Papadopoulos


    Full Text Available Presbyopia is a physiologic inevitability that causes gradual loss of accommodation during the fifth decade of life. The correction of presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. Different approaches on the cornea, the crystalline lens and the sclera are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability. There are however, a number of limitations and considerations that have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical correction for presbyopia. The quality of vision, optical and visual distortions, regression of effect, complications such as corneal ectasia and haze, anisometropia after monovision correction, impaired distance vision and the invasive nature of the currently techniques have limited the utilization of presbyopia surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of current procedures available for presbyopia correction and their limitations.

  5. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus


    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  6. Current Research Activities. (United States)


    King, Frederick Van Zee , James Kisker, Dale Walline, Paul 9 Krogslund, Kathy Watkins, J. Boyce I, SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCH I. Dynamics from the University of Mexico set up arrays of seismo- meters to detect the sound waves generated by the explosions at sea. By combining our...instruments have been used also to supplement sonobuoy data in an extensive survey of crustal structure near the East Pacific Rise off Mexico , in some

  7. Current and future photovoltaics


    Boreland, M.B.; Bagnall, D.M.


    Photovoltaics, now a billion-dollar industry, is experiencing staggering growth as increased concerns over fuel supply and carbon emissions have encouraged governments and environmentalists to become increasingly prepared to offset the extra cost of solar energy. Three 'generations' of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Photovoltaic production is currently 90% 'first-generation' or '1G' solar cells that rely on expensive bulk multi-crystalline or...

  8. Lubricated viscous gravity currents


    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Worster, M. Grae


    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available via CUP at We present a theoretical and experimental study of viscous gravity currents lubricated by another viscous fluid from below. We use lubrication theory to model both layers as Newtonian fluids spreading under their own weight in two-dimensional and axisymmetric settings over a smooth rigid horizontal surfa...

  9. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki


    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  10. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.


    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  11. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  12. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V


    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  13. Turbidity Current Head Mixing (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo


    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  14. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.


    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  15. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology


    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett


    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  17. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim


    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  18. Pulmonary effects of exposure to pig barn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit


    Full Text Available Abstract Swine production has undergone rapid transformation from family owned operation to a large scale industrial enterprise. Since increasing number of pigs are reared on a large scale in confined buildings, some of the swine barn workers may be employed to work eight hours per day. Swine barn workers suffer from higher incidences of impaired air flow and lung inflammation, which is attributed to high intensity and interrupted exposures to pig barn air. The air in these barns contains gases, dust, microbes and endotoxin with endotoxin being the major suspect as the cause of lung dysfunction. This review attempts to describe the current state of knowledge of incidences and mechanisms of pulmonary dysfunction following exposure to the barn air.

  19. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries. (United States)

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H


    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation.

  20. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, K L


    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long-established. A recent development is the computerised aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the novel voltage decay inversion, and an established volt...

  1. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network. (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício


    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  2. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó


    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  3. The Cost of Air Pollution


    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation


    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  4. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics


    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk


    Full Text Available The paper presents blocking algorithm for current protection during inrush process. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the ratio of the positive sequence second harmonic current to the negative sequence first harmonic current.

  6. Stochastic longshore current dynamics (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar


    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  7. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali


    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  8. [Air quality and climate change]. (United States)

    Loft, Steffen


    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  9. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul


    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  10. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  11. CV or not to be? alternatives to U.S. sea-based air power


    Cruz, Yniol A.


    The thesis focuses on aircraft carriers and identifying an appropriate path towards the future of U.S. sea-based air power by studying historical cases of air power integration into the war fighting capabilities of the fleet. It analyzes current utilization and effectiveness of the aircraft carrier, given its operational requirements with respect to identified threats as described in security and strategy statements. It can be agreed upon that the U.S. Navy requires air cover; but wheth...

  12. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu


    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  13. Light Cone Current Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald


    This talk follows by a few months a talk by the same authors on nearly the same subject at the Coral Gables Conference. The ideas presented here are basically the same, but with some amplification, some change of viewpoint, and a number of new questions for the future. For our own convenience, we have transcribed the Coral Gables paper, but with an added ninth section, entitled "Problems of light cone current algebra", dealing with our present views and emphasizing research topics that require study.

  14. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore


    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Full Text Available This article attempts to unravel the current scenario in online publishing. Advent of internet has brought with it tremendous changes in the publishing industry. What was hither to an industry dominated by publisher has been thrown open to one and sundry. Online publishing has brought with it a reach which was hitherto never been imagined. In the normal course it would take at least a year to publish a manuscript. Online publishing has managed to bring this time down to a few weeks / at most a month. This article attempts to discusses the positives and perils of online publishing scenario.

  16. SBC Dark Current Measurement (United States)

    Ogaz, Sara


    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  17. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens


    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  18. Saturn's Other Ring Current (United States)

    Crary, F. J.


    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  19. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan


    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  20. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk


    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  1. Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Siren, K.; Zhivov, A.M.


    The objectives of air distribution systems for warm air heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are to create the proper thermal environment conditions in the occupied zone (combination of temperature, humidity, and air movement), and to control vapor and air born particle concentration within the target levels set by the process requirements and/or threshold limit values based on health effects, fire and explosion prevention, or other considerations. HVAC systems designs are constrained by existing codes, standards, and guidelines, which specify some minimum requirements for the HVAC system elements, occupant`s and process environmental quality and safety. There is a variety of different methods consulting engineers use to design room air diffusion and to select and size air diffusers, such as assumption of perfect mixing, design methods employing the empirical relations determined through research, such as the air diffusion performance index (ADPI), air jet theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Air supplied into the room through the various types of outlets (grills, ceiling mounted air diffusers, perforated panels etc.), is distributed by turbulent air jets. In mixing type air distribution systems, these air jets are the primary factor affecting room air motion. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies that developed a solid base for turbulent air jets theory were conducted concurrently in different countries (Germany, Sweden, Russia, U.K., USA) from the 1930`s through the 1980`s. Design methods based on air jet theory allows for the prediction of extreme values of air velocities and air temperatures in the occupied zone of empty spaces. Current air jet theory techniques account for the effects of buoyancy, confinement, jets interaction. For many conditions of jet discharge, it is possible to analyze jet performance and determine: the angle of divergence of the jet boundary; the velocity patterns along heated or chilled the jet axis; the

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris


    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  3. Development of carbon-based cathodes for Li-air batteries: Present and future (United States)

    Woo, Hyungsub; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Chunjoong; Nam, Seunghoon; Park, Byungwoo


    Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-air) batteries are regarded as one of the most fascinating energy storage devices for use in the future electric vehicles, since Li-air batteries provide ten-times-higher theoretical capacities than those from current Li-ion batteries. Nonetheless, Li-air batteries have not yet been implemented to the market because of several major drawbacks such as low capacity, poor cycle life, and low round-trip efficiency. These battery performances are highly dependent on the design of air cathodes, thus much effort has been devoted to the development of high performance cathode. Among various materials, carbonaceous materials have been widely studied as the basis of air cathodes especially for non-aqueous Li-O2 cells due to their high electric conductivity, low cost, and ease of fabrication. This review summarizes the history, scientific background, and perspectives of Liair batteries, particularly from the viewpoint of carbon-based air cathodes.

  4. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner


    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  5. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović


    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  6. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards. (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  7. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.


    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  8. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))


    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  9. Air Composition and Chemistry (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter


    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  10. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne


    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  11. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi


    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  12. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.


    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  13. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ... (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  14. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016 (United States)

    Vyas, Sangita


    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi’s during the winter. PMID:27978542

  15. 2035 Air Dominance Requirements for State-On-State Conflict (United States)


    within range).17 The US has successfully demonstrated a megawatt-class, Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser.18 Current assessments reveal a 100 kilowatt...the precise, coordinated application of the various elements of air, space and surface power to bring disproportionate pressure on enemy leaders to

  16. The implications of the Irish air travel tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldhuis; J. Zuidberg


    Aer Lingus, Ryanair and CityJet (the ‘Airlines’) are currently endeavouring to persuade the Irish Government to withdraw the Irish Air Travel Tax (ATT), which has applied to flights out of Ireland since 30 March 2009. The Airlines have commissioned "Amsterdam Aviation Economics" (part of SEO Economi

  17. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  18. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  19. A Critical Review of Air Pollution Index Systems in the United States and Canada (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Thom, Gary C.


    An extensive survey of air pollution indices reveals great diversity in calculation and descriptor categories. This lack of uniformity creates confusion, suggests questionable technical validity, and discourages a national picture. The authors recombined indices currently in use to develop a Standardized Urban Air Quality Index for national use.…

  20. Air Mobility and the Development of Attack Aviation During the Vietnam War from 1965-1967 (United States)


    to-ground suppressive fires, air-to-ground gunnery, escape and evasion , unit terminal guidance teams (pathfinders), and individual aircrew...more mobile. However, the board believed that under the current fiscal constraints developing the Howze board vision of an air assault force was

  1. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins (United States)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  2. A realistic treatment of geomagnetic Cherenkov radiation from cosmic ray air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf


    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We discuss the importance of a correct

  3. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry (United States)

    Schwarz, Guido


    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  4. Current Regulations and Regulatory Actions (United States)

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  5. Current submarine atmosphere control technology. (United States)

    Mazurek, W


    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application.

  6. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda


    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  7. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Zhang; Lu-Nan; Yan


    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches.

  8. Brain abscess: Current management (United States)

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael


    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  9. Current Automotive Holometry Studies (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.


    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  10. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.


    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  11. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI


    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  12. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE


    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  13. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo


    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  14. Screening in humid air plasmas (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey


    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  15. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  16. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  17. A Breath of Fresh Air (United States)

    Belew, Rachel


    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  18. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Mak, Lily


    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  19. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  20. Protective supplied breathing air garment (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.


    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  1. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck, Tilman


    Full Text Available Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning.

  2. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!? (United States)

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  3. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)


    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  4. Picosecond laser filamentation in air (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel


    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  5. Lithium-Air Cell Development (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.


    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney


    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  7. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob


    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  8. Air Separation Using Hollow Fiber Membranes (United States)

    Huang, Stephen E.


    300 different hydrocarbons commonly found in JP- 8, Jet A, and JP-5 fuels. I researched the major hydrocarbons that has a concentration of greater than 50 parts per million and found the vapor pressure data coefficients for a specific temperature range. The coefficients were applied to Antoine s Equation and Riedel's Equation to calculate the vapor pressures for that specific hydrocarbon in the specific temperature range. With the vapor pressure data scientists can formulate a fuel composition that has a lower vapor pressure profile, therefore making jet fuels less flammable. work, learn how to operate and examine the data from Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer, and develop new ways in applying hollow fiber membrane technology to other areas of environmental engineering. The United States military currently uses air separation technology and their primary The other side of making air travel safer is to reformulate the fuel. Analyses of three My goal this summer is to learn about hollow fiber membrane technologies and how they

  9. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  10. Air Safety Spinoffs (United States)


    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  11. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Force of Dry-Type Air-Core Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhi-gang; GENGYing-san; WANGJian-hua


    This paper presents a coupled magnetic-circuit method for computing the magnetic force of air-core reactor under short-time current. The current and the magnetic flux density are computed first and then the magnetic force is obtained. Thus, the dynamic stability performance of air-core reactor can be analyzed at the design stage to reduce experimental cost and shorten the lead-time of product development.

  13. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control... (United States)


    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  14. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  15. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)]. (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G


    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  16. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan


    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  17. Current ADC Linker Chemistry. (United States)

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce


    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugation to the multiple lysines or cysteines found in mAbs, significant research efforts are now being directed toward the production of discrete, homogeneous ADC products, via site-specific conjugation. These site-specific conjugations may involve genetic engineering of the mAb to introduce discrete, available cysteines or non-natural amino acids with an orthogonally-reactive functional group handle such as an aldehyde, ketone, azido, or alkynyl tag. These site-specific approaches not only increase the homogeneity of ADCs but also enable novel bio-orthogonal chemistries that utilize reactive moieties other than thiol or amine. This broadens the diversity of linkers that can be utilized which will lead to better linker design in future generations of ADCs.

  18. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives. (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A


    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  19. [Current management of epilepsy]. (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro


    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  20. Umbilical metastases: current viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Federico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical metastases from a malignant neoplasm, also termed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, are not commonly reported in the English literature, and they have usually been considered as a sign of a poor prognosis for the patient. The present article reports on the current view point on umbilical metastasis besides discussing the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatment. Method A search of Pubmed was carried out using the term 'umblic*' and 'metastases' or metastasis' revealed no references. Another search was made using the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" or sister Joseph nodule" that revealed 99 references. Of these there were 14 review articles, however when the search was limited to English language it yielded only 20 articles. Articles selected from these form the basis of this report along with cross references. Results The primary lesions usually arise from gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract malignancies and may be the presenting symptom or sign of a primary tumour in an unknown site. Conclusion A careful evaluation of all umbilical lesions, including an early biopsy if appropriate, is recommended. Recent studies suggest an aggressive surgical approach combined with chemotherapy for such patients may improve survival.

  1. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge


    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  2. Bioartificial liver: current status. (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M


    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  3. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A


    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  4. Psychosomatics: a current overview. (United States)

    Fischbein, José Eduardo


    The term 'psychosomatic' has typically defined a series of illnesses in which somatic injury breaks out from psychic conflict not recognized as such. Currently, health is considered the only psychosomatic state of integration of mind and soma: an ideal state of integration. Somatic pathology is an effect of mind/body splitting. In the heterogeneous 'field of psychosomatics' interaction between psyche and soma ranges from classical psychosomatic illness to sporadic episodes in which the body has responded to an inability to process mental conflict. The author briefly reviews the development of psychoanalytic thought on psychosomatics in Argentina. He suggests the need to find appropriate conceptual tools to approach the mental structure underlying this pathology. He presents his ideas about the mental functioning of patients with somatization disorders. He introduces the concept of somatic event as a restitution phenomenon through which the subject attempts to re-establish self-integration and links with reality. He also offers some reflections on temporality and on changes in psychoanalytic technique with these patients. A clinical case illustrates his ideas.

  5. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team


    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  6. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails:;;


    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  7. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang


    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  8. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Indoor Environment Separated with Down-Feed Air Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chunmei; ZHANG Yufeng; CHANG Ru; WANG Xiaodong


    Indoor environment separated with down.feed air curtain was numerically simulated and experimentally researched.Indoor airflow and temperature fields separated with air curtain were numerically simulated.Resuits show that both polluted airflow and thermal air current can be separated with a down.feed air curtain to prevent contaminants from spreading in the room space.In a test chamber.the smoke of burning Tibetan incense served as the source of contaminants.and the probe test shows that 1.0 pm is the prevailing diameter of the smoke particles.During the release of the smoke.the particle concentration of the indoor air was tested with a laser particle counter at the points of three different heights from the floor when the air curtain was running or not.Experimental results show that the higher the test point is located,the lower the particle concentration is,implying that the separating or isolating eflfect decreases as the air velocity of the curtain reduces along with the height descends.According to both simulation and experimental results.down.feed air curtain can separate indoor environment effectively when the supply air velocity of air curtain is not less than 3 m/s.In order to strengthen separation effect,it is suggested that the supply air velocity be speeded up to 5 m/s.

  9. Radioxenon spiked air. (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R


    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  10. Airing Out Anthrax (United States)


    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  11. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia


    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  12. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture. (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others


    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  13. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl


    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  14. Discharge current and current of supershort avalanche E-beam at volume nanosecond discharge in non-uniform electric field (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Rybka, Dmitrii V.; Baksht, Evgenii H.; Kostyrya, Igor'D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.


    The gas diode current-voltage characteristics at the voltage pulses applied from the RADAN and SM-3NS pulsers, and generation of an supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) have been studied experimentally in an inhomogeneous electric field upon a nanosecond breakdown in an air gap at atmospheric pressure. Displacement currents with amplitude over 1 kA have been observed and monitored. It is shown that the displacement current amplitude gets increased due to movement of the dense plasma front and charging of a "capacitor" formed between plasma and anode. The SAEB generation time relatively to the discharge current pulses and the gap voltage were determined in the experiments. It is shown that the SAEB current maximum at the pulser voltages of hundreds kV is registered on the discharge current pulse front, before the discharge current peak of the gas diode capacitance, and the delay time of these peaks is determined by the value of an interelectrode spacing. The delay time in case of a gap of 16 mm and air breakdown at atmospheric pressure was ~100 ps, and in case of 10 mm it was less than 50 ps.

  15. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael


    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  16. Modeling green infrastructure land use changes on future air ... (United States)

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also result in more removal of air pollutants via dry deposition with increased vegetative surfaces. Cooler surface temperatures can also decrease ozone formation through the increases of NOx titration; however, cooler surface temperatures also lower the height of the boundary layer resulting in more concentrated pollutants within the same volume of air, especially for primary emitted pollutants (e.g. NOx, CO, primary particulate matter). To better understand how green infrastructure impacts air quality, the interactions between all of these processes must be considered collectively. In this study, we use a comprehensive coupled meteorology-air quality model (WRF-CMAQ) to simulate the influence of planned land use changes that include green infrastructure in Kansas City (KC) on regional meteorology and air quality. Current and future land use data was provided by the Mid-America Regional Council for 2012 and 2040 (projected land use due to population growth, city planning and green infrastructure implementation). These land use datasets were incorporated into the WRF-CMAQ modeling system allowing the modeling system to propagate the changes in vegetation and impervious surface coverage on meteoro

  17. Simulation of radiation energy release in air showers (United States)

    Glaser, Christian; Erdmann, Martin; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Huege, Tim; Schulz, Johannes


    A simulation study of the energy released by extensive air showers in the form of MHz radiation is performed using the CoREAS simulation code. We develop an efficient method to extract this radiation energy from air-shower simulations. We determine the longitudinal profile of the radiation energy release and compare it to the longitudinal profile of the energy deposit by the electromagnetic component of the air shower. We find that the radiation energy corrected for the geometric dependence of the geomagnetic emission scales quadratically with the energy in the electromagnetic component of the air shower with a second-order dependence on the atmospheric density at the position of the maximum shower development Xmax. In a measurement where Xmax is not accessible, this second order dependence can be approximated using the zenith angle of the incoming direction of the air shower with only a minor loss in accuracy. Our method results in an intrinsic uncertainty of 4% in the determination of the energy in the electromagnetic air-shower component, which is well below current experimental uncertainties.

  18. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc


    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  19. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli


    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  20. Dynamic Air Route Open-Close Problem for Airspace Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dynamic airspace management plans and assigns airspace resources to airspace users on demand to increase airspace capacity. Although many studies of air traffic flow management (ATFM) have sought to optimally allocate air traffic to get the best use of given airspace resources, few studies have focused on how to build an efficient air traffic network or how to adjust the current network in real time. This paper presents an integer program model named the dynamic air route open-close problem (DROP). DROP has a cost-based objective function which takes into account constraints such as the shortest occupancy time of routes, which are not considered in ATFM models. The aim of DROP is to determine which routes will be opened to a certain user during a given time period. Simulation results show that DROP can facilitate utilization of air routes. DROP, a simplified version of an air traffic network constructing problem, is the first step towards realizing dynamic airspace management. The combination of ATFM and DROP can facilitate decisions toward more reasonable, efficient use of limited airspace resources.