WorldWideScience

Sample records for air conditioning systems

  1. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  2. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  3. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  4. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  5. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, R.; Abdul-Ameer, A. [British University in Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2011-03-15

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning modelling methods, for large scale, spatially dispersed systems are considered. Existing techniques are discussed and proposals for the application of novel analysis approaches are outlined. The use of distributed-lumped parameter procedures enabling the incorporation of the relatively concentrated and significantly dispersed, system element characteristics, is advocated. A dynamic model for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system comprising inlet and exhaust fans, with air recirculation, heating/cooling and filtration units is presented. Pressure, airflow and temperature predictions within the system are computed following input, disturbance changes and purging operations. The generalised modelling advancements adopted and the applicability of the model for heating, ventilation and air conditioning system simulation, re-configuration and diagnostics is emphasised. The employment of the model for automatic, multivariable controller design purposes is commented upon. (author)

  6. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  7. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  8. Air cleaning system isolation during tornado conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of a tornado at the site of an operating nuclear power generating station creates unstable atmospheric conditions which can be detrimental to the proper operation of the plant air cleaning system. One means of mitigating or preventing this hazard is isolation of the system from the unstable environment by closure of the system openings during the unstable conditions. For maximum system protection the closure should be an automatic response to the adverse conditions themselves, without reliance on manual or remote sensing or signals. The interaction of tornado characteristics with velocity/pressure sensitive isolation devices is modeled. Force and time relationships are investigated to evaluate and predict the interaction. Laboratory test apparatus is developed for simulating the flows and pressures induced by the tornado at system openings. Several isolation devices of various sizes are subjected to a range of simulated tornado conditions for observation and evaluation of response time, sensitivity, and dyamic closing forces. The model, apparatus, experimentation, and results are presented

  9. Computer Model to Estimate Reliability Engineering for Air Conditioning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability engineering is used to predict the performance and optimize design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are expose to a number of failures. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. Forecasting for system failure rates are very important for maintenance. This paper focused on the reliability of the air conditioning systems. Statistical distributions that were commonly applied in reliability settings: the standard (2 parameter) Weibull and Gamma distributions. After distributions parameters had been estimated, reliability estimations and predictions were used for evaluations. To evaluate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several The company's departments. This air conditioning system is divided into two, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40-45 degree F (4-7 degree C). The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, this is due to the Weibull and Gamma distributions indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively. A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families was studied. It was found that Weibull method performed for decision making.

  10. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaji Assadi M.; Gilani S. I.; Jun Yen T. C.

    2016-01-01

    To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO FUZZY CONTROLLER ALGORITHM FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    AMRIT KAUR; ARSHDEEP KAUR

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the neuro-fuzzy controller algorithm for air conditioning system. Neuro-fuzzy control combines the learning capabilities of neural networks and control capabilities of fuzzy logic control. The neurofuzzy controller for air conditioning system takes two inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and controls the compressor speed. The experimental results of the developed system are also shown.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO FUZZY CONTROLLER ALGORITHM FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMRIT KAUR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the neuro-fuzzy controller algorithm for air conditioning system. Neuro-fuzzy control combines the learning capabilities of neural networks and control capabilities of fuzzy logic control. The neurofuzzy controller for air conditioning system takes two inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and controls the compressor speed. The experimental results of the developed system are also shown.

  13. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  14. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  15. A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. ABDALLA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

  16. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaji Assadi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of the thermal performance was done, using the solar ray-tracing model provided by the ANSYS-FLUENT software.

  17. Performance and evaluation of desiccant based air conditioning system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav S. Wani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Project work presents study and experimental analysis of Desiccant based air conditioning system.The main purpose of this project is to increase the efficency of air conditioning system.In the convenstional air conditioning system cooling coli has two load latent load and sensible load. Cooling has to cool the air and simultaneously to dehumidify it.It increases load on cooling coil and affects performance to the system. To increase the efficiency the air conditioning system desiccant materials are used at the inlet of the air conditioning test rig. Desiccant materials attract moisture based on differences in vapor pressure. Due to their enormous affinity to absorb water and considerable ability to hold water. Due to use of desiccant material load on the cooling coil reduces since moisture is absorbed by desiccant; cooling coil has to take only sensible load. Analysis is done using different desiccant materials and based on the observation, power consumption before and after desiccant is calculated. From this conclusion is made that desiccant material improves the efficiency of air conditioning test rig

  18. Applicability of sewage heat pump air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金华; 刘猛; 刘勇; 靳鸣; 陈洁

    2009-01-01

    A sewage heat pump system and its application based on a project in Chongqing,China,were discussed. Based on the sewage conditions,a feasibility analysis of the sewage heat pump air conditioning system was conducted. The theoretical and quantitative calculations indicate that sewage flux in the city sewage main pipe in the project can satisfy heat exchange requirements,and taking water from the pipes has relatively small influence on the pipe net in summer and winter. The sewage heat pump air-conditioning system can save 21.5% operating cost in one year,which is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

  19. Air Conditioning Systems from a 2nd Law Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Marletta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper exergy analysis is used to assess the performance of the three most common air conditioning plant schemes: all-air, dual-duct and fan-coil systems. The results are presented in terms of flow diagrams to provide a clear picture of the exergy flow across the systems. The most relevant outcomes are that the air cooling and dehumidification is the process most responsible for the exergy loss and that the exergy efficiency of the overall systems is rather low; thus the quest for more...

  20. Design of energy efficient ventilation and air-conditioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seppänen, Olli; Bertilsson, Thore; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Lamy, Hervé; Vanden Borre, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook covers numerous system components of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and shows how they can be improved by applying the latest technology products. Special attention is paid to details, which are often overlooked in the daily design practice, resulting in poor performance of high quality products once they are installed in the building system.

  1. Step response and frequency response of an air conditioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, R.D.; Jackman, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A system of induction units of an existing air conditioning system has been analyzed with respect to its dynamic properties. Time constants were calculated and measured by analogue models. Comparison with measurements at the installation itself showed a reasonable agreement. Frequency responses were

  2. Design and Implementation of Air Conditioning System in Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Htet Aung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The system is air conditioning system in operating room. The main objective of the system was implemented to provide air balance and temperature necessary conditions and to control airflow system for ventilation units in operating room. The operation room can be controlled with fuzzy expert system and describes the desired outputs. Input parameters such as temperature, humidity, oxygen and particle are used and output parameters are chosen as air conditioning motor speed and exhaust motor speed. Input parameters of the system are taken into account optimal conditions based on oxygen as medium and other parameters are chosen minimum condition for operating room. The airflow control system is determined the two components: the airflow block and the thermal block for ventilation units in operating room. The mathematical modeling of each such system based on a computational procedure and to combine them together in an efficient manner. Whether it supports to the most suitable control for the system prototype was determined by simulating the operation with varying the number of personnel and duration of time. Finally, according to the combination of temperature and airflow regulations with PI controller, the results of simulation of the entire ventilation unit control system is obtained.

  3. Refrigerating and air conditioning systems: dilemmas in the future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    harmful influence of CFC fluids, depletion on the ozone layer and global warming of Earth. Survey on the most applied refrigerants and their potentials for harmful influence on the ozone layer and global warming. Montreal protocol and additional regulations (amendments). Measures for a phase-out of CFCs in Republic of Macedonia, projects, forming of training centers, training courses for good maintenance and servicing of refrigerating and air conditioning systems, equipment for recovery and recycling of refrigerants. The newest alternative refrigerants and their properties. Specifics in application of the new HFC fluids. Natural refrigerants: ammonia, carbon-hydrogen's, carbon-dioxide, water, air. Failing (toxicity and flammability) and advantages in their appliance. New concepts of refrigerating and air conditioning systems. Cross way in the future development of refrigerating and air conditioning systems. Crossing of opposite views and interest on the international level. Missing of strategy in Republic of Macedonia in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning. paradox in R. Macedonia: ammonia refrigerating systems go out of use. (Author)

  4. Hybrid liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on a hybrid liquid desiccant air-conditioning system consisting of a conventional liquid desiccant system and a vapour compression heat pump. The hybrid liquid desiccant air-conditioning system is expected to enhance the system efficiency of a conventional liquid desiccant system. In this study, the liquid desiccant is aqueous solution of lithium chloride and the refrigerant of the vapour compression heat pump is R407C. The main feature of this system is that the absorber and regenerator are integrated with the evaporator and condenser respectively. The performance evaluation test is conducted to obtain the primary data. Additionally, the improvement method for the system efficiency is discussed by the mathematical calculations. As a result, the system can dehumidify 5.9 g/kg(DA) under the conditions of summer in Tokyo, Japan. Then, the calculation results show that COPs can become higher by improving the compressor isentropic efficiency and the temperature efficiency of solution heat exchanger. - Highlights: → We focus on a hybrid liquid desiccant air-conditioning system. → The feature of the system is that the absorber is integrated with the evaporator. → We develop a mathematical model considering heat and mass transfer in the absorber. → The simulation and experiment are carried out to reveal the system performance. → COP becomes higher by improving the compressor and the solution heat exchanger.

  5. Intelligent Control System of Textile Mill's Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-zhuan; ZHAO Fang

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the present situation of textile mill's air-conditioning system. Since it is difficult to establish detailed math model to control a textile mill's air-conditioning system because of the influence of various factors such as the differences in seasons, regions, etc., most air-conditioning equipment can not he controlled automatically. This paper suggests utilizing multi-function data acquisition card to collect the data about the temperature and humidity of a workshop, processing the data on a PC, comparing them with the expert database, and then using the 485 serial port expanding module to output the parameters, which are used to control the inverter, so that the purpose of adjusting the temperature and humidity of the workshop is achieved.

  6. Monitoring and analysis of an absorption air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Vinaspre, M.; Bourouis, M.; Coronas, A. [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia, A.; Soto, V.; Pinazo, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, high-energy consumption due to air-conditioning has led to a growing interest in the efficient use of energy in buildings. Although simulation programs have always been the main tools for analyzing energy in buildings, the reliability of their results is often compromised by a lack of certainty to reflect real conditions. The aim of this work is to monitorize and analyze the thermal behavior of an absorption-based air-conditioning installation of a university building in Tarragona, Spain. The existing monitoring system of the installation has been improved by implementing additional sensors and flow meters. The data has been stored during summer 2002 and used to assess the energy balance of the air-conditioning installation and the operational regime of the absorption chiller. [Author].

  7. Efficiency evaluating of air conditioning system with air dehumidification section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Averyanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The upward trend of energy resources cost, reducing OF resource reserves, yearly growing requirement of heat energy led to the need of careful selection of HVAC system and economic justification of this choice. In this article on the example of indoor pool the most economically efficient variant of climatic parameters for high humidity areas has been selected. The calculation of operating, capital and reduced costs has been done. The reliability estimation and efficiency evaluating of the systems also have been done.

  8. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    OpenAIRE

    Holdack-Janssen Hinrich; Kenneweg Björn; Gastmeier Petra; Vonberg Ralf-Peter; Sohr Dorit; Chaberny Iris F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system...

  9. Performance of desiccant air conditioning system with geothermal energy under different climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performance of the hybrid air conditioning system is studied. • The influence of important operating parameters are estimated. • The ventilation, makeup and mix cycles are investigated at different climate. • The highest COP of the hybrid air conditioning system is 1.03. • The hybrid system provides a human thermal comfort at different climates. - Abstract: Energy saving still and continue a major seek in our life, due to the continuous increase in energy consumptions. So, a desiccant air conditioning system with geothermal energy is conducted in the current study. The thermal analysis of air conditioning system with its different components desiccant wheel, solar collector, heat exchanger, ground heat exchanger and water spray evaporative cooler is presented. Three different air conditioning cycles are simulated in the current study for different zones like: hot-dry zone, warm-dry zone, hot-humid zone and the warm-humid zone. The results show that the desiccant air conditioning system successfully provides a better thermal comfort condition in different climates. This hybrid system significantly decreases the supplied air temperature from 12.7 to 21.7 °C at different climate zones. When ωin,air and TReg increasing, COP decreases and the ventilation cycle provides the better COP. The highest COP value of the desiccant air conditioning system is about 1.03 while the lowest value is about 0.15. The SHR of makeup cycle is higher than that ventilation cycle at warm and hot-humid zone and vice versa at warm and hot-dry zone. The highest SHR value of the desiccant air conditioning system is about 0.99 while the lowest value is about 0.2. The Tsup,air, ωsup,air, COP and SHR isolines may easily be used for pre-evaluating of various cooling cycles in different climates. The hybrid system provides a human thermal comfort at different climates

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The electricity consumption for air conditioning and refrigerated cases in large supermarkets represents a substantial share of the total electricity consumption. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrige...

  12. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  13. Analysis on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid desiccant-assisted preconditioner and split cooling coil system, which combines the merits of moisture removal by desiccant and cooling coil for sensible heat removal, is a potential alternative to conventional vapor compression cooling systems. In this paper, experiments on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system, which is actually an integration of a rotary solid desiccant dehumidification and a vapor compression air-conditioning unit, had been carried out. It is found that, compared with the conventional VC (vapor compression) system, the hybrid desiccant cooling system economizes 37.5% electricity powers when the process air temperature and relative humidity are maintained at 30 oC, and 55% respectively. The reason why the hybrid desiccant cooling system features better performance relative to the VC system lies in the improvement brought about in the performance of the evaporator in VC unit due to desiccant dehumidification. A thermodynamic model of the hybrid desiccant system with R-22 as the refrigerant has been developed and the impact of operating parameters on the sensible heat ratio of the evaporator and the electric power saving rate has been analyzed. It is found that a majority of evaporators can operate in the dry condition even if the regeneration temperature is lower (i.e. 80 oC)

  14. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  15. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Awad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  17. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  18. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiwang Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  19. Siamese twins. [Relationship between lighting and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschke, P.

    1981-01-01

    The paper investigates the connection between lighting and air-conditioning technics. For the engineer planning an air-conditioning plant it is a must to find out the heat produced by the lighting in a room and to include it in his calculation of the air-conditioning plant. This means cooling in summer and using the thermal energy of lighting for heating purposes in winter.

  20. Engine-driven hybrid air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaokui QIN; Hongmei LU; Xiong LIU; Gerhard SCHMITZ

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid air-conditioning system that com-bines an engine-driven chiller with desiccant dehumidifi-cation was configured and experimentally tested to provide reliable data for energy consumption and operation cost. The engine performance and the desiccant wheel perfor-mance were measured and a numeric model previously set up for dehumidification capacity prediction was validated. For a reference building, the results based upon measured data show that under present electricity/gas price ratio, more than 40% of operation cost can be saved by the hybrid system.

  1. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  2. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  3. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  4. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Berry; Afrah Al-Bossly

    2013-01-01

    Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner o...

  5. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity consumption for air conditioning and refrigerated cases in large supermarkets represents a substantial share of the total electricity consumption. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low-temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study is aimed at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis chillers and heat pumps working with R410A, medium temperature systems working with R404A and low-temperature systems working both with R404A and R744 were considered. The investigated solutions enable an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for the considered climates.

  6. Thermal stratification level of low sidewall air supply with air-conditioning system in large space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 蔡宁; 高雪垒

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stratification level of low sidewall air supply system in large space was defined. Depending on the experiment of low sidewall air supply in summer 2008,the thermal stratification level was studied by simulation. Based on the simulation of experiment condition,the air velocity and vertical temperature distribution in a large space were simulated at different air-outlet velocities,and then the thermal stratification level line was obtained. The simulation results well match with the experimental ones and the average relative error is 3.4%. The thermal stratification level is heightened by increasing the air-outlet velocity with low sidewall air supply mode. It is concluded that when air-outlet velocity is 0.29 m/s,which is the experimental case,a uniform thermal environment in the higher occupied zone and a stable stratification level are formed. When the air-outlet velocity is low,such as 0.05 m/s,the thermal stratification level is too low and the air velocity is too small to meet the human thermal comfort in the occupied zone. So,it would be reasonable that the air-outlet velocity may be designed as 0.31 m/s if the height of the occupied zone is 2 m.

  7. Analysis and simulation of mobile air conditioning system coupled with engine cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many components of the mobile air conditioning system and engine cooling system are closely interrelated and make up the vehicle climate control system. In the present paper, a vehicle climate control system model including air conditioning system and engine cooling system has been proposed under different operational conditions. All the components have been modeled on the basis of experimental data. Based on the commercial software, a computer simulation procedure of the vehicle climate control system has been developed. The performance of the vehicle climate control system is simulated, and the calculational data have good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the vehicle climate control simulation results have been compared with an individual air conditioning system and engine cooling system. The influences between the mobile air conditioning system and the engine cooling system are discussed

  8. Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirinejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are among the main installations in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The purpose of the HVAC systems is normally to provide a comfortable environment in terms of temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In this overview, thermal comfort level and ISO comfort field is introduced, followed by a review and comparison of the main existing control techniques used in HVAC systems to date. Results: The present overview shows that intelligent controllers which are based on the human sensation of thermal comfort have a better performance in providing thermal comfort as well as energy saving than the traditional controllers and those based on a model of the HVAC system. Conclusion: Such an overview provides an insight into current control methods in HVAC systems and can help scholars and HVAC learners to have the comprehensive information about a variety of control techniques in the field of HVAC and therefore to better design a proper controller for their work

  9. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  10. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal El-Berry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. To maintain the system forecasting for system failure rates are very important. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the air conditioning systems. The most common applied statistical distributions in reliability settings are the standard (2 parameter Weibull and Gamma distributions. Reliability estimations and predictions are used to evaluate, when the estimation of distributionsparameters is done. To estimate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several companies’ departments is checked. This air conditioning system is divided into two systems, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40 - 45oF (4 - 7oC. The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, with the application of the Weibull and Gamma distributions it is indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively . A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families is studied. It is found that Weibull method has performed well for decision making .

  11. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  12. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  13. Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yan; Zhang Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy ...

  14. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  15. Operational experience of air washer based ventilation system for power conditioning system of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-2 Synchrotron Accelerator requires high quality conditioned uninterrupted AC mains power for their smooth and reliable operation. Three units of 1670 kVA and one unit of 1100 kVA capacity rotary uninterruptible power conditioning systems (UPS) were installed and commissioned. These UPS units require dust free and cool ambient conditions for smooth operation. In order to meet the ventilation requirements, an evaporative cooling system of 80000 cubic meter/hour capacity with filtration units was designed, installed and commissioned in February 2011 and is operational on round-the-clock basis. Evaporative cooling scheme was chosen as has various advantages over a refrigerated system like lower initial capital costs, lower energy usage, lower running costs, less greenhouse gas and it does not contribute to ozone depletion. The ventilation system filters the environment air in stages up to 5 micron level and being conditioned with an automatic controlled soft water circulating system with cooling pads. An instrumentation and control scheme is included in the system to provide the automation requirements for operating 24 x 7 through the year. All the mechanical, hydraulic and electrical devices are maintained by providing preventive maintenance work without affecting the accelerator machine operation. Availability and reliability of the system was analysed based on the failure data. In Year 2014, the ventilation system was upgraded to accommodate standby blower unit, coupling unit and improved quality of supply air with new air conditioning devices. The control panel monitors the condition of air in the UPS hall and maintainsup to 28°C air temperature and 85% maximum relative humidity in round-the clock shift with more than 98% operational reliability. In this paper, we present design philosophy, installation, instrumentation, testing, operation experience and availability of the ventilation system for Power Conditioning System, Indus complex. (author)

  16. COP Evaluation for a Membrane Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System Using Four Different Heating Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed; Simonson, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Liquid desiccant air conditioning (LDAC) is a promising technology in terms of energy efficiency, comfort and indoor air quality. The major components of a LDAC system are the dehumidifier and regenerator. The most commonly used design of dehumidifiers/regenerators is the packed-bed, which might result in the entrainment of desiccant droplets in air streams. A promising solution for the entrainment of desiccant droplets in air streams is to use a liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE...

  17. Online optimal control of variable refrigerant flow and variable air volume combined air conditioning system for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and variable air volume (VAV) combined air conditioning system can solve the problem of the VRF system in outdoor air ventilation while taking advantage of its high part load energy efficiency. Energy performance of the combined air conditioning system can also be optimized by joint control of both the VRF and the VAV parts. A model-based online optimal control strategy for the combined air conditioning system is presented. Simplified adaptive models of major components of the combined air conditioning system are firstly developed for predicting system performances. And a cost function in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort is constructed. Genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal control sets. The optimal control strategy is tested and evaluated through two case studies based on the simulation platform. Results show that the optimal strategy can effectively reduce energy consumption of the combined air conditioning system while maintaining acceptable thermal comfort. - Highlights: • A VRF and VAV combined system is proposed. • A model-based online optimal control strategy is proposed for the combined system. • The strategy can reduce energy consumption without sacrificing thermal comfort. • Novel simplified adaptive models are firstly developed for the VRF system

  18. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  19. Computerized Simulation of Automotive Air-Conditioning System: Development of Mathematical Model and Its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Mohamed Kamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical model for simulating thermal and energy performance of an automotive air-conditioning (AAC system in passenger vehicles has been developed. The model consists of two sections, namely empirical evaporator correlations and dynamic load simulation. The correlations used consider sensible and latent heat transfer performance of the evaporator coil. The correlations were obtained from the experimental data of actual air conditioning system for a compact size passenger car. The sensible heat transfer correlation relates the evaporator air off dry-bulb temperature to inlet air dry-bulb temperature, humidity ratio, evaporator air velocity, condenser inlet air dry-bulb temperature, condenser air velocity and compressor speed. The latent heat transfer correlation relates the coil air-off humidity ratio to the same six independent variables. The dynamic load simulation model was developed based on the z-transfer function method with a one-minute time step. The cooling load calculations were performed using heat gain weighting factors. Heat extraction rate and cabin air dry-bulb temperature calculations were carried out using air temperature weighting factors. The empirical evaporator sensible and latent heat transfer correlations were embedded in the loads calculation program to enable the determination of evaporator inlet and outlet air conditions, the cabin air temperature and relative humidity. Comparisons with road test data indicated that the program was capable of predicting the performance of the automotive air-conditioning system with reasonable accuracy.

  20. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-01-01

    There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of compute...

  1. Performance advancement of solar air-conditioning through integrated system design for building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to advance the energy performance of solar air-conditioning system through appropriate component integration from the absorption refrigeration cycle and proper high-temperature cooling. In the previous studies, the solar absorption air-conditioning using the working pair of water – lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) is found to have prominent primary energy saving than the conventional compression air-conditioning for buildings in the hot-humid climate. In this study, three integration strategies have been generated for solar cooling, namely integrated absorption air-conditioning; integrated absorption-desiccant air-conditioning; and integrated absorption-desiccant air-conditioning for radiant cooling. To realize these ideas, the working pair of ammonia – water (NH3–H2O) was used in the absorption cycle, rather than H2O–LiBr. As such, the evaporator and the condenser can be separate from the absorption refrigeration cycle for the new configuration of various integrated design alternatives. Through dynamic simulation, the year-round primary energy saving of the proposed integration strategies for solar NH3–H2O absorption air-conditioning systems could be up to 50.6% and 25.5%, as compared to the conventional compression air-conditioning and the basic solar H2O–LiBr absorption air-conditioning respectively. Consequently, carbon reduction of building air-conditioning can be achieved more effectively through the integrated system design in the hot and humid cities. - Highlights: • Three integration strategies, IAAU, IADAU and IADAU-RC, are proposed to advance solar air-conditioning. • NH3–H2O is adopted for absorption refrigeration instead of H2O–LiBr. • Separate evaporator and condenser, desiccant cooling and radiant cooling are designed for IADAU-RC. • IADAU-RC can have 50.6% primary energy saving against the conventional air-conditioning

  2. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Air conditioning: Low-cost autonomous air conditioning systems for bionic buildings; Klimatechnik: Bezahlbare, autarke Klimatisierung von bionischen Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [ARCADIS, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kutzker, A. [RUBITHERM GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Termites in Africa construct buildings that are respectfully referred to as ''cathedrals'' by experts. Millions of insects inhabit these structures that are efficiently air conditioned: While the outside temperatures vary from 10 C at night to 45 C in daytime, the air inside has a constant temperature of 29 C +/- 1 C. The contribution presents a low-cost solution for human buildings. (orig.)

  4. A simulation Model of the Reactor Hall Ventilation and air Conditioning Systems of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the conceptual design for any system differs from one designer to another. each of them aims to achieve the function of the system required. the ventilation and air conditioning system of reactors hall is one of those systems that really differs but always dose its function for which it is designed. thus, ventilation and air conditioning in some reactor hall constitute only one system whereas in some other ones, they are separate systems. the Egypt Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2)represents the second type. most studies conducted on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models either in traditional building or for research rectors show that those models were not designed similarly to the model of the hall of ETRR-2 in which ventilation and air conditioning constitute two separate systems.besides, those studies experimented on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models of reactor building predict the temperature and humidity inside these buildings at certain outside condition and it is difficult to predict when the outside conditions are changed . also those studies do not discuss the influences of reactor power changes. therefore, the present work deals with a computational study backed by infield experimental measurements of the performance of the ventilation and air conditioning systems of reactor hall during normal operation at different outside conditions as well as at different levels of reactor power

  5. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Tsung-Min Lin; Chien-Chih Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for con...

  6. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  7. Simulation of Solar Air-Conditioning System with Salinity Gradient Solar Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

    2015-01-01

    In hot dry climates, due to the high demand for space air conditioning during summer and the abundance of solar radiation, solar air conditioning is a promising approach to reduce the energy consumption and negative environmental impact of buildings. Solar cooling systems have used various types of collectors to drive chillers. In this paper, a salinity gradient solar pond is suggested as a collector to drive an absorption chiller, to provide cool air for a house during hot and dry weather. A...

  8. Method for acquiring part load distribution coefficient of air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 李百战; 谭颖

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to acquire runtime distribution ratio of building air conditioning system under part load condition (part load coefficient of system) through practical energy consumption data. By utilizing monthly energy consumption data of the entire year as the analysis object,this paper identifies data distribution,verifies distribution characteristics and analyzes distribution probability density for the issue of running time distribution ratio of air conditioning system in part load zones in the whole operation period,thus providing a basic calculation basis for an overall analysis of energy efficiency of air conditioning system. In view of the general survey of public building energy consumption carried by the government of Chongqing,this paper takes the governmental office building as an example,the part load ratio coefficient corresponding to practical running of air conditioning system of governmental office building in Chongqing is obtained by utilizing the above probability analysis and the solving method of probability density function. By utilizing the ratio coefficient obtained using this method,the part load coefficient with any running ratio of air conditioning system can be obtained according to the requirement of analysis,which can be used in any load ratio for analyzing running energy efficiency of air conditioning system.

  9. Temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) of air-conditioning system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main components of the Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC) of air-conditioning systems, including dehumidification devices, high-temperature cooling devices and indoor terminal devices.

  10. Computerized Simulation of Automotive Air-Conditioning System: Development of Mathematical Model and Its Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Haslinda Mohamed Kamar; Mohd Yusoff Senawi; Nazri Kamsah

    2012-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for simulating thermal and energy performance of an automotive air-conditioning (AAC) system in passenger vehicles has been developed. The model consists of two sections, namely empirical evaporator correlations and dynamic load simulation. The correlations used consider sensible and latent heat transfer performance of the evaporator coil. The correlations were obtained from the experimental data of actual air conditioning system for a compact size passenger car. The se...

  11. Proposed energy-efficient air-conditioning system using liquid desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, Adnan A.; Al-Rabghi, Omar M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Thermal Engineering Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Elsayed, Moustafa M. [Kuwait Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-10-01

    In this work, an energy-efficient system is proposed to reduce energy consumption in air-conditioning (A/C) systems using CaCl{sub 2} solution as a liquid desiccant. The proposed system consists mainly of two packed beds, a heat pump, air washers and a cooling coil. Mathematical modeling of various components and fluid properties of the proposed system was undertaken. A computer program was prepared to study the system performance under different conditions. The proposed system was found to be more energy-efficient than a conventional A/C system. (author)

  12. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  13. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  14. Computerized Simulation of Automotive Air-Conditioning System: A Parametric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haslinda Mohamed Kamar; Nazri Kamsah; Mohd Yusoff Senawi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of a parametric study performed on an automotive air-conditioning (AAC) system of a passenger car. The goals are to assess the effects of varying the volumetric flow rate of supply air, number of occupants, vehicle speed, and the fractional ventilation air intake (XOA), on the dry-bulb temperature and specific humidity of the air inside the passengers cabin, and on the evaporator coil cooling load of the AAC system. Results of the parametric study show that increas...

  15. Fault Detection and Diagnosis System for the Air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Nobuo

    The fault detection and diagnosis system, the FDD system, for the HVAC was initiated around the middle of 1970s in Japan but it still remains at the elementary stage. The HVAC is really one of the most complicated and large scaled system for the FDD system. Besides, the maintenance engineering was never focussed as the target of the academic study since after the war, but the FDD system for some kinds of the components and subsystems has been developed for the sake of the practical industrial needs. Recently, international cooperative study in the IEA Annex 25 on the energy conservation for the building and community targetted on the BOFD, the building optimization, fault detection and diagnosis. Not a few academic peaple from various engineering field got interested and, moreover, some national projects seem to start in the European countries. The author has reviewed the state of the art of the FDD and BO as well based on the references and the experience at the IEA study.

  16. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  17. Combined desalination and solar-assisted air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of a new desalination process utilizing low grade thermal energy is presented. In this process, fresh water is distilled from saline water under near-vacuum pressures created by passive means, enabling low-temperature distillation with lower energy requirements. The energy for low-temperature distillation is provided by a thermal energy storage (TES) system maintained at 55 deg. C utilizing any low grade waste heat source. In this study, heat rejected by the condenser of a modified absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is evaluated as a possible source to drive this desalination process. The energy for the generator of the ARS is provided by a combination of solar collector system and grid power. Results of this study show that the thermal energy rejected by an ARS of cooling capacity of 3.25 kW (0.975 tons of refrigeration) along with an additional energy input of 208 kJ/kg of desalinated water is adequate to produce desalinated water at an average rate of 4.5 kg/h. This energy consumption is competitive with that of the multi-stage flash distillation process of similar capacity (338 kJ/kg). An integrated process model and performance curves of the proposed approach are presented in this paper. Effects of process parameters on the performance of the system are also presented

  18. Energy-smart calculation of thermal loads in mobile and stationary heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fayazbakhsh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The energy consumption by heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems forms a large portion of the total energy usage in buildings. Vehicle fuel consumption and emissions are also significantly affected by air conditioning. Air conditioning is also a critical system for hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles as the second most energy consuming system after the electric motor. Proper design and efficient operation of air conditioning systems require accurate calcu...

  19. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  20. Computerized Simulation of Automotive Air-Conditioning System: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Mohamed Kamar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a parametric study performed on an automotive air-conditioning (AAC system of a passenger car. The goals are to assess the effects of varying the volumetric flow rate of supply air, number of occupants, vehicle speed, and the fractional ventilation air intake (XOA, on the dry-bulb temperature and specific humidity of the air inside the passengers cabin, and on the evaporator coil cooling load of the AAC system. Results of the parametric study show that increasing the supply air flow rate reduces the dry-bulb temperature of the cabin air, increases both the specific humidity of the air and the evaporator coil load. Increasing the number of occupants in the passenger cabin causes the cabin air temperature, specific humidity and the evaporator coil load to increase. Increasing the vehicle speed causes the specific humidity of the cabin air and the evaporator coil cooling load to increase but the dry-bulb temperature of the air is not significantly affected. Increasing the fractional fresh air intake (XOA also increases the cabin air specific humidity and the evaporator coil cooling load.

  1. Fault-tolerant supervisory control of VAV air-conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.-F.; Dexter, A. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The paper describes a supervisory control scheme that adapts to the presence of degradation faults and minimises any resulting increase in energy consumption or deterioration in occupant comfort. Since there is a high degree of uncertainty associated with the results of any fault identification scheme in information-poor systems of this type, the supervisory control scheme uses fuzzy models to predict the control performance and a computationally undemanding optimisation scheme to determine the most appropriate set-points. The fault-tolerant control scheme is developed and evaluated using a detailed computer simulation of a multi-zone, variable-air-volume (VAV), air-conditioning system. The fuzzy models relate the performance of the terminal-boxes, the air-handling unit and the chiller to fuzzy descriptions of the cooling load, the supply air and chilled water temperature set-points, and the amount of air-side and water-side fouling. Results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the fuzzy models to predict the performance and show how the power consumption of the air-conditioning system varies with set-point changes and the presence of both water-side and air-side fouling. The main factors that determine the suitability of a particular air-conditioning system for fault-tolerant control are also discussed. (author)

  2. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cocchi; Sonia Castellucci; Andrea Tucci

    2013-01-01

    The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling), through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP) uses the shallow ground a...

  3. Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analysis for an Underground Train Station Air-Conditioning Cooling System

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang Liao; Yew Khoy Chuah

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of air-conditioning causes the enormous energy use of underground train stations. Exergy and thermoeconomic analysis is applied to the annual operation of the air-conditioning system of a large underground train station in Taiwan. The current installation and the monitored data are taken to be the base case, which is then compared to three different optimized designs. The total revenue requirement levelized cost rate and the total exergy destruction rate are used to evaluate the...

  4. Refrigerant Control Strategies for Residential Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shun-yu; ZHANG Chun-zhi; CHEN Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper simulated the optimal refrigerant charge inventory of a refrigeration system in air-con-ditioning operation and heat-pump operation respectively,and studied the refrigerant control strategies in this system.The void fraction in two-phase fluid region was calculated by Harms model.And based on distributed parameter model and Harms model,the refrigerant charge inventory in condenser and evaporator were calculated and analyzed in air-conditioning conditions and heat-pump conditions,respectively.The calculating results of dif-ferent refrigerant mass between refrigeration and heating conditions indicate that the optimal refrigerant charge inventory in heat-pump conditions is lower than that in air-eonditioning conditions.To avoid the decrease of COP due to the surplus refrigerant in heating conditions,we introduced the liquid reservoir control method and associate capillary control method.Both of them could increase the heating capacity of the air-source heat pump-The difference of optimal refrigerant charge inventory in air-conditioning and heat-pump system can be controlled by the liquid reservoir or the associate capillary.

  5. Influence of Cooling to Heating Load Ratio on Optimal Supply Water and Air Temperatures in an Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of energy saving and cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air for space cooling reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. It is also an important subject to evaluate the effect of the supply water and air temperatures on energy saving and cost reduction on the annual basis by considering not only cooling but also heating loads. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for an air conditioning system with large temperature difference, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures, and the influence of the cooling to heating load ratio on the long-term economics is clarified.

  6. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Li Hai-Jun; Zhou Guang-Hui; Li An-Gui; Li Xu-Ge; Li Ya-Nan; Chen Jie

    2014-01-01

    When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system i...

  7. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  8. Simulation and analysis of a novel liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a novel energy efficient air-conditioning system utilizing lithium chloride (LiCl) solution as liquid desiccant has been proposed and simulated. The simulation of this system is mainly formulated with two packed columns, one for regenerating the weak desiccant and the other for the dehumidification of ambient air. The air is first dehumidified in the dehumidifier and then sensibly cooled in the indirect and direct evaporative coolers. First and second laws of thermodynamics have been used to analyze the effect of five key variables on the performance of the system. High efficiency could be achieved if proper values of these variables are selected.

  9. DESIGN OF A VRF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WITH ENERGY CONSERVATION ON COMMERCIAL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Gulam Abul Hasan*

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the field if air conditioning design is more technologically challenging than ever before. While design innovations and product improvements promise sleeker, more versatile, more powerful and more energy – efficient air conditioners, the challenge today lies identifying the most appropriate product, or mix of products, for the application at hand. Indeed, today the emphasis is no more on understanding air conditioning products but on creating solutions and not just solutions, but customized solutions that suit specific cooling need of specific business and establishments. The consultant or designer who understands the dynamics of those clients business is more likely to offer better long term cooling solutions than who does not. Every air conditioning application has its own special needs and provided its own challenges. Airports, hotels, shopping malls, office complexes and banks need uniform comfort cooling in every corner of their sprawling spaces and activities involving computers, electronics, aircraft products, precision manufacturing, communication networks and operation in hospitals, infect many areas of programming will come to a halt, so air conditioning is no longer a luxury but an essential part of modern living. There are various stages in the complete design of an air conditioning system. One of the important modules in the process is the duct design. The efficient duct design process enables the proper supply of air quantity, equal distribution of air at every corner of the Air conditioned space. Further the proper designing ensures minimum losses and hence energy conservation is obtained. In the present paper design of Air conditioning is done by using VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow for a commercial building. The main aim of his project is to conserve the energy by using VRF techniques when compared to conventional chille

  10. Energy savings potential of a hybrid desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in Beirut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the transient performance of a hybrid desiccant vapor compression air conditioning system is numerically simulated for the ambient conditions of Beirut. The main feature of this hybrid system is that the regenerative heat needed by the desiccant wheel is partly supplied by the condenser dissipated heat while the rest is supplied by an auxiliary gas heater. The hybrid air conditioning system of the present study replaces a 23 kW vapor compression unit for a typical office in Beirut characterized by a high latent load. The vapor compression subsystem size in the hybrid air conditioning system is reduced to 15 kW at the peak load when the regeneration temperature was fixed at 75 deg. C. Also the sensible heat ratio of the combined hybrid system increased from 0.47 to 0.73. Based on hour by hour simulation studies for a wide range of recorded ambient conditions of Beirut city, this paper predicts the annual energy consumption of the hybrid system in comparison with the conventional vapor compression system for the entire cooling season. The annual running costs savings for the hybrid system is 418.39 USD for a gas cost price of 0.141 USD/kg. The pay back period of the hybrid system is less than five years when the initial cost of the hybrid air conditioning system priced an additional 1712.00 USD. Hence, for a 20-year life cycle, the life cycle savings of the hybrid air conditioning system are 4295.19 USD

  11. Application of Dual Throttling Air-Conditioning System to Explosion-Proof Frequency Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张于峰; 高岩; 盛颖

    2015-01-01

    An explosion-proof dual throttling air-conditioning system was put forward to solve the heat dissipation and internal dewing problems of explosion-proof frequency converter in the underground coal mine. This study inves-tigated the feasibility and benefits of explosion-proof dual throttling cooling and dehumidification air-conditioning system applied to the explosion-proof frequency converter. The physical model of dual throttling air-conditioning sys-tem was established and its performance parameter was described by mathematical method. The design calculation of the system has also been done. The experimental result showed that the system reached the steady state at the refrig-eration mode after running 45 min, and the maximum internal temperature of the flame-proof cavity was 31.0℃. The system reached the steady state at the dehumidification mode after running 37 min. The maximum internal relative humidity and temperature of the flame-proof cavity were 33.4% and 36.3 ℃, respectively. Therefore, the proposed system had excellent ability of heat dissipation and avoided internal dewing. Compared with water cooling system, it was more energy-saving and economical. The airflow field of dual throttling air-conditioning system was also studied by CFD simulation. It was found that the result of CFD numerical simulation was highly consistent with the experi-mental data.

  12. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Conventional and Solar Assisted Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental footprint with applications of alternative renewable energy source. Three types of cooling systems, water cooled, air cooled and a hybrid solar-based air-conditioning system, with a total of six scenarios were designed in this work. The scenarios accounted for the types of power supply to the air-conditioning systems with electricity from the grid and with a solar power from highly integrated building photovoltaics (BIPV. Within and between these scenarios, systems’ energy performances were compared based on energy modelling while the harvesting potential of the renewable energy source was further predicted based on building’s detailed geometrical model. The results showed that renewable energy obtained via BIPV scenario could cover building’s annual electricity consumption for cooling and reduce 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. The hybrid solar air-conditioning system has higher energy efficiency than the air cooled chiller system but lower than the water cooled system.

  13. The analysis and improvement of the humidity problem on air-condition system of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, efforts were made to solve the problem of high relative humidity in some areas of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Based on data analysis, theoretical demonstration and field tests, we found that the problem of high humidity was caused by two factors. The high humidity problem was solved by appropriate measures of keeping the actual operation load match to the design load of the air-conditioning systems and minimizing the outdoor air infiltration. (authors)

  14. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  15. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Chun Lo; Shang-Ho Tsai; Bor-Shyh Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR) is used to obtain the polynomial function for the c...

  16. Solar energy contribution to the energy demand for air conditioning system in an office building under Tripoli climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Musbah Mohamed H.; Živković Branislav D.; Kosi Franc F.; Abdulgalil Mohamed M.; Sretenović Aleksandra A.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of solar assisted air conditioning in an office building under Tripoli weather conditions is investigated in this paper. A single-effect lithium bromide absorption cycle powered by means of flat-plate solar collectors was modeled in order to predict the potential of the solar energy share. The cooling load profile was generated by using an detailed hourly based program and Typical meteorological year for Tripoli. System performance and solar...

  17. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  18. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Shindoh, Shinji; Masazumi, Godo; Takeshi, Takatsuka; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The system mainly dehumidifies the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the airconditioning load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. Several adsorbents were compared from the viewpoints of humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit, dehumidified quantity per unit volume, and dehumidified quantity per unit adsorbent mass. The performance of the desiccant unit was predicted by simulation which was validated by comparison with experiment. The results revealed the most suitable adsorbent to reduce the desiccant unit size. It was also found that the humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit could be lowered by shortening the dimensionless switching time.

  19. Residential solar air conditioning: Energy and exergy analyses of an ammonia–water absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale heat-driven absorption cooling systems are available in the marketplace for industrial applications but the concept of a solar driven absorption chiller for air-conditioning applications is relatively new. Absorption chillers have a lower efficiency than compression refrigeration systems, when used for small scale applications and this restrains the absorption cooling system from air conditioning applications in residential buildings. The potential of a solar driven ammonia–water absorption chiller for residential air conditioning application is discussed and analyzed in this paper. A thermodynamic model has been developed based on a 10 kW air cooled ammonia–water absorption chiller driven by solar thermal energy. Both energy and exergy analyses have been conducted to evaluate the performance of this residential scale cooling system. The analyses uncovered that the absorber is where the most exergy loss occurs (63%) followed by the generator (13%) and the condenser (11%). Furthermore, the exergy loss of the condenser and absorber greatly increase with temperature, the generator less so, and the exergy loss in the evaporator is the least sensitive to increasing temperature. -- Highlights: • 10 kW solar thermal driven ammonia–water air cooled absorption chiller is investigated. • Energy and exergy analyses have been done to enhance the thermal performance. • Low driving temperature heat sources have been optimized. • The efficiencies of the major components have been evaluated

  20. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  1. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  2. Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin

    2009-01-01

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.

  3. Combination of experimental and simulated small scale solar air-conditioning system

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Hennaut, Samuel; Andre, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to decrease CO2 production of building operation. One way to evaluate the energy savings potential is the simulation of airconditioning systems. On the other hand, it is also crucial to assess system performance by experimentations. The operation of a solar cooling system in its real environment is considered here. The objective is to evaluate if sun radiation in our region (Western Europe – Belgium) in summ...

  4. Indirect Evaporative Pre-Cooled Compressor Cooling System Performance under Various Outdoor Air Humidity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmanis, A; Lešinskis, A

    2013-01-01

    The present study is devoted to efficiency evaluation of a combined indirect evaporative – compressor cooling system under various outdoor air humidity conditions of temperate climate. The investigated system is located in the recently restored historical building, The Art Museum Riga Bourse, which was initially built in the middle of the 19th century. The indirect adiabatic chiller supplies cooled fluid to the conventional cooling system, consisting of ventilation cooling coils and fan-coil ...

  5. A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A dynamic model suitable for air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. • The model is validated with PVT data from two unique buildings. • The simulated output variables match very well with the experimental data. • The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is analysed. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical

  6. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system increases more than 20% of the heating capacity; when the outside environment temperature is negative 20 degrees, the discharge temperature of compressor is below 60 degrees.

  7. Modeling solar-driven ejector refrigeration system offering air conditioning for office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Shen, H.G. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-02-15

    A lumped method combined with dynamic model is proposed for use in investigating the performance and solar fraction of a solar-driven ejector refrigeration system (SERS) using R134a, for office air conditioning application for buildings in Shanghai, China. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model were used to provide basic data for accurate analysis of the system performance. Results indicate that during the office working-time, i.e., from 9:00 to 17:00, the average COP and the average solar fraction of the system were 0.48 and 0.82 respectively when the operating conditions were: generator temperature (85 C), evaporator temperature (8 C) and condenser temperature varying with ambient temperature. Compared with traditional compressor based air conditioner, the system can save upto 80% electric energy when providing the same cooling capacity for office buildings. Hence, the system offers a good energy conservation method for office buildings. (author)

  8. A novel air-conditioning system for proactive power demand response to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel air-conditioning system with proactive demand response is proposed. • The system can significantly reduce the storage volume of the chilled water tank. • Demand side bidding and demand as frequency controlled reserve can be implemented. • No impact on occupants when demand response is used in the proposed system. - Abstract: Power demand response is considered as one of the most promising solutions in relieving the power imbalance of an electrical grid that results a series of critical problems to the gird and end-users. In order to effectively make use of the demand response potentials of buildings, this paper presents a novel air-conditioning system with proactive demand control for daily load shifting and real time power balance in the developing smart grid. This system consists of a chilled water storage system (CWS) and a temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) air-conditioning system, which can significantly reduce the storage volume of the chilled water tank and effectively enable a building with more flexibility in changing its electricity usage patterns. The power demand of the proposed air-conditioning system can be flexibly controlled as desired by implementing two types of demand response strategies: demand side bidding (DSB) strategy and demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) strategy, in respond to the day-ahead and hour-ahead power change requirements of the grid, respectively. Considerable benefits (e.g., energy and cost savings) can be achieved for both the electricity utilities and building owners under incentive pricing or tariffs. A case study is conducted in a simulation platform to demonstrate the application of the proposed system in an office building

  9. Research on frequency conversion technology of metro station's ventilation and air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation and air-conditioning system (VAC) is the most energy-saving potential system in the metro. This paper analyzes the passenger traffic, air-conditioning load and station air supply on the initial, recent and long-term phase of metro station. And it proposes that it is necessary to run chilled-water pumps, air handing unit (AHU) fans and back/exhaust fans with frequency conversion technology (FCT). Then it uses the thermodynamic method to analyze the impact of running chilled-water pumps with FCT. The results show that running chilled-water pumps with FCT can reduce the total power consumption of system, although increases chiller energy consumption. Then the temperature and velocity fields of the platform and station hall are simulated by CFD software according to the variable air volume. And the results show that under the condition of running the VAC system with FCT, temperature and velocity fields distribution are both in the comfortable range. Finally, by taking a typical summer day for example, this paper analyzes the energy savings of chilled-water pumps, AHU fans and back/exhaust fans on the initial, recent and long-term phase, and the calculation results show that the respective total energy savings are 1103.4 kWh, 1064.3 kWh and 926.2 kWh, and the respective total power saving ratio is 73.4%, 71.2% and 59.5%. - Highlights: •Use the FCT to reduce energy consumption of metro VAC is necessary and possible. •Analyze the influence of running the chilled-water pumps with FCT. •Results show that variable air volume of station public area is feasible. •Calculations indicate that energy-saving effect of using the FCT is considerable

  10. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  11. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Lu, Xiaohong; Bi, Wu; Liu, Fan; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi. PMID:27055570

  12. Open absorption system for cooling and air conditioning using membrane contactors - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Petit, M. [M. Conde Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weber, R.; Dorer, V. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Air conditioning systems based upon the open absorption principle, essentially an absorption device operating at atmospheric pressure, have been proposed and investigated at many instances in the past eighty years. Their potential for improving energy efficiency is clearly recognized in the earliest research reports. By the mid 1950ies, solar thermal energy was being applied to drive open absorption-based air conditioning systems. For several reasons, however, the open absorption technology was not mature enough to take place in the mainstream. In the past two decades, vigorous efforts have been undertaken to reverse this situation, but success continued to elude, despite the fact that the main problems, such as corrosion, aerosols in the supply air, etc., have been identified. This report details the work and the main results from the MemProDEC Project. In this project innovative solutions were proposed, and successfully investigated, for the corrosion problem and the improvement of efficiency of the absorption process, in particular a new method to cool a very compact absorber. The practically uniform flow distribution for all three streams in the absorber (air, water and desiccant) warrants the contact of the air to be dehumidified with the desiccant over the whole surface of exchange (across a porous membrane). This, together with the cooling with water in counter flow to the air, are the key factors for the excellent effectiveness of the absorber. As the results show, the dehydration effectiveness of the prototype absorber is up to 150 % higher than that previously obtained by others. The solutions developed for compactness and modularity represent an important step in the way to flexible manufacturing, i.e. using a single element size to assemble autonomous air handling units of various nominal capacities. And although the manufacturing methods of the individual elements require improvement, namely by avoiding adhesive bonding, the choice of materials and the

  13. Acoustics of motor car air conditioning systems; Akustik der Kfz-Klimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, M.; Martini, J.; Cucuz, S. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, VTZ Kerpen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Air conditioning systems in motor cars provide thermal comfort but the noise level may increase to an extent that makes the driver shut off the air conditioning system altogether. The contribution presents an introduction to acoustics. The human ear is described, and typical acoustic parameters like sound pressure, sound intensity, acoustic power and level definitions are introduced. Measuring systems and techniques are described, and typical problems and solutions in air conditioner acoustics are gone into. Finally, empirical estimates are made for the sound pressure level of ventilation nozzles and air conditioners. [German] Gestiegene Komfortansprueche der Kfz-Insassen haben in Europa waehrend der letzten Dekade die Kfz-Klimaanlage zu einem Standard-Ausstattungsmerkmal in der oberen Mittelklasse werden lassen, und auch kleinere Fahrzeugklassen (B- und C-Segment) folgen dieser Entwicklung auf dem Fusse. Die Hauptaufgabe der Kfz-Klimaanlage - die Bereitstellung des thermischen Komforts - wird aber mit akustischen Belastungen der Fahrzeuginsassen erkauft. Die akustische Belastung kann dabei so gross werden, dass die Insassen von einem optimalen Gebrauch der Klimaanlage absehen - einfach weil sie zu laut ist. Um einen moeglichst umfassenden Einblick in die Akustik zu gewaehren, wird zunaechst das menschliche Gehoer vorgestellt. Danach werden typische Kenngroessen der Akustik wie Schalldruck, Schallintensitaet und Schallleistung und die entsprechenden Pegeldefinitionen eingefuehrt. Im zweiten Abschnitt werden Messraeume und Messverfahren vorgestellt, um dann auf typische Probleme und Loesungsmoeglichkeiten in der Klimageraeteakustik einzugehen. Schliesslich werden empirische Abschaetzungen fuer den Schalldruckpegel von Belueftungsduesen und Klimageraeten vorgestellt. (orig.)

  14. Private air conditioning systems - just a matter of conscience?; Ist eine private Klimaanlage nur eine Gewissensfrage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, W. [NOK-Energieanwendung, Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    Until recently, air conditioning systems in private buildings and single office rooms were an exception in this country rather than the rule, but it seems that the hot summer of 1995 brought about a change in this field. Confronted with the choice of raising their energy consumption and having to face the extreme heat, many house owners decided to install an air conditioning system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bis vor kurzem bildeten Raumkuehlgeraete in Privathaushalten und Einzelbueros hierzulande eher die Ausnahme. Dies scheint seit dem letzten Sommer der Vergangenheit anzugehoeren, will man den Verkaufszahlen des Handels Glauben schenken. Im Gewissenskonflikt zwischen Energiesparen und Hitzekollaps moegen sich so manche schweissgeplagten Mitbuerger beim Kauf eines solchen Geraets in thermischer Notwehr befunden haben. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems. PMID:26413079

  16. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed an automotive thermal storage air conditioning system model. • The thermal storage unit utilizes phase change materials. • We use semi-analytic solution to the coupled phase change and forced convection. • We model the airside heat exchange using the NTU method. • The system model can incorporate dynamic inputs, e.g. variable inlet airflow. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system’s dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle’s cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle’s cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid–air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semi-analytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid–air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system

  17. Development of a dynamic model for a DX VAV air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct expansion (DX) variable air volume (VAV) air conditioning (A/C) system consists of a VAV air distribution subsystem and a DX refrigeration plant. This paper reports on the development of a representative and complete dynamic mathematical model for the DX VAV A/C system having a variable speed compressor and pressure independent VAV terminals. The model is component based and takes into account the dynamic behaviors of both the DX refrigeration plant and the VAV air distribution subsystem simultaneously. The dynamic model has been developed based on the principles of mass and energy conservation and using correlations describing the operational performance of some of the system's components, which are either field tested or available from manufacturers. An experimental rig has been set up for the DX VAV A/C system, and experimental work has been conducted to obtain the system's responses to the step change of compressor speed. The dynamic model developed was then validated using the experimental data obtained. Steady state and transient responses for five major operating parameters obtained from both the model and the experiment were compared and found to be in good agreement

  18. Experimental and numerical study of an evaporatively-cooled condenser of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of an air-conditioning unit with evaporately-cooled condenser coil is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental setup is fabricated by retrofitting a commercially available air-conditioning unit and installing comprehensive measuring sensors and controllers. Experimental result shows that the COP (Coefficient of Performance) of the evaporately-cooled air-conditioning unit increases by about 28% compared to the conventional air cooled air-conditioning unit. To analyze the heat and mass transfer processes involved in the evaporately-cooled condenser, a detailed theoretical model has been developed based on the fluid flow characteristics of the falling film and the thermodynamic aspect of the evaporation process. Simulated results agree well with experimental data. The numerical model provides new insights into the intrinsic links between operating variables and heat transfer characteristics of water film in evaluating the performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser system. Two heat transfer coefficients, namely, wall to bulk and bulk to interface are introduced and computed from the simulation results under different operating conditions. Finally, the overall heat transfer coefficient for the water film is computed and presented as a function of dimensionless variables which can conveniently be employed by engineers to design and analyze high performance evaporatively-cooled heat exchangers. - Highlights: • Performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser is investigated. • Local convective heat transfer coefficients of water film are determined. • Thermal resistance of water film is negligible. • Heat transfer with evaporated vapor plays significant role on performance. • Better condenser performance translates to an improvement in COP

  19. Using Vibration Analysis to Determine Refrigerant Levels In an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl

    2002-01-01

    Presently, auto manufacturers do not have do not have efficient or accurate methods to determine the amount of refrigerant (R-134a) in an air conditioning system of an automobile. In the research presented, vibration analysis is examined as a possible method to determine this R-134a amount. Initial laboratory tests were completed and experimental modal analysis methods were investigated. This approach is based on the hypothesis that the natural frequency of the accumulator bott...

  20. Experimental verification of a condenser with liquid–vapor separation in an air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three liquid–vapor separation condensers (LSC) were tested to evaluate their ability to automatically separate the liquid and vapor during condensation. Each was used in a split-type air conditioner to investigate the performance. The performance of the LSC system having the greatest cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) was then compared with that of the system having a baseline fin-and-tube condenser for various ambient temperatures from 29 °C to 43 °C. The results showed that both the cooling capacity and EER of the two systems were almost the same at the three standard conditions in the Chinese standard GB/T 7725-2004, with the LSC having just 67% of the heat transfer area of the baseline condenser. In addition, the LSC system was charged with only 80% of the refrigerant in the baseline system. -- Highlights: ► We tested three liquid–vapor separation condensers in an air conditioning system. ► The best system had the most uniform wall temperature and the smallest pressure drop. ► The LSC system performance with only 67% condenser area was as good as the baseline system. ► LSC system operations are compared for various outdoor temperatures

  1. Auditing the European room air-conditioning systems and potential energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Daniela; Adnot, Jerome; Greco, Carmelo; Marchio, Dominique [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Center for Energy and Processes (France)

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays, the European Community promotes the energy improvement of the air-conditioning (AC) systems through the compulsory inspection of these facilities in the frame of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive [EPBD, 2002]. Inspection itself is just a motivating mean for the AC actors to improve the energy efficiency of the systems and reduce energy. Therefore, the aim of the inspection is to follow periodically the correct management of the facility through a quick visit of the plant and a study of the available documentation while the aim of the audit is the research of best efficiency improvements which requires further investigations to evaluate and quantify the savings. Audit differs from the common maintenance activities of the facilities, the aim of which is limited to guarantee the basic operation of the plant. There is an overall lack of methodologies specific for air-conditioning and the improvements proposed are seldom proven with scientific rigour. For room air conditioning systems, the impacts of defect during operation due to ageing and neglected maintenance are considered: fouled condenser, charge leaks, compressor performances reduced, fans degradation, filter fouling and additional pressure drop in liquid line are explored. The over consumption due to these defects is evaluated for different building types and French climates. The results allow to define simple methods that can be used by the auditors to estimate the energy savings due to the correction of the defects.

  2. Optimal Energy Reduction Schedules for Ice Storage Air-Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm to solve the optimal energy dispatch of an ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on a real air-conditioning system, the data, including the return temperature of chilled water, the supply temperature of chilled water, the return temperature of ice storage water, and the supply temperature of ice storage water, are measured. The least-squares regression (LSR is used to obtain the input-output (I/O curve for the cooling load and power consumption of chillers and ice storage tank. The objective is to minimize overall cost in a daily schedule while satisfying all constraints, including cooling loading under the time-of-use (TOU rate. Based on the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN and Ant Colony Optimization, an Ant-Based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN is constructed in the searching process. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the economic dispatch of ice storage air-conditioning systems, and offering greater energy efficiency in dispatching chillers.

  3. 'TEWI' concept for estimation of the global warming from the refrigerating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most applied CFC refrigerants and their HFC alternatives. values of ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) of the most used refrigerants. natural working fluids and their properties. Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, illogical relations between them concerning to the HFC fluids. Confusion and polemics on the international level about the appliance of HFCs which, by the Kyoto Protocol, are liable to reduction. Introduction of the TEWI concept as a method for estimating the overall influence of refrigerating and air conditioning systems on the greenhouse effect: the direct emission (refrigerant leakage in the atmosphere) and indirect emission as a result of the electrical energy consumption. A demonstration of the TEWI concept on the concrete example in several variants. A discussion about the appliance of the TEWI concept. Meaning of the energy efficiency of the refrigerating systems (indirect CO2 emission). One of the main measures: prevention of refrigerant leakage (direct CO2 emission). A need of permanent education and training courses of the people who work on refrigerating and air conditioning systems. A necessity for constitution of an expert body in the country, preparation of a strategy to lay obligations on the new changes of the Kyoto Protocol and news on the world market. Introduction of country regulations, certification of the companies and people involved in refrigeration and air conditioning. (Author)

  4. Heat recovery in air conditioning systems in frost-free season with using adiabatic cooling. Capacities overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Chuduk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the information on possibilities of use of recuperators of heat is presented for the warm period of year for air-conditioning system. Aim of heat exchanger work in frost-free season is indirect cooling of incoming air before its input into maintainable premises. It is possible if exhaust air is cooled before its input into heat exchanger . In the article the operational principle of air conditioning system with using of adiabatic air cooling is considered. The data concerned system functioning depending on parameters of microclimate in maintainable premises are given.

  5. Radon mitigation in schools utilising heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a continuing radon in schools technology development effort, EPA's School Evaluation Team has performed radon mitigation in schools by the method of ventilation/pressurisation control technology. Ventilation rates were increased, at a minimum, to meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ASHRAE 62-1989). This paper presents the results and the preliminary evaluations which led to the team's decision to implement this technology. Factors considered include energy penalties, comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), building shell tightness, and equipment costs. Cost benefit of heat recovery ventilation was also considered. Earlier results of the SEP team's efforts have indicated a severe ventilation problem within the schools of the United States. Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling radon concentrations. One involved the installation of a heat recovery ventilator to depressurise a crawl space and provide ventilation to the classrooms which previously had no mechanical ventilation. The other involved the restoration of a variable air volume system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified to provide a constant building pressure differential to control the entry of radon. Pre-mitigation and post-mitigation indoor air pollutant measurements were taken, including radon, carbon dioxide (CO2), particulates, and bio-aerosols. Long-term monitoring of radon, CO2, building pressure differentials, and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity is presented. (author)

  6. Experimental study on frosting control of mobile air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a newly developed frost control system is proposed. System bench tests and vehicle test in wind tunnel have been carried out to explore the anti-frosting performance of automotive air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator. The experimental results are compared with the baseline conventional laminated evaporator system. The test results show that the installation position of temperature sensor can dramatically affect the anti-frosting performance. The clutch switching on/off temperature range of the microchannel evaporator is also experimentally studied. The test results show that, with a proper installation position and on/off temperature range, the system COP can be improved, and meanwhile the panel vents' air off temperature can be reduced, and temperature swing can be reduced. - Highlights: → The frost control systems were tested with microchannel and laminated evaporators separately. → The installation position of temperature sensor affects the anti-frosting performance. → Temperature control range affects the anti-frosting performance. → The panel vents' air off temperature and swing can be reduced by proper control parameters. → The system COP can be improved by proper control parameters.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  8. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  9. Solar energy contribution to the energy demand for air conditioning system in an office building under Tripoli climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah Mohamed H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of solar assisted air conditioning in an office building under Tripoli weather conditions is investigated in this paper. A single-effect lithium bromide absorption cycle powered by means of flat-plate solar collectors was modeled in order to predict the potential of the solar energy share. The cooling load profile was generated by using an detailed hourly based program and Typical meteorological year for Tripoli. System performance and solar energy fraction were calculated by varying two major parameters (collector’s slope angle and collector area. The maximum solar fraction of 48% was obtained by means of 1400 m2 of collector surface area. Analysis of results showed that, besides the collector surface area, the main factors affecting the solar fraction were the local weather conditions (intensity of incident solar radiation and the time of day when the plant was operated.

  10. Investigation on solar desiccant dehumidification process for energy conservation of central air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the numerical simulation results of an open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidification system, attempts to obtain the best configurations of the solar assisted air-conditioning system and to validate the feasibility of using a liquid desiccant dehumidification system to handle the latent load and improve the energy efficiency of HVAC systems. Firstly, based on the steady state simulation model of a solar collector/regenerator (C/R) system, the energy performance for using exhaust air to regenerate the weak desiccant solution and heating the solution to a temperature higher than the equilibrium value were tested and discussed for different lengths of the collector/regenerator panels. It was found that the thermodynamic performance was significantly improved and it was possible to shorten the length of the solar C/R without degrading the performance greatly. Secondly, the transient performance of the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidification system was simulated for the weather conditions of Hong Kong. The energy saving, compared with a conventional vapor compression system, is in the range of 25-50%. The higher the portion of latent load in the total ventilation load, the more the energy saving

  11. An Investigation of Refrigerant Oil Retention in an Air Conditioning System with Two Inverter Compressors in Parallel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Cheng-Shu; Cheng, Wei-Yueh; Hsieh, Wen-Der; Liu, Yangguang

    2012-01-01

    A VRF (variable refrigerant flow) air conditioning, having a number of air handling units connected to an external condensing unit, commonly uses two or more compressors in the system. The complicated piping system of the VRF air conditioning causes difficulties for refrigerant oils to return back to each compressor, especially for compressors operating in different frequencies. Compressors need lubrication in operation process, otherwise the compressor will burn out because of wearing and ov...

  12. Data mining based sensor fault diagnosis and validation for building air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy based on the data mining (DM) method is developed to detect and diagnose sensor faults based on the past running performance data in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, combining a rough set approach and an artificial neural network (ANN). The reduced information is used to develop classification rules and train the neural network to infer appropriate parameters. The differences between measured thermodynamic states and predicted states obtained from models for normal performance (residuals) are used as performance indices for sensor fault detection and diagnosis. Real test results from a real HVAC system show that only the temperature and humidity measurements of many air handling units (AHU) can work very well as the measurements to distinguish simultaneous temperature sensor faults of the supply chilled water (SCW) and return chilled water (RCW)

  13. Multi-variable Extremum Seeking Control for Mini-split Air-conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a multi-variable extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is proposed for a variable-speed mini-split air-conditioning system. The control inputs are the evaporator and condenser fan speeds, respectively, while the total power consumption is used as the feedback. As accurate model is hard and expensive to obtain for the AC system of interest in real time, nearly model-free self-optimizing control methods such as ESC is considered a more feasible solution to practical deployment. R...

  14. A thermodynamic evaluation of chilled water central air conditioning systems using artificial intelligence tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Armas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  An analysis of a chilled water central air conditioning system is presented. The object was to calculate main cycle component irreversibility, as well as evaluating this indicator’s sensitivity to operational variations. Artificial neural networks (ANN, genetic algorithms (GA and Matlab tools were used to calculate refrigerant thermodynamic properties during each cycle stage. These tools interacted with equations describing the system’s thermodynamic behaviour. Refrigerant temperature, when released from the compressor, was determined by a hybrid model combining the neural model with a simple genetic algorithm used as optimisation tool; the cycle’s components which were most sensitive to changes in working conditions were identified. It was concluded that the compressor, evaporator and expansion mechanism (in that order represented significant exergy losses reaching 85.62% of total system irreversibility. A very useful tool was thus developed for evaluating these systems

  15. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair has been developed, and some operating results are summarized. This system is used for providing air conditioning for the driver's cab of an internal combustion locomotive. Unlike a normal adsorption air conditioner, the system starts running with the adsorption process, during which the cold energy stored is discharged, and ends running with the generation process. The adsorbent temperature decreases during the cold storing period between two runs. The refrigeration power output for the whole running cycle is about 4.1 kW. It appears that such a system is quite energetically efficient and is comparatively suitable for providing discontinuous refrigeration capacity when powered by low grade thermal energy, such as industrial exhausted heat or solar energy

  16. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  17. A Mobile Air Conditioning System Operated by the Engine Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnetto, D. [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Turin (Italy); De Boer, R. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Taklanti, A. [Valeo Systemes Thermiques SAS, Paris (France)

    2011-04-12

    This paper describes the development of a Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) system with a very small impact on the environment. The system based on adsorption cooling is powered by the waste heat recovered from the engine coolant. The advantages of such a system are: a drastic reduction of the fuel overconsumption and the CO2 emission associated to the MAC usage, and the use of water as the refrigerant, which is a no Global Warming Potential (GWP) fluid compliant with the new EU regulation and naturally available. In addition the system being based on thermal compression and not on mechanical compression, is decoupled from the engine operation and has no impact on the vehicle handling. Finally, coupled with a small fuel burner or with a solar panel it can provide air conditioning when the vehicle engine is stop. Thus the system can provide the cabin preconditioning and allows the cabin cooling for those vehicles which are also used for rest or sleeping (truck, camper). The core of the system is an adsorption chiller that has been designed, manufactured and tested at first at the ECN laboratory. It produces 2 kW of chilling power with a COP of 0,4. The on board overall MAC system has been designed, manufactured and installed on a Fiat Grande Punto at CRF. The tests demonstrate the potential of such device to replace conventional vapor compression system. Following this experimental work a system redesign and car integration study was done and showed the potential to further reduce the volume and weight of the adsorption cooling system to the extent that the system can be integrated fully in the engine compartment.

  18. Application of a solar refrigeration system by absorption for the air conditioning of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machielsen, Cees H. M [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands); Hagendijk, Andre E [Consultancy and Research (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Sofri project, a cooperation between Ceeran Ltd and The Delft University of Technology. The main objective of this project is to develop the necessary knowledge and experience to commercialize solar-assisted air conditioning and dehumidification systems in the Dutch Caribbean. The project is motivated by the present needs of the Dutch Caribbean for renewable energy sources and the fact that the Caribbean has a high and uniform insolation throughout the year. Furthermore, hotels and offices in this area use more than 40% of their energy for air-conditioning purposes. Therefore solar-assisted air conditioning systems are a logic approach in reducing the energy demand and to lower the peak electricity reducing the energy demands for the local power station. Ceeran Ltd has the objective to reach full commercialization of the proposed technologies in the Dutch Caribbean. The research is concentrated on liquid absorption machines and solar collection systems such as flat plates with selective surfaces, heat pipe evacuated tubes flat plate collectors, and Compound Parabolic Concentrators. The first demonstration unit is planned to be installed in an office building in Curacao. The installation consists of a 35 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption machine driven by 100 m{sup 2} flat pate collectors with a gas backup system. The system will provide comfort air-conditioning for this these type of office buildings during daytime. [Spanish] Este documento describe el proyecto SOFRI, una cooperacion entre Ceeran, Ltd, y la Universidad Tecnologica del Delft. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el de desarrollar el conocimiento necesario y la experiencia para comercializar los sistemas de aire acondicionado y deshumidificacion ayudados por la energia solar en el Caribe Holandes. Este proyecto ha sido motivado por las actuales necesidades del Caribe Holandes de fuentes de energia renovable y por el hecho de que el Caribe tiene una alta y uniforme insolacion

  19. Sterilization efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation on microbial aerosols under dynamic airflow by experimental air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the sterilization efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation on microbial aerosols, the size and the weight of the aerosol particles were evaluated, and these were irradiated under dynamic air flow created by an experimental air conditioning system. The experimental apparatus consisted of a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, an aerosol generator, spiral UV lamps placed around a quart glass tube, an Andersen air sampler and a vacuum pump. They were connected serially by stainless steel ducts (85 mm in diameter, 8 m in length). Six types of microbial aerosols generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer were irradiated by UV rays (wavelength 254 nm, mean density 9400 μW/cm2). Their irradiation time ranged from 1.0 to 0.0625 seconds. The microbial aerosols were collected onto the trypticase soy agar (TSA) medium in the Andersen air sampler. After incubation, the number of colony forming units (CFU) were counted, and converted to particle counts. The diameter of microbial aerosol particles calculated by their log normal distribution were found to match the diameter of a single bacteria cell measured by a microscope. The sterilization efficacy of UV in standard airflow conditions (0.5 sec. irradiation) were found to be over 99.5 % in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis (vegetative cell) and Bacillus subtilis (spore) and 67 % in Aspergillus niger (conidium). In A. niger, which was the most resistant microbe to UV irradiation, the efficacy rose up to 79 % when irradiated for 1.0 sec., and it was observed that the growth speed of the colonies was slower than that of the controls. It was thought that UV rays caused some damage to the proliferation of A. niger cells. (author)

  20. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey KRAJNIUK; Aleksander KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP) as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expand...

  1. Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.

  2. Comparative study of air conditioning systems with vapor compression chillers using the concept of green buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutenberg da Silva Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to compare two different cooling systems that use vapor compression chillers for air conditioning environments. It was proposed to compare different operations in isolated and combined action operations. These operations are evaluated in the concepts of green buildings. A mathematical model was developed based on the principles of mass and energy conservation and complemented by various functions so as to determine the thermophysical properties and efficiencies of the compressors. The equations of the model were solved by the EES (Engineering Equation Solver program. The model evaluates the influence of the main HVAC operating parameters of the chilled water system when operating under three different configurations. The results showed that the system with a differentiated compression presents a COP equal to that of the system with screw chillers in the range  0-300 RTs, and a COP hat is on average 9% higher in the range 400-800 RTs.

  3. Parametric study of an energy efficient air conditioning system using liquid desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, Adnan A.; Al-Rabghi, Omar M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Elsayed, Moustafa M. [Kuwait Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1998-05-01

    Liquid desiccant can be used effectively to reduce energy consumed in air conditioning (AC). Unlike conventional AC, the latent part of the cooling load is overcome using liquid desiccant. In a previous article, an energy efficient system utilizing CaCl{sub 2} as liquid desiccant was proposed. This study is an extension of that work. The effect of key variables on the performance of the proposed system is undertaken. The inlet temperature of the liquid desiccant to the dehumidifier, space sensible heat ratio, and heat exchanger effectivenesses are the variables studied. Variations of these parameters and their effects on system performance are presented. Good system performance and energy saving could be achieved if proper values of these variables are selected. (Author)

  4. Distributed Air-Conditioning Energy Management System within the Smart Grid Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Osman; A.R.Al-Ali; Haroon Khalil; Kiran Prem; Mursalin Haider; Mishal Eskander

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning (AC) systems are the major energy consumption units in residential and commercial buildings. In the context of smart grid, optimizing AC operations leads to substantial saving in energy consumption, reducing the consumer’s bill and contributing to the environment by minimizing carbon emissions from generating stations. This paper presents a distributed AC energy management system for buildings by using networked master-slaves controller architecture. The proposed system was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested by using real AC units in a students’ residence hall. Based on the students’ class schedules, several operational scenarios were implemented and tested. The proposed system implementation leads to a 40% to 60% saving of the consumed energy by the tested units. The same energy management scheme can be applied and implemented in other commercial and residential buildings.

  5. Silicagel-water adsorption cooling prototype system for mobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, R.; Smeding, S.F.; Mola, S. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    A prototype adsorption cooling system was developed for the purpose of on-board test of mobile air conditioning driven by waste heat from the engine. The system was designed, constructed and first tested in the laboratory of ECN. The performance under various static operating conditions was determined in the laboratory. The system can produce 2 kW of chilling power with a COP of 0.4. The prototype was afterward installed in the Fiat Grande Punto demonstration car by CRF. The system was connected to the heating and cooling systems of the car and tested. The performance in the car was comparable to the performance in the lab, indicating that system integration was successful. A waste heat driven adsorption cooling system can be applied for comfort cooling purposes in a car. The amount of waste heat that is freely available in the engine coolant circuit as well as its temperature level is sufficient to drive the adsorption cooling system and to produce enough cold to keep comfortable interior temperatures.

  6. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  7. Exergy analysis of a novel configuration of desiccant based evaporative air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A procedure is developed for exergy analyses of the system. • The exergy transports between the components are determined. • The exergy efficiency of the whole system is 40.7% at 15 °C reference temperature. - Abstract: In this work, a process is developed for exergy analyses of a novel configuration of desiccant based an evaporative air conditioning system. The exergy transfer and destruction between the components of the system are defined for the average measured variables obtained from the experimental results. The exergy formulations are carried out to the experimental system using the data collected during a typical operation of the system. The exergy output, specific flow exergy, exergy destruction, exergy input and exergy efficiency are determined. Furthermore, the sustainability assessment and relative irreversibility of components are obtained. It is found that the exergy efficiency of the entire experimental unit is 40.7% at a reference temperature of 15 °C. It is also observed that the exergy efficiencies of the entire system varies between 56% and 25% for reference temperature of 0–30 °C, respectively. The effects of reference temperature on the performance of the studied system are investigated. Based on the investigation, it is seen that an exergy analysis can provide beneficial knowledge with respect to the theoretical upper limit of the system performance

  8. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  9. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  10. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  11. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  12. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  13. System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆景阳; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2003-01-01

    As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-eritical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system.

  14. System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆景阳; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2003-01-01

    As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-critical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system.

  15. Fuzzy logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a variable structure fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered air conditioning system and its advantages are investigated in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. Two different control schemes for the DC motors rotational speed adjustment are implemented and tested: the first one is a pure fuzzy controller, its output being the control signal for the DC motor driver. A 7 x 7 fuzzy matrix assigns the controller output with respect to the error value and the derivative of the error. The second scheme is a two-level controller. The lower level is a conventional PID controller, and the higher level is a fuzzy controller acting over the parameters of the low level controller. Step response of the two control loops are presented as experimental results. The contribution of this design is that in the control system, the fuzzy logic is implemented through software in a common, inexpensive, 16-bit microcontroller, which does not have special abilities for fuzzy control

  16. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Hong-Phil Won; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas c...

  17. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  18. Theoretical energy saving analysis of air conditioning system using heat pipe heat exchanger for Indian climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jadhav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX is an excellent device used for heat recovery in air conditioning systems. The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC – Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE India classifies Indian climatic zones into five categories viz., Hot and Dry (e.g. Ahmedabad, Jodhpur etc, Warm and Humid (e.g. Mumbai, Chennai etc, Composite (e.g. Nagpur, Jaipur etc, Cold (e.g. Guwahati etc and Temperate (e.g. Bengaluru etc. The literature review indicated that very limited information is available on annual energy saving analysis of air conditioning system with HPHX for Indian climatic zones. The paper investigates the possible energy savings using HPHX for heat recovery in air conditioning system for Indian climatic zones. The analysis is carried out for total 25 Indian cities representing different climatic zones. The analysis is performed for a 6 row HPHX and assuming outdoor air quantity as 1 m3/s, return air dry bulb temperature as 23 °C and compressor power as 1 kW/TR. This paper discusses the use of HPHX only for the heat recovery application (exchange of sensible heat between fresh outdoor air and conditioned return air. The annual energy savings with HPHX for a particular city is calculated for number of hours when outdoor air dry bulb temperature exceeds 25 °C. The maximum energy saving potential is revealed for hot and dry, warm and humid and composite Indian climatic zones.

  19. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  20. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  1. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  2. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  3. Energy problems of the central systems of air conditioning; Problemas energeticos de los sistemas centrales de climatizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardero Corria, Gaspar [Cubanacan, S.A., Varadero (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    The central systems of air conditioning are widely used in air conditioning production for several reasons among which excel: 1) Better aesthetic of the building, 2) Less noise in the air conditioning premises and 3) Greater yield of the consumed energy. This is indeed the third reason in which this paper will try to contribute with elements that will allow reveal the problem and to identify some possible causes that originate it. The centralized systems of air conditioning must produce conditioned air with lesser power cost than the individual systems, it is that saving which allows to recover an investment that normally surpasses them in 3 to 5 times. Nevertheless, the real numbers do not demonstrate that. [Spanish] Los sistemas centrales de climatizacion son ampliamente usados en la produccion de aire acondicionado por varias razones entre las que sobresalen: 1) Mejor estetica del edificio, 2) Menor ruido en los locales climatizados y 3) Mayor rendimiento de la energia consumida. Es precisamente la tercera razon en la cual este trabajo intentara aportar elementos que permitan develar el problema e identificar algunas posibles causas que lo originan. Los sistemas centralizados de climatizacion deben producir aire acondicionado con un menor gasto energetico que los sistemas individuales, es precisamente ese ahorro lo que permite recuperar una inversion que normalmente los supera en 3 a 5 veces. Sin embargo, los numeros reales no demuestran eso.

  4. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.

  5. Numerical simulation and performance assessment of an absorption solar air-conditioning system coupled with an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. Solar energy, via thermal collectors can provide a part of the heating needs. Moreover, it can drive absorption chiller in order to satisfy the cooling needs of buildings. The objective of the work is to evaluate accurately the energy consumption of an air conditioning system including a solar driven absorption chiller. The c...

  6. Preliminary thermodynamic design of a stirling cooler for mobile air conditioning systems : Technical report

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, André; Ylinen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion on refrigerants used in mobile air conditioning (MAC) units leads to the question whether a stirling cycle based heat pump could replace the present technology. An experimental and simulative study is carried out to determine the design parameters of such a heat pump. It is found that the targeted power density cannot be reached with air as a working fluid. The power require-ments would lead to machine sizes too large for a passenger vehicle.

  7. Modeling and simulation of a solar powered two bed adsorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple lumped parameter model is established to investigate the performance of a solar powered adsorption air conditioning system driven by flat-type solar collectors with three different configurations of glazes: (i) single glazed cover; (ii) double glazed cover and (iii) transparent insulation material (TIM) cover. The dynamic performance of a continuous adsorption cycle using a double adsorber along with heat recovery is measured in terms of the temperature histories, gross solar coefficient of performance and specific cooling power. Also, the influences of some important design and operational parameters on the performance of the system are studied. It is found that the chosen three types of collector configurations make no big difference on the performance, but the adsorbent mass and lumped capacitance have significant effects on the system performance as well as on the system size. Simulation results indicate that the effect of overall heat transfer coefficient is not predominant if the cycle duration is longer. Also, there exists an optimum time to initiate the heating of the adsorbent bed in a day's operation

  8. Air conditioning systems of Porsche Panamera; Das Klimatisierungssystem des Porsche Panamera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mall, Gernot; Deyhle, Hagen [Porsche AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Engelhardt, Martin [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Gremme, Johannes [BehrHella Thermocontrol GmbH, Lippstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Porsche Panama, an innovative Gran Turismo is the newest edition to the Porsche sportscar family. The Panamera climate control system is a major contributor in achieving the goal of premium driver comfort. In addition to excellent performance and comfort requirements on the system and package and an uncompromising lightweight design, premium comfort for the rear seat passengers was of special emphasis. These targets were achieved through a newly developed 2- respective 4-zone climate control system. The climatic comfort from the passenger's point of view is enhanced due to the ability to individually set temperature, air distribution and air volume for every passenger. The system incorporates a model based ''air volume control'' and uses a distinguishing feature, a dashboard integrated air distribution field. (orig.)

  9. Hot-wire air flow meter for gasoline fuel-injection system. Calculation of air mass in cylinder during transient condition; Gasoline funsha system yo no netsusenshiki kuki ryuryokei. Kato untenji no cylinder juten kukiryo no keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y. [Hitachi Car Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Y.; Osuga, M.; Yamauchi, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Air flow characteristics of hot-wire air flow meters for gasoline fuel-injection systems with supercharging and exhaust gas recycle during transient conditions were investigated to analyze a simple method for calculating air mass in cylinder. It was clarified that the air mass in cylinder could be calculated by compensating for the change of air mass in intake system by using aerodynamic models of intake system. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Compressor Speed and Air Flow Through the Evaporator on the Performance of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Santanu Prasad; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    During last few decades research on Automotive Air Conditioning System (AACS) reached a milestone in terms of comfort, safety and economy. However investigation on system performance due to AACS’s variable operating conditions is limited. The performance of any AACS mostly depends on compressor speed, blower speed, refrigerant charge level and ambient condition. However, the combined effect of these parameters on the performance of AACS could be non-intuitive. Reduction in compressor speed an...

  11. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  12. Phase equilibrium condition measurements in nitrogen and air clathrate hydrate forming systems at temperatures below freezing point of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium conditions in the nitrogen and modelled air hydrate forming systems are measured. • Measurements are conducted at temperatures below the freezing point of water. • Results have relevance to the air hydrate formation in the ice sheets. • Measured data are quantitatively compared with the previously reported values. • Range of the equilibrium measurements was from (242 to 268) K. -- Abstract: Contained in this paper are the three phase equilibrium conditions of the (ice + clathrate hydrate + guest-rich) vapour in the (nitrogen + water) and the modelled (air + water) systems at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The precise determination of the equilibrium conditions in those systems are of importance for the analysis of the past climate change using the cored samples from the ice sheets at Antarctica and Greenland because the air hydrates keep the ancient climate signals. The mole ratio of the modelled air composed of nitrogen and oxygen is 0.790:0.210. The equilibrium conditions were measured by the batch, isochoric procedure. The temperature range of the measurements in the nitrogen hydrate forming system is (244.05 < T < 266.55) K and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (7.151 < p < 12.613) MPa. The temperature range of the measurements in the modelled air hydrate forming system is (242.55 < T < 267.85) K, and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (6.294 < p < 12.144) MPa. The data obtained quantitatively compared with the previously reported data

  13. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  14. Improving design factors of air diffuser systems based on field conditions of dam reservoirs: CFD simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Sangeun; Yum, Kyungtaek; Park, Heekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to improve the design factors of air diffuser systems that have been analyzed in laboratory experiments, with consideration of the field conditions of dam reservoirs. In this study, the destratification number (D(N)), destratification radius, and efficiency are considered as design factors. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation experiment is performed in diverse field conditions in order to analyze these factors. The results illustrate the wider range of D(N) values in field conditions and the relationship of the destratification radius and efficiency to D(N). The results can lead to better performance of air diffuser systems and water quality management in dam reservoir sites. PMID:22678200

  15. Modelling of cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems: Influences on indoor environment and energy consumption. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, J.

    1994-06-14

    The contents presented in this thesis consist of four principal parts: (1) the critical review of turbulence CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques and their application in building air flow study, and the experimental evaluation of the widely used k-epsilon turbulence model for in-room air flow situations; (2) the development of a thermodynamic mathematical model for cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems, and the enhancement of an existing computer code ACCURACY, and the experimental validation of the convective parameters involved in the models; (3) the combined use of building dynamic simulation and CFD technique for the investigation of thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness performance of three typical air-conditioning systems, the air-panel type cooled-ceiling (ACC) system, and the water-panel type cooled ceiling (CC) system; and (4) the use of the dynamic model coupled with air-handling-unit (AHU) and primary equipment models to simulate the annual energy consumption of CC systems and all-air systems and to estimate thermal performances of some passive cooling schemes, especially the evaporative free-cooling scheme. The review of the state-of-the-art of turbulence modeling shows that the k-epsilon turbulence model still remains the most-widely used engineering model.

  16. Analyses of an air conditioning system with entropy generation minimization and entransy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Qiu, Wu; Li, Cai; Hong-Juan, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, based on the generalized heat transfer law, an air conditioning system is analyzed with the entropy generation minimization and the entransy theory. Taking the coefficient of performance (denoted as COP) and heat flow rate Q out which is released into the room as the optimization objectives, we discuss the applicabilities of the entropy generation minimization and entransy theory to the optimizations. Five numerical cases are presented. Combining the numerical results and theoretical analyses, we can conclude that the optimization applicabilities of the two theories are conditional. If Q out is the optimization objective, larger entransy increase rate always leads to larger Q out, while smaller entropy generation rate does not. If we take COP as the optimization objective, neither the entropy generation minimization nor the concept of entransy increase is always applicable. Furthermore, we find that the concept of entransy dissipation is not applicable for the discussed cases. Project supported by the Youth Programs of Chongqing Three Gorges University, China (Grant No. 13QN18).

  17. Performance of residential air-conditioning systems with flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Brix, Wiebke; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2011-01-01

    Refrigerant and airflow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning was investigated with numerical modeling. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers usually have a pre-defined circuitry. However, the objective in this study was to perform a generic investigation of each...

  18. Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system of commercial building:A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇; 练斯甄; 闫军威; 康英姿

    2015-01-01

    Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system is essential to optimize operating, reduce operating costs, improve indoor environmental quality, and determine whether the retrofitting of the equipment is necessary. But it is difficult to evaluate it reasonably and comprehensively due to its complexity.A “holistic” approach was discussed to evaluate the energy performance of central air-conditioning system for an extra-large commercial building in a subtropical city. All procedures were described in detail, including field investigation method, field measurement instruments, data processing and data analyzing. The main factors affecting energy consumption of air-conditioning system were analyzed and the annual cooling-energy use intensity of this building was calculated and also compared with other shopping malls and other types of buildings in Guangzhou. And COP (coefficient of performance) of chiller, water transfer factor of chilled water system and cooling water system were taken into consideration. At last, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality issues were addressed. The results show that the chilled water pumps are over-sized and the indoor environmental quality should be improved. The purpose of this work is to provide reference for energy performance assessment method for air-conditioning system.

  19. Energy and exergy analysis of a geothermal heat pump air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the energy analysis of a heat pump system coupled to the ground by means of vertical exchangers, to verify which thermodynamic boundary conditions, in terms of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the ground and the grout, make it competitive in comparison with other technologies harnessing atmospheric air as the heat source. The comparison is based on the maximum theoretical efficiency available in correspondence to the temperature effectively assumed by the thermal energy reservoirs in contact with the evaporator and the condenser during the operating conditions. The comparison of the two sources/sinks of heat, i.e. the ground and atmospheric air, represents the comparison between the time trend of the exergy of the two reservoirs required by an ideal GSHP and ASHP respectively. A fully transient heat transfer model able to handle on a time scale of a year or more and with a refinement of less than an hour is considered, since short term variations have significant effects on the overall performance of GSHP. In this paper the borehole heat transfer problem in the Laplace domain is solved for any trend and duration of thermal loads, taking into account an existing analytical approximation model of the full solution proposed by Lamarche and Beauchamp. A numerical inversion using the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform is then applied to obtain the time domain solution. The method combines the flexibility and accuracy of the analytical model with the superior efficiency of the computational time offered by the numerical inversion if compared with that of methods based on the convolution scheme. - Highlights: • The energy and exergy analysis of a GSHP versus a ASHP system is considered. • The model works on a time scale of a year, with a refinement of less than an hour. • Flexibility and efficiency are combined by an analytical model and numerical inversion. • For which order of λ and α the GSHP is not competitive respect to ASHP is

  20. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expanders have low refrigerating factor, they are very expensive in manufacturing and require a high level of maintenance service.Alternative trend of perfection of air refrigeration units is connected with a new principle of organization of working process, based on the use as expander and compressor of aggregates of cascade exchanger of pressure (CPE. Besides of unsurpassed efficiency of exchange processes, CPE is characterized by simplicity of design and high reliability, including, due to low frequency of rotation (2000-3000 min-1 with practically absence of consumption of mechanical energy on the drive of the rotor. The attractive aspect of application of equipment of conditioning with CPE is the opportunity of organization of working process only due to thermal energy including the utilization in the heat-power installation of transport vehicle.

  1. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  2. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters. PMID:16739804

  3. Control of systems with costs related to switching: applications to air-condition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo (Deng), Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a low complexity method for controlling systems with binary inputs that have costs related to switching. The control objective for this type of systems is often a trade off between the deviation from the reference and the number of switches (weariness...

  4. Performance improvement of VAV air conditioning system through feedforward compensation decoupling and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAV (variable air volume) control system has the feature of multi-control loops. While all the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. This paper designs the decoupling compensation unit in VAV system in the method of feedforward compensation. This paper also designs the controller parameters of VAV system by means of inverse deducing and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the feedforward compensation decoupling and the controller optimization by genetic algorithm can improve the performance of the VAV control system

  5. Performance improvement of VAV air conditioning system through feedforward compensation decoupling and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jun [School of Sino-German Eng, Tongji University, North Zhongshan Road 727, 200070 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: wangjun9312@hotmail.com; Wang Yan [School of Sino-German Eng, Tongji University, North Zhongshan Road 727, 200070 Shanghai (China)

    2008-04-15

    VAV (variable air volume) control system has the feature of multi-control loops. While all the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. This paper designs the decoupling compensation unit in VAV system in the method of feedforward compensation. This paper also designs the controller parameters of VAV system by means of inverse deducing and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the feedforward compensation decoupling and the controller optimization by genetic algorithm can improve the performance of the VAV control system.

  6. Energy saving measures for automotive air conditioning (AC) system in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Subiantoro, Alison; Ooi, Kim Tiow; Stimming, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Air conditioning (AC) is an integral component of modern cars in the tropics. However, AC usage in this region consumes a large amount of energy. In conventional internal combustion engine cars, it consumes up to 30% of the fuel, while in battery electric cars, AC may reduce the battery range by up to 40%. Fortunately, there are various ways to improve the efficiency of automotive ACs in the tropics. In this paper, three energy saving measures are discussed. These include a higher indoor temp...

  7. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  8. Transient characteristics and performance analysis of a vapor compression air conditioning system with condensing heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ming Liu; Wu, Jing Yi; Xu, Yu.Xiong; Wang, Ru Zhu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of condensing heat recovery on the dynamic behavior and performance of air conditioners. The article includes a test procedure utilized to evaluate the condensing heat recovery system, relevant experimental results, a detail analysis of the mechanisms, and improvement measure on such a system. The experimental results indicate that although the condensing heat recovery has a negative effect on the cooling capacity at the start of the heat recovery process, the average cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the system can be improved. The study also incorporates a control scheme of the electronic expansion valve (EEV) of the condensing heat recovery system. The experimental comparison between the EEV and the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) demonstrates that the EEV has better performance in both stability and efficiency in the condensing heat recovery system. (author)

  9. Arduino-based control system for measuring ammonia in air using conditionally-deployed diffusive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Shonkwiler, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Arduino microcontrollers, wireless modules, and other low-cost hardware were used to develop a new type of air sampler for monitoring ammonia at strong areal sources like dairies, cattle feedlots, and waste treatment facilities. Ammonia was sampled at multiple locations on the periphery of an operation using Radiello diffusive passive samplers (Cod. RAD168- and RAD1201-Sigma-Aldrich). However, the samplers were not continuously exposed to the air. Instead, each sampling station included two diffusive samplers housed in specialized tubes that sealed the cartridges from the atmosphere. If a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions were met, the Radiellos were deployed into the air using a micro linear actuator. Each station was solar-powered and controlled by Arduinos that were linked to a central weather station using Xbee wireless modules (Digi International Inc.). The Arduinos also measured the total time of exposure using hall-effect sensors to verify the position of the cartridge (i.e., deployed or retracted). The decision to expose or retract the samplers was made every five minutes based on wind direction, wind speed, and time of day. Typically, the diffusive samplers were replaced with fresh cartridges every two weeks and the used samplers were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography. Initial studies were conducted at a commercial dairy in northern Colorado. Ammonia emissions along the Front Range of Colorado can be transported into the mountains where atmospheric deposition of nitrogen can impact alpine ecosystems. Therefore, low-cost air quality monitoring equipment is needed that can be widely deployed in the region. Initial work at the dairy showed that ammonia concentrations ranged between 600 to 1200 ppb during the summer; the highest concentrations were downwind of a large anaerobic lagoon. Time-averaged ammonia concentrations were also used to approximate emissions using inverse dispersion models. This methodology provides a

  10. Experimental Research of Variable Operating Performance on Water Source Multi-Connected Air-Conditioning System with Digital Scroll Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we study the water source heat pump and digital scroll compressor and experimentally in the multi-connected air-conditioning system. Variable performance is developed when the unit operates in refrigerating and heating mode. The maximum of refrigerating capacity is 36519.95W when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 32°C, at the same time the maximum of EER is 4.33 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 20°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 27°C. The unit operates in heating mode, the maximum of heating capacity and EER is 33275.73W and 3.86 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 20°C.

  11. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  12. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  13. Prototype of a computer method for designing and analyzing heating, ventilating and air conditioning proportional, electronic control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Steven J.

    1986-09-01

    The Air Force needs a better method of designing new and retrofit heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems. Air Force engineers currently use manual design/predict/verify procedures taught at the Air Force Institute of Technology, School of Civil Engineering, HVAC Control Systems course. These existing manual procedures are iterative and time-consuming. The objectives of this research were to: (1) Locate and, if necessary, modify an existing computer-based method for designing and analyzing HVAC control systems that is compatible with the HVAC Control Systems manual procedures, or (2) Develop a new computer-based method of designing and analyzing HVAC control systems that is compatible with the existing manual procedures. Five existing computer packages were investigated in accordance with the first objective: MODSIM (for modular simulation), HVACSIM (for HVAC simulation), TRNSYS (for transient system simulation), BLAST (for building load and system thermodynamics) and Elite Building Energy Analysis Program. None were found to be compatible or adaptable to the existing manual procedures, and consequently, a prototype of a new computer method was developed in accordance with the second research objective.

  14. Design and transient analyses of passive emergency feedwater system of CPR1000. Part 1. Air cooling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam generator secondary passive emergency feedwater system is a new design for traditional generation Ⅱ + reactor CPR1000. The passive emergency feedwater system is designed to supply water to the SG shell side and improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by completely or partially replacing traditional emergency water cooling system in the event of the feed line break (FLB) or loss of heat sink accident. The passive emergency feedwater system consists of steam generator (SG), heat exchanger (HX), air cooling tower, emergency makeup tank (EMT), and corresponding pipes and valves for air cooling condition. In order to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000, the model of the primary loop system and the passive emergency feedwater system was developed to investigate residual heat removal capability of the passive emergency feedwater system and the transient characteristics of the primary loop system affected by the passive emergency feedwater system using RELAP5/MOD3.4. The transient characteristics of the primary loop system and the passive emergency feedwater system were calculated in the event of feed line break accident. Sensitivity studies of the passive emergency feedwater system were also conducted to investigate the response of the primary loop and the passive emergency feedwater system on the main parameters of the passive emergency feedwater system. The passive emergency feedwater system could supply water to the SG shell side from the EMT successfully. The calculation results showed that the passive emergency feedwater system could take away the decay heat from the primary loop effectively for air cooling condition, and that the single-phase and two-phase natural circulations were established in the primary loop and passive emergency feedwater system loop, respectively. (author)

  15. Experimental Research of Variable Operating Performance on Water Source Multi-Connected Air-Conditioning System with Digital Scroll Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwang Zhu; Xueli Nie; Yanli Lv; Chaoxin Wang; Yugui Su

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we study the water source heat pump and digital scroll compressor and experimentally in the multi-connected air-conditioning system. Variable performance is developed when the unit operates in refrigerating and heating mode. The maximum of refrigerating capacity is 36519.95W when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 32°C, at the same time the maximum of EER is 4.33 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 20°C and dr...

  16. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  17. Analysis and Choice of Optimal Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning System for a Teaching Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verdeş

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of present society in which providing an optimum interior comfort is confronted with the necessity of the energy consumption reduction, solving this problem depends on the factors which contribute to the achievements of this comfort. Modern buildings -- implicitly teaching unit -- may be equipped with installations which have low energy consumption, respective a heating, cooling and ventilating integrated system with heat pumps system which can assure all the required comfort conditions. This paper underlines the necessity to use the heat pump in heating system for a teaching unit, energetic and economic guides and the possibility to increase them when using cooling and heating mixed. The solution of heat pumps for heating of the teaching unit and the energetic and economic advantages of the system is made in study.

  18. Control strategies study of a complete solar assisted air conditioning system in an office building using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in progress. In former literature, equipment control has been point out as a critical feature of energy consumption. Control becomes more and more important as system is complex. The complete simulation environment was developed in previous work, it includes the absorption chiller ...

  19. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  20. Solar-powered cooling systems: Technical and economic analysis on industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto; Proietti, Stefania; Sdringola, Paolo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 67 - 06125 Perugia (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In the last years, the growing demand for air conditioning has caused a significant increase in demand for primary energy resources. Solar-powered cooling is one of the technologies which allows to obtain, by using the renewable solar source, an important energy saving compared to traditional air conditioning plants. The paper describes different technical installations for solar cooling, their way of operation, advantages and limits. The objective of the present study has been to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of solar absorption cooling systems, designed for two different application fields: industrial refrigeration and air conditioning. The possibility to replace or integrate the existing plants is studied, by considering the refrigeration requirements of a company, which works in meat manufacturing, and the heating and cooling demands of a hotel located in a tourist town in Italy. In the first case, the system comprises an absorption chiller coupled to solar flat plate collectors, whereas the second application is about a hybrid trigeneration plant, known as thermo-solar trigeneration; this option allows having greater operational flexibility at sites with demand for energy in the form of heating as well as cooling, for example in a hotel. In this way the authors could compare different results obtained by a technical and economic experimental analysis based on existing users and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages in order to suggest the best solution for the two studied cases. (author)

  1. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  2. A NEW AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FAN MODEL BASED ON NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Nassif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of energy use in buildings is attributed to air movement devices. Accurate estimation of fan performance is a key element in maximizing fan efficiency. This study proposes a new fan model that can be used in several applications such as optimization and fault detection and can also be incorporated into any commercial building models. The model uses a numerical analysis based on an interpolation technique for the data generated by basic fan laws. It can use any two variables among all four variables of airflow rate, total fan pressure, speed and power as inputs or outputs. Another advantage of this model is the flexibility of using any size of data for calibration, obtained either from manufacturers or field measured data. The model was tested for accuracy using two different manufacturers’ data of roof top unit packages with capacity ranging from 2 to 20 tons. Furthermore, the model was evaluated and tested on an actual VAV system using three months’ worth of measured data. The results show that the model can provide accurate estimation with the Coefficient of Variance (CV less than 2% and it can be used for several applications.

  3. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  4. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  5. Energy and exergy performance analysis of a marine rotary desiccant air-conditioning system based on orthogonal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel marine rotary desiccant A/C (air-conditioning) system was developed and studied to improve energy utilization efficiency of ship A/C. The orthogonal experiment was first carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters of the marine rotary desiccant A/C system. During the orthogonal experiment the analysis of variance was used to exclude interference from the secondary influencing factor on system performance. The significant influencing factors of system were studied in great detail using the first and second laws of thermodynamics to find optimal setting parameters for best system performance. It is suggested from the analysis results that as regeneration temperature increases, the COPth (thermal coefficient of performance) and exergy efficiency of system (ηe) decreases by 46.9% and 38.8% respectively. They decrease in proportion to the increase of the temperature. ηe reaches its maximum value of about 23.5% when the inlet humidity ratio of process air is 22 g/kg. Besides, the exergy loss of system concentrates on the regeneration air heater, the desiccant wheel and the regeneration air leaving the desiccant wheel, which account for 68.4%–81% of the total exergy loss. It can be concluded that applying the marine rotary desiccant A/C in high-temperature and high-humidity marine environment is advantageous. - Highlights: • Significant influencing factors of the system are found by the analysis of variance. • The change trends of the COPth and the ηe are nearly proportional with the regeneration temperature. • The ηe reaches its maximum value (about 23.5%) when the inlet humidity ratio of process air is 22 g/kg. • The contribution rate of the dry-bulb temperature of fresh air is up to 73.91% for the COPth. • Applying the marine rotary desiccant A/C in high-temperature and high-humidity marine environment is advantageous

  6. Performance analysis of proposed hybrid air conditioning and humidification–dehumidification systems for energy saving and water production in hot and dry climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems are proposed. • Effects of operating parameters on the proposed systems are investigated. • System configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, power saving and total cost saving are identified. - Abstract: Performance of integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems proposed for hot and dry climatic regions is theoretically investigated. The proposed systems aim to energy saving and systems utilization in fresh water production. Four systems with evaporative cooler and heat recovery units located at different locations are proposed, analyzed and evaluated at different operating parameters (fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outside air wet bulb temperature). Other two basic systems are used as reference systems in proposed systems assessment. Fresh water production rate, A/C cooling capacity, A/C electrical power consumption, saving in power consumptions and total cost saving (TCS) parameters are used for systems evaluations and comparisons. The results show that (i) the fresh water production rates of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outdoor wet bulb temperature, (ii) powers saving of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio and supply air temperature and decreasing of the outdoor air wet bulb temperature, (iii) locating the evaporative cooling after the fresh air mixing remarkably increases water production rate, and (vi) incorporating heat recovery in the air conditioning systems with evaporative cooling may adversely affect both of the water production rate and the total cost saving of the system. Comparison study has been presented to identify systems configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, highest power saving and highest total cost saving. Numerical correlations for

  7. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  8. Development of novel control strategy for multiple circuit, roof top bus air conditioning system in hot humid countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel control strategy to improve energy efficiency and to enhance passengers' thermal comfort of a new roof top bus multiple circuit air conditioning (AC) system operating on partial load conditions is presented. A novel strategy for automatic control of the AC system was developed based on numerous experimental test runs at various operating conditions, taking into account energy saving and thermal comfort without sacrificing the proper cycling rate of the system compressor. For this task, more than 50 test runs were conducted at different set point temperatures of 21, 22 and 23 deg. C. Fanger's method was used to evaluate passenger thermal comfort, and the system energy consumption was also calculated. A performance comparison between that of the conventional AC system and that of the newly developed one has been conducted. The comparison revealed that the adopted control strategy introduces significant improvements in terms of thermal comfort and energy saving on various partial load conditions. Potential energy saving of up to 31.6% could be achieved. This results in a short payback period of 17 months. It was found from the economic analysis that the new system is able to save approximately 20.0% of the life cycle cost

  9. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  10. Thermal analysis of car air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzebiński, Daniel; Szczygieł, Ireneusz

    2010-10-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of car air cooler is presented in this paper. Typical refrigerator cycles are studied. The first: with uncontrolled orifice and non controlled compressor and the second one with the thermostatic controlled expansion valve and externally controlled compressor. The influence of the refrigerant decrease and the change of the air temperature which gets to exchangers on the refrigeration efficiency of the system; was analysed. Also, its effectiveness and the power required to drive the compressor were investigated. The impact of improper refrigerant charge on the performance of air conditioning systems was also checked.

  11. Creation of an Exergetic Based Leak Detection and Diagnosis Methodology for Automotive Carbon Dioxide Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Bailey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Carbon dioxide automotive air conditioning (AC systems have been under development for over a decade. Although the AC system construction is important, a reliable refrigerant leakage detection system is also vital. A detailed thermodynamic simulation model and fault detection and diagnosis (FDD system, with proposed validation plans, has been developed at Rochester Institute of Technology. A discussion of simulation models that have been developed for various compressors and heat exchangers is presented; they are compared to actual AC systems to develop a realistic experimental setup. Assumptions from previous work are examined and improved.

    • Portions of this paper were previously published in the ECOS'05 and ECOS'07 conference proceedings.

  12. Air conditioning system design of Zibo Athletes Apartment%淄博市运动员公寓空调系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲玲

    2012-01-01

    Presents the design procedure of air conditioning system of this building from the aspects of general situation, designing parameters, air conditioning cold/heat source and water system, air system, mechanical ventilation system, exhaust and smoke control system and air cleaning measures. Summarizes the problems existed in operation of the air conditioning system and their solutions.%从工程概况、设计参数、空调冷热源及水系统、空调风系统、机械通风系统、防排烟系统、空气净化措施等方面介绍了该运动员公寓的空调系统设计过程,并总结了空调运行中存在的问题及解决措施.

  13. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  14. Optimum selection of solar collectors for a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system by experimental and simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three solar collectors have been compared to drive ejector air conditioning system. ► A simulation program was constructed to study the effect parameters. ► The outdoor test were conducted to validate the solar collector modeling. ► Simulation program was found to predict solar collector performance accurately. ► The optimal design of solar collector system was carried out. - Abstract: In this paper, three different solar collectors are selected to drive the solar ejector air conditioning system for Mediterranean climate. The performance of the three selected solar collector are evaluated by computer simulation and lab test. Computer model is incorporated with a set of heat balance equations being able to analyze heat transfer process occurring in separate regions of the collector. It is found simulation and test has a good agreement. By the analysis of the computer simulation and test result, the solar ejector cooling system using the evacuated tube collector with selective surface and high performance heat pipe can be most economical when operated at the optimum generating temperature of the ejector cooling machine.

  15. Near-optimal order-reduced control for A/C (air-conditioning) system of EVs (electric vehicles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to investigate the regulation problem for thermal comfortableness and propose control strategies for cabin environment of EVs (electric vehicles) by constructing a reduced-scale A/C (air-conditioning) system which mainly consists of two modules: ECB (environmental control box) and AHU (air-handling unit). Temperature and humidity in the ECB can be regulated by AHU via cooling, heating, mixing air streams and adjusting speed of fans. To synthesize the near-optimal controllers, the mathematical model for the system thermodynamics is developed by employing the equivalent lumped heat capacity approach, energy/mass conservation principle and the heat transfer theories. In addition, from the clustering pattern of system eigenvalues, the thermodynamics of the interested system can evidently be characterized by two-time-scale property. That is, the studied system can be decoupled into two subsystems, slow mode and fast mode, by singular perturbation technique. As to the optimal control strategies for EVs, by taking thermal comfortableness, humidity and energy consumption all into account, a series of optimal controllers is synthesized on the base of the order-reduced thermodynamic model. The feedback control loop for the experimental test rig is examined and realized by the aid of the control system development kit dSPACE DS1104 and the commercial software MATLAB/Simulink. To sum up, the intensive computer simulations and experimental results verify that the performance of the near-optimal order-reduced control law is almost as superior as that of standard LQR (Linear-Quadratic Regulator). - Highlights: • A reduced-scale test rig for A/C (air-conditioning) system to imitate the temperature/humidity of cabin in EV (electric vehicle) is constructed. • The non-linear thermodynamic model of A/C system can be decoupled by singular perturbation technique. • The temperature/humidity in cabin is regulated to the desired values by proposed optimal

  16. Atmospheric Air –the Effective Source of Low-Grade Thermal Energy for Heat Pump Snow Melting Systems under Climatic Conditions of Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev G.P.; Leskov V.A.; Mitrofanova N.V.; Gornov V.F.; Kolesova M.V.; Yurchenko I.A.; Filippov M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of field experimental studies to evaluate effectiveness of heat pump snow melting systems use under climatic conditions of Moscow. The studies were conducted on a mock-up near-house heat pump snow melting site using low-grade atmospheric air heat. Experimental studies carried out in field conditions confirmed feasibility and efficiency of using atmospheric air as a source of low-grade heat for evaporators of heat pump snow melting systems under climatic condit...

  17. Theoretical energy saving analysis of air conditioning system using heat pipe heat exchanger for Indian climatic zones

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Jadhav; M.M. Lele

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) is an excellent device used for heat recovery in air conditioning systems. The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) – Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) India classifies Indian climatic zones into five categories viz., Hot and Dry (e.g. Ahmedabad, Jodhpur etc), Warm and Humid (e.g. Mumbai, Chennai etc), Composite (e.g. Nagpur, Jaipur etc), Cold (e.g. Guwahati etc) and Temperate (e.g. Bengaluru etc). The literature review indicated that very limited informati...

  18. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  19. Evaluation of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Devices in Energy Cascade Systems under the Restriction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is necessary to introduce energy cascade systems into the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the refrigerating and air conditioning devices in cases of introducing both energy cascade systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. The authors have developed an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions results in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature one is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustor waste heat can reduce electric power for the turbo refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator.

  20. A mathematical model for predicting the performance of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system, with one-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The desiccant wheels used honeycombed silica gel six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system was studied. • The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. • The optimal rotation speed increases with increasing the inlet temperature of the regeneration air. - Abstract: A mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system (SEAHACS) is presented. The honeycombed silica gel desiccant wheel is used in this study. One-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system, (two-stage dehumidification process, two-stage pre-cooling process and two-stage regeneration process) are realized by only one wheel. Three air streams are involved in the present system. The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. The range of regeneration air inlet temperature changed from 65 to 140 °C, area ratio of process air to regeneration air change from 1 to 3.57, regeneration air inlet velocity from 1.5 to 5.5 m/s have been examined for a range of rotation speed from 6 to 20 rev/h. The optimization of these parameters is conducted based on the moisture removal capacity D, relative moisture removal capacity, dehumidification coefficient of performance and thermal coefficient of performance. At last, the influences of these main parameters on optimal rotation speed are discussed

  1. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  2. A NEW AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FAN MODEL BASED ON NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Nassif; Raymond Tesiero; Nihal AlRaees

    2014-01-01

    A large portion of energy use in buildings is attributed to air movement devices. Accurate estimation of fan performance is a key element in maximizing fan efficiency. This study proposes a new fan model that can be used in several applications such as optimization and fault detection and can also be incorporated into any commercial building models. The model uses a numerical analysis based on an interpolation technique for the data generated by basic fan laws. It can use any two variables am...

  3. Design of Air Conditioning and Ventilating System of the Shanxi Theatre%山西大剧院空调通风设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳云

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of air conditioning and ventilating system of the shanxi theatre. Auditoria of the theatre applies air supply under seat and air exhaust from roof. Air-conditioning system of auditorium is divided by height, and the water system adopts partition-dual. Air conditioning and ventilating system uses more comprehensive noise and vibration reduction measures.%本文介绍了山西大剧院空调通风系统设计。剧场观众厅采用座椅下送风,屋顶高位排风,观众厅按高度划分空调系统,空调水系统采用分区双管制,空调通风系统做了较全面的消声减振措施。

  4. Model in simuliranje delovanja odprtega hladilnega postopka brez uporabe CFC: Design and simulation of a CFC-free open air-conditioning system:

    OpenAIRE

    Stritih, Uroš; Novak, Peter; Može, Mitja

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented and its operation of a cooling process that uses air-as the cooling medium. In the introduction, conventional refrigerants are compared with an alternative refrigerant - air. The system construction and the thermodynamic model are presented. The model is used to study the performance of a CFC-free air-conditioning system, in which some parameters of the individual components are variable while the others are constant for the referenced data. The characterist...

  5. Artificial neural network analysis of liquid desiccant dehumidifier performance in a solar hybrid air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solar hybrid liquid desiccant air conditioning system has been tested and simulated to investigate the technical feasibility of cooling systems for greenhouse applications using weather data for Malaysia. In this paper, experimental tests are carried out to investigate the performance of a counter flow dehumidifier using lithium chloride (LiCl) solution as the desiccant. A single and multilayer artificial neural network is used to predict the performance of the dehumidifier. Five parameters are used as inputs to the ANN, namely: air and desiccant flow rates, air inlet humidity ratio, and air and desiccant inlet temperatures. The outputs of the ANN are the temperature, humidity ratio, moisture removal rate, and the effectiveness. ANN predictions for these parameters are compared with the experimental values. The results show that the optimum testing model for moisture removal rate in the dehumidifier was the 5-5-5-1 structure with R2 = 0.91, whereas the optimum testing model for effectiveness was the 5-11-11-1 structure with R2 = 0.79. The maximum temperature and humidity ratio difference between the ANN model and experimental are 1.2 °C and 1.9 g/kg, respectively. -- Highlights: • Experimental tests are carried out to investigate the performance of a counter flow dehumidifier. • Single and multilayer artificial neural network used to predict the performance of dehumidifier. • Outputs of the ANN are the temperature, humidity ratio, moisture removal rate, and effectiveness. • The results show that the optimum testing model for MRR was the 5-5-5-1 structure with R2 = 0.91. • The optimum testing model for effectiveness was the 5-11-11-1 structure with R2 = 0.79

  6. On Air Conditioning System Design of A Hospital Building in Chongqing%重庆某医院建筑空调系统设计简述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛

    2015-01-01

    该文介绍医院空调系统的设计,着重说明室内设计参数的选择,空调系统划分及形式,冷热源配置,空调水系统,空调自动控制,防止交叉感染措施,节能措施和环境保护等几个方面的问题。%The air conditioning system design in the hospital is introduced, and the parameter selection of indoor design, the partition and form of air conditioning system, the collocation of cold-heat unit, air conditioning water system, the automatic control of air conditioning system, the proof measure for cross infection, the energy saving measure and environmental protection.

  7. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  8. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  9. Refrigerating and air conditioning systems in the Republic of Macedonia regarding to the use of CFC fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification of refrigerating systems and their condition in the Republic of Macedonia, by the capacity and application. Review of the subjects involved in refrigeration in the Republic of Macedonia: manufactures of refrigerating systems, distributors of refrigerating equipment, distributors of (CFC) refrigerants, maintenance and servicing of refrigerating systems regarding to the quality and the weak points. Measures and projects in the Republic of Macedonia in the field of the protection of the ozone layer. Regulations by the Montreal protocol. Regulations in the Republic of macedonia concerning refrigerating systems and CFC fluids in them. Country programme of the Republic of Macedonia and institutional activities. Projects in 'Frinko; and 'Sileks' where the manufacturing technologies are changed. Project 'Refrigerant management plan' in which are included: forming of training centers, training of service technicians and engineers involved in refrigeration and air conditioning, equipping of services and companies with on equipment for good practice in refrigeration and refrigerant's recovery, forming of recycling centers for purification of used refrigerants, training of custom officers. (Author)

  10. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei;

    2014-01-01

    The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis of H...

  11. Costic's technical day: thermodynamical heating and air conditioning in accommodations (heat pumps and heating/cooling floors). Air systems and their application in collective installations; Journee technique Costic: chauffage thermodynamique et climatisation dans l'habitat (les pompes a chaleur, les planchers chauffants-rafraichissants). Les systemes a air les applications en collectif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenotte, J.J.

    2002-07-01

    Direct expansion air systems are now currently used in individual residential houses. Some of these systems are used also in collective residential buildings where they allow to take into account the individualization of consumptions, as wished by some property developers. Some other centralized air-conditioning systems can be used. They require a distribution water loop for the supply of terminal units of ventilation-convection type. This document presents successively: the direct expansion air systems (direct emission air/air heat pumps, aeraulic distribution air/air heat pumps, production dimensioning, implementation, regulation, systems with variable flow rate of refrigerant); the centralized air/water systems with ventilation-convection systems (production dimensioning, implementation, regulation); the air distribution and diffusion. (J.S.)

  12. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O3) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg−1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O3). Present results showed that elevated O3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  13. Open Issues in Control ofAutomotive R744 Air-ConditioningSystems

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Sanaz

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, one of the current control algorithms for the R744 cycle, which tries tooptimize the performance of the system by two SISO control loops, is compared to acost-effective system with just one actuator. The operation of a key component of thissystem, a two stage orifice expansion valve is examined in a range of typical climateconditions. One alternative control loop for this system, which has been proposed byBehr group, is also scrutinized.The simulation results affirm the prefer...

  14. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  15. An analysis of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of HVAC system was made on various nuclear facilities such as the existing nuclear power plants in Korea, Post Irradiation Examination Facility at KAERI and Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant in USA, to get basic data and information for the design of the spent fuel interim storage facility to be implemented as one of the radwaste management projects. With the results of this study, the HVAC system to be applied to the spent fuel interim storage facility was selected and the major design considerations of the facility were suggested. (Author)

  16. Numerical simulation of tonal fan noise of computers and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Gavrilyuk, V. N.; Timushev, S. F.

    2016-07-01

    Current approaches to fan noise simulation are mainly based on the Lighthill equation and socalled aeroacoustic analogy, which are also based on the transformed Lighthill equation, such as the wellknown FW-H equation or the Kirchhoff theorem. A disadvantage of such methods leading to significant modeling errors is associated with incorrect solution of the decomposition problem, i.e., separation of acoustic and vortex (pseudosound) modes in the area of the oscillation source. In this paper, we propose a method for tonal noise simulation based on the mesh solution of the Helmholtz equation for the Fourier transform of pressure perturbation with boundary conditions in the form of the complex impedance. A noise source is placed on the surface surrounding each fan rotor. The acoustic fan power is determined by the acoustic-vortex method, which ensures more accurate decomposition and determination of the pressure pulsation amplitudes in the near field of the fan.

  17. A CAR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM BASED ON AN ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE USING SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar; Nitin Kumar; Vinod Sehrawat; Tarun Gupta

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design and study an environment friendly vapour absorption refrigeration system of 0.2 TR capacity using ammonia (R-717) and water as the working fluids. In sunny days (summer season) vehicles becomes too much warm within a few hours a...

  18. Dinamična analiza klimatizacijskega sistema s toplotno črpalko: Dynamic analysis of an air-conditioning system with a heat pump:

    OpenAIRE

    Balen, Igor; Donjerković, Petar; Galaso, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic operation analysis of a low-velocity central air-conditioning system with a heat pump in terms of the changing operating conditions during the year is performed. For this purpose an original hour-by-hour simulation model of the system has been developed. The model consists of two integrated parts:calculation of the heat loss or heat gain to the space and determination of the heating and cooling load imposed on the air-conditioning system. The hourly and monthly energy ...

  19. Test reference years - meteorological bases for the technical simulation of heating systems and air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the FRG (western part) for 12 regions with different climate test reference years (TRY) have been established. The TRYs are used for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings, of the operation of heating and space avc systems, lighting control, solar plants as well as of comparable technical systems. A TRY is a collection of hourly data of important meterological parameters over a whole year. The TRYs include 14 meteorological parameters for temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and description of the weather at that time. A TRY is to correspond to the characteristic weather conditions of the TRY region. (orig.)

  20. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernyshova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evaporation cooling and spray (aqueous and air-to-water types of the air-conditioning systems are considered, their merits and demerits are analyzed; the new scheme of a conditioner is offered.

  1. Energy-saving Measures of Central Air Conditioning System -Applications of Secondary Return Air System%中央空调系统的节能措施--二次回风系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国榕

    2013-01-01

    At present , the constant temperature&humidity central air -conditioning system general adopt the pri-mary return air system .If adopt the secondary return air system instead , the heating capacity of the heater and equal cooling capacity can be saved .Therefore, adopt the secondary return air system , the energy saving effect will be ver-y remarkable .After this kind of the central air -conditioning system is put into operation , the energy saving effect is also proved.Projects completed and put into operation also proved this .%目前恒温恒湿中央空调工程普遍采用一次回风系统,如改用二次回风系统,将可以节省加热器的加热量及与加热量相同数量的制冷量,因此采用二次回风系统有显著的节能效果。工程实例建成投入运行后的运行结果也得到证明。

  2. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  3. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  4. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute for Climate and Global Change Research (ICGCR), Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tian, Ran [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: jgzhu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined effect of elevated O{sub 3} and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated O{sub 3} levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined cadmium and elevated O{sub 3} have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O{sub 3}) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O{sub 3} on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg{sup -1} Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O{sub 3} levels (50% higher than the ambient O{sub 3}). Present results showed that elevated O{sub 3} led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O{sub 3} levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O{sub 3} levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  5. Performances of air source heat pump system for a kind of mal-defrost phenomenon appearing in moderate climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mal-defrost performances of ASHP in moderate environment are investigated. ► The system COP decreases to 2.3 under environment temperature of 7.9 °C. ► The decrease of the ASHP heating capacity can get to 43.4%. ► The origins of this special mal-defrost phenomenon were discussed. ► Suggestions were proposed to modify the current defrosting control strategies. - Abstract: To quantify the performance drop of the air source heat pump (ASHP) system under a special kind of mal-defrost phenomenon appearing in moderate climate conditions, a field test was conducted for 8 days at the initial stage of a heating season in Beijing, China. The mal-defrost was found with the more than 60% frosted area of the outdoor heat exchanger after the system running 5 days. During this frosting period, the system COP was significantly degraded, only 2.3 under an environment temperature of 7.9 °C. Comparing the test data before and after frosting, it was found that the mal-defrost decreased the COP up to 40.4% and the heating capacity to 43.4%. Such low energy efficiency continued quite a long time until the defrost control was started up manually by the authors. After defrosting, the COP reclaimed to the normal level of 5.0. The origins of this special mal-defrost phenomenon were discussed. And some suggestions were proposed to modify the current defrosting control strategy, which were helpful to avoid the mal-defrost problem in the current ASHP system and therefore improve the system performances

  6. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  7. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  8. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  9. A central ecological information system for the monitoring of the conditions of the air quality in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ecology-information system (CEIS) is made up of a distributed network of several categories of autonomous, automatic measuring stations which would carry out a continuous monitoring and registering of all ecological parameters necessary for the assessment of the air quality on the territory of this country. When in regular use, the central ecological system would make the precessing of received data possible in order to make a timely and efficient intervention possible by the authorized authorities, all for a total control and management of the air quality on the territory of Macedonia. (author). 8 ills

  10. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  11. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  12. Noise control reconstruction for an air conditioning system%某空调系统噪声改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘滨

    2015-01-01

    Taking a noise control reconstruction project in a library for example,the air conditioning system in a building should not only meet the requirement of environmental parameters such as temperature,humidity and wind speed,but also meet the requirement of indoor and outdoor acoustic standard.Through the field environmental testing and analysis,puts forward the reform scheme.The test results show that after the reconstruction the noise is controlled effectively,and meets the owners’requirements.%以某图书馆噪声改造为例,说明空调系统不仅要满足室内空气温、湿度和风速等环境参数的要求,而且还应满足室内、外允许噪声标准的要求。通过现场声环境测试和分析,提出了改造方案。改造后的测试结果表明,噪声值得到了有效控制,满足了业主的要求。

  13. Visualization of the influence of the air conditioning system to the high-power laser beam quality with the modulation coherent imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hua; Veetil, Suhas P; Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Air conditioning systems can lead to dynamic phase change in the laser beams of high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, and this kind of phase change cannot be measured by most of the commonly employed Hartmann wavefront sensor or interferometry due to some uncontrollable factors, such as too large laser beam diameters and the limited space of the facility. It is demonstrated that this problem can be solved using a scheme based on modulation coherent imaging, and thus the influence of the air conditioning system on the performance of the high-power facility can be evaluated directly. PMID:26368074

  14. Optimization Design For Air Conditioning System of A Light Business Aircraft%某轻型公务机空调系统优化设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登程

    2015-01-01

    The analysis and calculation of the NACA inlet of a light business aircraft shows the problem of the air conditioning system, which the cabin supply air temperature is too high in the high temperature conditions. This paper gives an optimization solution to solve the problem, also improves the performance of the air conditioning system.%通过对某轻型公务机空调系统NACA进气口的性能分析与计算,了解NACA进气口在地面热设计状态下存在的问题,并针对此问题提出可行的优化设计方案,提高空调系统的性能.

  15. Vibration Analysis of Air Condition Unit on Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Subway system has many merits including large passenger carrying ability, high speed, strong controllability and reliability of driving. Nevertheless, subways also have brought many disadvantages for human. In many subway systems, noisy environments are clearly observed and passengers are exposed to higher noise levels than permissible limit. This study presents a study of noise and vibration of subway air condition system, so as to grasp the vibration distribution laws of the air condition system. By the tested of noise and vibration, the researcher find the sound distribution rule of air condition is very important Based on the consequence of the testing, the acceleration of air condition has little to do with the subway speed and more to do with the vibration of fan; When the train driving on the viaduct bridge, the acceleration of air condition is biggish in 125 Hz and In 50-1000 Hz the vibration of air condition is obviously. When the train running underground line, as a result of the resonance of body, air condition’s vibration is biggish in 630 Hz and the vibration is obviously in 125-1250 Hz. With the increase of the speed, the influence of the ground’s second radiation on body vibration is enhanced. The superfine gross wool which is used to air condition can achieve good results for noise reduction. This research has higher reference for the vibration and noise reduction of the subway air condition system.

  16. Modelling LiBr-H2O solution concentration/crystallization of low thermal-powered absorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model is developed to predict the concentration of lithium bromide - water (LiBr-H2O) solution for used in low thermal energy-driven absorption air conditioning plants design. The computer program is capable to alert the users from undesirable solidification or crystallization zones. Good agreements between simulated concentration and experimental data from standard chart/table have been obtained. (Author)

  17. SESSA: Expert system for the selection of air conditioning equipment; SESEAA: Sistema experto para la seleccion de equipos de aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Cardenas Perez, Edgar [Laboratorio de Sistemas Inteligentes, Centro de Instrumentos de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of selecting air conditioning and refrigeration equipment is quite wide and complex, since it encompasses from the application of the basic principles of physics and of thermodynamics up to the classic engineering design problems; these in turn can be numberless since they vary from place to place depending on multiple factors such as the region geographic and economic conditions. On the other hand, account most be taken of several elements such as windows, walls, and its specific geographical orientation, roofs, floors, partitions, equipment, lighting, etc., all this exerts influence in the complexity that represents the selection process. This paper describes a useful informatics tool to make it easy the selection process in air conditioning installations, taking into account multiple saving and efficient use of energy criteria, reflected in the operation process of these installations. [Espanol] El problema de seleccion de sistemas de aire acondicionado y de refrigeracion es bastante amplio y complejo, ya que abarca desde la aplicacion de los principios basicos de la fisica y la termodinamica hasta los problemas clasicos de diseno de ingenieria; estos a la vez pueden ser innumerables ya que varian de un lugar a otro y de un proyecto a otro, dependiendo de multiples factores tales como las condiciones geograficas y economicas de la region. Por otra parte se deben tomar en cuenta diversos elementos como son: ventanas, muros y sus orientaciones especificas, techos, pisos, particiones, equipos, iluminacion, etc., todo esto influye en la complejidad que representa el proceso de seleccion. En el presente trabajo se describe una herramienta informatica para facilitar el proceso de seleccion de instalaciones de aire acondicionado, tomando en cuenta multiples criterios de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia que se reflejan durante el proceso de operacion de estas instalaciones.

  18. Simulation of an air conditioning absorption refrigeration system in a co-generation process combining a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I.; Gamboa, S.A.; Rivera, W. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Isaza, C.A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Instituto de Energia y Termodinamica; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J. [Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a computer simulation program was developed to determine the optimum operating conditions of an air conditioning system during the co-generation process. A 1 kW PEMFC was considered in this study with a chemical/electrical theoretical efficiency of 40% and a thermal efficiency of 30% applying an electrical load of 100%. A refrigeration-absorption cycle (RAC) operating with monomethylamine-water solutions (MMA-WS), with low vapor generation temperatures (up to 80 C) is proposed in this work. The computer simulation was based on the refrigeration production capacity at the maximum power capacity of the PEMFC. Heat losses between the fuel cell and the absorption air conditioning system at standard operating conditions were considered to be negligible. The results showed the feasibility of using PEMFC for cooling, increasing the total efficiency of the fuel cell system. (author)

  19. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  20. SIMULATION OF FUZZY CONTROL OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM BASED ON TRNSYS%基于Trnsys的中央空调系统模糊控制仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玮; 陈立定; 陈奉刚

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a central air conditioning system of a building in Guangzhou is taken for an example to establish the simulation models of one of the building's layers and its central air conditioning systems, then build dieir control system in Trnsys and MATLAB, analyze the energy consumption in and out of control of the system. This model is mainly used to study some properties of the central air conditioning systems and has great significance to energy-saving optimal control of central air conditioning.%以广州某大厦中央空调系统为例,建立了大厦某层的多区域建筑及其中央空调系统仿真模型,并采用模糊控制策略,联合Trnsys及MATLAB对中央空调系统进行节能控制,进而分析对比控制前后中央空调系统各部件的能耗.系统模型主要用于研究中央空调运行的一些性质,对中央空调的节能优化控制具有重要的意义.

  1. Optimization of air conditioning systems utilizing low temperature thermal storage; Optimizacion de sistemas de acondicionamiento de aire utilizando sistemas de almacenamiento termico de baja temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Ramirez, J.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the last few years the different projects on the saving and efficient use of energy in the tertiary sector have been demonstrating the existing great potential in the air conditioning systems and equipment, whose intensive use is due to the predominance of hot and dry and hot and humid climate prevailing in a large part of the Mexican territory. Without any doubts one of the most serious problems facing the complex management and optimization of these systems is related to the variability of the thermal load and the regulation possibilities of the thermal machines, so as to attain, along the day an appropriate use and optimization of the total installed load, with the best possible economic benefits. Among the strategies that allow the optimization of the installed capacity and the variability of the thermal load is the low temperature thermal storage, for instance, the storage of ice, which is produced and stored to be used when the cooling machines are in standby in order to use this stored energy during the peak hours and during the normal operation of the equipment, but diminishing in a significant amount the electrical demand of the system to satisfy the thermal load with a combination thermal storage-cooling machine. This paper presents some case histories and the type of thermal storage commonly used; a methodology is discussed that allows to determine technically as well as economically the size of a thermal storage room. Some problems in the control and operation of these thermal systems are also presented. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos los diversos proyectos sobre ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en el sector terciario han venido mostrando el gran potencial existente en los sistemas y equipos de aire acondicionado, cuyo uso intensivo se debe al predominio de los climas calidos seco y calido humedo en buena parte del territorio nacional. Sin lugar a dudas uno de los problemas mas serios que enfrenta la compleja gestion y optimizacion de estos

  2. Designing comprehensive energy efficiency ratio of air conditioning systems%空调系统设计综合能效比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆艳; 魏明华; 刘俊跃

    2011-01-01

    提出采用空调系统设计综合能效比DEER来评价空调系统在设计负荷下的总能耗水平,介绍了DEER限值的理论计算方法,以及利用这一计算方法计算标准模型空调系统DEER的过程,得出了影响DEER的因素及提高空调系统节能设计水平的途径,强调了空调负荷计算的重要性.%Proposes to adopt the designing comprehensive energy efficiency ratio(DEER) to evaluate the total energy consumption of an air conditioning system in design load conditions. Presents the theoretical calculation method of the DEER limits, and the process of making use of this method for calculating the DEER of the air conditioning system of a standard model. Obtains the factors affecting the DEER and the way to improve the energy efficiency design for air conditioning system, and stresses the importance of air conditioning load calculation.

  3. HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    INCREASED MOTIVATION, INCREASED INITIAL COMPREHENSION, AND INCREASED RETENTION ARE THE PRIME GOALS OF THE LENNOX HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT IS A COMPLETE PROGRAM WITH ALL THE TEACHING TOOLS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A KNOWLEDGEABLE HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLER OR SERVICE MAN. THIS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IS DESIGNED…

  4. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  5. Shakedown Test and Function of Removable Onboard Air-conditioning System%车载移动式空调机的性能与调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琦; 嵇翠川

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the main functions and applications of removable onboard air-conditioning system, introduces the design of vehicles equipped with removable onboard air-conditioning, introduces the integrated debug methods and results.%介绍了研制车载移动式空调机的用途、主要技术性能,叙述了移动式空调机装载厢车的设计、设备联合调试的方法和调试结果。

  6. Air conditioning system redesign in the major tower of United Plaza%浅析联合广场主塔楼空调系统整改

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕翔字

    2001-01-01

    In view of the concrete conditions of the major tower of United Plaza, analyses the applicability of various air conditioning systems, determines to adopt the water cooled packaged chiller with a central cooling water system. The system redesigned proves to better meet the air conditioning need of the building.%针对联合广场主塔楼具体情况,分析了各种空调系统的适用性,确定采用集中设置冷却水系统的水冷冷水柜机,较好地满足了联合广场整改的要求。

  7. 风冷热泵模块机在别墅空调系统中的应用%Application of Air-cooled Heat Pump Module in the Air Conditioning System of the Villa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱华梅

    2014-01-01

    Combining with an engineering application,the air-cooled heat pump unit and the frequency VRV air conditioning system are compared. The reason of small air-cooled heat pump unit being widely used in air conditioning system of villas is concluded. At last we discusses some problems should be paid attention to in the air-cooled heat pump unit designing and installing process of household central air conditioning system.%本文结合某工程实例进行了风冷热泵模块机和变频多联机空调系统的对比,得出了小型风冷热泵机组在别墅等家用空调系统中广泛应用的原因,探讨风冷热泵模块机在家用中央空调系统设计施工过程中应该注意的几点问题。

  8. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  10. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  11. 空调客车车内空气品质控制系统的设计%The Design of Air Quality Control System of Passenger Car Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼江燕; 孙四军; 楼华山

    2012-01-01

    客车空调注重满足人体热舒适的要求,对空气的清洁度重视不够,。车内空气的污染物严重地影响乘员的健康。开发传感器准确、快速地测定空气的污染物,通过电子控制系统改善车内空气品质势在必行。介绍传感器的结构、原理及应用,并设计空调客车车内空气品质电子控制系统。%Air-conditioning in the passenger car pays more attention to meet the requirements of human thermal comfort than the air quality, and the air pollutants inside the cars affect the healthy of passengers seriously. It is very imperative to develop the sensor, with which we could measure the pollutants in air rapidly and accurately to improve the air quality inside the vehicle through electronic control system. The structure, principle and application of the sensor are introduced, and the design of Air-conditioning passenger car air quality electronic control system.

  12. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  13. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Brahim Mebarki; Belkacem Draoui; Boumediène Allaou; Lakhdar Rahmani; Elhadj Benachour

    2013-01-01

    The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric ...

  14. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  15. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  16. The Design of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioning System of Ancient Library%古籍库恒温恒湿空调系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德福

    2016-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of the ancient library and HVAC system in the library of Liaoning Province, analyzes the scheme selection of the constant temperature and humidity air conditioning system and the cold and heat sources, summarizes the necessary technical measures and experience during the design of constant temperature and humidity air conditioning system, in order to provide a reference for design.%介绍了辽宁省图书馆古籍库及其暖通空调系统的特点,分析了其恒温恒湿空调系统方案选择及冷热源选择,总结了古籍库恒温恒湿空调系统设计的必要技术措施和体会,以供设计参考。

  17. Energy consumption in air-conditioning; Improvement and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Yousef Ahmad Alotaibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anew technique to reduce latent heat to improve energy consumption in air-conditioning is by using Desiccant . The aim of dehumidification process is to remove the water vapor from the processed air to liquid desiccants. Dehumidification is considered as a key feature of HVAC systems for thermal comfort. Chemical dehumidification is remove the water vapour from the air by transferring it towards a desiccant material (adsorption or absorption. Results illustrate that the application of liquid desiccant in air conditioning can improve indoor air quality, reduce energy consumption and bring environmentally friendly products, also. Lewis number increased rapidly with the increase of solution concentration Therefore liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are drawing more and more attention in recent years.

  18. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE). This heat accumulation will result in degradation of system performance and increment of system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, which uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components. The computer program based on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system. As a case study, both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system are designed for a hypothetic private residential building located in Hong Kong, and the economic comparisons are conducted between these two types of systems. The simulation results show that the HGCHP system can effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial costs and operating costs of the air-conditioning system in the building.

  19. 太阳能制冷空调系统设计与应用初探%Preliminary Study on Design and Application of Solar Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周治宏

    2012-01-01

    太阳作为一种可再生的清洁能源,通过一定的能量转换可扩展应用到空调系统上来。本文介绍了太阳能制冷系统的发展现状以及分类,并重点阐述了太阳能吸收式制冷空调系统的设计思路与运行原理。通过这一系统在重庆市节能示范中心的概念示范性设计使用,进一步探讨和展望了太阳能吸收式制冷空调系统未来的推广和发展。%The sun,as a renewable clean energy,can be applied to the air conditioning system by a certain energy conversion.This article describes the development status and classification of solar cooling system,and focuses on design concept and operating principles of solar absorption cooling air conditioning system.With this system used in the concept design of Chongqing Energy-saving Demonstration Center as a demonstration used technology,we can further discuss and prospect the prospective promotion and development of the solar absorption cooling air conditioning system.

  20. Top quality or poor quality of air-conditioning systems; Topkoeling of tobkoeling (beperkte koeling) van airconditioninginstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, D. (ed.)

    2003-09-01

    Due to savings on investments of air conditioning equipment those installations are designed and built with lesser cooling and ventilation capacity than required. The end user is confronted with an installation that does not meet the required capacity. This results in complaints about failures of required temperature and humidity levels. A bad air quality (high-CO2 level) caused by insufficient ventilation is another consequence. In that case the original top quality design turns out to be a disappointing miscalculation. [Dutch] Onder invloed van bezuinigingen op de investering wordt er vaak een airconditioninginstallatie geinstalleerd met een geringer koelvermogen dan volgens de koellastberekening inclusief de benodigde luchtverversing is berekend. De eindgebruiker ervaart dan achteraf dat de installatie niet voldoet aan de gestelde eisen. Klachten dat de gewenste temperatuur niet wordt behaald, te hoge luchtvochtigheid en bedompte lucht (CO2-aandeel te hoog) door onvoldoende luchtverversing zijn dan het gevolg. Van een oorspronkelijk ontworpen installatie met de kwalificatie top-koeling is er een installatie geleverd onder de categorie tob-koeling.

  1. Sea Water Air Conditioning [SWAC]: A Cost Effective Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Elsafty

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for air conditioning is quite extensive due to the hot and humid summer climate in Egypt. The rapid increase in non industrial electricity consumption is due to the rural electrification and the presence of many buildings that are air conditioned in summer using electricity. Deep cold ocean and sea water is a valuable natural resource that can be used for energy production, cooling, desalination, aquaculture and agriculture. The most economic viable use of this deep water is to air-condition buildings through a sea water air conditioning system (SWAC. This study reports the results of a technical and economical assessment of the potential use of sea water air conditioning (SWAC other than the conventional vapor compression systems used to air condition hotels at a new tourists resort called “Sahl-Hasheesh”,18km south of Hurghada, Egypt. This study analyzed and sized the major components of the Sea water Air Conditioning (SWAC system, determined the operational performance, and estimated the probable costs. The economic analysis was based on two different methods, the simple pay back and the net present value (NPV method. The results showed that the SWAC system is the preferred option for its short payback period as well as the minimum net present value when being applied at Sahl-Hasheesh area. Large energy savings approaching 80% compared to the conventional ones. This is in addition to the low green house gas emissions.

  2. Refrigeration and air-conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Hundy, G H; Welch, T C

    2008-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this respected text delivers a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and straightforward, it is designed for students (NVQ/vocational level) and professional HVAC engineers, including those on short or CPD courses. Inexperienced readers are provided with a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style yet broad sweep the book covers most of the applications professionals will encounter, enabling them to understand, specify, commission, use and maintain these systems. Many readers w

  3. Solar powered absorption air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, J. M.

    1980-04-01

    Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre for a total amount of 2 375 280 euros (3 654 277 Swiss francs) not subject to revision, with options for additional chillers, chilled water coils and sound attenuation, for an additional amount of 539 053 euros (829 312 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 2 914 333 euros (4 483 589 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  5. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  6. Hygiene guideline for the planning, installation, and operation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in health-care settings – Guideline of the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Külpmann, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the first “Hospital Hygiene Guideline for the implementation and operation of air conditioning systems (HVAC systems in hospitals” ( in 2002, it was necessary due to the increase in knowledge, new regulations, improved air-conditioning systems and advanced test methods to revise the guideline. Based on the description of the basic features of ventilation concepts, its hygienic test and the usage-based requirements for ventilation, the DGKH section “Ventilation and air conditioning technology” attempts to provide answers for the major air quality issues in the planning, design and the hygienically safe operation of HVAC systems in rooms of health care.

  7. 车站高大空间空调系统气流组织与热舒适性分析%Air Distribution and Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioning System in a Large Space Building of Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常远; 刘泽勤

    2014-01-01

    兼顾人体热舒适和建筑节能的要求,对目前车站高大空间空调气流组织的数值模拟研究报道进行对比分析。分析结果显示,人们对高大空间建筑室内热舒适要求高于居住建筑和办公建筑;从满足人体热舒适角度出发,空调送风加地板辐射供冷方案适于夏季满员工况,地板辐射供热加空调加湿方案适用于冬季满员工况;高大空间的空调系统适宜采用上送上回的送风方式,其温度场和速度场均优于上送下回的空调送风方式;在高大空间内设置分层空调系统将在一定程度上降低空调能耗,且分层空调中送风速度对分层界面的位置影响较大,送风温差对高大空间分层空调的温度分布和流场分布有较大影响。%The numerical simulation of air distribution of air conditioning in larger space of current railway stations are studied with consideration to requirements of both human thermal comfort and building energy efficiency. The analysis shows that, the indoor thermal comfort requirements of human body in large space building are more than that in residential buildings and office buildings. The scheme of the air con-ditioning supply air plus radiant floor cooling is suitable for the full working conditions in summer from the viewpoint of satisfying the human thermal comfort, and the scheme of the floor radiant heating plus air con-ditioning humidification is suitable for the full working conditions in winter. The air supply mode of upper supply top return is suitable for air conditioning system in large space buildings, and the temperature field and velocity field of this mode were superior to the mode of upper supply bottom return. The stratified air conditioning systems installed in large space could reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioning system to a certain extent, the velocity of supply air in the stratified air conditioning system has greater in-fluence on the position

  8. Performance enhancement of an experimental air conditioning system by using TiO2/methanol nanofluid in heat pipe heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirimanesh, Negin; Nowee, S. Mostafa; Khayyami, Shideh; Abrishamchi, Iman

    2016-05-01

    The effect of using nanofluid in thermosyphon-type heat pipe heat exchangers on energy conservation of an air-conditioning system was sought in this study. Innovatively, two heat exchangers in-series were deployed using TiO2/methanol nanofluids with 0-4 wt% concentrations as working fluids. The impacts of temperature and relative humidity on the effectiveness of 2 and 4-row heat exchangers were analyzed experimentally and more that 40 % energy saving was obtained.

  9. RESOURCES MECHANISM OF REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio A. Ermac, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an extensive analytical addendum of the research data utilized in a published research. This study determined the resources mechanism in refrigeration and air conditioning technology at CTU systems. It was conducted for the purpose of providing the administrators and its constituents the basic information on the present status of the refrigeration and air conditioning technology of the Cebu Technological University System Further, it can be inferred that insufficiency is paralle...

  10. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  11. A Case Study: Distribution of Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Air-Conditioning Systems in Shaanxi History Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI An-gui; HOU Juan-juan; JI Zeng-bao; ZHU Xiao-bin

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the bacteria and fungi aerosol characteristic distribution in HVAC-system and its components at Shaanxi History Museum.Measurements were performed to probe the bacteria and fungi aerosol in HVAC systems,located at Xi'an city,China.The results showed that there was fungi growth inside the ventilation ducts,fungi contamination was worse than bacteria,and both of them were distributed into occu-pied space with the air supply ducts.The dominating genera of fungi was found to be Penicillium spp. and As-Pergillus spp.,which was respectively 46.1%and 20.7% in settling fungi, and the dominating genera of fungi in dust were Cladosporium spp.and Penicillium spp., which was 41.8%and 30.1%respectively.It suggests that available measures to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems such as the maintenance,management and cleaning should be taken to prevent this pollution and to develop strategies to keep this pollution away.

  12. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Chi Cheng; Dasheng Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be contr...

  13. 嘉兴市集中空调通风系统卫生监测结果分析%Analysis of the monitoring results for sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation system in public places of Jiaxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文芳; 周哲华; 富小飞; 吴水斌; 谢亮; 丁正贵

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the monitoring results of sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation system in public places of Jiaxing, so as to prevent and control harmful factors that may appear to affect health. Methods; Randomly collected the blowing air (petri dish) , samples from the duct inner surface (smear), and samples of cooling water and condensed water of central air conditioning ventilation systems in different industries, and valuated them in compliance with Health Regulations for Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Public Places. Results: The pass rate of total bacteria and total epiphyte contained in the blowing air of central air conditioning ventilation system in Jiaxing were all below 70% during these two years, but the pass rate of β - hemolytic streptococcus was 100% , the differences among bacteria, epiphyte and β - hemolytic streptococcus have statistical significance (2009, χ2 = 20. 20 ,P < 0.001; 2010, χ2 = 6.24 ,P < 0.05). The difference of pass rate of total bacteria (χ2 = 21.36,P<0.001) and total epiphyte(χ2 = 38.49,P<0.001) , which contained in the blowing air of central air conditioning ventilation system in different industries, has statistical significance. The positive rate of Legionella pneumophila in cooling water, condensed water was 29.6%. Conclusion-. To standardize hygienic valuation for central air conditioning ventilation system in public places, and found a professional cleaning and disinfection team for central air conditioning ventilation system is the key for guaranteeing a good sanitary quality.%目的:分析嘉兴市集中空调通风系统卫生监测结果,以预防和控制可能出现的健康危害因素.方法:采集不同行业集中空调通风系统送风中空气(平皿)、风管内表面(涂抹样)及冷却水、冷凝水样,按公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生规范进行评价.结果:二年中嘉兴市集中空调通风系统送风中空气细菌总数、

  14. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  15. Numerical prediction of system round-trip efficiency and feasible operating conditions of small-scale solid oxide iron-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Hiroko; Iwai, Hiroshi; Itakura, Kotaro; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    A simulation model of a small-scale solid oxide iron-air battery system was developed to clarify its fundamental characteristics and feasibility from the view point of energy efficiency. The energy flow in one cycle of charge/discharge operations was evaluated under a quasi-state assumption with 0-dimensional models of the system components, i.e., a solid oxide electrochemical cell, an iron (Fe) box and heat exchangers. Special care was taken when considering thermal aspects; not only a simple system but also a more complicated system with thermal recirculation by three heat exchangers was investigated. It was found that the system round-trip efficiency reaches 61% under the base conditions in this study. The results also show that several limitations exist for the operation parameters and conditions in view of practical applications. In particular, higher and lower limits exist for the fuel and air utilization factors under which the system operates effectively because of constraints such as the maximum allowable fuel-blower temperature and no heat input during the discharge operation.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Raja, Suresh; Ferro, Andrea R.; Jaques, Peter A.; Hopke, Philip K. [Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Gressani, Cheryl; Wetzel, Larry E. [Air Innovations, Inc, 7000 Performance Drive, North Syracuse, NY 13212 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Poor indoor air quality has been linked to the exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children. Because people spend most of their time indoors, improving indoor air quality may provide some relief to asthma sufferers. A study was conducted to assess whether operating an air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) in a child's bedroom can improve his/her respiratory health. Thirty children diagnosed with asthma were randomly split into two groups. For the first six weeks, group A had the air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) running in the bedrooms of the participants and group B did not; for the second six weeks, both groups had the cleaners running in the bedrooms; and, for the final six weeks, group A turned the cleaners off and group B kept theirs running. Indoor air quality parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter (PM 0.5-10 {mu}m), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, were monitored in each bedroom using an AirAdvice indoor air quality multi-meter. As a measure of pulmonary inflammation, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected every sixth day and analyzed for nitrate and pH. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured. PM and TVOC concentrations decreased with operation of the HEPAiRx an average of 72% and 59%, respectively. The EBC nitrate concentrations decreased significantly and the EBC pH and PEF values increased significantly with operation of the unit (p < 0.001 when comparing on/off sample means). These results indicate that air cleaning in combination with ventilation can effectively reduce symptoms for asthma sufferers. (author)

  18. Clean air with positive energy balance. Elisabeth hospital in Essen uses energy optimized air conditioning systems; Saubere Luft mit positiver Energiebilanz. Elisabeth-Krankenhaus in Essen nutzt energieoptimierte Lueftungsgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunker, Ralf

    2009-02-15

    Thinking on a long-term basis, spontaneously acting - according to this slogan the Elizabeth hospital in Essen (Federal Republic of Germany) converts potentials of energy saving with the facility management. Parallel to the change of the endoscope department and the station Barbara with its 35 beds, the hospital had installed particularly energy-saving air conditioning systems which can be cleaned easily. A view behind the doors of the technology rooms.

  19. Dynamic performance assessment of a micro-trigeneration system with a desiccant-based air handling unit in Southern Italy climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of a desiccant cooling system with microcogenerator was implemented. • Experimental and manufacturer data were used to characterize components models. • An energy, environmental and economic analysis was carried out. • A comparison with a reference system based on conventional equipment was performed. • Results strongly depend on the share of cogenerated electricity used on-site. - Abstract: In this work, a system consisting of a small scale trigeneration system, in which a heat-led microcogenerator interacts with a desiccant-based cooling system, equipped with a silica-gel desiccant wheel, is analyzed. The system provides the air-conditioning service to a lecture room during summer and winter periods and, over the whole year, thermal energy for domestic hot water production to a nearby multifamily house. Electricity from the cogenerator is used to drive the electric chiller, the auxiliaries as well as further electric appliances of the lecture room. This trigeneration system is compared with a reference system, equipped with a conventional air handling unit, based on cooling dehumidification for summer air conditioning. Electricity to power the electric chiller, the auxiliaries, as well as electric appliances is drawn from the grid. Thermal energy for winter space heating, air post-heating during summer and domestic hot water purposes is provided by a natural gas boiler. Experimental tests, as well as data derived from manufacturers, are used to implement a model of both systems. Simulations were then performed by means of TRNSYS software to compare their thermo-economic performance. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, to analyse the effect of the share of cogenerated electricity consumed on-site. The analysis shows encouraging results, given the Italian energy context for the small scale trigeneration system, in terms of primary energy consumption and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions reductions, with maximum values of 7

  20. Investigation on the Energy Consumption of a Communications Room Using Fresh Air and Air Condition System%新风和空调系统应用于通信机房的能耗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范轩; 曹小林; 黄晓峰; 谭诒煌

    2015-01-01

    以通信机房的空调能耗为研究对象,利用 TRNSYS 模拟软件建立未利用/利用新风系统时的通信机房的空调能耗模型。模拟研究通信机房的空调负荷、围护结构传热量等数据,将2种模型进行对比,并分析围护结构对空调负荷及围护结构传热量的影响趋势及变化规律。%The energy consumption of communication equipment room is the main study object,establishing the air conditioning energy consumption model of the communication equipment room when not using/using the new air system utilizing TRNSYS sim-ulation software.Numerical simulations were used to investigate the air conditioning load and the wall gain load of communication equipment room,the two models are compared,and analyse impact trend and change rule of meteorological parameters and build-ing envelope to air conditioning load and heat transmission capacity of building envelope.

  1. System Design of Capillary Radiation Air Conditioning Combined with Independent Fresh Air Unit%毛细管辐射空调结合独立新风的系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷会玉; 余晓明; 朱祥政; 张晓

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, Central air conditioning system is more focusing on energy efficiency, comfort and environmentally friendly. Capillary radiant air conditioning is kind of excellent system with high comfort, low energy consumption and low noise. In the present paper, a new type of energy conservation air conditioning system is presented:ground source heat pump combined with capillary radiation and independent fresh air, in which lower temperature cold water is used to absorb the latent heat, while higher temperature cold water is used to absorb the sensible heat. The system can reduce air pollution and save energy. In the present paper, the advantage of energy performance and indoor air quality of the system is analyzed, besides that, the air processing and design of an example are also calculated and analyzed.%当今中央空调技术正朝着节能、舒适和环保的方向发展,毛细管辐射空调系统以其舒适性高、耗能低、噪声小的突出优势,在各种空调系统中脱颖而出。本文提出了一种新型的绿色节能空调系统设计思路:毛细管辐射-独立新风系统一体机的地源热泵空调系统。该系统采用地源热泵制取低温冷水承担潜热负荷,高温冷水承担显热负荷的方式,达到了节约高品位电能、减轻大气污染、减少运行费用的效果。文中分析了其在节能和舒适性方面的优势,并结合实例对该系统的空气处理过程和设计进行了相关计算与分析。

  2. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication is the concluding text in a four-part curriculum for air conditioning and refrigeration. Materials in Book 4 are designed to complement theoretical and functional elements in Books 1-3. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six…

  3. Fundamentals of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Mark

    This set of instructional materials provides secondary and postsecondary students with a state-of-the-art curriculum for the air conditioning and refrigeration industry that includes the many changes brought by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Introductory materials explain the use of this publication and provide the…

  4. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Del; And Others

    This document contains supplemental materials for special needs high school students intended to facilitate their mainstreaming in regular air conditioning and refrigeration courses. Teacher's materials precede the materials for students and include general notes for the instructor, additional suggestions, two references, a questionnaire on the…

  5. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    This curriculum guide (book II), along with book I, is designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration. Six major areas are included, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Electricity (fundamentals of electricity,…

  6. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  7. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  8. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  9. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  10. Alternative air-conditioning with the use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the investigation of the alternative air condition systems on the basis of the open absorbtion cycle with the use of solar energy as a heat source. Schematic solution of systems has been carried. The design analysis of working characteristics was performed for a wide rang of initial parameters (teperature and humidity of ambient air, the type and concentration of liquid sorbents, etc.) and construction features of heat and mass transfer.(Author)

  11. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  12. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  13. 吸收式太阳能制冷空调系统的性能分析%Performance analysis of a solar absorption air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军毅; 姚莉; 卢挺浩; 余国保

    2012-01-01

    An absorption solar refrigeration air-conditioning system, which consists of solar heat collector, absorption refrigerant unit, auxiliary heating device and intelligent controller is introduced in this paper. The operation data which has been collected for more than one year is organized, also a performance analysis in allusion to typical summer/winter work condition is presented, and an economical efficiency calculation comparing with conventional air-condition has been carried out to get the payback period of this system.%介绍了一个吸收式太阳能制冷空调系统,该系统由太阳能集热器、吸收式制冷机组、辅助加热装量、智能控制器等部分组成.文章对该系统一年多的运行数据进行了采集和整理,针对夏季与冬季的典型工况进行了性能分析,并与常规空调进行了经济性对比,分析其投资回收期.

  14. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  15. Weather Effect on the Solar Adsorption Air-conditioning System using Activated Carbon Fiber/Ethanol as Pair of Refrigeration: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhair M. Abdul Majeed; M.Y. Suliman; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study indicates the simulation analysis of the solar adsorption cycle using the activated carbon fiber/ethanol as the pair of refrigeration in Malaysia. The heat source used was evacuated tube collectors. The cycle is used for the purpose of air-conditioning for two temperature levels, where the cooling load can be 7°C. TRNSYS simulation software was used to model the system with the weather data of Malaysia. The results showed that the weather has a high effect on the performance of the...

  16. Weather Effect on the Solar Adsorption Air-conditioning System using Activated Carbon Fiber/Ethanol as Pair of Refrigeration: A Case Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhair M. Abdul Majeed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study indicates the simulation analysis of the solar adsorption cycle using the activated carbon fiber/ethanol as the pair of refrigeration in Malaysia. The heat source used was evacuated tube collectors. The cycle is used for the purpose of air-conditioning for two temperature levels, where the cooling load can be 7°C. TRNSYS simulation software was used to model the system with the weather data of Malaysia. The results showed that the weather has a high effect on the performance of the cycle. Both the cooling capacity and the COP were calculated in this study.

  17. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile...... terminals mounted in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling...

  18. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Larry G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  19. Breakthrough for greener air-conditioning in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter more than a decade of research and development work at SINTEF and NTNU, a patented CO2-based car air-conditioning system is now being adopted by the automotive industry. The Japanese company Denso Corporation has acquired a licence for the use of the CO2-technology in air conditioning and heat pump systems for cars. The new system offers improved energy efficiency, eliminates the emission of greenhouse gas refrigerants, and can be operated in the heat-pump mode for rapid heating in the winter season. (author)

  20. Solar air conditioning researches and demonstrations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ruzhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly shows the demonstration of solar air conditioning systems in China, which includes LiBr-H2O absorption cooling, silica gel-water adsorption chiller, desiccant cooling and hybrid integrated energy systems for buildings. The match of solar collector types and chiller types have been discussed and suggested.

  1. Low Energy Air Conditioning for Hot Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi, Hamad Hhn

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the major sources of electrical power generation in the world. Among all fossil fuels, oil is considered as the most sought-after fuel. The burden on countries that provide subsidized electricity produced from oil-fired power plants is noteworthy. Kuwait is a notable example of these countries. Electricity in Kuwait is heavily consumed by residential air conditioning, which comprises 60% of the total electricity generated at peak times on a hot summer day. From this perspecti...

  2. Investigation on thermal comfort response space and energy saving potential of summer air-conditioning system%夏季空调热舒适响应空间及节能潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍静; 文充; 曾礼强

    2012-01-01

    Air-conditioning system as the power system user side of one high-power electrical equipment,heavy use of air conditioning system in summer has become the cause power shortage in the peak power one of the reasons. Paper to meet the requirements of human thermal comfort under the premise of air through the simulation of thermal comfort equation,established a comfortable air-conditioning system of space environment parameters and establish the parameters on the extent of comfort index. Through constructs the room cold load computation analysis to the air conditioning,confirmed the air-conditioning system to hare certain energy conservation potential in the thermal comfortable environment parameter space. Provide evidence for energy efficient operation of air conditioning system.%在满足人体热舒适要求的前提下,通过对空调热舒适方程的仿真分析,建立了空调系统环境参数的舒适空间,确立各参数对舒适性指标的影响程度;通过对空调建筑房间冷负荷计算分析,验证了空调系统在热舒适环境参数空间内存在一定节能潜力.

  3. The evaporative cooling air conditioning system comfort%浅谈蒸发冷却空调系统的舒适性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀娟

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence of temperature,humidity,wind speed on human thermal comfort,and gives three kinds of factors on the coef icient of thermal comfort of human body,that the humidity and wind speed for evaporative cooling air conditioning system influence on thermal comfort is,in contrast to the proper occasion but made up for the evaporation cooling air conditioning system of high humidity,high wind speed defect.%本文介绍了温度,湿度,风速对人体热舒适的影响,并给出三种因素对人体热舒适的影响系数,认为湿度和风速对于蒸发冷却空调系统来说对热舒适的影响不大,相反在适当的场合反而弥补了蒸发冷却空调系统湿度较高,风速过大的缺陷。

  4. Mathematical modelling of hydraulic conditions of balancing and control of heating, cooling and dehumidification subsystem in ventilation and air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sotnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is the second part of the one published in the Vol. 1, 2011. The aim of this research is processes modelling and investigation of quantity parameters influence on heating and cooling subsystem of VAC systems when balancing that subsystem by various balanced valves and when controlling it by three-way valve. The basic characteristic received and analyzed in model, is balancing-adjusting characteristic (schedule of mixture in knot depending on a combination of many factors: binding, crosspieces, an arrangement of corresponding valves, pressures and other parameters. For reception of the balancing-adjusting characteristic of subsystem in different operating modes its mathematical model was created, methods of processing and generalization of the data were offered. After that calculations in different modes of use of the crosspieces were done, allowed to define all regime parameters at the set positions of balancing and regulating valves, parity of pressures in a network and a pump, design of armature and entry conditions.

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  6. Simulation platform of air conditioning water system based on TRNSYS%基于 TRNSYS 的空调水系统仿真平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季科; 张永贵; 刘冰冰; 刘辉; 曹勇

    2015-01-01

    Through establishing the hydraulic mathematical model for each part of the central air conditioning water system,setting the related parameters of the subroutine TYPE and writing logic program,builds the component modules of air conditioning water system,and adds them to the module library of the TRNSYS.According to the hydraulic characteristics of the water system,establishes the simulation platform in term of the logical relation of pressure,flow rate and impedance,and covers the shortage that the existing module of the TRNSYS only considers the thermal properties and ignores the hydraulic characteristics.Taking parallel pipeline module and variable frequency pump group module as examples,presents the establishment of TRNSYS module.Based on the water system of the central air conditioning for a complex building,presents the set-up of dynamic simulation platform,and obtains the pressure drop curve of the water system by simulation.%通过建立集中空调水系统各个部件的水力数学模型,设置 TYPE 子程序的相关参数及编写逻辑运算程序,建立了空调水系统的部件模块,添加到 TRNSYS 模块库中,根据水系统的水力特性,按照压力、流量及阻抗的逻辑关系搭建仿真平台,弥补了 TRNSYS 已有模块只考虑热力特性而忽略水力特性的不足。以空调水系统的并联管路部件模块和变频泵组部件模块为例,介绍了 TRNSYS 模块的建立。选取北京市某综合体大楼的集中空调水系统为研究对象,介绍了动态仿真平台的搭建,模拟得到了该空调水系统的压降曲线。

  7. Investigation of Air Quality in Passenger Train and Hygienic Status of Air-Conditioning System%旅客空调列车车厢空气质量与空调通风系统卫生学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀波; 蒋勇; 刘伟; 刘钊; 邵蔚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the air quality in the passenger train with air -conditioning ventilation system. Methods Based on the stratified cluster random sampling,from January to October in 2009,a total of 108 train carriages with air-conditioning system were selected to conduct the hygienic survey in Hefei, including 30 third class carriages,28 third class sleeping carriages,24 dining carriages (coal was used in 12, electricity was used in 12) and 26 carriages with soft berths. PM10,bacteria count,air velocity,temperature,relative humidity,carbon dioxide inside the carriges were determined. The dirt retention quantity,bacteria count,fungus count,β-hemolytic streptococcus in the return air pipe were measured. The PM10, bacteria count,fungus count,β-hemolytic streptococcus at the point of air outlet were also determined. Results The qualified rate of carbon dioxide in carriages was only 59.3%,which was the lowest. The qualified rates of temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and PM10 were 67.6%, 79.6%, 91.3% and 98.1%, respectively. As for the bacteria count, all were qualified. The qualified rate of carbon dioxide in third class carriages was 36.7%(11/30),it was 50.0%(14/28) in third class sleeping carriages, in dining it was 70.8%(17/24) and in carriages with soft berths it was 84.6%(24/26), respectively. The qualified rate of bacteria count in the return air pipe was 15.6%, which was the lowest. The qualified rate of dust deposition at the point of air outlet was 51.5%, bacteria count in the return air pipe was 59.2%, PM10 in the return air pipe was 82.4%, fungus count in the return air pipe was 96.3%, fungus count at the point of air outlet was 98.9%, β-hemolytic streptococcus in the return air pipe and at the point of air outlet was 100.0%, respectively. There was positive relationship between the PM10 concentration inside the compartment and the PM10 concentration at the air outlet (rs=0.824,P<0.001). There was also positive relationship between the

  8. Investigation of facade- and air-conditioning systems. Better climate at low cost - a concept for the future. Untersuchung von Fassaden- und Klimasystemen. Besseres Klima bei niedrigen Kosten - ein Zukunftskonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, H.J. (Lahmeyer International GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Technische Gebaeudeausruestung)

    1994-06-13

    Lately, discontent with air quality in air-conditioned buildings has increased considerably. According to investigations, some 50 to 60 per cent of persons working in offices suffer from physical and psychosomatic disorders. The causes of such impaired well-being and discomfort - known as sick building syndrome - lie, inter alia, in the fact that windows cannot be opened or building materials emit intense odours, in poor design of air-conditioning systems (for instance, an insufficient proportion of fresh air and draught) and inadequate maintenance. (orig.)

  9. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  10. Hygiene guideline for the planning, installation, and operation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in health-care settings - Guideline of the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külpmann, Rüdiger; Christiansen, Bärbel; Kramer, Axel; Lüderitz, Peter; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Wille, Frank; Zastrow, Klaus-Dieter; Lemm, Friederike; Sommer, Regina; Halabi, Milo

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the first "Hospital Hygiene Guideline for the implementation and operation of air conditioning systems (HVAC systems) in hospitals" (http://www.krankenhaushygiene.de/informationen/fachinformationen/leitlinien/12) in 2002, it was necessary due to the increase in knowledge, new regulations, improved air-conditioning systems and advanced test methods to revise the guideline. Based on the description of the basic features of ventilation concepts, its hygienic test and the usage-based requirements for ventilation, the DGKH section "Ventilation and air conditioning technology" attempts to provide answers for the major air quality issues in the planning, design and the hygienically safe operation of HVAC systems in rooms of health care. PMID:26958457

  11. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed…

  12. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  13. Efficient air conditioning. Part 2. Air quality; Effiziente Klimatisierung - Teil 2. Luftqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Herbert [Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2002-05-01

    Like other air conditioning systems, solar air conditioners should provide 'dry cool air', i.e. hygienically acceptable air at a comfortable temperature. In the summer season and in big cities, this is not possible without air filtering and dehumidification. [German] Im Herbst vergangenen Jahres wurden in dieser Zeitschrift am Markt vorhandene Systeme fuer eine solargestuetzte Klimatisierung verglichen.In dem Artikel fordern die Verfasser 'trockene kuehle Luft fuer die Nutzer'. Diese Forderung sollte eigentlich lauten 'schadstoff- und staubarme Luft im Aufenthaltsbereiche mit Temperatur und Feuchte innerhalb des Behaglichkeitsfeldes' oder kurz gesagt: 'hygienisch einwandrei und angenehm temperiert'. Diese Forderung ist allerdings ohne eine Luftfilterung und ohne Entfeuchtung in den Innenstaedten im Sommer nicht realisierbar. (orig.)

  14. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  15. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  16. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  17. Evaluation of refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in heat cascading systems under the carbon dioxide emissions constraint: the proposal of the energy cascade balance table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both heat cascading systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. It is necessary to introduce heat cascading systems in the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of heat cascading is the multi-stage use of thermal energy by temperature level. This paper introduces three energy policies for introducing the heat cascading systems. The author develops an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Carbon dioxide emission constraints result in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature heat is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustion waste heat could reduce electric power for the turbo compression refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator. In addition, this study proposes an energy cascade balance table with respect to the temperature level

  18. Air Facility System (AFS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve facilities in the area of interest for stationary sources of air...

  19. Design of ground source heat pump air conditioning system in a villa%别墅型建筑地源热泵空调系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 王树豪

    2015-01-01

    地源热泵是一种利用土壤所储藏的太阳能资源作为冷热源进行能量转换的供暖制冷空调系统,通过输入少量的高品位能源(如电力、机械功、燃气和液体燃料),实现热量从低温热源向高温热源的转移。以上海某小型别墅为对象,设计了一套家用地源热泵空调系统。首先计算了夏季冷负荷和冬季热负荷,然后根据冷、热负荷选择一套水源热泵机组(MWH080CR 型机组)和相应的风机盘管,进行了室内水管环路系统、土壤热交换器和地板采暖的设计选型,最后对系统的能效比进行了计算。结果表明,该空调系统具有节能环保、稳定可靠、舒适耐用等优点。%Ground source heat pump uses the solar energy stored in soil as a heat source for heating and refrigeration.This air conditioning system was operated through the import of a small number of high-grade energy (such as electricity,mechanical power,and gas or liquid fuels)to transfer this heat from low temperature heat source to high temperature heat source.The design of a ground source heat pump system for a small villa in Shanghai was described in this paper.Firstly,the cooling load and the heating load of the villa were calculated.Secondly,a water-source heat pump (Integrated horizontal MWH008CR,McQuay Air Condition Ltd model)and its corresponding fan-coil units were chosen.Thirdly,the indoor water-pipe loop system,ground source heat exchanger,and floor heating system were designed and their corresponding water pumps were selected.At last,energy efficiency of this system was calculated.It could be concluded that this ground source system has the merits of energy saving,environmental protection,high reliability, comfortability,and durability.

  20. Indoor air quality investigation at air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned markets in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize indoor air quality at the markets in Hong Kong, three non-air-conditioned and two air-conditioned markets were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants measured included PM10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total bacteria count (TBC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The indoor and outdoor concentrations of these target air pollutants at these markets were measured and compared. The effects of air conditioning, temperature/relative humidity variation and different stalls on the indoor air quality were also investigated. The results indicated that all of the average indoor concentrations of PM10, TBC, CO and NO2 at the markets were below the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objectives (HKIAQO) standards with a few exceptions for PM10 and TBC. The elevated PM10 concentrations at Hung Hom, Ngau Tau Kok and Wan Chai markets were probably due to the air filtration of outdoor airborne particulates emitted from vehicular exhaust, whereas high concentrations of airborne bacteria at Sai Ying Pun and Tin Shing markets were linked to the use of air conditioning. Correlation analysis demonstrated that indoor bacteria concentrations were correlated with temperature and relative humidity. The operation of air conditioning did not significantly reduce the levels of air pollutants at the markets. However, the higher indoor/outdoor ratios demonstrated that the operation of air conditioning had influence on the levels of bacteria at the markets. It was found that average PM10 concentration at poultry stalls was higher than the HKIAQO standard of 180 μg/m3, and was over two times that measured at vegetable, fish and meat stalls. Furthermore, the concentration of airborne bacteria at the poultry stalls was as high as 1031 CFU/m3, which was above the HKIAQO standard of 1000 CFU/m3. The bacteria levels at other three stalls were all below the HKIAQO standard. Statistical

  1. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  2. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  3. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  4. Cost-effective analysis of using variable-frequency control for energy saving in the fluid transfer System of air-conditioning%空调中流体输送系统变频节能经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志高; 马荣生

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid development of the variable frequency technique for speed control of alternating-current motors, this technique has found increasingly extensive applications in air-conditioning systems and has proved itself to be very effective for energy conservation,e.g. in VAV air-conditioning systems. This paper described the variable frequency control technique and the principle and application of the technique for energy conservation in air-conditioning systems. The dependence of the power consumption on the control modes of fiowratein the air-conditioning system was analyzed in detail. By means of case study it was demonstrated that the variable frequency technique can be used for the control of fiowrate in the air-conditioning system and consequently achieve remarkable results for energy saving.%介绍了变频调速技术及在空调系统中的节能原理,分析了空调系统流量调节 方式与能耗的关系,通过实例说明变频调速装置用于空调的变流量调节可显著节能,提高空调系统的经济性。

  5. Application of FMEA-DEA (Failure Modes and Effect Analysis - Data Envelopment Analysis) to the air conditioning system of the control room a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation presents the FMEA-DEA analysis application to the air conditioning system of the control room of a nuclear power plant. After obtaining the failure modes, the index associated to the occurrence probability, the severity of the effects and the potential of detention, a priority order is established for the failure modes or deviations. This number is obtained by multiplying the three mentioned index that vary in a natural scale from 1 to 10, where the higher the index, the more critical the situation will be. In this work, it is intended to use a model based on the data envelopment analysis, DEA jointly with the FMEA, to identify the current efficiency of the system and which failure modes or deviations are considered more critical, and by means of the weights attributed for the mathematical modeling to identify which index are contributing more for these deviations. From this identification, improvements can be set, which may consider administrative changes, operator training and so on, thus adding value to the final product. (author)

  6. Air coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main patent relates to a process of cooling the steam from the turbine working with a nuclear power reactor, in said process a two-phase fluid mixture is circulated inside a closed circuit between the turbine condenser and a cooling tower. The present addition to the main patent relates to a cooling system comprising instead of the vertical tower, a nearly horizontal structure open to wind, in which the air is circulated by natural convection. The lower part of said structure, according to the invention, comprises two parallel rows of nearly rectangular cooling fins and the upper part consists of two walls made antiparallel with respect to the longitudinal symmetry plane of said structure and thus forming an upwards widening, the resulting vertical planar section of the long-shaped cooling structure according to the invention assuming a venturi shape. Said type of structure a few hundred meters long but only fifty meters high is less visible in the landscape than the vertical tower, and condensation clouds are formed onside a larger surface, that is another ecological advantage

  7. An energy impact assessment of indoor air quality acceptance for air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of fresh air in ventilation systems for the air-conditioning consumes a considerable amount of energy and affects the indoor air quality (IAQ). The ventilation demand is primarily related to the occupant load. In this study, the ventilation demands due to occupant load variations and occupant acceptability were examined against certain IAQ objectives using the mass balance of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in an air-conditioned office. In particular, this study proposed a ventilation model for the consideration of the occupant load variations and occupant acceptability based on the regional survey of typical offices (422 samples) in Hong Kong. The model was applied to evaluate the relative energy performance of different IAQ objectives in ventilation systems for typical office buildings in Hong Kong. The results showed that the energy consumption of a ventilation system would be correlated with the occupant load and acceptability in the air-conditioned office. Indicative CO2 levels of 800 ppmv, 1000 ppmv and 1200 ppmv corresponding to 83%, 97% and 99.7% survey samples were shown, corresponding to the thermal energy consumptions of 1500 MJ m-2 yr-1, 960 MJ m-2 yr-1and 670 MJ m-2 yr-1, respectively. In regards to the monetary issue, an annual value of HK$ 762 million per year in electrical consumption could be saved in all office buildings in Hong Kong when the indoor target CO2 concentration is increased from 1000 ppmv to 1200 ppmv. To achieve an excellent IAQ following the existing design standard, i.e. to decrease the CO2 level from 1000 ppmv to 800 ppmv, 56% additional energy would be consumed, corresponding to an annual value of HK$ 1,419 million, even though the occupant acceptability is only improved from 81% to 86%. The development of the models in this study would be useful for the energy performance evaluation of ventilation systems in air-conditioned offices

  8. Novel Reduced GWP Refrigerant Compositions for Stationary Air Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Leck, Thomas J.; Naicker, Pavan K.; Hughes, Joshua; Hydutsky, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    The current fluids most widely used for small and mid-sized air conditioning systems globally are R-410A and R-22. While these fluids have many positive attributes for cooling, they are the subject of valid criticisms regarding their high direct global warming potential (GWP) and, in the case of R-22, ozone depletion potential (ODP) also. In the interest of improved environmental sustainability, a new class of refrigerant molecule has been developed, the hydrofluoroolefin, or HFO. While the v...

  9. Modeling and Simulation of a Water- cooled Central Air Conditioning System Based on Trnsys%基于Trnsys的水冷型中央空调系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玮; 陈立定

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a water-cooled central air conditioning system of a building in Guangzhou is taken for an example to establish the simulation models of one of the building's layers and its central air conditioning systems, on the basis of a controlled and uncontrolled cases, the energy consumption is analyzed. The simulation results from the two models show that there is a great space of energy-saving of central air conditioning system. This model is mainly used to study some properties of the central air conditioning and is of great significance to energy-saving optimal control of central air conditioning.%以广州某大厦水冷型中央空调系统为例子,利用Trnsys建立了大厦某层的多区域建筑及其中央空调系统能耗仿真模型,在此基础上分析加控制和不加控制2种情况下中央空调能耗情况.由2种模型的仿真结果可知中央空调具有很大的节能空间.模型主要用于研究中央空调运行的一些性质,对中央空调的节能优化控制具有重要的意义.

  10. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  11. On the history of air conditioning; Zur Geschichte der Raumklimatechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, Klaus; Finke, Ulrich [Klimakonzept Ingenieurgesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The theoretical bases of indoor air conditioning originates from the time of enlightenment (Lavoisier 1792). For the first time air conditioning is applied 1836 in the House of Commons in London. Wide application begins in the USA in the 1930s, in Germany due to the war after the 1950s. Starting from 1970 there are advancements in Germany and Northern Europe, which make it possible not to only air-condition but to fulfil thermally comfortable conditions. (orig.)

  12. Models and criteria for prediction of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in hydrogen-air-steam systems under severe accident conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission in Brussels supported a joint project on Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) studies for hydrogen safety within the framework programme on nuclear fission safety. The project was initiated by the Forschungszentrum Juelich based on the results of a pilot project. The following main project was coordinated by the Freie Universitaet Berlin involving seven european partners. The partners came from universities, research centers and industry, as follows: FU-Berlin, RWTH-Aachen, CNRS-Marseille, IPSN-Saclay, FZ-Juelich, FZ-Karlsruhe, and NNC-Knutsford, which worked closely together. The working period was two years (1997-1998). The aim of the project was to develop models and criteria for prediction of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in hydrogen-air-steam systems under severe accident conditions. The results obtained are documented in this final report, which was finished in 1999. The report consists of seven chapters, concerning: - Introduction - Experimental Investigations - Modelling and Numerics - Validation - Mitigation - Further Deliverables - Summary and Conclusion. The final report presents special experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of the complex DDT phenomena for hydrogen safety studies, and it should be a solid basis for end user applications and further developments. (orig.)

  13. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS: A METHOD FOR PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT IN AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.Mane; , H.M.Dange; P. P. Awate

    2015-01-01

    The refrigeration and air conditioning system having low energy consumption and environment friendliness is the main focus of the research department Refrigeration and Air conditioning industry and technical institutes. Efficiency of the refrigeration or air conditioning system working on vapour compression refrigeration cycle can be increased by using the Magneto hydrodynamic principles. Many researchers indicated that the behavior of the refrigerant flowing through vapour compre...

  14. A comparative study of different methods for the generation of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry in a cold storage air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Four kinds of TBAB CHS generation methods are experimentally investigated. ► Accession of CHS into supercooled solution can be helpful to the generation. ► Higher flow rate results in higher energy efficiency of CHS generation. - Abstract: A cold storage air-conditioning system using tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) as cold storage medium was built to investigate the high-efficiency method of TBAB CHS generation. In the present study, four kinds of different TBAB CHS generation methods were experimentally investigated and compared, and these methods included continuously cooling, turning off refrigerator while crystals appearing, supercooling release and accession of TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. The results showed that continuously cooling would lead to severe adhesion of crystal to the heat exchanger wall, and supercooling release took place with a big stochastic characteristic, hence the first and third method were concluded not reliable. Both the second and fourth methods could maintain the temperature of heat exchanger wall at a relatively higher level, therefore the crystal adhesion to the heat exchanger wall would be reduced significantly, which led to higher coefficient of performance (COP). In addition, accession of TBAB CHS into TBAB supercooled solution could shorten the time of supercooling release, resulting in about 21.8–35.4% shorter generation time than other methods. Moreover, the influence of flow rate on the CHS generation process was investigated, and the results showed that higher flow rate generally resulted in higher system COP

  15. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  16. Operation Optimization and Energy Consumption Analysis of Radiation Air Conditioning System with Ice Storage%冰蓄冷辐射空调系统运行优化与能耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁坤峰; 任岘乐; 贾雪迎; 王林; 阮春蕾; 张林泉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of temperature and humidity independent control, a radiation air conditioning system with ice storage was presented, which combined ice storage system, capillary radiation air conditioning, and ground-source heat exchanger;the new system may realize the power load peak load shifting, the reduction of energy consumption and good thermal comfort. Operation optimization model is established for the ice storage air conditioning system. Taking an office building in Hangzhou area as an example, the load calculation, operation strategy optimization and energy consumption analysis have been conducted. The results show that, the ice storage air conditioning system has the remarkable advantages for saving electricity and operation cost than the conventional air conditioning system. In the practical application, ice storage capacity constraints are considered in order to determine the system operation scheme.%基于温湿度独立控制思路,提出了一种将冰蓄冷、毛细管辐射及地源耦合的冰蓄冷辐射空调系统,以实现电力负荷“削峰填谷”、降低能耗和更好的热舒适性。建立了冰蓄冷辐射空调系统的运行优化模型,以杭州地区某办公楼为实例,进行了负荷计算、运行方案优化以及能耗分析,结果表明冰蓄冷辐射空调系统与常规空调系统相比,具有显著的节电和节省运行费用优势。实际应用中需综合考虑蓄冰容量的限制以最终确定系统运行方案。

  17. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  18. Technical and Economic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System Using Large Temperature Difference in Temperate Regions%温和地区采用大温差空调系统的技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段灼伟

    2014-01-01

    Under the climatic condition of temperate regions and the requirement of specific use, The effect of using large temperature difference and conventional temperature difference in air conditioning water system on the operating conditions of fan coil, fresh air and air handling units, water chiller, cooling tower, chilled water pump, cooling water pump and air conditioning heat pump and other equipments were analyzed and compared. It is considered that the optimum temperature difference is 5~12℃for air conditioning cold water, 60~45℃for heat water and 28~36℃for Cooling water, respectively.%在温和地区的气候条件下和特定的使用功能要求下,分析比较了空调水系统采用大温差和常规温差对于风机盘管﹑新风和空气处理机组﹑冷水机组﹑冷冻冷却水泵﹑冷却塔﹑空调热水泵等设备运行工况的影响,认为对本项目最适宜的选择是空调冷水5~12℃、热水60~45℃,冷却水28~36℃。

  19. 卷烟厂手工烟作业区空调系统CFD模拟研究%Simulation Study on Air Conditioning System CFD of Hand-made Area in Cigarette Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敬华; 高宏宇; 王定银

    2014-01-01

    A Hand-Made Area in a Cigaret e Factory establ-ished a physical model and mathematical model of air conditi-oning and ventilation system, and analyzed and studied the velocity field, the age of air, the comfort- ability(PPD-PMV) of indoor thermal environment of using Airpark software, h-oping to provide a reference for the technical renovation of air conditioning system in a factory.%某卷烟厂手工烟作业区建立了空调通风系统的物理模型和数学模型,并利用Airpak软件对室内速度场、空气龄、室内热环境的舒适性(PPD-PMV)进行了分析研究,希望能对工厂空调系统技改提供参考。

  20. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  1. Performance optimization of envelope and air conditioning system in telecommunication base station%基站围护结构性能及空调系统性能优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂壤; 李震; 刘晓华; 田浩; 刘芳

    2011-01-01

    An air conditioning system consumes 40% of the total energy in telecommunication base station (TBS), and it is very important to reduce energy consumption of the air conditioning system for improving the COP of total TBS. According to present TBS energy saving methods, simulates the annual TBS energy consumption with DeST software, and puts forward some TBS energy saving measures and suggestions for selection of envelope and performance improving of the air conditioning system. Concludes that the heat insulation level of envelope should be determined according to the geographical position and heat producing strength of TBS, shading and roof ventilation has little impact on the energy efficient improving of the air conditioning system, and heat pipe heat exchangers can greatly reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning system.%基站空调系统能耗占整个基站总能耗的40%左右,降低空调系统能耗对提高整个基站的COPs至关重要.针对现有的基站节能方法,采用DeST软件模拟了基站全年能耗,针对围护结构的选择和提高空调系统能效提出了基站节能措施和建议.得到的结论为:围护结构保温性取决于基站的地理位置和发热量;遮阳和屋顶通风对基站节能效果影响不大;热管换热机组可以大幅降低基站空调能耗.

  2. 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting contain contributions on the following topics: cryotechnology, fundamentals and materials for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, devices and components for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, applications of refrigeration technologies, air conditioning technology and heat pump applications, cryotechnology in biology and medicine, heat transfer and ventilation, guidelines and legal topics, refrigerant fluid - oil mixtures, control and surveillance, simulation and control, ambient air.

  3. 2013 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings cover the following main topics: cryoengineering - superconduction / energy storage; cryoapplications in biology and medicine; metrology; adsorption processes; condensation/evaporation; working fluids / simulation; ice production; plants and compressors; expansion and ejectors or recooling; use of cooling (passenger car air conditioning, supermarket); refrigerants; plant efficiency; emissions and legislation; air conditioning and use of heat pumps; air quality and control; building technology and block-type thermal power stations.

  4. 2015 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume contains the abstracts of the 2015 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting in 5 chapters: cryo-technology, fundamentals of materials for refrigeration engineering and heat pump technology, facilities and components for the refrigeration and heat pump technology; application of refrigeration engineering; air conditioning technology and heat pump application.

  5. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  6. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: roxana_garciaandrade@yahoo.com; xe2n@yahoo.com.mx; jose.valderrama@ieee.org

    2013-03-15

    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  7. Response of continuous air monitors in simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous air monitors (CAM) are widely used in nuclear industry for checking airborne activity in radioactive areas. Mathematical equations related to response of CAM's in assessing airborne activities are derived and presented in this paper. A case study is carried out for a model with necessary inputs. Assumed model is similar to areas in nuclear power plants. Graphical simulation results are used to analyze the conditions and its radiological significance. The response predictions can also be used to calculate alarm set points that correspond to appropriate limits on the concentration of airborne radioactivity in the sampled air. Equations can be modified further to find the response for different scenarios. Using these we can predict the escape rate of activity from the system even in minute levels. (author)

  8. The hardware design of Control System of the Solar-assisted Air Conditioning for Pure Electric Vehicle%纯电动汽车太阳能辅助空调控制系统的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩; 黄菊花

    2012-01-01

    Pure electric vehicle car battery is the only source of power and very limited,auxiliary equipment reduce power consumption of the driving distance of Pure electric vehicles, especially air conditioning, so development of efficient Pure electric car air- conditioning systems is the key step for electric car can be accepted in business, the car roof is full covered with solar cells, air- conditioning system can increase the cooling capacity , while increasing driving distance of Pure electric vehicles. In this paper, studied solar-assisted air conditioning system to small Pure electric vehicles, designed for the air conditioning control system for Pure electric vehicles to create a more comfortable driving and riding environment.%纯电动汽车车载动力电池是其唯一的动力源且很有限,辅助设备消耗的电能减少了纯电动汽车的续驶里程,尤其是空调,所以开发高效的纯电动汽车空调系统是纯电动汽车能够被市场接受的关键。将纯电动汽车顶盖布满太阳电池,可以使空调系统的制冷能力增强,同时还能增加纯电动汽车的行驶距离。对小型纯电动汽车的太阳能辅助空调系统进行研究,设计出适合该空调的自动控制系统,可为纯电动汽车创造出一个更加舒适的驾驶和乘座环境。

  9. Reconciling Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency in Air-Conditioned Classrooms: Case Studies for Portugal and Macao

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Duarte; Ingride Beltrão-Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Growing awareness on the subject of classroom’s indoor air quality and concerns regarding the probable link between indoor air quality, student’s attendance and academic performance, support recent legislation limiting classroom’s indoor pollutant concentrations. A consequence of this legislation is the generalized shift towards air-conditioned classrooms and increased budgets for schools energy running costs. According to the scientific literature, demand control ventilation systems are suit...

  10. Report of study 7.3: cooling and air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, F.

    2000-07-01

    the liberalization of the electric industry will have a major impact on the use of gas for cooling due to a potential reduction in electricity prices. This threat might induce gas distribution companies to revise their own marketing initiatives and review their tariffs as well. Two important papers on air conditioning are annexed to the study group report. The first paper is entitled 'Power, heat and chilling with natural gas, fuel cells and air conditioning'. It is focused on a demonstration project, in a hospital, based on the supply of power, heat and cooling through the combined use of fuel cells, absorption cooling machines and solar collectors. The second paper is entitled 'Optimisation of a district heating and cooling system with a double approach at the cooling production and new operating schemes'. It describes a project for a centralized plant for heating, cooling and electricity production. The cooling systems are based on waste heat recovery and the use of absorption technology. (authors)

  11. Do-It-Yourself Additives Recharge Auto Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In planning for a return mission to the Moon, NASA aimed to improve the thermal control systems that keep astronauts comfortable and cool while inside a spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Mainstream Engineering Corporation, of Rockledge, Florida, to develop a chemical/mechanical heat pump. IDQ Inc., of Garland, Texas, exclusively licensed the technology and incorporates it into its line of Arctic Freeze products for automotive air conditioning applications. While working on the design, Mainstream Engineering came up with a unique liquid additive called QwikBoost to enhance the performance of the advanced heat pump design.

  12. Proposal for energy saving in air conditioning equipment; Propuesta para ahorro energetico en acondicionadores de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis Recendez, Daniel H [Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    In the last decades, the air conditioning systems have become a crucial part in the search from comfort in extreme climates. Nevertheless, they have also become one of the greatest energy consumers. In this article it is proposed that the final conditions that the air conditioning equipment looks for not to be fixed, but variable in respect to a certain comfort zone. This zone is a variation of the used one in the bio-climatic chart of Olgyay that considers the rapidity whereupon the reached conditions tend to leave the comfort zone. It is analyzed how to choose the point on the zone that costs less energy in arriving to it. [Spanish] En las ultimas decadas, los sistemas de aire acondicionado se han vuelto una parte crucial en la busqueda de confort en climas extremosos. Sin embargo, tambien se han vuelto de los mayores consumidores de energia. En este articulo se propone que las condiciones finales que busquen lograr los acondicionadores no sean fijas, si no variables respecto a una determinada zona de confort. Dicha zona es una variacion de la utilizada en la carta bioclimatica de Olgyay, que considera la rapidez con que las condiciones alcanzadas tienden a abandonar la zona de confort. Se discute como elegir el punto sobre la zona que cueste menos energia en llegara el.

  13. 酒店空调冷凝热回收技术的应用研究%Application of Condensation Heat Recycling Technology for Hotel Air-conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璞洁; 许伊那

    2011-01-01

    Based on the study of correlation between air - conditioning and hot - water heating load, this paper suggests a heating process by using heat - recovery from the refrigeration unit, and with a comparison with the traditional air - conditioning and hot water supply system, explores the application of air -conditioning condensation heat recycling technology in the hotel hot water heating system,then aims at a technically available air - conditioning and hot - water supply programme with lower energy dissipation, which is also non - polluting.%通过深入分析空调负荷与热水负荷的耦合关系,提出了一种充分利用制冷机组回收的废热提供生活热水的设计方法,并把这种突破性做法与传统的空调和热水供应系统进行比较,探讨利用酒店的空调冷凝热回收技术制备生活热水,以寻求一个技术可行、低能耗和无污染的空调和热水供应系统方案.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  15. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  16. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookongchai Kritsada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point with high accuracy, fast, and precise processes was proposed. In a preprocessing procedure to detect the air bubbles, threshold and median filter techniques have been used. Connected component labeling technique is used to detect the air bubbles while blob analysis is searching technique to analyze group of the air bubbles in sequential images. The experiments are tested with proposed algorithm to determine the leakage point of an air conditioning compressor. The location of the leakage point was presented as coordinated point. The results demonstrated that leakage point during process could be accurately detected. The estimation point had error less than 5% compared to the real leakage point.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a)...

  18. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  19. 基于TRNSYS的空调水系统管网模型的建立%Establishment of Pipe Network Model in Air Conditioning Water System based on TRNSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟光亮; 张吉礼

    2011-01-01

    建立了空调水系统的管网模型并应用于TRNSYS中,以某假日酒店为研究对象,建立了其空调系统的动态仿真器。对酒店空调系统在末端无控时的水力特性以及末端有控时的能耗情况进行了仿真计算,结果表明,管网模型的引入可利用TRNSYS仿真研究空调系统热力特性和水力特性。%The pipe network model of air conditioning water system was established and applied to TRNSYS,A holiday hotel was taken as an example for simulation,whose system dynamic simulator was established.Simulation on the hydraulic characteristics of air conditioning system without control and energy consumption under controlled condition.The results show that TRNSYS can simulate the thermal properties and hydraulic characteristics of air-conditioning system with the network model.

  20. A Disscussion about the Ventilation and Air-conditioning System of the Kitchens%浅谈商场及星级酒店厨房通风空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何中苗

    2015-01-01

    以商场及星级酒店厨房为例,阐述了现代厨房通风空调系统设计的一般原则,介绍了通风空调系统采用的布置形式,送排风量的计算方法,以及抽油烟罩、排风管道选用和安全保证措施.可为室内环境质量要求较高的厨房通风空调系统设计提供参考.%Give an example of the kitchens in Shopping malls and star hotels, presents the general principles of the ventilation and air-conditioning designing of modern kitchens, involving the arrange style of the equipments of the system adopts, and the calculation of the amount of ventilation air, also involving the selection and safety precaution of discharging the air ducks. It can provide a reference for the designing of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in kitchens, which demands a high indoor air quality.

  1. Air cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for cooling the steam from a turbine used in conjunction with a power nuclear reactor has been described in the main patent. According to said procedure, use is made of a circuit where a two-phase mixture is circulated, said closed circuit connecting the turbine condenser to a cooling tower. According to the present addition patent, the cooling structure is provided with cooling fins previously hollowed in view of increasing the interface between the fluid and said structure, which improves the performance of the system

  2. Analysis of the Effect of Thermal Expansion Valve on Characteristics of Air Conditioning System in Fast Train%热力膨胀阀对高速列车空调系统性能的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳立芝; 郭宝东; 王立航

    2012-01-01

      In order to investigate the effect of thermal expansion valve (TXV) on the characteristics of air conditioning system in fast train, the TXV static superheat regulation experiment was carried out in one failure air conditioning system of the fast train. During the experiment, the characteristics of air conditioning system were analyzed under different TXV static superheat conditions. The results showed that static superheat increasing can efficiently improve the TXV refrigerant shortage and the refrigerant non-uniform distribution in evaporator, and then increase the evaporator pressure and temperature to solve the problem of insufficient cooling capacity.%  为了研究热力膨胀阀对高速列车空调系统性能的影响,对有故障的高速列车空调系统进行了膨胀阀静态过热度调节试验,分析了不同静态过热度下空调系统性能。分析和试验表明,增大膨胀阀静态过热度可以有效改善膨胀阀供液不足以及蒸发盘管分液不均的现象,从而提高蒸发压力和蒸发温度,解决空调不制冷的问题。

  3. Simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Simulation technology has been widely used for performance prediction and optimal design of refrigeration and air conditioning appliances. A brief history of simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is reviewed. The models for evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube and thermal insulation layer are summarized, and a fast calculation method for thermodynamic properties of refrigerant is introduced in this paper. The model-based intelligent simulation technology and the simulation technology based on graph theory are also illustrated. Finally, an updated trend of simulation technology development for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is discussed.

  4. Evaluation of saving measurements and energetic efficiency in air-conditioning systems; Evaluacion de medidas de ahorro y eficiencia energetica en sistemas de climatizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Lombard, L [Asociacion de Investigacion y Cooperacion de Andalucia (Spain); Ortiz, J [Building Research Establishment (United Kingdom); Riviere, P [Armines-ecole des mines de Paris (France)

    2006-04-15

    Buildings require an adequate air conditioning to offer workers a labor environment where there is thermal comfort. A study was performed in three different European places which count on several climates. The conclusion was the following: in order to analyze the energy efficiency in edifications it is fundamental the simulation tools use with the purpose of calculating the consumption and evaluating the saving measurements. [Spanish] Los edificios requieren de una climatizacion adecuada para que los que ahi operan puedan hacerlo dentro de un ambiente laboral donde exista el confort termico. Se llevo a cabo un estudio en tres lugares de Europa poseedores de diferentes climas y se concluyo que para poder analizar la eficiencia energetica de climatizacion en las edificaciones es imprescindible el uso de herramientas de simulacion con el proposito de calcular el consumo y evaluar las medidas de ahorro.

  5. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  6. MARANGONI CONVECTION AROUND A VENTILATED AIR BUBBLE UNDER MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEFSLOOT, HCJ; JANSSEN, LPBM; HOOGSTRATEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Under microgravity conditions in both parabolic and sounding rocket flights, the mass-transfer-induced Marangoni convection around an air bubble was studied. To prevent the bubble from becoming saturated, the bubble was ventilated. It turned out that the flow rate of the air through the bubble deter

  7. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  8. Extreme conditions in a dissolving air nanobubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the dissolution of an air nanobubble in water have been performed taking into account the effect of bubble dynamics (inertia of the surrounding liquid). The presence of stable bulk nanobubbles is not assumed in the present study because the bubble radius inevitably passes the nanoscale in the complete dissolution of a bubble. The bubble surface is assumed to be clean because attachment of hydrophobic materials on the bubble surface could considerably change the gas diffusion rate. The speed of the bubble collapse (the bubble wall speed) increases to about 90 m/s or less. The shape of a bubble is kept nearly spherical because the amplitude of the nonspherical component of the bubble shape is negligible compared to the instantaneous bubble radius. In other words, a bubble never disintegrates into daughter bubbles during the dissolution. At the final moment of the dissolution, the temperature inside a bubble increases to about 3000 K due to the quasiadiabatic compression. The bubble temperature is higher than 1000 K only for the final 19 ps. However, the Knudsen number is more than 0.2 for this moment, and the error associated with the continuum model should be considerable. In the final 2.3 ns, only nitrogen molecules are present inside a bubble as the solubility of nitrogen is the lowest among the gas species. The radical formation inside a bubble is negligible because the probability of nitrogen dissociation is only on the order of 10^{-15}. The pressure inside a bubble, as well as the liquid pressure at the bubble wall, increases to about 5 GPa at the final moment of dissolution. The pressure is higher than 1 GPa for the final 0.7 ns inside a bubble and for the final 0.6 ns in the liquid at the bubble wall. The liquid temperature at the bubble wall increases to about 360 K from 293 K at the final stage of the complete dissolution. PMID:27575216

  9. Energy Saving Measures of Clean Air Conditioning System in Solid Dosage Forms Workshop of Pharmaceutical Companies%浅谈药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2012-01-01

    According to large energy consumption of clean air-conditioning system in solid dosage forms workshop of pharmaceutical companies, combining with the project cases, this paper suggests three energy saving measures.%针对药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统能耗大的问题,结合具体的工程案例,有针对性地提出了几种有效的节能措施。

  10. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  11. Analysis on Energy Saving of Variable Speed Pumps in Water System of Air Conditioning%空调水系统中变速泵的节能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孟标

    2012-01-01

    随着现代经济的高速发展,中央空调广泛应用于各类建筑,空调系统的能耗占建筑物运行能耗的比例越来越大。与阀门节流调节相比,变速泵调节水系统流量具有很大的节能效益,采用变速泵对空调水系统进行节能分析。%With the rapid development of economy,central air conditioning systems are widely used.The energy consumption of the air conditioning system becomes more and more great to the total energy consumption.Compared with the valves adjustment,using variable speed pumps to adjust flowing quantity is efficient to save energy.The paper uses variable speed pumps to analyse the consumption of water system in air conditioning.

  12. 住宅空调系统安装常见问题的分析与对策%Analysis and Countermeasures of common problems on installing residential air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    The use of residential air conditioning system becomes more and more popular,then HVAC engineer have to pay more attention on problems on installing residential air conditioning system and spend more time studying it. This paper analyzes the common problems in residential air conditioning system installation,and works out four kinds of solutions,and tnen analyzes the advantages of each approach, finally introduces four successful cases.%住宅空调系统使用的日益普及,使得空调系统安装中的问题已经成为暖通工程师必须加以重视并认真研究的课题。本文就暖通空调工程住宅空调系统安装中常见问题进行分析,制定了四种解决途径,并分析了每种途径的优点,最后介绍了国内四个成功的案例。

  13. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  14. Air Filtration as Protection against Fouling of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Lajčíková, Ariana

    2005-01-01

    Currently, air filters are one of the most critical components of air treatment systems as they decontaminate the air delivered to living space. During the operation, however, the level of harmful surface deposits increases, and at certain times, an uncleaned filter can itself become a source of ...

  15. Hospital central air conditioning ventilation system knowledge about nosocomial infection investigation and countermeasure%医院中央空调通风系统医院感染相关知识现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春云; 朱小平; 凌红; 许晓萍; 丁华

    2012-01-01

    Objective The hospital being ventilated systematically by the (act that the relevance personnel grasps central authority air-conditioning infects the administration request, observe central authority air-conditioning ventilation system cleaning degassing and run administrative working system strictly, be work out simple and direct, have order, safety, pragmatic, have an effect to prevent from controlling measure, guard against yard inner cross-infection , provide a basis. Method Adopi a questionnaire to inquire into the method composing in reply a scene examination (observation) , the systematic air-conditioning ventilation relevance knowledge and central authority air-conditioning usage current situation carrying out central authority on entire 24 yard disease area and 191 staff members investigate whether. Result Relevance personnel cognition to systematic relevance of central authority air-conditioning ventilation degassing managerial know-how, the god of the earth stays in cognition stage, Air-conditioning there exists the sum knowing that the blind area employee takes up investigation in sigmatism and degassing administration to central authority 69.1%. Do not carry out relevance knowledge to the middle acting. Conclusions The behavior regulations that the conclusion asks to promote the relevance personnel, changes central authority air-conditioning ventilation system usage current situation, trains except perfecting the relevance knowledge's, have relevance procedure in hand being hit by key control point and the request, improve hospital infection taking precautions a-gainst and controlling availability, that important being needs to reinforce the functional departments supervision strength besides the standard working out the central authority air-conditioning ventilation system usage upkeep maintenance handles directive rules(SOP),ensures SOP measure feeling at ease, makes infection control a job further scientist , normalizing.%目的 通过相关人员

  16. Investigation of Combined System between Air Source Heat Pump System for Direct Hot Water Supply and Full Fresh Air Conditioning%空气源热泵承压热水供应与全新风空调联供系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文峰; 卓献荣; 黄伟毅

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide hot water supply for room and full fresh air conditioning for supermarket in a hotel efficiently, combined system between air source heat pump for direct hot water supply and full fresh air conditioning system was designed and implemented, and its matching algorithm was introduced. After using energy storage equipments as hot water storage tanks and cold storage air-conditioner cabinet, and applying PLC system for data acquisition and heat pump heating time control, a solution to the unbalanced load between heating and cooling was proposed. The running state and operating performance in a full year was tested. The results indicated that the system not only satisfied the requirement of hot water supply for room, but also realized the purpose of full fresh air conditioning for supermarket in the hotel. The average synthesis energy efficiency ratio in a year is over 4.7. The practice provided an example of air source heat pump system for combined heating and cooling supply.%针对华南地区某连锁酒店客房热水供应及该洒店商场空调需求,提出了空气源热泵承压热水供应与全新风空调联供系统方案,介绍了系统具体构成及关键部件的匹配设计计算方法,利用蓄热水罐、蓄冷风柜等蓄能装置和以PLC为核心的数据采集及控制手段,探讨了冷热需求不同步、冷热负荷不均衡的冷热联供固有局限问题的一种解决方案,并对实施的工程系统进行了全年性现场运行性能测试和分析调试.结果表明:该系统在可靠地满足该酒店热水供应的同时,又满足了该酒店商场夏季全新风降温空调的需求,该系统年平均综合能效比大于4.7,为空气源热泵冷热联供提供了一种工程实例.

  17. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  18. Experimental Research on Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yueyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental device of liquid desiccant air conditioning system is established. Experimental tests about the temperature difference between diluted solution of inlet and concentrated solution of exit in the solution heat exchanger are carried on, and CaCl2 solution is used as desiccant. Results show that: the fluctuation range in the day at different times of the basic difference of the measured temperature does not exceed 1°C, and the temperature difference between diluted solution of inlet and concentrated solution of exit in solution heat exchanger appears the minimum value of 2.7°C and the maximum value of 10.2°C. Also, the percent of the additional load and the ratio of additional load to the evaporator load are analyzed.

  19. 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yingxin; Li, Yuguo; Vol.1 Indoor and Outdoor Environment; Vol.2 HVAC&R Component and Energy System; Vol.3 Building Simulation and Information Management

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning is based on the 8th International Symposium of the same name (ISHVAC2013), which took place in Xi’an on October 19-21, 2013. The conference series was initiated at Tsinghua University in 1991 and has since become the premier international HVAC conference initiated in China, playing a significant part in the development of HVAC and indoor environmental research and industry around the world. This international conference provided an exclusive opportunity for policy-makers, designers, researchers, engineers and managers to share their experience. Considering the recent attention on building energy consumption and indoor environments, ISHVAC2013 provided a global platform for discussing recent research on and developments in different aspects of HVAC systems and components, with a focus on building energy consumption, energy efficiency and indoor environments. These categories span a broad range of topics, and the proce...

  20. 酒店类工程空调的节能设计%Energy saving design for air conditioning system in hotel projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡骞; 梁雪梅; 沈士圣

    2012-01-01

    For the hotel projects which need to meet the cooling and domestic hot water demands at the same time, different operating conditions are,realized through the auto-switch of the control valves on the water source heat pump unit, fire cistern and ground heat exchanger. Presents the composition of the four pipes heat pump system, and analyses the all-year operating condition, inter-cycle system, annual cooling water system and ground heat exchanger system.%对于同时需要空调制冷和生活热水供应的酒店类工程,利用水源热泵机组十消防水池十地埋管换热器,通过对控制阀门的自动转换,实现不同的运行工况.介绍了四管制热泵系统的组成,并对四管制热泵机组全年运行模式、中间循环系统、常年冷却水循环系统及地埋管换热系统进行了分析.

  1. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  2. Automatic control system of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system%蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的控制方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 卢永梅; 强天伟

    2012-01-01

    Presents the flow process of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system. Based on operation modes of different seasons, designs the automatic scheme to guarantee the system's safety and energy efficiency. Presents the control content and hardware configuration in detail. Achieves the communication between the personal computer and the programmable logic controller by configuration software, realizing the functions of centralized control, data logging and printing, so as to provide detailed data for on-site equipment maintenance worker and to simplify operation and maintenance. The project application, shows that the control system wofks steadily and achieves a desired effect.%介绍了蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的流程.基于该系统不同季节的运行模式,设计了自控方案,以保证该空调系统的安全性和节能性.详细介绍了控制内容和硬件配置.利用组态软件完成PC机与PLC之间的通讯,实现了系统集中控制、数据记录和打印等功能,能为现场设备维护人员提供详细的资料,简化操作、维护工作.工程应用实践表明,该自控系统运行稳定,能达到预期效果.

  3. 西北干旱地区的空调系统节能设计%Energy-saving Design of Air Conditioning System in Arid Regions of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳山; 马俊丽

    2016-01-01

    针对西北地区独特的气候特点,分别提出了蒸发冷却+置换通风和蒸发冷却+干式风机盘管2种空调系统形式可在喀什地区实际工程中应用.通过对比发现,第1种系统形式比传统电制冷空调系统节能53%,第2种系统形式比传统电制冷系统的制冷机房内设备节能71%,2种系统节能效果显著.通过对送风状态点露点分析,蒸发冷空调系统无凝结水产生,可避免室内环境污染.蒸发冷却空调系统的独特优势决定了其在西北地区的广泛应用前景.%For the unique climate characteristics of Northwest,the paper proposes evaporative cooling and displacement ventilation, evaporative cooling and dry fan coil system which were used in practical engineering in Kashi. By comparison, the first system can save more 53% energy than electric refrigeration system, the second system can save more 71% energy than conventional refrigeration system which in the refrigerating station, the energy saving effect is remarkable. Through analyzing the dew point of the air supply state point, the evaporative cooling air conditioning system has no condensate which can avoid the indoor environmental pollution. The unique advantage of evaporative cooling air conditioning system determines the wide application prospect in the Northwest China.

  4. Decoupling dehumidification and cooling for energy saving and desirable space air conditions in hot and humid Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The combined use of dedicated ventilation and dry cooling (DCDV) system was investigated. ► Investigations were based actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics. ► DCDV system could save 54% of the annual energy use for air-conditioning. ► DCDV system could better achieve the desired space air conditions. ► DCDV system could decouple dehumidification and cooling. - Abstract: The combined use of dedicated outdoor air ventilation (DV) and dry cooling (DC) air-conditioning system to decouple sensible and latent cooling for desirable space air conditions, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency is proposed for hot and humid climates like Hong Kong. In this study, the performance and energy saving potential of DCDV system in comparison to conventional systems (constant air volume (CAV) system with and without reheat) for air conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong are evaluated. Through hour-by-hour simulations, using actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics, the cooling load profile, resultant indoor air conditions, condensation at the DC coil, and energy consumptions are calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that with the use of DCDV system, the desirable indoor conditions could be achieved and the annual energy use could be reduced by 54% over CAV system with reheat. The condensate-free characteristic at the DC coil to reduce risk of catching disease could also be realized.

  5. The Impact of Air Exchange Effectiveness on Thermal Comfort in an Air-Conditioned Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roonak Daghigh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Impact of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort has not been investigated and, therefore, not well understood .Therefore, the influence of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort is investigated in this study. Approach: The main objective of this research is to investigate the thermal comfort level of an air-conditioned office room under 14 windows-door opening arrangements as a function of maximum, minimum and mean Air Exchange Effectiveness (AEE, as has not been inquired into already. The tracer gas decay method has been applied during the experimental procedures to estimate air exchange effectiveness, on the basis of room average and local mean age of air. Simultaneously, thermal comfort variables were measured and through these data, the thermal comforts Fanger's indices (PMV and PPD were calculated. Staff answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Results: Results of 60 survey responses to thermal comfort questions in office and indoor air quality are presented. This study has shown that there are relationship between AEE and thermal comfort and three linear regression equations of PMV versus AEE can be derived for this air-conditioned office. Conclusion: Studies on the effect of air exchange effectiveness on thermal comfort in an office have shown that Thermal comfort is influenced by AEE, which go beyond the six factors which have been taken into account in PMV modeling.

  6. Ventilation and air conditioning facility turbine building in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the facility of the present invention, the exhaustion capacity of an exhaustion blower, an exhaustion duct or a main exhaustion stack are decreased to reduce cost for buildings and running cost. That is, the facility of the present invention has an exhaustion port at a position higher than an air supply port disposed to the outer wall of an operation floor of a turbine building. During usual operation, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by natural circulating ventilation in which air is supplied from the air supply port and exhausted from the exhaustion port. Upon periodical inspection, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by supplying air from the air supply port and exhausting it from the main exhaustion stack. When air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack, a means for disposing an exhaustion system exclusively used for the operation floor having a separately disposed exhaustion blower connected to the main exhaustion stack is used or a means capable of selectively communicating the operation floor with a contamination area exhaustion system in the turbine building is used. With such a constitution, the capacity of the exhaustion system is reduced during both of the usual operation and periodical inspection. Further, upon periodical inspections, if air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack by way of the exhaustion system exclusively used for the turbine building operation floor, the balance for the total amount of airflow is not lost. (I.S.)

  7. 船用变风量末端装置的应用分析%Analysis of the application of VAV terminal boxes in the ships air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周根明; 厉盼盼

    2014-01-01

    Types of variable air volume air conditioning system terminal boxes are various, but whether all of them can be used in ships and can save energy is the industry concerns. This article studies the using of terminal boxes in the ships air conditioning. The model takes into account of k-e model with using of Fluent, temperate fields and velocity fields in the crew cabin are obtained. By the cabin temperature distribution and no significant air fall, jet cold feeling. As a result ,come inducible VAV and the new style of fan powered box with air heat exchanger solutions can meet thermal comfort of cabin environment ,which provide a theoretical basis for all kinds of VAV terminal boxes to better use on the ships.%变风量空调系统末端装置型式多样,能否在舰船上使用并达到相应效果是业内人士关心的问题。因此对舰船空调末端装置进行分析,采用k-e湍流模型对舱室空气流动进行数值模拟,并运用Fluent软件进行模拟计算,得出了船员舱室的温度场和速度场的分布。由舱室温度分布均匀和无明显送风下坠和射流冷风感,得出诱导型变风量末端和带热交换器动力型末端送风方案都能满足舱室舒适性要求,为变风量末端装置在舰船上更好地使用提供了理论依据。

  8. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2014-01-01

    The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the...

  9. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 4: Solar air conditioning: Active, hybrid and passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    The status of absorption cycle solar air conditioning and the Rankine cycle solar cooling system is reviewed. Vapor jet ejector chillers, solar pond based cooling, and photovoltaic compression air conditioning are also briefly discussed. Hybrid solar cooling by direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and dehumidification by desiccation are described and discussed. Passive solar cooling by convective and radiative processes, evaporative cooling by passive processes, and cooling with roof ponds and movable insulation are reviewed. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is discussed.

  10. Today and Future Development of R290 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning System%R290制冷空调系统的现状与未来发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静红; 刘圣春; 彭苗; 李慧宇

    2012-01-01

    The application and investigation of natural refrigerant R290 refrigeration and air-conditioning system was introduced. R290 has larger volumetric capacity, lower cost, and it naturally exists in the atmosphere and has neither ozone depletion potential nor significant global warming potential. It has excellent thermodynamic performance as refrigerant compared with conventional refrigerants. The R290 refrigeration and air-conditioning system has smaller size; so as to decrease the charge of refrigerant, save the material of metal, reduce the cost of equipment With the progress of the study on the R290 practical application technology, R290 has a good future used as refrigerant in refrigeration and air-conditioning system.%详细分析和总结了国内外自然工质R290制冷空调系统的应用与研究现状.R290单位容积制冷量大、价格低廉、臭氧消耗潜值为0,全球变暖潜值很小,热力性能与常规制冷剂相比有明显的优势.R290制冷空调系统结构紧凑,制冷剂的充灌量少,金属材料的消耗少,设备的初投资少.随着R290应用技术研究的不断深入,环保制冷剂R290将拥有广阔的市场应用前景,在未来制冷空调系统中将显示出巨大的优越性.

  11. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    : better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; small amounts of clean air should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each individual; individual......Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms......, even though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence...

  12. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    in the built environment: better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; personalized ventilation, i.e. small amounts of clean air, should be provided gently......Air-conditioning of buildings has played a very positive role for economic development in warm climates. Still its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even...... though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in buildings in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence...

  13. 基于TRNSYS的空气源热泵空调系统仿真研究%Simulation Research for Air Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System Based on TRNSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 翟晓强; 徐鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a variable water volume (VWV) model and a constant water volume (CWV) model of air source heat pump (ASHP) are built based on the TRNSYS software. The operation characteristics of the devices in the system can be simulated by the model. Through the simulation, the performances of the system operating in VWV and CWV control modes have been evaluated and analyzed. Compared with CWV mode, the fluctuation range of the indoor temperature is smaller when operating in VWV mode. Moreover, the energy consumption of VWV mode is 10.3% lower than that of CWV mode. In addition, the TRNSYS model and the method of analyzing the energy-saving effect of VWV system in this paper would work as theoretical basis for the application and promotion of VWV system.%本文基于TRNSYS软件分别建立了空气源热泵的变水流量(VWV)和定水流量(CWV)模型。该模型可以对系统各部件的运行特性进行模拟。通过模拟仿真,对系统在VWV与CWV控制策略下的性能参数进行了计算与分析。结果表明,与CWV系统相比,VWV系统室温波动较小,并且能够节能10.3%。本文所建立的模型及所应用的VWV系统节能分析方法,为VWV系统的应用及推广提供了理论依据。

  14. Advanced Print Reading. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This is a workbook for students learning advanced blueprint reading for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; basic piping symbols;…

  15. State Skill Standards: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Larry; Soukup, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide career and technical education skill standards. The standards in this document are for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an…

  16. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Air-conditioning of buildings has played a very positive role for economic development in warm climates. Still its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even...

  17. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  18. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2001-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  19. Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technician. National Skill Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This guide contains information on the knowledge and skills identified by industry as essential to the job performance of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians. It is intended to assist training providers in public and private institutions, as well as in industry, to develop and implement training that will provide workers with…

  20. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  1. Central air conditioning based on adsorption and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the characterization and the pre-dimensioning of an adsorption chiller as part of a 20 kW air conditioning central unit for cooling a set of rooms that comprises an area of 110 m2. The system is basically made up of a cold water storage tank supplied by an activated carbon-methanol adsorption chiller, a hot water storage tank, fed by solar energy and natural gas, and a fan-coil. During an acclimatization of 8 h (9-17 h), the following parameters were obtained for dimensioning the cooling system: 504 kg of activated carbon, 180 L of methanol, 7000 L of hot water, 10,300 L of cold water with its temperature varying in the fan-coil from 1 deg. C to 14 C. Considering the mean value of the total daily irradiation in Joao Pessoa (7o8'S, 34o50'WG), and a cover of regenerating heat supplied by solar energy equivalent to 70%, the adsorption chiller's expected coefficient of performance (COP) was found to be around 0.6.

  2. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  3. Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenik Marek

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers. The paper presents the analysis of results of the investigations concerning the influence of various constructive solutions of the air-water mixers on hydraulic operating conditions of the air lift pump. The scope of the investigations encompassed the determination of characteristics of delivery head and delivery rate for three types of air-water mixers applied in the constructed air lift p...

  4. Indoor Air quality related to occupancy at an air-conditioned public building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponsoni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the influence of occupancy on the indoor air quality, a public office building with air-conditioning system was selected for this study. The indoor parameters included total bacteria count, total fungal count, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration. The number of occupants, which varied throughout the day, was recorded in each sample. The samples were taken before the beginning of the working day and during 3 h, at an interval of 30 min between each sampling, and continued for five working days during a week. Correlation analysis demonstrated that occupancy rates were positively correlated with airborne bacteria, CO2, and temperature. No significant association between the number of occupants and fungus was observed. The results of this study provided information on the variability of indoor air parameters during the time-varying occupancy over the course of the day in at air-conditioned buildings where occupancy was quite dynamic.Com o objetivo de caracterizar a influência da ocupação na qualidade do ar interior, um edifício público com sistema de ar condicionado foi selecionado. As variáveis ambientais consideradas incluíram contagem total de bactérias e fungos, temperatura, umidade relativa e concentração de dióxido de carbono. O número de ocupantes, que variou durante todo o dia, foi estimado em cada amostragem. As amostras foram coletadas antes do início do expediente de trabalho e durante 3 horas, em intervalos de 30 minutos, por 5 dias úteis consecutivos. A análise de correlação demonstrou que a taxa de ocupação foi correlacionada positivamente com a concentração de bactérias, dióxido de carbono e temperatura. Nenhuma associação significativa foi observada entre o número de ocupantes e concentração de fungos. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem informações quanto à variabilidade nos parâmetros do ar interior no decorrer do dia em um edifício onde a ocupação

  5. Health Status of Employees Working in the Workplaces with Centralized Air-conditioning System%工作场所集中空调通风系统从业人员健康状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴浩生; 殷道根; 仇君; 杜玉开; 卓菲; 章明辉; 林奕嘉

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对安装有集中空调通风系统工作场所从业人员的健康调查,从而了解工作场所从业人员不良症状的发生情况,并比较不同工作场所从业人员不良症状的发生特点.方法 随机抽取深圳市区11家安装有集中空调通风系统的工作场所,并对其从业人员发放调查问卷,问卷主要内容包括基本情况、一般症状、眼睛症状、呼吸道症状、皮肤症状.结果 ①女性在空调环境下相关不良症状的发生率显著高于男性(P<0.05);②在空调环境下工作时间越长,皮肤症状的发生率越高,而其他症状变化不明显;③不同场所间,医院相关不良症状发生率最高,写字楼及商场最低.结论 集中空调通风系统下从业人员相关不良症状的发生率较高,应当加强对集中空调通风系统的监督管理,加强清洁消毒,保证其从业人员健康.%Objective To survey the health conditions of employees working in the workplaces with centralized air-conditioning system so as to know about the incidence of ill symptoms among the employees and compare the characteristics of ill symptoms among the employees working in different workplaces.Methods Eleven workplaces with centralized air-conditioning system were randomly selected in Shenzhen,and all workers were investigated by self-designed questionnaires which included basic situation,general symptoms,eye symptoms,respiratory tract symptoms,and skin symptoms.Results The incidence of ill symptoms of females was significantly higher than that of males (P<0.05).The longer the working under the air -conditioning system,the higher the incidence of skin symptoms; however,the incidence of other symptoms did not show the same trend.Among different workplaces,the incidence of ill symptoms in hospitals was the highest,while the incidence of office buildings and shopping malls was the lowest.Conclusions The incidence of ill symptoms in the employees working in the workplaces

  6. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  7. Emergy-based Sustainability Evaluation of Air-conditioning System of Ground-source Heat Pump%基于能值的土壤源热泵空调系统的可持续性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉和; 吕智; 丁力行

    2013-01-01

    土壤源热泵空调系统的可持续发展能力需要从经济、社会和环境效益几个方面作定量分析.本文以武汉某办公楼的暖通空调工程为例,将土壤源热泵和空气源热泵、风冷冷水机组+燃油锅炉等3种常用的冷热源方案进行了可持续发展能力的比较评价.结果表明,与风冷冷水机组+燃油锅炉系统和空气源热泵系统等2种系统相比,土壤源热泵系统的能值产出率并没有优势,经济竞争力较差,但它给环境的压力最小,其能值可持续指数较高,可维持较长时间内的可持续发展.%Quantitative analysis is required to be conducted on the sustainable development capacity of air conditioning system of ground-source heat pump from economic,social and environmental benefits.This paper takes HVAC engineering in a certain office building of Wuhan for example and compares as well as evaluates the sustainable development capacity of the 2 commonly used cold and heat source schemes of ground-source heat pump and air source heat pump,air-cooled chiller unit + oil burning boiler,etc.The results show that the emergy output capacity of ground-source heat pump system lacks superiority and is poor in economic competitiveness compared with the 2 systems of air-cooled chiller unit + oil burning boiler system and air source heat pump system,but it exerts minimum pressure on the environment,with relatively high sustainable index of emergy,and is capable of maintaining sustainable development for a relatively long time.

  8. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  9. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ∼53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ∼35% during early morning to ∼65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent. (letter)

  10. The Hygiene Evaluation of Central Air Conditioning Ventilation Systems of Hospital and Hotel in Shenzhen City%深圳市罗湖区医院、宾馆集中式空调系统卫生学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴浩生; 林奕嘉; 余伟欣; 曹惠珍; 方丽芳; 陈延妮

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市罗湖区医院及宾馆集中空调通风系统的卫生状况,探索有效的卫生管理对策.方法 于2009~2010年随机抽取深圳市罗湖区6家宾馆及2家医院集中空调通风系统的卫生管理状况进行调查,检测新风量、冷却水军团菌、送风中可吸入颗粒物(PM10)、采集风管内表面积尘和空调送风进行微生物检测.结果 6家宾馆送风中PM10、细菌总数、真菌总数和β -溶血性链球菌的合格率分别为81.2%、82.9%、51.4%、100.0%;2家医院送风中PM10、细菌总数、真菌总数和β -溶血性链球菌的合格率分别为46.8%、33.3%、53.3%、100.0%.医院和宾馆在PM10(χ2=19.4 P=0.000 1)和真菌总数(P=0.001 9)上合格率不同,差异有统计学意义.6家宾馆冷却水军团菌的检出率为20.0%,冷凝水嗜肺军团菌的检出率为0;2家医院冷却水、冷凝水军团菌的检出率为0.结论 深圳市罗湖区医院及宾馆集中空调通风系统存在一定程度的污染,并且医院的污染比宾馆更严重.因此,应该加强空调系统的运行管理,提高空调环境卫生状况,促进人群健康.%Objectives The study was aimed to detect the sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation systems of hospital and hotel in Luohu district in Shenzhen, and to explore some effective supervision measures for central air conditioning ventilation systems. Methods In this randomized study, 6 hotels and 2 hospitals in Shenzhen were selected to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi in internal surface of pipe and blowing air, the air change flow, legionella in cooling tower water, inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in air blow and the dust volume of internal surfaces of pipes. Results The 6 hotels' qualified rate of the total count of PM10 , bacteria, fungi and β-hemolytic streptococcus were respectively 81. 2% , 82. 9 % , 51. 4 % , 100. 0% in air blow; the 2 hospitals' qualified rate of the total count of PM10

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  12. 基于MSP430的远程空调控制系统控制终端的设计%Design of Control Terminal for Air-Condition Remote Control System Based on MSP430

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉小亲; 陈建涛; 张晓力; 王嵩

    2013-01-01

    基于Internet网络、ZigBee无线网络和MSP430单片机技术设计空调远程控制终端,实现空调的远程控制,以满足人们舒适度的要求.首先分析了通用的红外指令格式,实现对不同红外编码指令的通用表示,并以此为基础,通过建立服务器指令与终端Flash中红外指令对应关系和更新终端Flash中红外指令的方法,实现网络服务器对远程多种空调的控制.系统控制方便、实用性强,控制终端功耗较低,具有良好的应用前景.%In order to meet people's comfort requirement, a remote control terminal of air-condition is designed to realize the remote control of air-condition, which is based on Internet network, ZigBee wireless network and MSP430 microcontroller technology. First, the formats of general infrared instructions are analyzed to achieve the general description of different infrared coding. And on this basis, the control of Web server for multiple remote air-condition is realized through the establishment of corresponding relationship between infrared instructions of terminal Flash and server instructions, as well as the method of updating the infrared instructions of the terminal Flash. The system is convenient to be controlled, and has good practicability, low power consumption of its control terminal, and a good application.

  13. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  14. Study on Air-conditioning System of Load Independent Controlling%负荷独立控制空调系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白明强; 刘秋新; 陶小龙

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of classifying the cooling loads of buildings, different methods of blowing-in are controlled according to the different loads. On one hand, displacement ventilation is used to supply the work area air; on the other hand, blow-suction-type ventilation is adopted to eliminate the load of exterior protected constructions. A model is built and a simulation is made by the software of CFD to research and analyze the temperature, velocity fields and air age, and evaluate the work environment as well.%将建筑的冷负荷进行分类,针对不同的负荷采用不同的送风方式进行控制,一方面利用置换通风向工作区域进行送风,另一方面采用下送上回式吹吸式通风消除围护结构负荷。采用CFD模拟软件建立模型并进行了模拟,对其温度场,速度场进行了分析,对工作环境进行了评价。

  15. Support of the launching of motor car air conditioning systems with the coolant CO{sub 2} (R744). Test bench measurements and practical trials; Unterstuetzung der Markteinfuehrung von Pkw-Klimaanlagen mit dem Kaeltemittel CO{sub 2} (R744). Pruefstandsmessungen und Praxistest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, Nicholas; Mildenberger, Julia [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany); Graz, Martin [Obrist Engineering GmbH, Lustenau (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    In the research project two passenger car air-conditioning systems were analyzed with regard to cooling capacity and efficiency. The results were compared with one another. The first system was a standard air-conditioning unit using R134a as a refrigerant. As a second system a CO{sub 2} (R744) prototype HVAC unit was used. Both units were investigated on one hand installed in a car on a dynamometer by Obrist Engineering GmbH and on the other hand installed in a calorimetric test rig by Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Thermodynamik. While the tests in the calorimetric test rig showed comparable efficiencies and cooling capacities for both setups, consumption advantages were determined for the R744- air-conditioning unit installed in the vehicle by the company Obrist. With CO{sub 2} (R744) as a refrigerant for mobile air-conditioning systems an environmental friendly solution is available. (orig.)

  16. 中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌鉴定及温热控制%Identification and thermal control on fungi from the filter of central air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付柏淋; 吕阳

    2014-01-01

    To explore the propagative and diffused mechanism of fungi in central air conditioning system and control air microorganism contamination problem, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were researched in different thermal environments by thermal control. Fungi separated from the filter surface of the central air conditioning system in a gym were chosen as the research objects. By isolation, physiology and biochemistry experiments, and molecular biological identification, dominant fungi on the filter of central air conditioning system were confirmed. In order to conduct thermal control experiment of separated dominant fungi, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were observed at temperature of 25℃ and 22~28℃, respectively. As a result, it was shown that the dominant fungi were Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., colonies were 600 and 140 cfu/cm2 respectively. It was indicated that regardless of constant or variable temperature conditions, the reproduction rate of Penicillium spp. was faster than Cladosporium spp., with a liner correlation between colony diameter and time. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp were obviously restrained by temperature change control. Thermal control was feasible for restraining fungal growth in air conditioning system.%为研究中央空调系统真菌繁殖扩散机理及控制空气微生物污染问题,通过温热控制手段,探究不同温热环境下真菌菌落、菌丝生长繁殖规律.以某体育馆中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌为研究对象,通过分离、生理生化实验和分子生物学鉴定确认空调系统过滤器表面的优势菌属种类及数量.对分离鉴定的优势菌属做温热控制实验,分别在25℃恒温及22℃~28℃变温条件下观察菌落和菌丝的生长规律.结果显示,该空调系统过滤器表面真菌优势菌属为青霉属(Penicillium spp.)和枝孢属(Cladosporium spp.),菌落形成单位分别为600,140cfu/cm2.温热控制研究表明,无论25

  17. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  18. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  19. Radon removal system for indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of radon gas using dynamic adsorption onto charcoal has received attention previously, but the method has not been used in houses because of practical considerations: (1) If the radon were retained long enough to decay away, excessive quantities of charcoal would be required. In addition, the gamma radiation from the decay products of radon would require shielding. (2) If the charcoal were regenerated using current technology, heated air would be required to strip off the radon. This regeneration method would be costly due to the energy requirements; the use of heated indoor air for regeneration followed by exhausting this air to the outdoors, would also depressurize the basement, tending to increase the influx of radon gas. In the work described here, the radon gas in a house's basement airspace is adsorbed onto charcoal; the removal efficiency is independent of the radon concentration at levels found indoors. The charcoal is regenerated by stripping off the radon with unheated outdoor air. If two adsorbent beds are used, one adsorbs radon while the other regenerates. Thus, the device can operate continuously, approaching a pseudo steady-state. A laboratory-scale prototype of this adsorption/stripping system was tested in the laboratory using various charcoals and operating conditions, including extremes of seasonal temperatures and relative humidities. Neither temperature nor relative humidity had a detrimental effect on removal efficiency. Once-through removal efficiencies were as high as 98% after multiple adsorption and stripping cycles. The efficacy of a full-scale system was evaluated in a high-radon house. The radon concentration was reduced by as much as 90%; further field tests will be done soon

  20. Simulation based energy consumption calculation of an office building using solar-assisted air conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-conditioning system operation, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean energy source. The targets of the study are to evaluate cooling energy consumption to maintain thermal comfort in an office building and to point out solar energy to satisfy these cooling needs. Simulations were carried out with three different cooling systems in the same operating conditions to determine as accurately as possible the pot...

  1. Solar air conditioning: introduction and basics; Solare Klimatisierung Einfuehrung und Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, J. [Inst. fuer Erhaltung und Modernisierung von Bauwerken e.V. an der Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A considerable increase of the cold energy demand is expected world-wide in the coming years. Electrically operated cold compression plants are currently used at the most in order to meet the cold energy demand resulting also in a rising electric current and primary energy demand. This can have an effect on the supply security as well as on the change of the world climate. Therefore more alternative methods of cold generation are supposed to be applied in the future. The following contribution describes that plant systems for solar air conditioning (SAC-systems) are an attractive and feasible technology that demands engineering but can also be further developed and can make an important contribution to the target mentioned above. First an overview is provided of conventional air conditioning technology and of the expected development tendencies with regard to cold demand. Afterwards the currently available solar air conditioning methods and their possible applications are explained. (orig.)

  2. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  3. Air conditioning total system for a coffee house. Groundwater as a supplier for heat and coldness; Klimatechnisches Gesamtsystem fuer ein Cafe. Grundwasser als Waerme- und Kaelte-Lieferant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Gerald [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Stutensee (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The new building of a coffee-house of the land baker's shop Ihle on the outskirts of Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was not only a new way of the baker's shop in the catering trade, but also in the conception of the building and its technical equipment. The linkage of heating, climate, ventilation and commercial refrigeration systems to a highly efficient total system succeeded in outstanding way.

  4. Implementation of PFC (Predictive Functional Control) in a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) for a HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, M.; Richalet, J.; Mocha, K.; Haber, R.

    2014-12-01

    HVAC systems of industrial buildings consume a lot of energy. Therefore it is important to know the performance of these systems and strategies to optimize the hardware and the control. Tackling the temperature control of the HVAC system promises quick savings by tuning the control within specified tolerance limits, which mostly can be done by low investment. This paper mainly deals with the implementation strategy of a new controller in a PLC using the predictive functional control for temperature control. The different stages of the implementation from the simulation over the SCL code till to the real-time operation are presented. A bumpless switch between the PI(D) and the PFC control was realized, as well.

  5. Implementation of PFC (Predictive Functional Control) in a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) for a HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HVAC systems of industrial buildings consume a lot of energy. Therefore it is important to know the performance of these systems and strategies to optimize the hardware and the control. Tackling the temperature control of the HVAC system promises quick savings by tuning the control within specified tolerance limits, which mostly can be done by low investment. This paper mainly deals with the implementation strategy of a new controller in a PLC using the predictive functional control for temperature control. The different stages of the implementation from the simulation over the SCL code till to the real-time operation are presented. A bumpless switch between the PI(D) and the PFC control was realized, as well

  6. AIR COOLING IN AUTOMOBILES USING VORTEX TUBE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.SREENIVASA KUMAR REDDY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Refrigeration plays an important role in developing countries, primarily for the preservation of food, medicine, and for air conditioning. Conventional refrigeration systems are using Freon as refrigerant. As they are the main cause for depletion of ozone layer, extensive research work is going on alternate refrigeration systems. Vortex tube is a non conventional cooling device, having no moving parts which will produce cold air and hot air from the source of compressed air without affecting the environment. When a high pressure air is tangentially injected into vortex chamber a strong vortex flow will be created which will be split into two air streams, one hot stream and the other is cold stream at its ends.

  7. The natural gas air-conditioning; La climatisation au gaz naturel. Un avenir prometteur, une technique confirmee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas air-conditioning market is in growth (it will cover 10% of the market in 2002).To illustrate the possibilities of this energy source, this paper presents three examples of the natural gas air-conditioning in France. The technical aspects, the cost and the advantages of such systems are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  9. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  10. Experimental analysis and regression prediction of desiccant wheel behavior in high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel air-conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Sun, Yuexia;

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of desiccant wheel (DW) in the running system and obtain the useful data for practical application. The combined influences of multiple variables on the performance of desiccant wheel are investigated based on evaluating the indexes of ...

  11. 运用光伏再生的吸收式制冷空调系统%Photovoltaic driven absorption-type air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀伟; 张小松; 王芳

    2014-01-01

    该系统将再生器设计为电渗析器来获取浓吸收剂溶液,利用太阳能光伏发生器为再生过程提供电能。对该系统进行了介绍,建立了各部分的模型,分析了其性能,并对再生效果进行了实验验证。结果显示,该系统的性能系数受溶液吸收剂浓度的影响,最高可以达到6以上;在3种常见的吸收剂溶液中,LiBr 溶液可以取得较好的性能。%In this system,the regenerator is designed with electrodialyser to obtain concentrated absorbent solution,and the electric energy gained from the solar photovoltaic generator is utilized to drive the regenerative process.Presents this system, establishes the models for each part, analyses the performance of this system,and verifies the regeneration effect by experiment.The results show that the coefficient of performance for the system is influenced by the concentration of the absorbent and can be higher than 6 under certain circumstances.It also shows that LiBr solution is the most favorable among three common used absorbents.

  12. Particulate composition characteristics under different ambient air quality conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Lisa Tzu-Chi; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2011-07-01

    Particulate compositions including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble ionic species, and elemental compositions were investigated during the period from 2004 to 2006 in southern Taiwan. The correlation between the pollutant standard index (PSI) of ambient air quality and the various particle compositions was also addressed in this study. PSI revealed a correlation with fine (r = 0.74) and coarse (r = 0.80) particulate matter (PM). PSI manifested a significant correlation with the amount of analyzed ionic species (r approximately 0.80) in coarse and fine particles and a moderate correlation with carbon content (r = 0.63) in fine particles; however, it showed no correlation with elemental content. Although the ambient air quality ranged from good to moderate, the ionic species including chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4(2-)), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) increased significantly (1.5-3.7 times for Daliao and 1.8-6.9 times for Tzouying) in coarse PM. For fine particles, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and potassium (K+) also increased significantly (1.3-2.4 times for Daliao and 2.8-9.6 times for Tzouying) when the air quality went from good to moderate. For meteorological parameters, temperature evidenced a slightly negative correlation with PM concentration and PSI value, which implied a high PM concentration in the low-temperature condition. This reflects the high frequency of PM episodes in winter and spring in southern Taiwan. In addition, the mixing height increase from 980 to 1450 m corresponds to the air quality condition changing from unhealthy to good. PMID:21850835

  13. Air quality in quarters and system of personal security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article climatic systems are considered as systems of personal security. Roles of State, building proprietors, inhabitants in the formation of climate favorable for health are analysed. Regulated heat and air conditioning systems are considered particularly, because they can give personal security in temperature.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air-conditioning....... Binary Ice as secondary refrigerant for air-conditioning purposes is an economical and technically feasible solution in any climate. Whatever chilled water can do in an air-conditioning installation ? Binary Ice can do it better....

  15. Greenhouse effect: an issue for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector; Effet de serre: quelle problematique pour le froid et le conditionnement de l`air?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billiard, F. [Institut International du Froid, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The principles of greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gas main direct and indirect emission sources due to refrigeration and air conditioning systems are first reviewed. Evolution scenarios from 1992 to 2020 and 2100 for the emissions of CFC, HCFC and HFC are presented and related to the Kyoto protocol project limitations; technical improvements in refrigerating and air conditioning systems (lower refrigerant utilization, fluid confinement, alternative technologies, natural refrigerant utilization, etc.) could lead to substantial diminutions of these greenhouse gases

  16. Project of air conditioning system by absorption of water-lithium bromide using solar energy and simulation of its operation under several conditions; Projeto de sistema para condicionamento de ar por absorcao de agua-brometo de litio utilizando energia solar e simulacao de sua operacao sob condicoes diversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbravati, Alan; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: alan@fem.unicamp.br; jrfigue@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This article presents computational models for water - lithium bromide absorption air conditioning systems, verifying the use of solar energy as source of heat for the cycle. Four different models were elaborated for the cycle, changing the configurations and hypotheses. In each model two algorithms were elaborated: the first one accomplished the calculations of the heat and mass flows and a estimative of the areas heat transfer, a project of a system, and another which, based on the answers of the first, simulate the behavior of this system when the conditions of initial project are changed, keeping constant the constructive parameters. As in the project a numeric procedure has been used for solution of non lineal systems based on the algorithm of Newton-Raphson. The main alteration among the models went to substitution of the expansion device and evaporator, and, in the fourth model, was increased a procedure for calculation of the solar collector performance. (author)

  17. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  18. Risk assessment for radon in an air-conditioned workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has proposed a conversion of 5mSv/WLM for risk assessment from workplace exposure to radon progeny. Currently the new ICRP Respiratory Tract Model leads to dose conversion factors (DCF) that are higher by at least a factor of 2.5 and the ICRP Model has not been recommended for assessment of risk for inhalation of radon progeny. However the model can he used to investigate the dependency of the DCF values on the atmospheric conditions. This paper describes measurements made using wire screen diffusion batteries of the radon progeny activity size distributions in the air-conditioned basement of a scientific laboratory. The results show that during work hours with the air-conditioning operating the average radon equilibrium factor was 0.11 while the average unattached fraction was ∼28%. The average radon progeny-based DCF values were found to be more than a factor of two greater than the conversion convention. Also it was found that a DCF value derived in terms of radon exposure (Bq m-3 h) had a range of a factor of 6 over the two week period of the measurements, suggesting that radon levels are not an adequate indicator of inhalation risk in these circumstances. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Design guides for solar assisted air conditioning; Auslegungshinweise fuer die Solargestuetzte Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzke, U.; Seifert, C. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The design of solar assisted air conditioning systems required a detailed consideration of the whole system, which consist of the building, the use, the air handling unit and the solar energy production. The decision about the application of solar energy is necessary in an earlier phase of the design process of the building. But at this moment, the necessary information are not available. With help of the simulation tool SOLAC it's possible to define an optimised system on a low level of information input. (orig.)

  20. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  1. Numerical Simulation Research on Thermal Comfort of CRCP and Desktop Task Air-conditioning System%顶棚辐射桌面送风舒适性数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹双华; 王乐恒; 李敏思; 楼志亮

    2013-01-01

    以人体周围的环境温度、风速和PMV值为指标,对顶棚辐射条件下的桌面送风热舒适性进行了数值模拟研究.以某一会议室为例,通过模拟确定了满足人体舒适性的桌面送风温度与速度参数.结果表明,顶棚辐射桌面送风时,在合理的送风参数下均能满足人体舒适性要求.%Taking the temperature, velocity and PMV of human environment as standard, human thermal comfort was researched for desktop task air-conditioning system combined with Ceiling Radiant Cooling Plate (CRCP). The reasonable parameters got, which could satisfy human thermal comfort at the conference room through numerical simulation. The results showed that the reasonable combination of the supply air temperature and velocity could satisfy human comfort requirements.

  2. 热不均衡对土壤源热泵空调系统运行能耗的影响%The Effect of Heat Unbalance on Enery Consumption of Air Conditioning System Using Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺玲丽; 白叶飞; 杨树峰

    2012-01-01

    The ground source heat pump is a kind of device which helps realize interior heat exchange between a building on the ground and the underground soil, making use of a buried pipe system around the building to get heat from the underground soil, characterized by relatively stable temperature. In this paper, studies of the application of ground source heat pump air conditioning system in the north cold area of China are made, with the system constructed for the office building of Development and Reform Commission of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region used as a demonstration project. Water temperature of ground source and the thermal efficiency of a single pump are measured consecutively in two heating seasons and two cooling seasons of 2009 and 2010, and the energy consumption of the system is studied. Results show that, in case the heating load of an air conditioning system is much larger than its cooling load, heat absorbed from the soil in winter cannot be full-y compensated in summer. Thus, the soil temperature will surely tend to decline year after year and the heating efficiency in winter of the system will surely be reduced after being used for a number of years.%土壤源热泵是利用地下常温土壤温度相对稳定的特性,通过深埋于建筑物周围的地埋管等系统与建筑物内部完成热交换的装置.以内蒙古自治区发展和改革委员会综合办公楼示范项目为基础,研究了土壤源热泵空调系统在北方严寒地区的应用情况.通过连续测试2009、2010年两个供暖季、两个制冷季地源侧的水温以及单台热泵机组的性能,对系统的能耗进行研究.研究表明,对于热负荷远大于冷负荷的空调系统,冬季从土壤中吸收的热在夏季并不能完全补充回来,而且造成了土壤侧温度逐年下降的趋势,使得土壤源热泵系统在运行一段时间后冬季制热效率下降.

  3. Optical air data systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  4. Field evaluation of cold air distribution systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, C.E.; Elleson, J.S.

    1987-10-01

    Field performance monitoring was performed at three buildings which use low temperature (42/sup 0/F to 48/sup 0/F) air distribution in conjunction with ice storage. Temperatures, humidities, and airflows were monitored using a datalogger, and space conditions were measured. The performance of the systems is analyzed and evaluated based on the data collected. It was found that the various operational problems encountered were generally not related to the use of cold air distribution, and that this technology can be successfully used to cool buildings. Recommendations are made for design refinements for future cold air distribution systems, further research in cold air distribution, and continued field evaluation of cold air distribution systems.

  5. Thermal comfort zone study based on equivalent temperature under task air conditioning system%基于等效温度的工位空调环境下热舒适区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雨婷; 端木琳; 金权

    2016-01-01

    针对工位送风空调形式营造的非均匀热环境,利用等效温度指标对人体的局部和整体热感觉进行了评价。在准办公室环境对受试者进行了人体热反应实验,得到了不同刺激工况下人体各部位的热感觉和等效温度值,对比分析后发现:刺激部位等效温度值与非刺激部位等效温度值出现明显的分离现象;刺激温度和风速是影响刺激部位等效温度值的重要因素。由热感觉投票值与等效温度值的散点图发现,二者有很好的线性关系,通过拟合得到了适用于工位送风非均匀环境的等效温度舒适区范围。%Evaluates the local and overall thermal sensation using equivalent temperature index in the non-uniform thermal environment of task air conditioning system.Conducts the human thermal test in a mockup office, and obtains the data of local sensation and equivalent temperatures under different stimulating conditions.The results show that there is an obvious separation phenomenon between the equivalent temperature of stimulating site and that of non stimulating sites.The air temperature and velocity are the important factors to affect the equivalent temperature of the stimulating site.From the scatter plot, finds a good linear relationship between human thermal sensation vote and equivalent temperature.Obtains the equivalent temperature comfort zone for the non-uniform thermal environment with task air conditioning through the fitting method.

  6. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 1411.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (3) have a thorough knowledge of the principle components of refrigeration systems,…

  7. Non-Print Instructional Materials for the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Maintenance Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golitko, Raymond L., Ed.; And Others

    This catalog contains a listing of air conditioning/refrigeration maintenance audiovisual training materials from the Houston Community College System library media collection. The material is organized by subject heading. The media titles are listed in alphabetical order by title under each subject heading in the catalog. The citation for each…

  8. The CMS Condition Database system

    CERN Document Server

    Govi, Giacomo Maria; Ojeda-Sandonis, Miguel; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Sipos, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Condition Database plays a key role in the CMS computing infrastructure. The complexity of the detector and the variety of the sub-systems involved are setting tight requirements for handling the Conditions. In the last two years the collaboration has put an effort in the re-design of the Condition Database system, with the aim to improve the scalability and the operability for the data taking starting in 2015. The re-design has focused in simplifying the architecture, using the lessons learned during the operation of the previous data-taking period. In the new system the relational features of the database schema are mainly exploited to handle the metadata ( Tag and Interval of Validity ), allowing for a limited and controlled set of queries. The bulk condition data ( Payloads ) are stored as unstructured binary data, allowing the storage in a single table with a common layout for all of the condition data types. In this presentation, we describe the full architecture of the system, including the serv...

  9. The CMS Condition Database System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guida, S.; Govi, G.; Ojeda, M.; Pfeiffer, A.; Sipos, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Condition Database plays a key role in the CMS computing infrastructure. The complexity of the detector and the variety of the sub-systems involved are setting tight requirements for handling the Conditions. In the last two years the collaboration has put a substantial effort in the re-design of the Condition Database system, with the aim at improving the scalability and the operability for the data taking starting in 2015. The re-design has focused on simplifying the architecture, using the lessons learned during the operation of the Run I data-taking period (20092013). In the new system the relational features of the database schema are mainly exploited to handle the metadata (Tag and Interval of Validity), allowing for a limited and controlled set of queries. The bulk condition data (Payloads) are stored as unstructured binary data, allowing the storage in a single table with a common layout for all of the condition data types. In this paper, we describe the full architecture of the system, including the services implemented for uploading payloads and the tools for browsing the database. Furthermore, the implementation choices for the core software will be discussed.

  10. Prediction of thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  11. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  12. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  13. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  14. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  15. 被动式太阳房辅助启动热水热泵式空调系统的设计%Design of Passive Solar House starting Aid Hot Water Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 袁观樑; 邹华生; 陆增杰; 朱悦

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of cold season heat pump air conditioning is not easy to start , this paper through the effective using solar energy and combined heat pump type air conditioning unit , designed independent household hot water heat pump air -conditioning system , effective utilization of solar energy had been achieved through a simple passive solar channel .So that the function of the whole system was diverse , winter used sun room to preheat air and solve the case after a lower temperature single -stage heat pump difficult to start or poor starting per-formance issues.These could improve the efficiency of the heat pump .In summer, the sun room could dry material or play an effective use of solar energy to provide hot water for the purpose .In the transition season could also use the solar channel to channels to solve the problem of indoors resurgence .Device can achieve a variety of functions , have a variety of operating modes .And match computing device and system equipment was an example for the calculation of Shijiazhuang.Its can provide a reference for single -family homes or small buildings for similar architectural de-sign.%为了解决寒冷季节热泵式空调不易启动的问题,本文通过有效利用太阳能并结合热泵式空调装置,设计了独立户式热水热泵式空调系统,太阳能的有效利用通过一个简易的被动式太阳能通道来实现。从而使整个系统的功能多样化,冬天利用太阳房预热空气,解决气温较低的情况下单级热泵难以启动或启动后性能较差的问题,有效提高热泵的效率。夏天则利用太阳房干燥物料或提供热水起到有效利用太阳能的目的,在过渡季节还可以利用太阳通道的热量解决室内回潮问题。装置可以实现多种功能,可以有多种运行模式。并以石家庄地区为计算实例进行装置及系统设备的匹配计算,能为小栋独立住宅或同类建筑的设计提供参考。

  16. Human Exposure Assessment in Air Pollution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Zhang; Lioy, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The air pollution problem can be depicted as a system consisting of several basic components: source, concentration, exposure, dose, and adverse effects. Exposure, the contact between an agent (e.g., an air pollutant) and a target (e.g., a human respiratory tract), is the key to linking the pollution source and health effects. Human exposure to air pollutants depends on exposure concentration and exposure duration. Exposure concentration is the concentration of a pollutant at a contact bounda...

  17. 关于住宅用空气源热泵空调、供暖与热水设计要素的思考%Discussion on the Design Elements of Air Source Heat Pump Air-conditioning, Heating and Hot Water System for Residential Uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如竹; 张川; 翟晓强

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses some key design elements about air source heat pump (ASHP) air-conditioning, heating and domestic hot water system for residential uses. The design of ASHP air-conditioning system should focus more on energy-saving, also emphasize air distribution and humidity control to ensure good indoor comfort for a whole year;ASHP domestic water heater should be designed in good consideration on the adaptability of the control strategy under the local climate condition, and the design for a condensing heat recovery ASHP should consider wisely the total energy consumption for air-conditioning and hot water functions. Besides, the feasibility of using ASHP for efficient room heating and air-conditioning by using small temperature difference terminals in hot summer and cold winter areas was analyzed, thereby a multi-function ASHP energy center was discussed. It is indicated that, the heating and air-conditioning problems in most areas of China can be solved by updating the related standards, optimizing the key parameters of the system and developing heat pumping technology with climate adaptability, and the HVAC&R industries can be innovated and updated.%本文对目前家用空气源热泵空调、供暖与热水系统设计过程中的问题进行了探讨:指出家用空气源热泵空调系统的设计应该更加注重节能性,强调气流组织和湿度控制的重要性,满足人们全年生活的热舒适性要求;提出了针对气候特征的空气源热泵热水器控制策略以及合理评价冷凝热回收空调系统;分析了通过采用小温差末端实现空气源热泵高效舒适供暖来解决夏热冬冷地区冬季供暖的可行性,进而提出了空气源热泵冷热水系统一机多能的系统方案。在此基础上提出通过出台相关标准规范、优化系统的关键参数、研发气候适应性热泵技术,可以有效解决我国大多数地区的供暖和空调问题,促进产业革新与升级。

  18. Substitution of the old console with a fully computerized one. Major maintenance and enhancements of the ventilation and air conditioning system of the reactor building. Research activities at the TRIGA L.E.N.A. plant in Pavia, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia was operated in the last two years on a routine basis accomplishing different purposes: - Development of B.N.C.T. for diffused tumours of liver; - Neutron activation analysis in matrix of geochemistry, archaeology and environment interest; - Electron spin resonance (ESR) study of radical processes; - Study of trace elements impact in environmental matrix and human health; - High purity control on electronic samples-microchips; - Fast neutron radiation damage investigation; - Certification of standard reference materials and data quality assurance by neutron activation analysis; - Age evaluation by Ar-K method in geological matrix; - Trace elements determination for provenience studies in archaeology; - Basic experiments on fission of Am-242 layers for the space nuclear engine project; - In field search of explosive using prompt gamma emission induced by neutron capture on nitrates. In the period of time between July 1998 and June 2000 the reactor was operated at full power (i.e. 250 kW) for a total amount of 1375 hours. The total fuel element burn-up was 15.07 MWD. During this period of time two major upgrading activities were planned: the installation of a new Instrumentation and Control System (ICS) for the reactor and the installation of a new Air Conditioning and Filtering System (ACFS) for the reactor building. The new ICS is a microprocessor-based design, incorporating the use of one logarithmic wide range neutron flux monitoring channel (NLW-1000), two current mode neutron monitoring safety channels (NP-1000 and NPP-1000) and a linear multi-range neutron flux monitoring channel (Keithley 485). The ICS configuration was personalized by General Atomic according to the requirements and to the technical prescriptions of the Pavia reactor, especially for what concerns the SCRAM inputs and the detectors architecture. Besides, since one the two safety channels, the NPP-1000, has been developed as an advanced

  19. Geothermal as a heat sink application for raising air conditioning efficency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hesham Safwat Osman Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Objective: Geothermal applications in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning is a US technology for more than 30 years old ,which saves more than 30% average energy cost than the traditional air-conditioning systems systems. Applying this technology in Middle East and African countries would be very feasible specially in Egypt specially as it suffers Electric crisis --The temperature of the condensers and the heat rejecting equipment is much higher than the Egyptian land at different depth which is a great advantages, and must be measured, recorded, and studied accurately -The Far goal of the proposal is to construct from soil analysis a temperature gradient map for Egypt and , African countries on different depth till 100 m which is still unclear nowadays and must be measured and recorded in databases through researches - The main model of the research is to study the heat transfer gradient through the ground earth borehole,grout,high density polyethylene pipes , and water inlet temperature which affect the electric efficiency of the ground source heat pump air conditioning unit Impact on the Region: Such research result will contribute widely in Energy saving sector specially the air conditioning sector in Egypt and the African countries which consumes more than 30% of the electric consumption of the total consumption . and encouraging Green systems such Geothermal to be applied

  20. Identification of Hemolytic Streptococcal Isolates from Central Air Conditioning Systems in Public Places in Fujian%公共场所集中空调通风系统溶血性链球菌分离株的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毓环; 叶玲清; 林坚; 林玉珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination and distribution status of hemolytic Streptococcus in the central air conditioning systems in public places. Methods Four investigations were carried out in 2008-2010,according to 'Hygienic Criterion for Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Public Places', identification of the hemolytic Streptococcus isolates was finished by VITEK auto microbiology system. Results Twenty-four isolates of hemolytic Streptococcus were identified, including 17 β-hemolytic Streptococcus ,there were 11 of Streptococcus agalactiae, four of Streptococcus dysgalactiae,one of Streptococcus equi,one of Streptococcus pyogenes;sevena-hemolytic Streptococcus,there were four of Streptococcus mitist, one of Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of Streptococcus uberis, one of Streptococcus oralis. Conclusion The central air conditioning systems were contaminated with hemolytic Streptococcus, cleaning and disinfection of the systems will reduce the pollution.%目的 了解集中空调通风系统送风中溶血性链球菌的污染和菌种的分布特征.方法于2008-2010年夏季期间4次对福建省属直管的9家大型宾馆集中空调采集的送风口空气样品进行溶血性链球菌检测,依据卫生部的采样和检测方法,确定为溶血性链球菌的菌株,经纯培养后进一步采用VITEK全自动微生物鉴定仪鉴定.结果共分离到溶血性链球菌24株,β溶血性链球菌17株,包括4个种(无乳链球菌、停乳链球菌、马链球菌、酿脓链球菌);α溶血性链球菌7株,也包括4个种(肺炎链球菌、缓症链球菌、口腔链球菌、乳房链球菌).菌株数从2008年8月首次监测时的15株降至2009年的5株、2010年的4株.结论福建省属直管的9家大型宾馆集中空调通风系统存在不同程度的溶血性链球菌污染,且经分离鉴定的菌株均是比较典型的致病代表株,经加强对公共场所集中空调的定期清洗和消毒等监管后,其污染程度有下降的趋势.

  1. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  2. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  3. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd

    2016-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  4. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  5. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  6. Optimizing the Air Dissolution Parameters in an Unpacked Dissolved Air Flotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dassey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the various parameters that influence air solubility and microbubble production in dissolved air flotation (DAF, a multitude of values that cover a large range for these parameters are suggested for field systems. An unpacked saturator and an air quantification unit were designed to specify the effects of power, pressure, temperature, hydraulic retention time, and air flow on the DAF performance. It was determined that a pressure of 621 kPa, hydraulic retention time of 18.2 min, and air flow of 8.5 L/h would be the best controlled parameters for maximum efficiency in this unit. A temperature of 7 °C showed the greatest microbubble production, but temperature control would not be expected in actual application. The maximum microbubble flow from the designed system produced 30 mL of air (±1.5 per L of water under these conditions with immediate startup. The maximum theoretical dissolved air volume of 107 mL (±6 was achieved at a retention time of 2 h and a pressure of 621 kPa. To isolate and have better control over the various DAF operational parameters, the DAF unit was operated without the unsaturated flow stream. This mode of operation led to the formation of large bubbles at peak bubble production rates. In a real-world application, the large bubble formation will be avoided by mixing with raw unsaturated stream and by altering the location of dissolved air output flow.

  7. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... using maximum bleed air must be established. (c) Hazardous contamination of cabin air systems may not... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  9. New Chinese real estate project Beitang TBD compound Seafood Place Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System Design%北塘TBD项目新中式地产大院海鲜坊地源热泵空调系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明龙

    2012-01-01

    Ground source heat pump system as efficient use of renewable resources,energy saving,environmental protection,a new air conditioning system,this paper introduces a new real estate compound Seafood Place Chinese ground source heat pump central air conditioning system design.%地源热泵系统作为利用可再生资源的高效,节能,环保的一种新型空调系统,本文介绍某新中式地产大院海鲜坊地源热泵中央空调系统设计。

  10. Water-Source Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System Characteristic for Central Control Room in a Fossil Fuel Power Plants%火力发电厂集中控制室水源热泵空调系统设计特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明国; 卢柏春

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the water source heat pump air-conditioning system for central control room and electronic equipment room in Puqi Phase II Power Plant project and analyzes the design characteristic of the system. The Water source heat pump air-conditioning system has a broad application value.%介绍了蒲圻电厂二期工程的集控室及电子设备间的水源热泵空调系统,分析了该系统的设计特点,具有推广应用的价值。

  11. Research on performance of mixed absorption refrigeration for solar air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel lithium bromide/water mixed absorption refrigeration cycle that is suitable for the utilization of solar air-conditioning and can overcome the drawbacks of low system overall efficiency of traditional solar absorption refrigeration air-condition systems is presented.The accessorial high pressure generator was added in the cycle.The lithium bromide solution flowing out from the high pressure generator was mixed with the solution from the low pressure absorber to increase lithium bromide solution concentration and decrease pressure in the high pressure absorber.The performance of a mixed absorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed.The theoretical analysis shows that the highest COP is 0.61,while the highest available temperature difference of heat resource is 33.2℃.The whole coefficient of performance of the solar air-conditioning using mixed absorption cycle is 94.5% higher than that of two-stage absorption.The advantages of solar air-conditioning can be markedly made use of by the cycle.

  12. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that...

  13. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  14. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01... be expected to influence emissions include, but are not limited to: air conditioning, power steering...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a...

  16. 77 FR 33315 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Alternative for the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY...) within the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector. This final rule only concerns the use of CO 2 in... their suppliers with a refrigerant option subject to use conditions for motor vehicle air...

  17. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  18. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used to determine a refrigerant leakage rate in grams per year from vehicle-based air conditioning units....

  19. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning idle test procedure... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.165-12 Air conditioning idle test procedure. (a) Applicability. This section describes procedures for determining air conditioning-related CO2 emissions...

  20. 76 FR 17487 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives... Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New... expanding the list of acceptable substitutes for use in the motor vehicle air conditioning end-use as...