WorldWideScience

Sample records for air conditioners

  1. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  2. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  3. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  4. Pulmonary function tests in air conditioner users

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya G; Kumar B.A; Kalpana M; Chand K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modernization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. House dust, mites, and indoor air pollutants have been reported to cause elevation of serum IgE levels and/or enhancement of eosinophil activity. A component of modern lifestyle is the intense use of air-conditioners (AC) that has increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Aim: To assess the effect of air conditioners on pulmonary function tests in healthy non-smokers. Methods: The study included 1...

  5. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  6. On noise indices for domestic air conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S. K.; Wong, M. Y.

    2004-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the present study to determine the noise indices which are capable of describing the nuisance caused by exposure to air-conditioner noise inside residential apartments. This survey consisted of a questionnaire, which asked the respondents to rate their feelings of annoyance and loudness on the air-conditioner noise and to give their preference of a change in the noise levels. Physical noise measurements were also carried out. A total of 57 noise spectra and 399 respondents were involved in the survey. Results show that the Zwicker's loudness level and the percentile level of 90% exceedence are the two major indices for air-conditioner noise assessment. Tonality appears not to be a good indicator for such a purpose.

  7. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  8. Pulmonary function tests in air conditioner users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modernization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. House dust, mites, and indoor air pollutants have been reported to cause elevation of serum IgE levels and/or enhancement of eosinophil activity. A component of modern lifestyle is the intense use of air-conditioners (AC that has increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Aim: To assess the effect of air conditioners on pulmonary function tests in healthy non-smokers. Methods: The study included 100 subjects using AC and 100 subjects who were not using AC. After ethical committee approval, pulmonary function tests were done for both study groups by using Medspiror. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed. Results: The lung functions particularly Forced vital capacity (FVC, and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, were affected more in AC users. FVC and FEV1 were found to be significantly reduced and FEV1/FVC was found to be normal. Conclusion: As FVC and FEVFEV1 were found to be significantly reduced and FEV1/FVC was found to be normal, this is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards restrictive type of respiratory disorders.

  9. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  10. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  11. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  12. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  14. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  15. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  16. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  17. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  18. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Rongxiang Zhang; Xiaodong Chu; Wen Zhang; Yutian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is c...

  19. Methodology for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Pereira (Colombia); University of Liege, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the general procedure for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners, by means of measurements carried out in a test bench specially designed for this purpose. The uncertainty analysis presented in this work looks for establishing a confidence degree or certainty of experimental results. It is particularly important considering that international standards related to this type of analysis are too ambiguous when treating this subject. The uncertainty analysis is on the other hand an indispensable requirement to international standard ISO 17025 [ISO, 2005. International Standard. 17025. General Requirement to Test and Calibration Laboratories Competences. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.], which must be applied to obtain the required quality levels according to the Word Trade Organization WTO. (author)

  20. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bo; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Window air conditioners (WAC) are cheap and sold in large numbers internationally as alternatives to central air-conditioning systems. There are nearly 57 million WACs currently operating within United States alone which account for approximately 1.5% of the total US residential energy use or about 0.21 quads per year. Due to global warming and other environmental concerns, there is a need to find an alternative to the currently used refrigerant R410a in WACs. There are several alternative re...

  1. Testing and Performance Analysis on Air Conditioner cum Water Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V.Kongrea , A. R. Chiddarwarb , P. C. Dhumatkarc , A.B.Aris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work on developing the heat pumps for space conditioning and water heating has been gone for half a century. The earlier water heating pumps and air to water heating pumps gives only hot water and space conditioning. But in this air conditioning cum water dispenser we get hot and cold water with hot and cold air, thus the system becomes multifunctional. The actual cycles and operating conditions for air and water cycle present in this paper. The paper introduced basic design principles and the test analysis performed in the laboratory. The test results were found encouraging especially the parameters of dispenser output along with air conditioner. The paper also introduced comfort conditions and suitable coefficient of performance with respect to atmospheric condition, without sacrificing the air conditioning output

  2. Installation Specifications of Air-Conditioners for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background An air-conditioner known as "30% quality and 70% installation",the quality of its installation is closely related to its service life and application effect.Although air-conditioner manufacturers attach high importance to installation,and there are often the installation requirements specified in the product manual or instructions for installation,there are still no unified,scientific and complete national standards and corresponding regulations for household air-conditioner,which results in the less standardized installation of air-conditioner and the unacceptable quality of installation,and also leaves a lot of hidden quality and safety problems.By means of extensive market survey and the after-sale information statistical analysis of air-conditioner,it is discovered that the nonstandard installation of air-conditioner may lead to the following problems and accidents.

  3. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  4. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chinnaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compression system were Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs and Hydro Chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs which contains chlorine and if any leakage in the system, these gases will go up and reach stratosphere. The chlorine atoms in the gases will act as a catalyst to destroy ozone layer and cause ozone depletion which causes health hazards, global warming, melting of polar ice caps and drought. Hence, it is necessary to minimize the Global warming and Ozone depletion. The refrigerant R22 widely used in the air-conditioners is a major Contributor of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which cause irreparable loss to the ozone layer and has to be replaced. Approach: To conserve the energy and minimize the global warming, the systems should be designed as more energy efficient and also to minimize Ozone depletion, the eco friendly refrigerants are to be selected and tested as alternative refrigerants to R22. Hence, a window air conditioner of 3.5 kW capacity fitted with Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV instead of capillary tube as an expansion device, was tested for its performance with the selected eco friendly refrigerants R407C and R290 as an alternative to R22 under fixed indoor and outdoor chamber temperatures in the experimental set up and varying the EEV opening. Results: It has been observed from the experimental studies that when the smaller capacity R22 window air conditioner with EEV is retrofitted with R407C and R290, compared to the performance given by R22, the Coefficient Of Performance

  5. Estimation of Vapor Quality at Compressor Suction of Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Endoh, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate performance and reliability of an air conditioner, the states of its refrigeration cycle need to be understood. Since the isentropic exponent of the next-generation refrigerant R32 is larger than that of conventional refrigerant R410A, the compressor discharge temperature of R32 is higher than that of R410A. When a wet refrigerant is entered into a compressor suction line to decrease the discharge temperature, it is generally difficult to estimate the vapor quality at the suction....

  6. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis. PMID:22442834

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  8. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  9. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively. PMID:3236219

  10. Automotive thermoelectric generators and air conditioner/heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The US Department of Energy initiated the application of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to vehicles in 1994. This TEG was built by Hi-Z Technologies evaluated on a dynamometer test stand then tested successfully installed on a fully loaded Heavy Duty Diesel truck on the PACCAR test track for the equivalence of 550,000 miles. Today every major automobile manufacturer is investigating thermoelectric applications. The US Department of Energy is supporting the development of production prototype TEGs with teams headed by BSST and GM to integrate TEGs to directly convert engine waste heat to electricity in the BMW X6, the Ford Fusion and the Chevy Suburban. These first generation TEGs will provide a nominal 5 percent improvement in on-highway fuel economy by allowing the alternator to be downsized by at least 1/3. The 2nd generation TEG is planned to replace the alternator and provide a nominal 10 percent improvement in fuel economy. DOE/NETL conducted a competitive procurement for automotive thermoelectric air conditioners/heaters (TE HVAC) development and selected teams headed by Ford and GM to develop this technology. Current air conditioners use the R134a refrigerant gas, which produces 1300 times the 'Greenhouse Gas Effect' of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary 'Greenhouse Gas'. Approximately 41 Million Metric tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2e) are released to the atmosphere in the US annually from air conditioner compressor seal leakage and frontal collisions wherein the R134a refrigerant gas containment was ruptured. The TE HVACs are candidates to eliminate refrigerant gases from vehicles. A problem with maintaining occupant comfort in an electrically assisted vehicle was illustrated by Bob Lutz, Vice Chairman, General Motors, who drove a Chevy Volt in January in Detroit and to obtain occupant comfort had to turn on the 5 kW resistive heater which reduced the battery only propulsion mileage from 40 to 28. Preliminary analysis indicates that with TE HVAC a

  11. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  12. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  13. Energy and economic analysis of a building air-conditioner with a phase change material (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phase change material of Rubitherm20 was applied with the air-conditioner under the climate of Thailand. • PCM was used to reduce cooling load and electrical power of the air-conditioner. • Mathematical model of the packed ball bed of PCM was presented to predict the thermal performance. - Abstract: In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM) for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thailand climate. Rubitherm20 (RT-20) was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. For the experiment, 2 TR of R-134a air-conditioner was chosen to test a pack bed of PCM balls with thickness 40 cm. The pressure drops of the air flowing through the bed were considered with and without a set of by-pass tubes along the height of the storage bed. The mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that pressure drops of the bed with and without bypass tubes were nearly the same results. Thus, PCM ball pack bed using RT-20 without bypass tubes was used to improve the cooling efficiency of the air-conditioner. The experimental result of the modified unit was compared and verified with the mathematical model, which agreed quite well with the simulation result. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result, which found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased around 3.09 kW h/d. The saving cost from the PCM bed could be 9.10% of 170.03 USD/y and the payback period was around 4.15 y

  14. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  15. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  16. Net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners and subsidization policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Built on a data set of 527 air conditioner models collected from an online retailer, this study investigates whether the savings that consumers realize on their private electricity bills from purchasing energy-efficient appliances compensate for the additional cost of the appliances on the market, and if not, the size of the gap between the savings and the cost. Our findings show that, except for the most energy-efficient category, the cost savings from using energy-efficient air conditioners does compensate for their higher price. Therefore, any government subsidy should be reserved for the most efficient products. For less energy-efficient appliances, the best policy may be to provide more effective information instead of a subsidy because the subsidy might attract consumers away from more energy-efficient air conditioners and result in an unwanted effect. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners in China. • There is no need to subsidize less energy-efficient air conditioners. • The most recently proposed policy development in China is a reform headed in the right direction

  17. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.grignon-masse@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Riviere, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.riviere@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Adnot, Jerome, E-mail: jerome.adnot@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2011-04-15

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO{sub 2-eq} in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: {yields} A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. {yields} Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. {yields} There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  18. Experimental Study on Match for Indoor and Outdoor Heat Exchanger of Residential Air-conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiaoping; Liang, Xiangfei; Zhuang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of indoor unit heat transfer area and air flow rate and outdoor unit air flow rate on the system performance of residential air-conditioner were experimentally investigated under rated cooling and heating conditions. The experimental results showed that the system cooling capacity, EER, heating capacity and COP all had evident variation with indoor unit heat transfer area and air flow rate and out unit air flow rate, which predicated that there was a proper match ra...

  19. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... distribution of those central air conditioning systems and heat pump systems manufactured after January 1, 2010, that are designed to use R-22 refrigerant. 74 FR 66450 (Dec. 15, 2009). EPA's rulemaking included an... issued two guidance documents surrounding testing central air conditioner and heat pump systems...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  1. An Application of Green Quality Function Deployment to Designing an Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peetam Kumar Dehariya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles a systematic and operational approach to Green Quality Function Deployment (GQFD, a customer oriented survey based quality management system with regular improvement in product development. GQFD shows balance between product development and environmental protection. GQFD is not used to determine their attributes and their levels. GQFD captures what product developers “think” would best satisfy customer needs considering Environmental factor. This research used Air Conditioner as a case study for implementation of GQFD. In the design of a new Air Conditioner, apply GQFD to find out the most important parameter and functions from customer point of view and then find out Technical Characteristics. These important parameters are then put into house of quality and make relation matrix between voice of customer and Technical Characteristics. From the result of QFD applied to Air Conditioner are short out the parameter which are require modification according to voice of customer and the result has used for new design.

  2. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  3. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  4. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  5. Variable Frequency Air Conditioner is Expected to Become Mainstream Product in Rural Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>If it can be argued that in 2011 the rural market played a crucial role in the development of air conditioner industry,judging from the present growth trend,in the 2012 refrigeration year the rural market will play an even more important

  6. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  8. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  9. Experimental Study of the Controlling Characteristics of Inverter-Driven Multi-type Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纪峰; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2004-01-01

    The controlling algorithm was studied for the inverter-driven multi-type air conditioner using electronic expansion valve(EEV) in outdoor unit. The performance of inverter-driven air conditioner with two different units was investigated by varying the outdoor ambient temperature and compressor speed. Based on the test results, the effect of EEV opening on the indoor unit exit superheat was discussed. For the specified outdoor ambient temperature scope and the EEV opening, the superheats of indoor units decrease with the outdoor ambient temperature rising. Improper distribution of refrigerant into each indoor unit will causes excessive superheat difference between two indoor units. Suggestions were then given for the controlling of the superheat.

  10. Experimental Study on Performance of Condenser of Two Different Types Used In Window Air Conditioner: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Jhariya; P.K. Jhinge & R.C. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    This review paper presents the work of various researchers on the performance of condenser, used in air conditioners with various refrigerants. In this research author used different type of condenser, single and multi channel tubes. They determined various parameters like coefficient of performance (COP), cooling capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the system. Various approaches have been used by different authors to predict the performance of condenser in window air conditioner using...

  11. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA). There...

  12. Performance curves of room air conditioners for building energy simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental characteristic curves for two room air conditioners are presented. • These results can be implemented in building simulation codes. • The energy consumption under different conditions can numerically determine. • The labeled higher energy efficiency product not always provides the best result. - Abstract: In order to improve the modeling of air conditioners in building simulation tools, the characteristic curves for total cooling capacity, sensible cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio of two room units were determined. They were obtained by means of standard capacity tests on climatic chambers in a set of environmental conditions described by external dry- and internal wet bulb temperatures. Afterward, the performance of these two units and that of four other units, with and without taking into to account the thermodynamic variations of the surrounding environments on it, were compared using a whole building simulation program for simulating a conditioned space. The comparative analysis showed that the air conditioner with the higher energy efficiency rating not always provides the lowest power consumption in real conditions of use

  13. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  14. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chinnaraj; Vijayan, R.; Govindarajan, P

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP) due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP) due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compressio...

  15. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  16. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  17. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  18. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  19. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM2.5 (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ15PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM10 (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ15PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ15PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: → Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. → PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. → The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. → Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  20. Girth welding system for vortex type refrigeration compressor of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaowen; Ma Caixia; Yang Siqian; Hu Jisheng

    2006-01-01

    According to the requirements of welding process for vortex type compressor of air conditioner manufactured in product line, a special girth welding machine with PLC as control core was developed, which had both upright and 45 ° incline service positions. And some key technologies were researched, such as structural design of machine body, reliable conduction of rotary weldments and quality control of welding process and so on. The experimental results showed that this machine could satisfy the requirements of welding quality and girth welding technology, results also proved the machine was a high-efficiency and low-cost automatic welding device.

  1. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  2. Size optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) room air conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizing of a stand-alone PV system determines the main cost of the system. PV electricity cost is determined by the amount of solar energy received, hence the actual climate and weather conditions such as solar irradiance and ambient temperature affect the size required and cost of the system. Air conditioning demand also depends on the weather conditions. Therefore, sizing a PV powered air conditioner must consider the characteristics of local climate and temperature. In this paper, sizing procedures and special considerations for air conditioning under Melbourne's climatic conditions is presented. The reliability of various PV-battery size combinations is simulated by MATLAB. As a result, excellent system performance can be predicated.(Author)

  3. Sizing room air conditioners used in sleeping environments in the subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the subtropics, room air conditioners (RACs) have been widely used to maintain an appropriate indoor thermal environment not only at day but also at night for sleeping. However, currently RACs are often sized by rules of thumb that are based on the applications and practices of air conditioning during daytime operating periods. A method of sizing RACs used in sleeping environments has been developed in this paper. The sizing of RACs used in sleeping environments in the subtropics should not be based on the peak load that occurs at the beginning of a night air conditioning process but preferably on 70-80% of the peak load for better indoor thermal comfort and higher energy efficiency

  4. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  5. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  6. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  7. Comparison of air conditioners for horticulture; Vergelijking van luchtbehandelingssystemen voor de tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, B.; Hendriksen, L. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The desire to reduce energy consumption in the greenhouse sector results into new techniques and applications. As such air conditioners are applied in greenhouses. They serve to control temperature, relative humidity and air flow in the greenhouse. However, because of the totally different climatic conditions in the greenhouses such systems must be adapted. TNO investigates how the systems can be evaluated properly [Dutch] De wens om het energieverbruik in de glastuinbouw omlaag te brengen, leidt tot nieuwe technieken en toepassingen. Zo vinden in de utiliteit gangbare luchtbehandelingssystemen nu ook hun weg naar de kas. Ze dienen om temperatuur, relatieve luchtvochtigheid en luchtbeweging in de kas te beheersen. Maar vanwege de totaal andere klimaatomstandigheden moeten de systemen worden aangepast. TNO onderzoekt hoe de systemen goed kunnen worden geevalueerd.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  9. Experimental investigations on performance of liquid desiccant-vapor compression hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled desiccant column is integrated with a conventional room air conditioner (AC) to enhance dehumidification of the room air. One desiccant column (absorber) is placed after the evaporator the other (regenerator) after the condenser of the AC unit. Such a novel liquid desiccant vapour compression hybrid air conditioning system has been fabricated and tested in a balanced ambient room type calorimeter for very low flow rates of liquid desiccant (lithium bromide solution). The moisture from the cold supply air is transferred to the hot condenser air by the desiccant flowing in the loop, thereby complimenting the dehumidification of the room air at the evaporator. The supply air is also sensibly heated during the dehumidification process by liquid desiccant in the absorber, which together enables the hybrid system to maintain low humidity in the room. Whereas the liquid desiccant is regenerated by the condenser waste heat, the entire cooling is derived only by the AC unit. The experimental results show that an increase of room temperature reduces both dehumidification of process air and regeneration of liquid desiccant, whereas an increase of room specific humidity enhances both these for the flow rate of the liquid desiccant in the range of 0.2–1.6% of the air flow rate through the absorber. - Highlights: • A liquid desiccant vapor compression hybrid system is fabricated and tested. • The liquid desiccant reduces latent load but equally increases sensible load. • Hybrid system performance is studied for varying room temperature and humidity. • Higher room temperature lowers air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration. • Increase of room specific humidity enhances dehumidification and also regeneration

  10. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  11. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  12. Power Quality Improvement in PMBLDCM Drive using PFC SEPIC Converter for Air Conditioner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athiyaman S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved power quality converter employing Single Ended Primary Inductor (SEPIC converter topology is used to feed a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drive. Normally, the PMBLDCM drive has a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a PMBLDCM which is fed from single-phase AC mains through a diode bridge rectifier (DBR. In this proposed system a SEPIC DC-DC converter is used after the DBR and it performs power factor correction (PFC at input AC mains and voltage control at DC link, in a single-stage. The proposed PMBLDCM drive is designed, modeled and its performance is evaluated in MatlabSimulink environment for an air conditioner (Air-Con load. The speed of the compressor is controlled for efficient operation of the Air-Con which results in controlling the temperature in the conditioned area at the set point, effectively. Obtained results are presented to demonstrate an improved power quality of PFC converter based PMBLDCM drive in wide range of the speed and input AC voltage besides improved efficiency of an Air-Con system.

  13. Energy efficiency and energy saving air conditioners window and split type; Eficiencia energetica e economia de energia de condicionadores de ar tipo janela e split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Palhares de; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    The air-conditioners of window end Split type are responsible for a significant portion of energy consumption in residential sector of Brazil, from 20% of the sector. This study evaluates the impact energy of the Seal Program PROCEL in air-conditioners of window end Split type, showing the efficiency gains for the country in terms of energy saving. For this evaluation it was considered the effects of temperature and loss of performance due to age, PROCEL Stamp Program resulted in a power savings of 664 GWh in air-conditioners of window type residential sector in 2008. (author)

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  15. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  16. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  17. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  18. MODEL FOR OPTIMAL BLOCK REPLACEMENT DECISION OF AIR CONDITIONERS USING FIRST ORDER MARKOV CHAINS WITH & WITHOUT CONSIDERING INFLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y HARI PRASADA REDDY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed for group replacement of a block of Air Conditioners using discrete-time First Order Markov Chains. To make the model more realistic, threeintermediate states viz., Minor Repair State, Semi-Major Repair State and Major Repair States have been introduced between Functioning State & Complete Failure States of the system. The Transition Probabilities for future periods for First Order Markov Chain (FOMC are estimated by Spectral Decomposition Method. Using these probabilities, the number of systems in each state and accordingly the corresponding average maintenance cost is computed. The forecasted inflation for Air Conditioners and the real value of money using Fisherman’s relation are employed to study and develop the real time mathematical model for block replacement decision making.

  19. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  20. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste

  1. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  2. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  3. Natural refrigerants for air conditioners in passenger cars. A contribution to climate protection. Background; Natuerliche Kaeltemittel fuer PKW-Klimaanlagen. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutz. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gabriele; Plehn, Wolfgang

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners in passenger cars contain a refrigerant which significantly increases the greenhouse effect. Currently about 30 % of global emissions of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons originate from these air conditioners. According to the directive 2006/40/EC, this refrigerant must be replaced by a less harmful substance. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration initially reports on the stock and level of air conditioning of passenger cars as well as on the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane. Subsequently, refrigerants for air conditioning of passenger cars such as carbon dioxide, 1.1-difluoroethane and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propylene are described. Overall, the refrigerant carbon dioxide is the best alternative for mobile air conditioning.

  4. Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostics Protocols Applied to Air-Cooled Vapor Compression Air-Conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Yuill, David P.; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) tools are being increasingly applied in air-conditioning systems. There are many different protocols used in these FDD tools, so an important question to ask is: how well do the protocols work? This paper describes the ongoing development of the first standardized method of evaluation for FDD protocols applied to air-cooled vapor compression air-conditioning systems. The general approach is to feed a library of data – including temperatures, pressures, an...

  5. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  6. Elemental analysis of dust trapped in air conditioner filters for the assessment of Lahore city's air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Lahore by the elemental analysis of air conditioner (AC) filter dust samples collected from 15 different commercial sites. Samples were prepared using the Leeds Public Analyst Method and were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for up to 31 elements. The elements Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn were detected in all 15 samples whereas the remaining elements have been detected in fewer samples; i.e. Mg, Sb and Tb were detected in 14 samples, Br and V in ten samples, U in nine samples and Ca and Ti in eight samples only. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na were determined in all samples at percentage levels. The concentrations of most elements were found to lie around the mean values for the 15 samples studied and were not orders of magnitude different. However the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sn and Zn were found to be more variable and were found to be dependant on activities such as construction, fruit and vegetable handling, tin plating and transport, respectively. (author)

  7. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  8. Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Feng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lu, Manqi; Yang, Ke [Engineering Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhou, Yimin [Research Center, Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province 317200 (China)

    2007-10-15

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi{sub 4.61}Mn{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.13}/La{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 4.8}Mn{sub 0.2} was developed working at 120-200 C/20-50 C/-10-0 C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Van't-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat plateau slopes, fast reaction dynamics and small hystereses; the reaction enthalpy of the refrigeration hydride is -27.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2} and system theoretical COP is 0.711. Mean particle sizes during cycles were verified to be an intrinsic property affected by constitution, heat treatment and cycle numbers rather than initial grain sizes. Based on this work pair, cylindrical reactors were designed and a function proving metal hydride intermittent refrigeration system was constructed with heat conducting oil as heat source and water as heat sink. The reactor equivalent thermal conductivity is merely 1.3 W/(m K), which still has not meet practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power is 84.6 W at 150 C/30 C/0 C with COP being 0.26. The regulations of cycling performance and minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) were determined by altering heat source temperature. Results showed that cooling power and system COP increase while MRT decreases with the growth of heat source temperature. This study develops a new hydride pair and confirms its application in automobile refrigeration systems, while their heat transfer properties still need to be improved for better performance. (author)

  9. 机房专用空调性能研究%Performance experimental research of room air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娥玉; 臧润清; 王红旭

    2009-01-01

    以名义制冷量为40kW的机房专用空调为对象,研究被控温度24℃、相对湿度50%,冷凝器进风温度-5~35℃条件下的机房空调性能.用焓差实验室测试空调机在不同冷凝温度条件下的性能参数,从而分析系统各部件的匹配关系、整机性能及在变冷凝温度下的综合性能.实验结果表明,调整蒸发器结构、增加风速、合理匹配热量膨胀阀,降低系统部件和管道阻力等,能使机房空调机在标准制冷工况下COP、变工况下COP以及综合COP都有较大幅度提高.%Performance of room air conditioner which is under temperature 24℃, 50%RH and air inlet temperature -5~35℃ was studied based on nominal refrigeration capacity 40kW. Tested performance parameters under different condensing temperature on air-enthalpy test lab, analyzed matching regulations and performance of each parts of conditioner under varietal condensing temperature. It showed that adjusting structure of evaporator, raising air flow speed, regulating the optical work opening span of thermostatic expansion valve, reducing resistance of parts and pipelines may heighten conditioner COP under various conditions.

  10. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor

  11. Study on Improvement of the Suction Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Eitaro; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshito; Sato, Taizo

    The simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner, which is developed in the previous study, is used to measure the displacement of the suction valves using as train gauge and to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the valves using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. This paper is focused on the effects of shape of the suction valve on the vibration-reduction. First, the size of the conventional valve hole and the width of the tip of the conventional valve are changed and seven new valves are manufactured to reduce the vibration of the valve. Consequently, it is found that one of the new valves is the most effective for the vibration-reduction. Next the influence of the natural frequency on the vibration-reduction is investigated using one of the new valves by changing the material and the thickness of the valve. Finally, the reason of the vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is discussed from the results of the flow analysis around the valve. The vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is confirmed by measurement of the displacement of the valve in the reciprocating compressor for the automotive air-conditioner.

  12. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view

  13. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  14. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  15. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt....

  16. Production line for concentrated winding DC motor for air conditioner; Eakonyo shuchu maki DC motor seizo line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to reduce production cost and increase production efficiency of compressor motors for air conditioners, development was made for the first time in the world on a production line for concentrated winding DC motors in which wires are wound directly on a stator core. Advantages of the concentrated winding motor are size reduction as a result of shortened coil end length, reduction in the amount of copper wire used, and enhancement in the efficiency. The gist in the technical points is as follows: (1) technology to form bobbin with thin wall to ensure insulation when winding; (2) semi-normal inner winding technology to wind wires from inside of the stator core; and (3) automatic coil end terminating technology. When compared to the conventional production line of inserter type motors, the capital investment was reduced by 1/3, installation space by 1/3, manpower by 18 workers, and motor cost by 16%. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  18. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  19. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  20. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  2. 新技术在空调领跑者开发中的应用%Application of New Technology in the Development Process of Air Conditioner Pacemaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建波; 郭霞龄; 黄建华

    2014-01-01

    In order to further improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner, we has developed an air condi-tioner product KF-26GW/Wa-E0 with special energy efficiency grade by applying three new technologies:noz-zle throttle, spiral strip and condensate water energy conservation. In 2013 in the air conditioner pacemaker test competition held in China, its actual measurement energy efficiency ratio reached 5.10W/W. It has exceeded the first energy efficiency ratio grade 3.60W/W of the national standard far away. From the actual experimental data, we can learn that the three new technologies can improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner significantly.%为了进一步提高空调器的能效比,采用喷嘴节流、螺旋条、冷凝水节能三项新技术,开发了一款特级能效的空调产品KF-26GW/Wa-E0,在2013年度国家举办的空调领跑者测试评比中,实测能效比达到5.10W/W,远高于国家标准一级能效比的指标3.60W/W。从实际试验数据可知,这三项新技术能明显地提高空调器的能效比。

  3. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  4. Temperature control of the four-zone split inverter air conditioners using LMI expression based on LQR for mixed H2/H∞

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The optimal control gains were obtained from the linear matrix inequalities with mixed H2 and H∞ control algorithm. • The proposed method guaranteed convergence, stability, and provided a way for disturbance rejection and energy savings. • The coupling effects occurred among the compressor speed, opening degrees, evaporator temperatures and superheats. • The system identification and thermal dynamics equations could obtain the inner and outer loop transfer functions. • All simulations in this paper were in discrete time domain. - Abstract: Air conditioners in either commercial or residential buildings consume substantial electricity. Enhancing the air conditioner efficiency by using a new control scheme is critical. In four-zone multi-evaporator air conditioner systems, coupling effects occur among the compressor speed, the degree of opening of the four electronic expansion valves, the temperatures of the four evaporators, and the four superheats. The system identification and thermodynamic equations could be used to obtain the inner and outer loop transfer functions between the air conditioner and its environment. A variable structure (switching) for the proportional integral anti-windup method could circumvent the saturation phenomenon generated from the integral controller. The optimal control gains were obtained from the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) based on a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) with a mixed H2 and H∞ control algorithm. In a simulated example, this efficient method, through those feedback gains, guaranteed convergence and stability. In addition, the results indicated that the proposed LMI using a mixed H2 and H∞ control method is also an alternative way for disturbance rejection and energy savings in buildings

  5. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... total electric power input, expressed in watt-hours, during the same period. Single package unit means..., when both the cooling (or heating) effect and the net work input are expressed in identical units of measurement. Commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means air-cooled,...

  6. Air Conditioner Selection with TOPSIS and VIKOR Methods In Multi Criteria Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERTUĞRUL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological and global changes nowadays enable air conditioning sector to gain a higher importance. Short and long term risks for comsumers, the use of air conditioningtechnology with cost minimization, the increase of product charesteristics and firms, and the variability of product features have led to the need for multi-criteria decision. Therefore, caring the multiple criteria and the alternatives, the multi-criteria decision making techniques are taken to the scope of application. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors which affect the decision of air conditioning choice and to present the preference ranking suggestion. Having the nearly have got the approximately equivalent heating and cooling capacity, air conditionings in A+ class are included in the scope of related research. In application, when choosing air conditioning products, Topsis and Vikor that are multi-criteria decision-making methods are used and the results are compared and evaluated. When choosing air conditioning products, preference plansa re presented in the application.

  7. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 deg. C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m3/h and temperature of 35 deg. C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 deg. C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%.

  8. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Mostafa, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); Ibrahim, Talaat A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); King Saud Univ., P.O. 70908, 11577 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m{sup 3}/h and temperature of 35 C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%. (author)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  10. 恒温恒湿空调机PLC控制程序优化%Optimization of the PLC Control Program of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建国

    2014-01-01

    optimized the PLC control program of constant temperature and humidity air conditioners in the production areas of Guangzhou Cigarette Factory. Using the methods of adjusting air moisture content of the air supply outlet to adjust relative air humidity, adopting cascade PID double loop adjustment in the PID algorithm of temperature and humidity, increasing the working condition recognition and correction of logic in each air conditioner and constructing intelligent air conditioning control module to realize automatic temperature and humidity adjustment, remarkable energy-saving effect has been achieved.%优化了广州卷烟厂生产区域空调恒温恒湿空调机的PLC控制程序,采取的措施包括调节送风口的空气中的含湿量从而调节环境的空气相对湿度,在温度及湿度的PID算法上采用串级PID双环调节,在各台空调机增加工况识别及修正逻辑,构建智能空调控制模块实现温湿度自动偏移等,取得了显著的节能效果。

  11. Fault Detection And Diagnosis For Air Conditioners And Heat Pumps Based On Virtual Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, on-line performance monitoring and diagnostic system with low cost sensors for air conditioning and heat pump equipment. Automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) has the potential for improving energy efficiency along with reducing service costs and comfort complaints. To achieve this goal, virtual sensors with low cost measurements and simple models were developed to estimate quantities that would be expens...

  12. Refrigerant and Lubricant Mass Distribution in a Convertible Split System Residential Air-Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Wujek, Scott S.; Bowers, Chad D.; Powell, Joshua W.; Urrego, Roberto A.; Hessell, Edward T.; Benanti, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    Lubricants are utilized in air-conditioning systems for the purpose of decreasing friction and wear within the compressor. While ideally the lubricant remains in the compressor, some lubricant is entrained and transported by the refrigerant to the other system components. During operational transients, the lubricant is redistributed throughout the various system components. The equilibrium distribution of lubricant depends among other things on fluid properties, phase change processes, flow r...

  13. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  14. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in the lecture room with 4-way cassette air-conditioner and mixing ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the experimental and the numerical studies on thermal comfort (TC) and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the lecture room with cooling loads when the operating conditions are changed. Predicted mean vote (PMV) value and CO2 concentration of the lecture room were measured and compared to the numerical results. Both of them showed a reasonable agreement with each other and then we applied the numerical model to analyze TC and IAQ for a couple of different operating conditions. From the results we found that the increment of the discharge angle of 4-way cassette air-conditioner makes uniformity of TC worse, but rarely affects IAQ. It turned out that TC and IAQ are hardly affected by the variation of the discharge airflow. Finally TC was merely affected by the increment of the ventilation rate, but when the ventilation rate is more than 800m3/h, the average CO2 concentration can be satisfied with the standard limits of Japanese in our case studies. (author)

  15. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  16. Propeller fan and outdoor machine using the same for air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Ryoji; Nagai, Makoto; Yoneyama, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yutaka; Mochizuki, Masaaki; Mochizuki, Yoshihiko; Otaguro, Toshio

    1997-09-12

    A low-noise propeller fan of a low manufacturing cost by improving the rigidity of fan blades in the axial and radial directions thereof and reducing the thickness of the fan blades to as great an extent as possible in spite of the larger diameter of the fan, whereby the moldability of and molding time for the material for the propeller fan is improved and reduced respectively, and by minimizing the amount of use of a material the cost of which accounts for a large percentage of the fan manufacturing cost. A plurality of plate type circumferential ribs projecting from acting faces towards the negative pressure side and a plurality of radial ribs projecting from the acting faces toward the negative pressure side are provided on the reverse (negative pressure) side of the fan blades, whereby the thickness of the fan blades is reduced, so that the amount of material used decreases. This causes the influence of the ribs upon a flow of the air to be minimized, and the occurrence of noise to be suppressed. (author)

  17. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The

  18. 电子膨胀阀在机房空调机中的应用%Application of Electronic Expansion Valve to Air Conditioner in Computer Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萦豪; 马军华

    2011-01-01

    为了提高机房空调能效比,传统的热力膨胀阀正逐步被电子膨胀阀取代.本文详细介绍了电子膨胀阀的结构、控制特点,并进行了试验分析.%The thermostatic expansion valve (TEV)is replaced by the electronic expansion valve (EEV) to increase the energy efficiency ratio (EER) in computer room air conditioner(CRAC). This paper introduces the construction, control and experimental analysis of the electron expansion valve(EEV).

  19. 低温超强制热家用空调器研究%Research of Super Low Temperature Heating Household Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永全; 贺素艳; 王军

    2015-01-01

    Household heat pump type air conditioner, an efficient, energy-saving and convenient air conditioning equipment, plays an important role in people's everyday life and production activities. However, in cold regions, since the low-temperature heat source itself inefficient air conditioning, heating a low output capability, seriously affect the comfort of the user area. This paper theoretically analyze the influence of Refilling and Enthalpy Increasing Device (REID) for the air conditioning system, experimental study the performance of air conditioning systems with REID in the low temperature environment, will play an important role for the future development of low temperature using air conditioner.%家用普通热泵型空调作为一种高效、节能、便捷的空气调节装置,在人们的日常生产、生活中扮演着重要的角色。但在严寒区域,由于家用空调本身低温效率低下,输出制热能力低,严重影响该地区用户使用舒适性。从理论上分析了补气增焓(REID)对空调系统低温制热性能的影响,实验研究了补气增焓空调系统在低温工况下的性能,对低温制热空调产品的设计及普及起到重要作用。

  20. Application of central air conditioner system on modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform%集中空调系统在海洋固定平台模块钻机上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立臣; 许瑞杰; 马冬辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air conditioner selection of Lu Feng7-2 oil ifeld modular drilling rig project, this paper determines two sets of selection of air conditioner by preliminary study, which are central and separation air conditioner systems, respectively. With comparison between the central air conditioner and the split air conditioner in cost, effciency, comfort, space, etc., it concludes that the central air conditioner system has the advantages of lower operation cost, higher energy effciency ratio, better comfort capability, smaller space occupation and so on. It also analyzes its superiority and prospect of application on the modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform, which can provide a certain reference for the room cooling design and the equipment selection.%结合陆丰7-2油田模块钻机项目空调选型,通过前期调查研究制定了两套空调选型方案:集中空调系统方案和分体空调系统方案。通过对比两者在费用、工作效率、舒适性、占用空间等方面的特点,得出集中空调系统具有初始投入及运行成本低、能效比高、舒适性好、占地面积小等方面的优点,并分析了集中空调在海洋固定平台模块钻机上使用的优越性以及应用前景,对海洋固定平台模块钻机的房间制冷设计及设备选型提供了一定的参考。

  1. Research on Performance of High Temperature Refrigeration Household Air Conditioner%高温制冷家用空调器性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永全; 贺素艳; 王军; 杨启荣

    2014-01-01

    Household heat pump type air conditioner, an efficient, energy-saving and convenient air conditioning equipment, plays an important role in people's everyday life and production activities.In recent years, the global climate anomalies, people production and living conditions deteriorated because of the continuous high temperature weather.The awful summer condition puts forward higher requirements for household air conditioner refrigeration per-formance at high temperature.In this paper, we put forward the use of Refilling and Enthalpy Increasing Device ( REID) way to effectively solve the problem of air conditioner refrigeration at high temperature, experimental study the performance of air conditioning systems with REID in the high temperature environment, will play a guiding role for design of high temperature refrigeration air conditioning product and the application of new environmental protec-tion refrigerant-R32.%家用普通热泵型空调作为一种高效、节能、便捷的空气调节装置,在人们的日常生产、生活中扮演着重要的角色。近年来全球气候异常,多地连续出现高温酷热天气,人们生产、生活条件恶化。夏季恶劣工况对家用空调器的高温制冷性能提出了更高的要求。文中提出了利用补气增焓( REID)的办法来有效解决空调器高温制冷问题,从理论上分析了补气增焓对空调系统高温制冷性能的影响,实验研究了补气增焓空调系统在高温工况下的性能,对高温制冷空调产品的设计及新环保冷媒R32的应用起到指导作用。

  2. 家用空调器装卸搬运系统设计及运用%TheDesignandApplicationofAirConditionerHandlingSystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊立贵

    2013-01-01

    本文针对空调器成品下线与运输入库生产环节的物流系统,设计了一条辊筒输送线的总体布局,实现了空调器输送物流的无缝连接。通过液压升降台、车内可升降辊筒输送机构等重要工位的设计,可靠地完成空调器出入库以及到运输车辆的工程操作。利用设计的图纸、加工、组装、运行实现一套输送出、入库过程,这样减少劳动力,并提高效率,产生经济效益的装卸搬运系统。%According to the logistics system of air conditioner’s production line and trans-portation into storage, the overall layout of a roller conveyor line was designed to real-ize the seamless connection of air conditioner transportation logistics. Through the design of important stations like hydraulic elevator platform and lift roller conveying mechanism in car, it reliably accomplishes the operation of air conditioners warehousing and vehicle transportation. Using the design drawings, process, assembling and operation, it accomplish-es a set of handling system for out-put and in-put of warehouse. In this way, it reduces the workforce and increases the efficiency, and generates economic benefits.

  3. Experimental study of the application of intermittently operated SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effectiveness of SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) for water heating in residential buildings in Hong Kong and elsewhere has been confirmed in previous studies. However, given these studies assumed a theoretical maximum recoverable heat, whether its use is still energy effective in practice, in particular under intermittent operation, is of concern. Intermittent operation of the SEHRAC can lead to significant fluctuations in operating conditions. Adding that capillary tube is often used as the expansion device to magnify the fluctuations, whether SEHRAC can still operate satisfactorily despite the fluctuations is another concern. To address these concerns, a prototype which can be switched between the combined CH (cooling and heating) mode and the CC (conventional cooling) mode was set-up for laboratory experiments. The results showed that the water heating objective can be achieved. The operating parameters also confirmed the satisfactory operation of SEHRAC. Energy performance of the CH mode was found better than the CC mode. A prediction model was developed for evaluating the use of SEHRAC. On wider application of SEHRAC, energy use of the residential sector in Hong Kong can be reduced by 9.1%. The experimental details described in this study would become an experiment protocol to enhance future research in this area. - Highlights: • Practical use of SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) for free water heating was investigated. • Investigations were based on laboratory experiments that matched with practical situations. • Experimental results confirmed the effective operation of SEHRAC in practical situations. • Potential water heating energy saving on wider application of SEHRAC was estimated to be 9.1%. • The prototype designed and set-up for this study would become an experiment protocol to enhance future research in this area

  4. 某办公建筑空调系统新风换气机设计研究%Research on design for fresh air ventilation of air-conditioner system of some office building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景胜蓝; 王飞; 雷勇刚

    2015-01-01

    介绍了采用数码多联机空调系统的办公建筑,对新风系统采用的新风换气机进行了分析,通过研究计算结果,表明新风换气机在改善室内空气品质的同时,具有显著的节能效果和良好的经济性。%The paper introduces the digital multi-connected air-conditioner system of office buildings,analyzes the fresh air ventilation of the fresh air system,and proves by the research and calculation that the ventilation equipment can improve the indoor air quality with evident energy-saving effect and money-saving feature.

  5. Simulation Analysis of the Indoor Unit of Variable Frequency Air-Conditioner%变频空调室内机仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄雅曼; 南晓红

    2015-01-01

    MATLAB language was used to mathematically simulate the indoor unit of frequency conversion air-conditioner. Based on the simulation model, change of the refrigerant and air temperature with the length of coil pipe with the unit as an evaporator under refriger-ation condition and as a condenser under heating condition was studied and analyzed. The surface heat transfer coefficient on the refrigerant side and heat transfer coefficient of the in-door unit and the evaporation pressure distribution along the coil pipe were simulated and an-alyzed. The parameters under the two operating conditions were also comparatively analyzed.%运用MATLAB软件对一变频多联室内机进行模拟仿真,分析研究了制冷工况下作为蒸发器和制热工况下作为冷凝器时制冷剂和室内空气温度随管长的变化情况,同时对制冷剂侧表面传热系数、室内机传热系数和蒸发压力沿程分布情况进行了仿真及分析.并将两种工况下的参数进行对比分析.

  6. Semi-empiric model of an air cooled cabinet air conditioner for the dynamic analysis of the building and acclimation systems integrated behaviour; Modelo semi-empirico de condicionador de gabinete resfriado a ar para analise dinamica do comportamento integrado de edificacoes e sistemas de climatizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jecorrea@amazon.com.br; Melo, Claudio. E-mail: melo@nrva.ufsc.br; Negrao, Cezar O. R. E-mail: negrao@energia.damec.cefetpr.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a semi-empirical model for a air cooled case air conditioner. This model is to be inserted in the EPS-r program (Environmental System Performance - research version) allowing the dynamic analysis of the integrated behaviour of buildings and acclimation systems using this equipment. Results obtained from simulations under the operation conditions existing in Brazil are analysed.

  7. 低温环境下风冷热泵型空调机组应用问题的探讨%Discussion of the Heat Pump Air Conditioner in Low Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎云

    2001-01-01

    The main causes for capacity reduction of the heat pump air conditioner while working at low environment was studied, a way and methods to raise the evaporation temperature of the heat pump air conditioner and to prove the feasibility by calculation was proposed.%分析了低温环境下风冷热泵型空调机组制热能力降低的主要原因,提出了在低温环境下提高风冷热泵型空调机组蒸发温度的方法及措施,并通过计算来验证其可行性。

  8. 移动空调噪声控制技术的研究与实践%The Research and Practice of Portable Air Conditioner Noise Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This text focuses on analyzing the reason and course of the noise generated from portable air conditioner. With test data and analytic technology, it concludes that present noise control technology for air conditioner, which was proved effective in practice.%  本文主要就移动空调器噪声产生的机理进行分析研究,应用试验分析技术和解析分析技术,从而总结出目前移动空调器的噪声控制方法,并且在实践中被证明是有效的。

  9. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  10. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  11. 家用空调冷凝水节能利用探讨%Exploration on the utilization and energy saving of condensing water from household air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬利明; 祁影霞; 欧阳新萍

    2011-01-01

    There are an amount of condensed water which contained a lot of cold energy exhaused by household air conditioner. The water directly drawn outside pollute not only, but also couse cold energy to waste. In this paper, we calculated the theoretical production capacities of condensed water and evaporated water, its enhancement effect on condenser heat transfer as well as its energy saving effect, and designed a new condensate utilization device. Finally the energy - saving effect was remarkable if we make full use of the condensed water to cool condenser.%家用空调的冷凝水量可观,且含有一定冷量,但现实中常被直接排放掉,污染环境、浪费资源.实例计算了冷凝水生成量,蒸发量和冷凝水冷却冷凝器换热的强化作用以及节能效果,并设计了一种新型冷凝水回收装置.最后,指出冷凝水利用冷量冷却冷凝器,节能效果显著.

  12. Development of Refrigeration Oil for Rotary Vane Compressor of Automobile Air Conditioner%旋叶式汽车空调冷冻机油的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美名

    2013-01-01

      介绍旋叶式汽车空调压缩机对冷冻机油的性能要求,研制一种适用于以R134a为制冷剂的压缩机的聚醚类合成冷冻机油,并分析其理化性能,通过台架试验评价其润滑性能和抗氧化性能。结果表明,研制油具有较好的理化性能,很好的润滑性能及抗氧化能力,满足旋叶式压缩机使用要求。%The requirement for performance of refrigeration oil for rotary vane compressor of automobile air conditioner was introduced,and a PAG refrigeration oil was developed for rotary vane compressor with R134a as refrigerant. The physi-cochemical properties of the refrigeration oil were analyzed,and the lubricating performances and antioxidant properties were evaluated through bench tests. The results show that the refrigeration oil has good physicochemical properties,good lu-bricating performances and excellent antioxidant properties,meeting the application requirement of the rotary vane compres-sor.

  13. Manufacturers of Copper Tube for Central Air Conditioner Use Face Mounting Pressure in the Final Quarter of the Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year,the investment growth rate of real estate industry continued to slow down,sold area of commercial housing also dropped significantly,which brought huge pressure to the domestic air conditioning manufactures.In the first half of the year,by relying on high growth in national financial expenditure,along with investment in public infrastructure

  14. 壁挂式空调器陶瓷PTC异常噪声研究%Study on Abnormal Noise of Ceramic PTC in Wall-mounted Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春生; 占庆仲; 李彬

    2015-01-01

    分体壁挂式空调器一般采用PTC这一部件来辅助制热,以提高制热效果及制热速度。在蒸发器部件、底壳风道与贯流风叶所包围的空间里,加装陶瓷PTC会产生一定的异响噪声。在设定同一制热模式下,PTC的不同结构对整机噪声的影响程度不同。本文采用CFD数值模拟与试验测试相结合的方法对PTC结构进行模拟优化和试验验证,完成两种不同结构的陶瓷PTC对噪音影响分析,并梳理出陶瓷PTC结构优化设计及推广应用的一种思路。%Generally, split wall-mounted air conditioner adopts PTC to assist heating, in order to improve heating effect and accelerate heating speed. In the space of the bottom of evaporator, pan and cross-flow fan duct surrounded, the installation of ceramic PTC will result in abnormal sound noise. In the same setting heating mode, different structures of ceramic PTCs have different degrees of influence on the noise of the whole unit. This paper adopts the method which combines the CFD numerical modeling and experimental test to simulate and optimize, and test and validate. Finally, it analyzes the noise influence of the two different structures of ceramic PTC; and puts forward an idea of structure optimization design and application of ceramic PTC.

  15. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g−1 with a median value of 1092 ng g−1, while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day−1 (median 12 ng day−1). - Highlights: • PBDEs were investigated in dust of A/C filters in occupational settings in Thessaloniki, Greece. • BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. • High levels of PBDEs were found in a newspaper building, internet cafes and electronic shops. • PBDEs were attributable to the extensive presence and/or usage of electronic devices. • Exposure of employees to PBDEs via indoor dust ingestion was estimated at 12 ng day−1. - PBDEs were for the first time measured in dust from central A/C filters in workplaces of Greece and their concentrations were used to estimate the non-dietary human exposure

  16. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    We study the PM2.5 and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration t...

  17. 空调压缩机铝合金连杆的液态模锻%Hydraulic Forging of the Al Alloy Connection Rod of the Air-Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈华昌

    2001-01-01

    分析了空调压缩机用铝合金连杆的工艺特点和技术要求,介绍了液态模锻的模具结构和工作过程,同时还介绍了铝合金连杆液态模锻的工艺参数。%The processing characteristics and the technical requirement of the aluminum alloy connection rod for the air-conditioner compressor were analyzed. The structure and working process of the hydraulic forging die were introduced. And the processing data for hydraulically forging the aluminum alloy connection rod were stated.

  18. SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY: CONDITIONERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...

  19. An experimental study of the air-side particulate fouling in finned-tube heat exchangers of air conditioners through accelerated tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air-side particulate fouling in the heat exchangers of HVAC applications degrades the performance of cooling capacity, pressure drop across a heat exchanger, and indoor air quality. Indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul heat exchangers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fouling characteristics trough accelerated tests. The fouling characteristics are analyzed as functions of a dust concentration (1.28 and 3.84 g/m3), a face velocity (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m/s), and a surface condition. The cooling capacity in the slitted finned-tube heat exchangers at the face velocity of 1 m/s decreases about 2% and the pressure drop increases up to 57%. The rate of build-up of fouling is observed to be 3 times slower for this three-fold reduction of dust concentration whilst still approaching the same asymptotic level

  20. Modelagem de um condicionador de ar de alta precisão para uso em processamento agrícola Modeling of a high precision air conditioner for use in agricultural processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Fortes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho, estudo detalhado sobre a modelagem de um condicionador de ar com controle acurado de temperatura e umidade relativa. Desenvolveu-se um programa de computador que permite predizer o comportamento do sistema sob diferentes condições psicrométricas e de vazão do ar de entrada. O modelo global físico-matemático inclui equações de balanço de massa e de energia para três diferentes volumes de controle que compõem o condicionador. Modelaram-se os processos de mistura, evaporação (ou condensação simultânea de uma superfície d'água e de uma gota e o aquecimento de corrente de ar, separadamente. Propõem-se expressões semi-empíricas simples para os coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa inerentes ao processo de evaporação sobre uma superfície d'água e um modelo simplificado para o sistema de spray. Construiu-se um condicionador de ar no qual foram feitos testes experimentais para o ajuste das constantes que aparecem nas expressões para os coeficientes de transferência. Os dados obtidos validaram o modelo global, com precisão aceitável para projetos de engenharia.In this work, a detailed procedure for the analysis of an accurately controlled air conditioner is presented. A computer program, that allows predicting the behavior of the system under different psychrometric conditions and different input air mass flow rates, was developed. The global physical-mathematical model includes mass and energy conservation equations for three different control volumes that compose the conditioner. Thus, the processes of mixture of air, simultaneous evaporation (or condensation from a water surface and from a drop, and the air-stream heating are modeled separately. Simple semi-empiric expressions for heat and mass coefficients inherent to the evaporation process on a water surface are proposed as well a simplified model for the spray system. Experimental tests made on an air-conditioner allowed to obtain

  1. 非等温送风机柜空调的性能研究%Performance Analysis of Machine Cabinet Air Conditioner when Supplying Air with Different Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛倩倩; 臧润清; 郝莹

    2011-01-01

    The equipments in the machine room have great calorie power. The calorie power of different cabinet and the different part of a cabinet are also different. The position of the cabinets with different caloricity is indefinite, as a result, the machine room air conditioning can not satisfy the cooling. A cabinet on inequitable internal heat to cool "peer-to-peer" was presented. Through the experiment study ,for an evaporator with multi-channel ,increase the length of the boiling tube and supply the refrigerant separately ,can supply air with different temperature and realize a higher cooling efficiency. Another system equipped back pressure valves on the return gas pipe can realize supplying air with different temperature but the efficiency is lower.%机房设备具有发热量大、每个机柜发热量不同和个体机柜各个局部发热量不一致的特点.由于机房内不同发热量机柜摆放的不确定性,目前在用的机房空调不能满足降温要求.本文提出一种针对于个体机柜内部发热量不均进行"点对点"降温的机柜空调.通过试验研究可知,在一个机体上的多通路蒸发器,通过增加两个通路蒸发管长度,并与其它通路分开供液,可以实现非等温送风,且制冷系统具有较高的工作效率.另一种回气管路装有背压阀的系统虽能实现非等温送风,但制冷系统的效率较低.

  2. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  4. 水力平衡调试在中央空调中节能的应用%On application of hydraulic balancing adjustment in energy-saving of central air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雷

    2012-01-01

    Based on the importance of the hydraulic balancing in the heating air-conditioning system, the paper indicates the application of the hydraulic balancing adjustment in energy-saving of central air-conditioner from the concept of the hydraulic balancing, the adjustment principle and the practical cases, so as to realize the hydraulic balance in the operation process of the central air-constioner and achieve the energy-saving.%鉴于水力平衡在暖通空调系统中的重要作用,从水力平衡的概念、调节原理以及实际应用案例等方面入手,对水力平衡调试在中央空调中节能的应用进行简单论述,以实现中央空调运行过程的水力平衡,达到节能的目的。

  5. Attenuator And Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  6. 空调压缩机油粘度与油温过热度的测试研究%Experimental Study on the Oil Viscosity and Oil Superheat Temperature of Air Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏会军; 刘靖

    2015-01-01

    A method which can test the viscosity of the refrigerating oil on line is used to measure the air conditioner of 1.5HP. Combined with the actual working condition of rotary compressor, the situations which probably lead to a failure without lubricating enough is found. It can provide the data and theory basis to the study of the reliability of the rotary compressor lubrication and the evaluation standard.%通过自行建立的压缩机油粘度与油温过热度在线测试方法,对1.5HP家用变频空调系统进行测试分析,并结合滚动转子式压缩机的实际工作情况,分析了可能导致压缩机润滑失效的情况,为滚动转子式压缩机润滑可靠性的研究及评价提供了数据支持及理论依据。

  7. Flow Analysis around the Suction Valve and the Effect of the Flow on the Vibration-Reduction of the Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taizo; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Koyabu, Eitaro; Nakamura, Yusuke

    In the present study the simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner is designed to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the suction valve using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique and to measure the displacement of the valve. The displacement of the conventional valve in the test model is observed using the high speed video camera and is also measured using a strain gauge. On the other hand the velocity distributions around the suction valve are measured using PIV and the relation between the velocity distributions and the movement of the valve is investigated. Furthermore the new valve with the shape improved from the conventional valve is designed and the results of the flow visualization and the measurement of the valve displacement for the new valve are compared with those of the conventional valve. We found that the vibration of the new valve can be suppressed compared with the conventional one from the experiment using both the present test model and the commercial reciprocating compressor. The reason of the vibration-reduction for the new valve is discussed from the results of the present flow analysis.

  8. A PD Law Based Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy For Simultaneous Control Of Indoor Temperature And Humidity Using A Variable Speed Direct Expansion Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao; Xu, Xiang Guo; Deng, Shi Ming; Pan, Dong Mei

    2014-01-01

    In small to medium scale buildings located in the subtropics, such as Hong Kong, direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) systems are widely applied. This is because, as compared to chilled water based central air conditioning systems, DX A/C systems are compact, flexible for multi-room services, energy efficient and cost less to maintain and operate. However, traditionally, a DX A/C system is equipped with a single-speed compressor and supply air fan, and employs ON / OFF control strategy ...

  9. Design and Techno-economic Analysis of Domestic Solar Bubble Pump Driven Absorption Air-conditioner%一种家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调的系统设计与技术经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 周兴法; 舒欢; 刘道平; 刘妮

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the problems of high power consumption and noisy in traditional domestic air conditioner , a new type of domestic solar bubble pump absorption air-conditioner was developed .In this air conditioner , the lithium-bromide ab-sorption chiller was driven by solar and the traditional mechanical pump was replaced by the bubble pump .Under the design re-quirement of cooling capacity of 16.5kW and heating capacity of 18.0kW, bubble pump with inner diameter of 0.05m and im-mersed height of 0.5m, solar collector with area of 20m2 and heat storage tank with volume of 1m3 were selected by theoretical calculation.Finally, techno-economic comparison of this apparatus with traditional air-conditioner shows that the solar bubble pump absorption air conditioner has greater superiority .%为了有效解决传统家用空调的高耗电和噪声问题,开发了一种新型的家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调装置。该装置采用太阳能驱动溴化锂吸收式制冷机组,并以气泡泵代替传统的机械泵。在空调制冷量为16.5kW和制热量为18.0kW的设计要求下,通过理论计算选择内径为0.05m和沉浸高度为0.5m的气泡泵、集热面积为20m2太阳能集热器以及容积为1m3的蓄热水槽。最后,将该装置与普通家用空调进行技术经济比较,得出太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调有很大的优越性。

  10. 基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术研究%Research on Cooler Air conditioner Based on Thermal Conversion of Solar Radiation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕斌

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technical approach on cooler air conditioner based on thermal conver-sion of solar radiation technology,i.e.transforming solar energy to heat energy,and use the heat energy to achieve refrigeration.We developed a new solar absorption air conditioning system based on the thermal conversion of solar radiation technology.Through verification studies,the operating characteristics of so-lar collector and heat storage system of air conditioning systems,and operating characteristics of the re-frigeration unit are verified.The experiment shows:the air conditioning system can operate continuously and stably for 8 hours.The average cooling capacity is 4 kW,and the maximum cooling capacity is 4.7 kW.The system COP average is 0.3.Therefore,this new solar absorption air conditioning system based on thermal conversion of solar radiation technology provides a feasible method to realize large scale,low cost application of solar energy.%给出了以太阳能辐射技术为基础的热能转换空调制冷技术的技术方法,即将太阳能转变成热能,使用热能进行制冷。以太阳能辐射技术的热能转换为基础,研制了新型的太阳能吸收式空调系统,并且通过实验研究,验证了该系统的集热、蓄热特性以及制冷机组的运行热性。实验表明,该空调系统可连续8 h 稳定地工作,最大制冷量可达到4.7 kW,平均值也可达到4 kW,该空调系统性能参数 COP,平均可达到0.3。因此,基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术为太阳能规模化、低成本应用提供了行之有效的新方法。

  11. Residential Demand-Side Valuation of Interruptible Load Management for Air Conditioner%居民空调可中断管理的需求侧价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵媛; 俞炜华; 逄金栋; 沈淑琳; 李国平; 吴锴

    2012-01-01

    智能电网可以实现针对居民家庭不同电器终端的控制.评估不同电器终端的使用价值对于寻找目标人群和目标终端,从而细化需求侧管理(demand side management,DSM)具有重要意义.应用假设市场调研法(contingent valuation model,CVM)研究西安市居民在夏季用电高峰期使用空调的愿受价值(willingness to accept,WTA).在4种情景下分析管理的目标人群及影响因素,指出针对目标人群的调控可以以低成本提高用户响应,单纯的经济刺激可能难以实现既定的调峰目标.%Smart grid makes the control of residential end users possible. Measuring the value of different end users contributes to finding target population and further improve demand side management (DSM). This paper estimates the value of households' willingness-to-accept (WTA) for air conditioner in summer peak load period of Xi'an city by using of the contingent valuation method (CVM). Four scenarios are considered respectively to identify the target population and influencing factors. Calculation results show that cost-effective and better households' response could be implemented by DSM directing to target population, and pure economic incentive such as price signal may fail to fulfill the established object of peak load regulation.

  12. Current Situation Research of Domestic Air Conditioner Distribution Channel in Xuzhou and Analysis of Innovative Channel Mode:Setting Gree Air-co as an Example%徐州市家用空调器分销渠道现状调研及创新渠道模式探析--以格力空调为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 姚君秋; 周长卿; 戎晓红

    2013-01-01

    Air conditioning manufaturers in Xuzhou are facing increasingly fierce competion. As an important inflluencing factor of sales performance, choosing of distribution channel is getting more and more attention. All air conditioning manufacturers are constantly adjusting distribution strategies and exploring new channel modes. Gree Electric Appliances, Inc. of Zhuhai is a leading company in Chinese air conditioning market. This article takes Zhuhai Gree Air-co as an example to analyse the current situation of air conditioner distribution chaanel in Xuzhou and explore channel innovation modes.%  空调厂家在徐州的竞争日趋激烈,分销渠道的选择作为影响其销售业绩的重要因素,越来越受重视。各空调厂家都在不断地调整渠道策略,探索新渠道模式。珠海格力电器股份有限公司占据着中国空调市场一线品牌的领军位置。本文以珠海格力空调为例,分析徐州市家用空调器分销渠道现状,探析渠道创新模式。

  13. 太阳能复合能源空调热水系统中热泵系统换热性能的试验研究%Experimental Research on the Thermodynamic Performance of Heat Pump in Solar-assisted Air-conditioner with Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 郑祖义; 陈焕新; 金听祥

    2011-01-01

    通过将太阳能热水系统和空调热泵系统结合,设计出太阳能复合能源空调系统.针对该新型系统中的热泵空调热水子系统进行研究,在标准工况下,分别对该系统的3种模式下的换热性能进行试验,数据分析结果表明该系统比传统系统更为高效的,其单独制冷模式下系统最高COP可达5.34,单独热水模式下的静态加热系统COP可达5.78,制冷兼热水模式下系统COP可达4.5.%The research presents a solar-assisted air-conditioner with water heater in which solar water heater and heat pump air-conditioner are combined. The performance of heat pump in the new system is experimentally investigated. The performance of heat pump working at 3 modes under standard condition is measured. The results show that, the COP is 5.34, 5.78 and 4.5 at cooling mode, heating mode,and cooling-heating mode, respectively, which indicates that the new system is more effective than traditional systems.

  14. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  15. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  16. Trends in active power line conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Hirofumi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Active power line conditioners, which are classified into shunt and series ones, have been studied with the focus on their practical installation in industrial power systems. In 1986, a combined system of a shunt active conditioner of rating 900 kVA and a shunt passive filter of rating 6,600 kVA was practically installed to suppress the harmonics produced by a large capacity cycloconverter for steel mill drives. More than one hundred shunt active conditioners have been operating properly in Japan. The largest one is 10 mVA, which was developed for flicker compensation for an arc furnace with the help of a shunt passive filter of 20 mVA. In this paper, the term of ''active power line conditioners'' would be used instead of that of ''active power filters'' because active power line conditioners would cover a wider sense than active power filters. The primary intent of this paper is to present trends in active power line conditioners using PWM inverters, paying attention to practical applications.

  17. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Berry; Afrah Al-Bossly

    2013-01-01

    Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner o...

  18. 商用多联机室外机电机支架动力学分析及优化设计%Dynamics analysis and optimization design of outdoor unit’s motor bracket for commercial multi-split air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2016-01-01

    利用有限元仿真技术对某商用多联机室外机电机支架进行动力学分析,并利用试验结果证明仿真计算结果的准确性。基于仿真计算结果对电机支架进行优化设计,有效解决电机支架的共振问题。%The motor bracket of one commercial multi-split air conditioner is analyzed using finite element simulation technology,and the accuracy of simulation results is proved by experiment.The optimization design of motor bracket is conducted based on the simula-tion results,and the resonance of motor bracket is solved effectively.

  19. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  20. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  1. Research on influence law of capillary length on performance of room air conditioner in non-standard working condition%非标工况下毛细管长度对家用空调器性能影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮; 熊军; 陈绍林

    2012-01-01

    通过研究家用空调器的制冷量、能效比、排气温度、吸气温度等随室外温度和毛细管长度的变化规律,得出增加毛细管长度有利于提升高温工况下的制冷量,缩短毛细管长度有利于提升低温工况下的制冷量的结论,对于空调系统匹配有一定的指导意义.%The influence law of capillary length and outdoor temperature on cooling capacity, COP, exhaust temperature, suction temperature of room air conditioner are analyzed. The results show that increasing capillary length is benefit for cooling capacity under high temperature condition and decreasing length brings advantage to cooling capacity under low temperature condition. The study will provide reference for air-conditioning system matching.

  2. 替代高温气候区域分体式家用空调R22的低GWP制冷剂R444B实验研究%Experiment Study on R444B as an Alternative Low GWP Refrigerant of R22 Used in Room Air Conditioners in High Ambient Temperature Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恩新; 牛永明; 霍宏祥; 林云

    2015-01-01

    制冷剂R444B是霍尼韦尔最新开发的、可作为高温气候区域家用空调制冷剂R22的替代制冷剂。R444B的ODP(臭氧消耗潜能值)为零,GWP(全球变暖潜能值)仅为295;相对于R22,GWP减少85%。理论制冷循环分析表明,R444B 的制冷量和COP(性能系数)在高温工况下与R22相当。分体式空调实验结果显示:在高温气候区域的T3和T3Max工况下,R444B的制冷量和COP与R22相当,略高于R407C;R444B的排气温度与R22相当;R444B换热器压降也小于R22;R444B制冷剂流量约为R22的80%。通过优化室内机管路连接方式,优化后R444B空调制冷量和COP相对于原型提升0.3%~1.0%。R444B的制冷量和COP随高温环境衰变速率与R22相当,优于R407C。%Refrigerant R444B is developed by Honeywell as an alternative to R22 used in room air conditioners in high ambient temperature regions. R444B shows zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) and 295 GWP (global warming potential). Comparing with R22, GWP of R444B reduces 85%. Analysis on the theory refrigeration cycle at the condition of high ambient temperature shows the refrigeration capacity andCOP (coefficient of performance) of R444B are similar with that of R22. Experimental study on Mini-Split air conditioner under T3 and T3max shows that, the refrigeration capacity andCOP of R444B are similar to those of R22, and are higher than those of R407C; the discharge temperature of R444B is similar to those of R22;the pressure drop of R444B in the heat exchanger is lower than that of R22. Comparing with the original one, the refrigeration capacity andCOP of the optimized R444B air conditioner can be increased by 0.3%~1.0% through optimization on the pipeline connection of indoor unit. The degradation of refrigeration capacity and COP of R444B are similar to those of R22, and are better than those of R407C.

  3. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  4. 有限元技术在空调应力应变中的应用分析%Analysis on the Application of Finite Element Technology on the Stress-strain of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思磊

    2015-01-01

    本文以ANSYS有限元分析软件为工具,对空调管路系统进行模态分析,并结合实验得出解决应力超标的方案,体现了有限元技术在空调应力应变分析中的重要性.%Taking the ANSYS finite element analysis software as the tool, the modal analysis is carried out for the air-conditioning pipeline system. Besides, combined with the experiments, the scheme to solve the problem of exceeding stress is proposed. It reflects the significance of finite element technology in the stress-strain analysis of air-condition-er.

  5. 水源热泵机组空调系统的运用和选择%On application and selection of air-conditioner system of water source heat pump unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰秀桂

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the air-conditioning system,indicates from the scheme of using the water source heat pump unit and the identification of ways,and points out the feasibility of the current use of the water source heat pump unit,analyzes and researches the calculation of energy efficiency,technology and economic,the environment influence,the application perspective and the risks of the air-conditioning system of the water source heat pump unit,and indicates the necessity for the extensive use of the air-conditioning system in water source heat pump unit.%对空调系统进行了分析,从使用水源热泵机组的方案论述、方式确定等方面进行了论述,指出了当前使用水源热泵的可行性,同时对水源热泵机组空调系统的能效计算、技术经济、环境影响、应用前景、风险等进行了分析研究,充分说明了水源热泵机组空调系统广泛使用的必然性。

  6. 企业创新悖论与两栖组织模式——基于海尔空调产品开发团队案例的研究%Innovation paradox and ambidextrous organization: A case study on development teams of air conditioner in Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤彬; 江鸿

    2009-01-01

    新产品开发作为企业自主创新活动的一种重要形式,是知识探索与知识利用有机结合的过程.在对二者悖论关系及其处理方略进行系统文献综述的基础上,将两栖组织的定义从"二元结构"、"二面性结构"伸展到"两栖能力",试图在较低的组织层次上回答如何辩证地解决二者看似矛盾实则可统一的关系.在对海尔空调开发团队的成员构成及异质性知识组合案例分析后,得出的结论是,"两栖"不仅是组织层面的构念,而且可以是团队乃至像"型号经理"这样的个体员工层面的构念.%While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers.

  7. Research on the Transient Performance of the Double-Evaporator VRV Air Conditioner%双联变频空调系统的动态特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴禧; 陈武; 夏清; 王懿

    2001-01-01

    With an void fraction model equation adopted and conservation priciple applied, an unsteady distributed-parameter mathematical model based on two-phased theory, which can predict the transient performance of the system, is established. The dynamic response to the step change of inverter-aided compressor speed, opening of the EEV and air fan speed is studied.%通过引入空泡系数模型方程,应用守恒原理,建立起以蒸发器、电子膨胀阀、压缩机为一体的双联空调系统的动态分布参数数学模型;通过仿真计算对一拖二系统随变频压缩机转速、电子膨胀阀开度以及回风风机转速改变的动态特性进行研究分析;为系统的实时控制打下基础。

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  9. ANALYSIS ON REAL OPERATION AND ADSORBER PERFORMANCE OF A CONTINUOUS HEAT REGENERATIVE ADSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER%连续回热型吸附式空调实际运行与吸附床性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静怡; 王如竹; 许煜雄

    2000-01-01

    近年来,我们研制了一台连续回热型吸附式空调/热泵,该空调/热泵在100热源驱动下,单位质量制冷功率SCP可达到150 W/kg,与此同时COP达到0.4。在系统的实际运行中,吸附床起到了重要的作用。本文介绍了该机组在实际运行中为稳定工况所采取的一系列措施,以及机组运行的实际Clapeyron图,着重讨论了系统运行参数对吸附床性能的影响%A continuous heat regenerative adsorption air conditionerhas been developed, which has specific cooling power of 150 W/kg andCOP of 0.5 in heating temperature of 100. In this systemtwo adsorbers are key devices, which are made of two shell and pipeexchangers. Adsorber performance depends on real operationparameter such as desorption temperature, adsorption temperature,condensing temperature, evaporating temperature, cycle time, massrecovery time and so on. In this paper, the methods controllingtemperature of heat source and evaporatingtemperature for stabilizing working condition are introduced.Clapeyron curves of real operation are showed. The factors effectingadsorber performance, such as cycle time of system and temperature ofheat source and so on, are chiefly discussed

  10. Power conditioner without isolation transformer; Toransuresu power conditioner no shohin kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okado, C.; Itami, T.; Kimoto, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light-weight downsized and high efficiency transformer-less type 4 kW power conditioner (inverter) has been developed. This power conditioner insures the system interconnection protection by monitoring the voltage of two single-phase three-line circuits. The power conditioner has weight of 17.5 kg and efficiency of 94%. Potential fluctuation of photovoltaic cells due to the switching of power devices at the inverter was reduced. Output capacity was reduced in the low input voltage range. Outflow of DC component was prevented in high accuracy by usually correcting the zero point drift of detector, and by using the current detector with excellent linearity. To detect the DC ground fault, and to trip the output side breaker locating at the ground fault current pass, a zero phase converter detection circuit has been developed, by which the DC component can be detected at the DC input side. As a result of performance verification, the efficiency, power factor, EMI level, protection of outflow of DC component, protection of ground fault, protection of single operation detection, and noise level were satisfied. This system is prospective for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the future. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernyshova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evaporation cooling and spray (aqueous and air-to-water types of the air-conditioning systems are considered, their merits and demerits are analyzed; the new scheme of a conditioner is offered.

  12. Study on the High Temperature Air-conditioner Based on Flash Evaporative Cooling Technology and Using R134a as Refrigerant%闪发蒸汽冷却技术及 R134a 用于高温空调器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文举; 王梦圆; 江辉民; 高岩; 李德英

    2015-01-01

    建立了基于闪发蒸汽冷却技术及 R134a 为工质的高温空调器数学模型,分析并比较了 R22单级压缩、R22闪发蒸汽冷却和 R134a 单级压缩制冷系统在不同室外气温度下系统冷凝压力、压缩机排气温度、制冷量、耗功和性能系数。结果表明,相同工况下 R134a 制冷系统的冷凝压力和排气温度最低,制冷量较小,较 R22制冷系统适宜于环境温度50℃以上工况。当环境温度介于42~50℃时,闪发蒸汽冷却技术可有效降低以 R22为工质的空调压缩机的排气温度,提高系统制冷量和性能系数,但冷凝压力和耗功略有升高。%Mathematical model of the high temperature air-conditioner based on flash evaporative cooling technology and using R134a as refrigerant were developed.Condensing pressure,compressor’s discharge temperature and input power,refrigerating ca-pacity and coefficient of performance (COP)of refrigeration systems including refrigeration system with R134a as refrigerant,sin-gle stage compression refrigeration system with R22 as refrigerant and flash evaporative cooling technology based refrigeration sys-tem also using R22 as refrigerant were analyzed.Results showed that refrigeration system using R134a as refrigerant had the lowest condensing pressure,compressor discharge temperature and refrigerating capacity when three refrigeration systems worked in same condition,and this system was more suitable for the condition that environment temperature was higher than 50℃.Compared with single stage compression refrigeration system with R22 as refrigerant,flash evaporative cooling technology could effectively reduce the compressor discharge temperature and improve the refrigeration system’s capacity and COP with slightly higher power con-sumption and condensing pressure when the environment temperature was between 42 ~50 ℃.

  13. Demand Response Control Strategy for Central Air-conditioner Based on Temperature Adjustment of Partial Terminal Devices%基于局部终端温度调节的中央空调需求响应控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚野白; 王丹; 贾宏杰; 黄仁乐; 张逸; 杨占勇

    2015-01-01

    不同于传统单体温控设备,中央空调因其较大的制冷/制热容量而具有更好的需求响应可调潜力。结合中央空调需求响应特点,对其进行了热力学建模,涉及中央空调主机、循环水泵系统、终端组件等动态,形成了多终端中央空调需求响应模型。针对以往中央空调控制策略中对终端整体调节的方法,提出了一种基于局部终端温度调节的控制策略,可实现不同的控制精度。研究结果表明,基于“自下而上”的控制方法,通过合理调节关键的中央空调终端温度设定值,受控群体能够在维持较高用户舒适度的同时,精准响应外界功率信号。%Unlike small amounts of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs),the central air-conditioner(CAC) has huge potential ability of demand response by virtue of its large capacity.Focusing on the features of CAC demand response,an integrated model is proposed to describe CAC”s thermodynamic aspects,including the main devices,circulating water system and terminal devices.This paper presents a new CAC control strategy based on temperature adjustment of partial terminal devices which differs from previous methods in concentrating on all the CAC”s terminal devices.The effects of different precision controlling conditions can be reflected by using this model and strategy.Modeling results show that the proposed approach has better performance and efficiency by rational adjustment.

  14. In vitro examination of oral tissue conditioners potential toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral tissue conditioners are applied temporarily to the gingival surface of a denture for the purpose of reconditioning the abused denture supporting tissues, allowing them to return to a normal, healthy state. According to chemical composition they can be classified into methacrylic and silicon conditioners. The objective of this research was to examine the potential toxicity of one, seven and thirty day extracts of different concentrations. Different effective concentrations (5, 12.5, 25 and 50% of two silicone and four methacrylic conditioners extracts were used after extraction period of one, seven and thirty days. Amount of toxic substances and dynamics of their release were monitored by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC analysis could not be applied to the silicone conditioners because they consist of polymeric and inorganic 19 substances. Evaluation of cell proliferation, as cytotoxic parameters, was done by Mosmann’s MTT assay based on reduction of yellow tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide - MTT to purple formazan by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase of metabolic active cells. With increasing of extraction period, the amount of released potential toxic substances increased. The cytotoxicity of tested materials significantly increased with extract concentration increase and duration of extraction period. To improve the biological characteristics of mobile dentures relined by soft materials, soaking in water the day before insertion into patient’s mouth was recommended. Silicone conditioners showed less cytotoxicity compared to the methacrylic conditioners, so they are more appropriate for daily dental practice.

  15. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  16. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-01-01

    There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of compute...

  17. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device composed of an adhesive compound, such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to cement an orthodontic...

  19. Proceedings of the MERCOFRIO 2000: Congress and exposition on air conditioning, refrigeration, heating and ventilation from MERCOSUL; Anais do MERCOFRIO 2000: Congresso de ar condicionado, refrigeracao, aquecimento e ventilacao do MERCOSUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented on the following subjects: energy consumption and conservation, thermal analysis, heat transfer, air conditioning and conditioners, residence thermal analysis, and food preservation.

  20. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  1. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  2. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  3. Evaluation of ERINA Plus as a coat conditioner in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava

    Full Text Available Coat conditioning, deodorant and cleansing properties of ERINA Plus were evaluated in fifty-one dogs of different breeds. More than 80% of dogs showed good to excellent conditioning, deodorant and cleansing effects supported ERINA Plus as safe conditioner shampoo. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 361-362

  4. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  5. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  6. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  7. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  8. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  9. Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yan; Zhang Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy ...

  10. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  11. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Annapandi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs to a common DC link voltage, which compensates voltage and current based distortions, independently.Using instantaneous active and reactive Power theory ,harmonic detection, reactive power compensation, voltage sag and swell have been simulated and the results are analyzed. The operation and capability of the proposed system was analyzed through simulations with MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  12. Uji Efektivitas Soil Conditioner Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi padi ( oriza sativa l. var. inpari 3 )

    OpenAIRE

    Pulungan, Astari Mita Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Uses of more inorganic fertilizer will be land degradation. Land degradation affect declining of soil quality become damaged. For increasing the growth and production of rice in the field need soil conditioner (SC) which in good quality, to complete this problem soil conditioner can be expected by the farmers because the soil conditioner has a function to fix the damaged soil because of inappropriate management, to make poor soil more useable, and to keep soil in top conditi...

  13. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  14. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  15. hermetically sealed compressor unit, temperature level, mathematical model, marine air conditioning syste

    OpenAIRE

    Lytosh, Olena V.; Dorosh, Vadym S.

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the temperature level of the hermetically sealed compressor unit for the marine self-contained air conditioners taking into account the operating conditions and machine design parameters have been given.

  16. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  17. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  18. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products. PMID:26120149

  19. Shampoo and conditioners: What a dermatologist should know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  20. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Radio decontamination of hair conditioner for capillary ammniotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hair conditioner, which belongs to the group of cosmetic products Dr Miyares Cao, was artificially contaminated, kept at different values of temperature (-20 oC, 0oC and +20oC) and irradiated to different doses (6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy) and 25 oC for studying the effect of gamma radiation on it and the possibility of use of this technology for its decontamination. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator and the quality of irradiated products were determined. Was conclude that the product maintain its organolepthics characteristics and others quality parameters after irradiated to 20 kGy and +20oC of temperature before irradiation. Finally, the decontamination of studied product was obtained by means its irradiation to 16.2 kGy

  2. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  3. Current Evaluation Procedures for Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners Used in Organic Agriculture. Proceedings of a workshop held April 29–30, 2004 at Emerson College, Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, Stefano; Stopes, Christopher; Schmid, Otto; Speiser, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Table of Contents Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Austria Alexandra Hozzank and Wilfried Hartl Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in the Czech Republic Anamarija Slabe Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Denmark Rasmus Ørnberg Eriksen and Erik Steen Kristensen Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in France Marie-Christine Monnier Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic fa...

  4. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuizen Fredrik; Sellors John; Seamans Yancy; Howard Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the re...

  5. Influences of Oyster Shell Soil Conditioner on Soil and Plant Rhizospheric Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guoliang; LIU Yun; DING Mingyu; KONG Xiuqin

    2003-01-01

    Oyster shell soil conditioner had significant influence on soil and rhizospheric microorganisms in their biomass,respiratory intensity and nutritional requirement. It could stimulate growth of soil and rhizospheric microorganisms, especially nitrogen-fixers, and intensify soil respiration in proportion to the dose and fertilizing time of the conditioner, leading to the increase in the number of nitrogen fixing bacteria and the decrease in the number of bacteria with special nutrition demands.

  6. Computer Model to Estimate Reliability Engineering for Air Conditioning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability engineering is used to predict the performance and optimize design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are expose to a number of failures. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. Forecasting for system failure rates are very important for maintenance. This paper focused on the reliability of the air conditioning systems. Statistical distributions that were commonly applied in reliability settings: the standard (2 parameter) Weibull and Gamma distributions. After distributions parameters had been estimated, reliability estimations and predictions were used for evaluations. To evaluate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several The company's departments. This air conditioning system is divided into two, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40-45 degree F (4-7 degree C). The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, this is due to the Weibull and Gamma distributions indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively. A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families was studied. It was found that Weibull method performed for decision making.

  7. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Chi Cheng; Dasheng Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be contr...

  8. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  9. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  10. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  11. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  12. Power system stabilization by SMES using current-fed pwm power conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit, consisted of superconducting coil and AC/DC power conditioner, can be used to suppress various kinds of instability that may cause service interruption in electric power system as it has high controllability of input/output electric power. Power system stabilizing ability of SMES has been examined experimentally by using model power system and small SMES unit. Current-fed PWM power conditioner was used to obtain maximum stabilizing effect by controlling active and reactive power simultaneously and independently. Power conditioner configuration, operating characteristics and control scheme for power system stabilization are also described. Results from experiments show the effectiveness of SMES on power system stabilization

  13. Numerical study of the flow conditioner for the IFMIF liquid lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S., E-mail: sergej.gordeev@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute for Thechnology, Campus North, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gröschel, F. [KIT Fusion Program, Karlsruhe Institute for Thechnology, Campus North, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Heinzel, V.; Hering, W.; Stieglitz, R. [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute for Thechnology, Campus North, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A detailed numerical analysis of the flow conditioner efficiency has been performed. • The calculations show that the present design of the flow conditioner cannot suppress swirl motions emerging from the bend. • The transient simulation reveals flow instabilities between the separation zone and the accelerated outer region. • Calculation shows that pitched guide vanes upstream the elbow reduces a generation of backflow areas downstream. - Abstract: IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based deuteron–lithium (D–Li) neutron source to simulate the neutron irradiation field in a fusion reactor. The target assembly of the IFMIF consists of the flow conditioners and the nozzle, which has to form a stable lithium jet. This work focuses on a numerical study of the flow conditioner efficiency, in which two different types of flow conditioners are compared by means of a detailed numerical analysis with respect to specific hydraulic effects in the pipe elbow and the inflow conditioners. The adequateness of three different turbulence models to simulate a flow through a 90° bend of circular cross section has been examined. The calculations show that a honeycomb-screen combination is not capable to suppress effectively large scale swirl motions emerging from the bend. An increasing number of screens improves the flow uniformity downstream, but increases the pressure drop. In order to detect any transient effects in the separation area a flow straightener configuration consisting of a honeycomb with a subsequent screen has been analyzed by means of a detached eddy simulation (DES). A frequency analysis of the normalized static pressure amplitude conducted by means of a detached eddy simulation (DES) reveals instabilities in the shear layer between the separation zone and the accelerated outer region, which additionally increase the inhomogeneity of the axial velocity distribution. A set of six circumferentially

  14. Active power line conditioners design, simulation and implementation for improving power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, Patricio Salmeron; Litrán, Salvador Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Active Power Line Conditioners: Design, Simulation and Implementation for Improving Power Quality presents a rigorous theoretical and practical approach to active power line conditioners, one of the subjects of most interest in the field of power quality. Its broad approach offers a journey that will allow power engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students to learn more about the latest landmarks on the different APLC configurations for load active compensation. By introducing the issues and equipment needs that arise when correcting the lack of power quality in power grids

  15. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  16. CSMP commutation model for design study of a brushless dc motor power conditioner for a cruise missile fin control actuator. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, P.N.

    1985-06-01

    Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high-horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use as flight-control actuators for tactical missiles. A dynamic equivalent circuit model for the analysis of a small four pole brushless DC motor fed by a transistorized power conditioner utilizing high speed switching power transistors as final elements is presented. The influence of electronic commutation on instantaneous dynamic motor performance is particularly demonstrated and good correlation between computer simulation and typical experimentally obtained performance data is achieved. The model is implemented in CSMP language and features more accurate air gap flux representation over previous work. Hall-effect sensor rotor position feedback is simulated. Both constant and variable-air-gap flux is modeled and the variable flux model treats the flux as a fundamental and one harmonic.

  17. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when ozone is expected to be high: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperature. Choose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when possible. Refuel cars ...

  18. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  19. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  20. Remote controlled signal conditioner and fiber optic data link system development CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZTH reversed-field pinch to be installed in the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) will produce a significant ambient magnetic field. To avoid ground-loop and other electrical problems, the diagnostics in direct or possible contact with the experiment will be accessed through a fiber optic data way. The frequency-modulated analog links developed for this system have a bandwidth of dc to 100 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 60 dB. The fiber optic transmitter units include a signal conditioner and a microprocessor controller. The conditioners can be configured as dc-coupled, low-noise differential amplifiers, or as high-gain, low-drift differential integrators with a very long droop time constant. Magnetic field pickup is minimized by balancing sensitive circuit areas to within 5 mm2 in all three planes of the PC boards. The gain, offset, and integrator reset are controlled and monitored by the microprocessor, and their status is displayed on the front panel of the transmitter unit. The signal conditioner can be controlled locally, or by way of a fiber optic coupled control network. The system allows fast, convenient, noise-immune control of a large number of signal conditioners from a central host computer. By varying the offset, the computer can verify the operational integrity of the data links. 2 refs., 6 figs

  1. Use of conditioners in the production of Tifton 85 grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the curve of dehydration, bromatological composition and occurrence of fungi in Tifton 85 grass, submitted to four methods of dehydration. The curves of dehydration were studied in a completely randomized design with a 4 × 11 factorial scheme with four drying systems (1 conditioning + 1 turn-over; 2 conditionings + 1 turn-over; no conditioning + 1 turn-over and no conditioning + 2 turn-overs and 11 sampling times (0, 3, 15, 18, 21, 24, 39, 42, 45 and 47 hours after the cutting, with six replicates. For the bromatological composition and fungi occurrence, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with the four drying methods of Tifton 85 grass and three periods of evaluation (before the cutting, at the time of the baling and 30 days after storage with six replicates. It was found that after the first hour after cutting and at the end of the period of dehydration, Tifton 85 plants that were treated with conditioners showed higher levels of dry matter. Stored hay that was treated with conditioners presented higher levels of acid detergent insoluble protein. Until baling, the drying methods did not alter the crude protein content of hay; however, after storage, the hay submitted only to turn-over showed crude protein content higher (13.90% than those submitted to conditioners (9.94%. There was an increase in the occurrence of fungi after storage, but the application of conditioners and one turn-over resulted in lower CUF/g, compared with other treatments, enhancing the effect of conditioners on accelerating the dehydration rate and obtaining better hay storage conditions

  2. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  3. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... characterization, (3) markups to determine product price, (4) life-cycle cost and payback period, and (5) national...-the-wall and space-constrained systems. 69 FR 50997. This final rule constituted the first cycle of... analyses DOE would conduct, such as the engineering analysis, the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback...

  4. Quality standards for ventilation devices and air conditioners; Qualitaetsstandards fuer Lueftungs- und Klimageraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, C. [DSD-Lufttechnik, St. Ingbert (Germany); Baumeister, R.L. [Robatherm, Burgau (Germany); Boehm, P. [TUEV Bayern-Sachsen, Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, W. [Fachgemeinschaft Allgemeine Lufttechnik im VDMA, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    In Germany the requirements and testing of ventilation devices/space HVAC systems have not been standardised yet. In this work a report is given on the European standardisation activities and on the activities of the private industry with respect to quality assessment, both of which are setting new standards. This will have major effects on the market for these devices. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anforderungen und Pruefungen von raumlufttechnischen Geraeten sind in Deutschland bisher nicht standardisiert. Die europaeische Normung und privatwirtschaftliche Aktivitaeten zur Guetesicherung, ueber die in diesem Beitrag berichtet wird, setzen neue Massstaebe. Dies wird grundlegende Auswirkungen auf den Geraetemarkt haben. (orig.)

  5. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  6. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source as indicated in the appendices to this part. (5) Placement of the labeled product on the scale... heating seasonal performance factors for all heating only heat pumps. (5) Placement of the labeled product... the product in the form of an adhesive label. All adhesive labels should be applied so they can...

  7. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal El-Berry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. To maintain the system forecasting for system failure rates are very important. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the air conditioning systems. The most common applied statistical distributions in reliability settings are the standard (2 parameter Weibull and Gamma distributions. Reliability estimations and predictions are used to evaluate, when the estimation of distributionsparameters is done. To estimate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several companies’ departments is checked. This air conditioning system is divided into two systems, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40 - 45oF (4 - 7oC. The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, with the application of the Weibull and Gamma distributions it is indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively . A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families is studied. It is found that Weibull method has performed well for decision making .

  8. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  9. A LVDT conditioner for the beam profile monitors of the AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a transducer for localization. Because of its applied materials, its construction and the absence of bearings etc. the instrument is suitable to be applied in locations where radioactive radiation is present. In order to obtain information about the position of the iron core in the transducer, a conditioner is needed. In 1977 by Digel a conditioner has been developed for the beam profile monitors (moving wire) of MEA because the 'market' could not meet the requirements then. Nowadays the 'market' offers i.c.'s which can take over the work of the Eurocard developed then. Digel has investigated them in order to see if they are applicable for the beam profile monitors of AmPS. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 13 tabs

  10. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC) for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    OpenAIRE

    G.L. Valsala; L. Padma Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate ...

  11. Preliminary Research on Soil Conditioner Mediated Citrus Huanglongbing Mitigation in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, M. R.; Liang, M. D.; Zheng, Z.; Zhu, Q.; Chen, J C.; Deng, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) is devastating citrus production worldwide. No effective control measure is currently available. In China, management of HLB through nutrient applications was raised in the past and the interest is renewed recently. In this study, the efficacy of a soil conditioner on different ages of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus trees was evaluated at 3 orchards in Sihui and at different months post treatment in Longmen, Guangdong province. Two species, Shata...

  12. Optimal placement of an active power line conditioner by using of Fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recognition of the sources of harmonic producing and their destructive effects on power system equipment, the necessity of the reduction of harmonic voltage and current distortion till resting to harmonic standards permissible restricted area is revealed. There is different methods for encountering with harmonics. One of the newest exciting methods is the use of active power line conditioner. Active power line conditioner is a kind of active filters that by means of injecting harmonic currents to network busses is able to reduce harmonic distortion in all network busses. In this thesis after network components modeling at harmonic areas, harmonic power flow is done by current injecting method. Then the amount of active power line conditioner injected currents for minimizing the voltage. T.H.Ds and M.L.L s in all busses in two cases constrained and non constrained is computed by using of nonlinear optimal theorem and considering of T.H.D and M.L.L as two objective functions. For selecting the optimal place of active power line conditioner installing a fuzzy system has designed that is able to determine the best bus intelligently by simulating of experiences of a expert person and considering of the harmonic standards permissible restricted area. Different particles of this fuzzy system are: Fuzzifier, Fuzzy rule base, Fuzzy inference engine and Defuzzifier that these components is contemplate by detailed. At the end of thesis the upper simulation has done on three networks (3 busses, 5 busses and 18 busses) and the obtained results has presented

  13. In vitro evaluation of three temporary tissue conditioners submitted to penetration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maranha da ROCHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluateresilience changes of four tissue conditioners: Coe Comfort (CC, Ufi-Gel (UG, Sofreliner S (SS and Sofreliner MS (SMS, associated totheir respective surface sealers at different times. Material andmethods: A hundred and sixty capsules of acrylic resin were madeand then finished prior to the filling with the tissue conditioners. For the CC group the capsules were not treated and were filled with the material. For the conditioners UG, SS and SMS, the capsules wereinternally treated prior to the material insertion. All the materials were used following the manufacturer’s instructions. The tests were carried out after 1h, 24h, 30 days and 60 days. Results: The effect of time at the materials resilience was evaluated and it was observed that CC loses more resilience than UG, SS and SMS, what proofs that its use is limited only to a short period. UG, SS and SMS, despite having a little resilience deficiency in the first moment, showed better results after 60 days. Conclusion: It was concluded that silicon based materials keep its initial characteristics till 60 days, while acrylic resin based materials progressively lose its viscoelasticity.

  14. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  15. Candidate chemical systems for air cooled, solar powered, absorption air conditioner design. Part II. Solid absorbents, high latent heat refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, W. J.

    1978-04-01

    Work done in attempting to qualify absorption refrigeration systems based on refrigerants with intermediate latent heats of vaporization is summarized. In practice, these comprise methanol, ammonia, and methylamine. A wide variety of organic substances, salts, and mixtures were evaluated in as systematic a manner as possible. Several systems of interest are described. The system, LiClO/sub 3/--LiBr--H/sub 2/O, is a good back up system to our first choice of an antifreeze additive system, and thermodynamically promising but subject to some inconvenient materials limitations. The system, LiBr/ZnBr/sub 2/--methanol, is thermodynamically promising but requires additional kinetic qualification. Chemical stability of the system, LiCNS--ammonia/methylamine with various other third components, does not appear to be adequate for a long-lived system.

  16. AIR CONDITIONING IN OPERATING ROOMS AND INFECTION CONTROL – A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    May Socorro Martinez Afonso; Adenicia Custodia Silva e Souza; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Eliene Aparecida Machado; Eliane Alves Lucas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This bibliographic survey in data banks such as MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO, Ministry of Health, among others aims at identifying what makes air conditioners a source of environmental contamination. The air is contaminated by particles which transport microorganisms. The sources of particles include patients and surgical staff. The control of the temperature, relative humidity, pressure, number of changes of air accomplished per hour, clothes, traffic, number of people in the rooms, mai...

  17. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  18. A control strategy for a three-level unified power quality conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Luís F. C.; Costa, José C. C.; Aredes, Maurício; Afonso, João L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a control strategy for a three-level Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is introduced. Basically, this control strategy is based on the set of active and non-active (reactive) power definitions in the time domain, which have been proposed by Fryze in the 30´s of the last century. The goal of this work consists in expand this control strategy to deal with three-level converters. The use of three-level converters allows a better performance of the equipment, by reducing...

  19. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  20. Efficient air conditioning. Part 2. Air quality; Effiziente Klimatisierung - Teil 2. Luftqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Herbert [Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2002-05-01

    Like other air conditioning systems, solar air conditioners should provide 'dry cool air', i.e. hygienically acceptable air at a comfortable temperature. In the summer season and in big cities, this is not possible without air filtering and dehumidification. [German] Im Herbst vergangenen Jahres wurden in dieser Zeitschrift am Markt vorhandene Systeme fuer eine solargestuetzte Klimatisierung verglichen.In dem Artikel fordern die Verfasser 'trockene kuehle Luft fuer die Nutzer'. Diese Forderung sollte eigentlich lauten 'schadstoff- und staubarme Luft im Aufenthaltsbereiche mit Temperatur und Feuchte innerhalb des Behaglichkeitsfeldes' oder kurz gesagt: 'hygienisch einwandrei und angenehm temperiert'. Diese Forderung ist allerdings ohne eine Luftfilterung und ohne Entfeuchtung in den Innenstaedten im Sommer nicht realisierbar. (orig.)

  1. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally sol...

  2. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Larry G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  3. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs+) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs+ could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K+ transport system, since Cs+ uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K+). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs+ uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K+, suggesting that Cs+ and K+ uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil. (author)

  4. New Application’s Approach to Unified Power Quality Conditioners for Mitigation of Surge Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a new approach for the compensation of power systems presented through the use of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC which compensates impulsive and oscillatory electromagnetic transients. The newly proposed control technique involves a dual analysis of the UPQC where the parallel compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled voltage source, while the series compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled current source, opposed to the traditional approach where the parallel and series compensators are modelled as current and voltage nonsinusoidal sources, respectively. Also a new compensation algorithm is proposed through the application of the theory of generalized reactive power; this is then compared with the theory of active and reactive instantaneous power, or pq theory. The results are presented by means of simulations in MATLAB-Simulink®.

  5. Modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in distribution systems load flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in load flow calculations for steady-state voltage compensation. An accurate model for this device is derived to use in load flow calculations. The rating of this device as well as direction of reactive power injection required to compensate voltage to the desired value (1 p.u.) is derived and discussed analytically and mathematically using phasor diagram method. Since performance of the compensator varies when it reaches to its maximum capacity, modeling of UPQC in its maximum rating of reactive power injection is derived. The validity of the proposed model is examined using two standard distribution systems consisting of 33 and 69 nodes, respectively. The best location of UPQC for under voltage problem mitigation in the distribution network is determined. The results show the validity of the proposed model for UPQC in large distribution systems.

  6. Dual Functional Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Power Quality Enhancement and Wind Energy Injection to Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najafi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a combined operation of the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC with wind power generation system considering investment cost. The proposed system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and an induction generator connected in the dc link through a converter. The proposed system can compensate voltage sag and swell, voltage interruption, harmonics, and reactive power in both interconnected mode and islanding mode. The speed of the induction generator is controlled according to the variation of the wind speed in order to produce the maximum output power. The investment cost of proposed system is compared with investment cost of separated use of UPQC and Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS and the economic saving due to use of proposed system is estimated. The validity of the proposed system is verified by the results of computer simulation.

  7. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10-4 rem, 1.2 x 10-3 rem, and 0.55 x 10-4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10-5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10-5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10-2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  8. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  9. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Kaushik; Roshni Sharma; Pallavi Reddy; Pallavi Pathak; Pooja Udameshi; Narmatha Vallakuruchi Jayabal

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used as a resto...

  11. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  12. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  13. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  14. Model for predicting noise of propeller fans in air conditioners; Kuchoyo propeller fan no soon hasei model no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamaya, N.; Funabashi, S.; Takada, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-25

    A model for predicting noise of propeller fans has been developed experimentally. First, the frequency response of turbulence on the blade of a rotating propeller fan was experimentally measured. Then, propeller fan noise was predicted by this model, which calculates lift fluctuations by Sears's equation and sound pressure in the far field by Curle's equation. The model assumes that the normalized intensity of turbulence (i. e., velocity fluctuation) is small in the high-flow-coefficient range but increases sharply in the low-flow-coefficient range. And the model showed that propeller fan noise depends on averaged relative velocity, intensity of turbulence, and length scale of turbulence. These results agree with the experimental measurements. Accordingly, the model predicts propeller fan noise and noise spectrum over a wide range of flow coefficients with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  15. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Valsala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate the voltage sag/swell problems, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating voltage and current related power quality problems. Thus, the proposed topology can mitigate the voltage fluctuations and current harmonics without energy storage elements and the total harmonic distortion produced by the system also very low. It also reduced volume and cost, reduced capacitor power losses, together with higher reliability. The Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is used to control the matrix converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation results are presented to validate the approach.

  16. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  17. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  18. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  19. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Awad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  20. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  1. How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

  2. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  3. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions. (authors)

  4. Use of expanded vermiculite as a soil conditioner in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expanded vermiculite is used as a soil conditioner to improve soil-water retention and cation exchange properties of poor tropical soils (alfisols and oxisols). Results show that fresh laboratory mixtures of soil and expanded vermiculite increase the amount of water retained, the process being affected by the rate of application, origin and granule size of the vermiculite. Pot experiments show that the incorporation of vermiculite into the soil increases soil-water storage capacity without affecting evapotranspiration rates. This indicates that crops grown in soils conditioned with vermiculite lose the same quantities of water through evapotranspiration, but support plants for longer periods without water addition. Diminishing irrigation frequency raises the possibility of irrigating larger areas and/or using irrigation equipment more rationally. Field experiments have been developed to examine the potential use of vermiculite, at low application rates, in extensive agriculture. Encouraging results have been obtained regarding crop resistance to drought spells, and yield in vermiculite conditioned soils. This new management practice seems to be one solution for semi-arid agriculture and for areas of soil with poor water retention properties subjected to irregular rainfall patterns. Experiments show also that vermiculite addition improves root growth and affects soil nutrient ratios. This depends again on soil type, vermiculite origin and granule size, application rates, form of incorporation into the soil and type of crop. It affects Ca/K, Ca/Mg and Mg/K ratios in soil extracts and the availability of micronutrients. Tracers were used to study some aspects of the dynamics of N and P. (author)

  5. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  6. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  9. Application of magnetized fly ash based soil conditioner for the improvement of soil fertility and paddy productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Buddhe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of fly ash as soil conditioner has been established as a safe method of recycle and reuse of enormous quantity of fly ash produced by thermal power plants. In this investigation, fly ash was magnetized and magnetized fly ash - Biosil - was tested for its potency in a field trial experiment on paddy crop. Recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF were fortified by Biosil at different doses (kg/ha namely 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900, keeping RDF and vermicompost (VC as controls. All doses of Biosil, especially 450 kg/ha to 900 kg/ha, improved the soil fertility and paddy productivity over and above RDF control and VC control as compared to conventional very high doses (10% to 100% of fly ash used by other authors. Trend of improvement was in the order: Biosil+RDF>VC>RDF. Biosil fortification improved the effect of RDF on soil fertility and crop productivity to the best level in the treatments. Thus, it is evident that the magnetization has improved the potency of Biosil as Soil conditioner. VC showed better results than RDF. It is, thus, recommended that further field trials with the integrated treatment of Biosil, RDF and VC will be helpful in improving the paddy crop productivity and soil fertility on sustainable way.

  10. 使用Rejuvasoft制备自然柔顺护发素%Prepare soft & supple conditioner with Rejuvasoft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永涛; 楚勇红; 季菊芬; 马涌

    2012-01-01

    The Rejuvasoft conditioning system which is patented by Croda is a major innovation in the conditioning market.It delivers softness and combing benefits plus the attributes that panelists perceive as moisturization,shine and light.When Rejuvasoft conditioner is compared to a leading brand conditioner,there is little performance difference in softness,conditioning,detangling and salon evaluation.%使用禾大公司的专利护发产品混合物Rejuvasoft制备不含硅氧烷的自然顺滑护发素。使用动态机械分析仪测试柔软度,使用拉力试验机测试了抗缠绕和调理性能,并且进行了半头沙龙测试。结果显示,使用Rejuvasoft制备的自然柔顺护发素达到了市售高端品牌护发素的性能。

  11. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  12. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  13. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  14. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this

  15. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 (99Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of 99Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that 99Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the 99Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO2 monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial 99Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining 99Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel control design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC. This design is enabled by a control framework that employs Genetic Algorithm which determines optimum points and angle for filtering and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique (SVPWM to offer significant flexibility to optimize waveform. In addition the same framework integrates the major functions of the UPQC with ease to unify the treatments of several power quality problems including system harmonics in the supply voltage and load current, sags/swells in the supply voltage, variations in the load demands and poor power factor at the supply side. Simulation studies on a three phase power distribution system are used to verify the performance and implementation of this control design with the UPQC.

  17. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. Thus, the series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. The simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-based 3P4W distribution system.

  18. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  19. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. The Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Saline Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐土上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽琴; 杨建国; 纪立东; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve soil salinization problem of Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline soil quality, and increase land productivity, the author studied the effect of BCA soil conditioner on oil sunflower growth and saline soil property, and evaluated the application effect of BGA soil conditioner through field plot experiment. The results showed that BCA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of saline soil. The soil bulk density decreased while the total porosity increased, and the contents of available nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil were increased compared with CK1. The content of soil available phosphorus was also increased compared with CK2. BCA soil conditioner also promoted growth of oil sunflower. Plant height, leaf SPAD value, and photosynthetic rate of oil sunflower were improved. The yield of oil sunflower was higher 176.7% than that in CK1 and 18.0% than that in CK2. It was feasible to use BGA soil conditioner to improve saline soil if its production cost reduced or it combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐土土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间小区试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐土油葵生长发育和土壤理化性质的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐土理化性质,较对照1降低了土壤容重,增加了土壤总孔隙度、碱解氮和有效磷含量,较对照2提高了土壤有效磷含量;BGA土壤调理剂促进了油葵生长发育,油葵株高、叶片SPAD值、光合速率提高,油葵产量较对照1提高176.7%,较对照2提高18.0%.如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良盐土是可行的,值得进一步研究应用.

  1. 土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展%Advance in research and application of soil conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟锋; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress in research and application of soil conditioner. There was no uniform definition of soil conditioner at present, but there were several different classification methods. The main functions of soil conditioner included improving soil texture and structure, improving water retention and water supply ability of soil, regulating soil pH value, treatment of alkali-saline soil, improving soil nutrient supply, remediation of heavy metals pollution soil, etc. In soil improvement process, the appropriate conditioner would be chosen according to the different soil obstacle problem to the good improvement effect. However, soil conditioner application also exposed a series of problems, including the potential environmental risk problem, product function orientation and awareness problem, product quality problem, packaging and marking the problem such as the disorder, finally pointed out that a scientific evaluation system of soil conditioner should be established urgently.%综述了土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展.土壤调理剂目前尚无统一定义,且存在不同的分类方法,其主要功能包括改良土壤质地与结构、提高土壤保水供水能力、调节土壤酸碱度、改良盐碱土、改善土壤的养分供应状况、修复重金属污染土壤等.在土壤改良过程中,针对不同土壤障碍问题有针对性地选择土壤调理剂将达到较好的改良效果.然而,土壤调理剂在推广应用中也暴露出一系列问题,包括潜在的环境风险、功能定位和认识问题、产品质量良莠不齐、包装标识混乱等,因此亟待建立一套完善的土壤调理剂科学评价体系.

  2. BGA土壤调理剂在缺水土壤上的施用效果%Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Water Shortage Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 王峰; 许强; 刘廷俊; 尚红莺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了缓解宁夏中部干旱带土壤缺水问题,提高水分生产效率和土地生产力.[方法]通过田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂对缺水土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响.[结果]与不施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了缺水土壤物理性质,促进了马铃薯、压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜和不覆膜条件下马铃薯产量,改善了红枣品质;与配方施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂促进了压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜产量,改善了红枣品质.[结论]如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,那么BGA土壤调理剂改良缺水土壤是可行的.%[Objective] The research aimed to relieve soil water shortage problem in the middle arid belt of Ningxia, and increase water use efficiency and land productivity. [Method] Through field plot experiment, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on physical and chemical properties of water shortage soil and the growth of crops was studied. [ Result ] Compared with no fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved the physical properties of water shortage soil, promoted the growth of potato, watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of potato without plastic film mulch and watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner promoted the growth of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. [ Conclusion ] It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve water shortage soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner was reduced or BGA soil conditioner was applied with chemical fertilizers together.

  3. 太阳能技术在汽车空调上的应用%The application of solar - energy technology in the automotive air conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施军锞; 祁影霞

    2012-01-01

    针对国家对环境污染及能源有效利用的重视,提出了现有汽车空调存在的问题,通过分析日渐成熟的高效太阳能电池技术、充放电控制技术,特别是具有高光电转化效率材料的不断涌现,以及嵌入式单片机技术的不断创新,为实现汽车空调热电制冷以及太阳能天窗的商业化应用提供了必要的技术支持,从而解决现有的蒸汽压缩制冷所面临的制冷剂替换及耗油问题,实现环境的保护和能源的有效利用.%Due to the environment pollution from the refrigerants of traditional air conditioners, a new typf of solar - energy air conditioner in automobiles was put forward. This paper analysed the high efficience of solar - energy cells, charging and discharging techniques and high photoelectrical conversion materials. With embedded micro - controller technology development, the thermoelectrical cooling technology could he used in air conditioners in automobiles.

  4. Acoustics of motor car air conditioning systems; Akustik der Kfz-Klimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, M.; Martini, J.; Cucuz, S. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, VTZ Kerpen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Air conditioning systems in motor cars provide thermal comfort but the noise level may increase to an extent that makes the driver shut off the air conditioning system altogether. The contribution presents an introduction to acoustics. The human ear is described, and typical acoustic parameters like sound pressure, sound intensity, acoustic power and level definitions are introduced. Measuring systems and techniques are described, and typical problems and solutions in air conditioner acoustics are gone into. Finally, empirical estimates are made for the sound pressure level of ventilation nozzles and air conditioners. [German] Gestiegene Komfortansprueche der Kfz-Insassen haben in Europa waehrend der letzten Dekade die Kfz-Klimaanlage zu einem Standard-Ausstattungsmerkmal in der oberen Mittelklasse werden lassen, und auch kleinere Fahrzeugklassen (B- und C-Segment) folgen dieser Entwicklung auf dem Fusse. Die Hauptaufgabe der Kfz-Klimaanlage - die Bereitstellung des thermischen Komforts - wird aber mit akustischen Belastungen der Fahrzeuginsassen erkauft. Die akustische Belastung kann dabei so gross werden, dass die Insassen von einem optimalen Gebrauch der Klimaanlage absehen - einfach weil sie zu laut ist. Um einen moeglichst umfassenden Einblick in die Akustik zu gewaehren, wird zunaechst das menschliche Gehoer vorgestellt. Danach werden typische Kenngroessen der Akustik wie Schalldruck, Schallintensitaet und Schallleistung und die entsprechenden Pegeldefinitionen eingefuehrt. Im zweiten Abschnitt werden Messraeume und Messverfahren vorgestellt, um dann auf typische Probleme und Loesungsmoeglichkeiten in der Klimageraeteakustik einzugehen. Schliesslich werden empirische Abschaetzungen fuer den Schalldruckpegel von Belueftungsduesen und Klimageraeten vorgestellt. (orig.)

  5. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  6. High-power density three-phase CVCF sinewave power conditioner with new quasi-resonant DC link and single-phase high-frequency transformer link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemori, H.; Nakaoka, M. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-12-22

    The high-power density PWM type 3-phase CVCF sinewave power conditioner was proposed which incorporates a new quasi-resonant DC link and single-phase high-frequency transformer link. It was featured by the advanced control system implementation with a precise instantaneous space voltage vector regulation scheme including DSP control strategy and ZVS-PWM controlled high-frequency inverter technique in place of conventional inverter-cycloconversion systems. The operating principle of the 3-phase sinewave modulated CVCF conditioner operated at zero-voltage turn-on/off switching modes was revealed in detail, and it was proven that the 3-phase cycloconverter with zero-voltage switching and time-sharing vector-distributed schemes efficiently operates without any conventional RCD snubber circuits. In addition, it was pointed out that the proposed 3-phase power conversion system with the high-frequency AC link is suitable for CVCF distributed power supplies. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Effect of Soil Conditioner on Growth for Oriental Hybrid Lily (Sorbonne) Cut Flowers%土壤调理剂对百合生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺; 解占军

    2013-01-01

    In the study,the greenhouse planting methods were employed to reveal effect of soil conditioner and application methods on growth for lily (oriental hybrids) cut flowers in the Lingyuan city of western Liaoning province.The results were as follows:The soil conditioner promoted the growth of the lily.The Promoting effect followed as:conditioner Ⅰ treatment > Compound microelement fertilizer treatment > brenstone treatment > vinegar residue treatment.banding applications of conditioner Ⅰ was better than its broadcast applications.The reasonable application method of chemical fertilizers was that the basal fertilizers lay particular stress on P and K,and that the top-dressing fertilizer applied largely of N,which under the principle of fractional fertilization.%采用温室栽培方法,通过施用各种土壤酸性改良剂,探讨土壤改良剂和不同施用模式对辽西凌源市的百合生长发育的影响.结果表明,土壤改良剂明显促进了百合的生长,其中以调制剂1号处理为最好,其次为复合微肥处理,再次为硫磺处理,最次为醋渣处理,其中,调制剂1号沟施效果明显好于全层施用效果.施用化肥采用基施偏重P、K肥,轻施N肥;追施化肥要以氮肥为主,P、K肥为辅进行分量多次的施肥原则.

  8. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Shindoh, Shinji; Masazumi, Godo; Takeshi, Takatsuka; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The system mainly dehumidifies the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the airconditioning load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. Several adsorbents were compared from the viewpoints of humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit, dehumidified quantity per unit volume, and dehumidified quantity per unit adsorbent mass. The performance of the desiccant unit was predicted by simulation which was validated by comparison with experiment. The results revealed the most suitable adsorbent to reduce the desiccant unit size. It was also found that the humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit could be lowered by shortening the dimensionless switching time.

  9. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan was used as a restorative material in Groups 1 and 2. Capsulated glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan was used in Groups 3 and 4. Samples were sectioned and viewed under stereomicroscope to check for the presence of voids within the cement and at the cement-tooth junction. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Group 4 showed statistically significant results (P<0.05 when compared to Groups 1 and 2 for voids within the cement. However, for voids at the margins, the results were statistically insignificant.

  11. Thermal properties in phase change wallboard room based on air conditioning cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其针; 刘鑫; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room with a phase change wall (PCW) room,the effect of phase change wallboard on the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in summer was studied. And PCW room and an ordinary wall room,which are cooled by air-conditioner,were built up. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested,it is found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1-2 ℃,and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6 W/m2. Combining phase change material to building envelope can lower the indoor temperature,make the room thermal comfortable,and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of air-conditioner,the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates urgent need of the electric power. Building envelope which contains phase change wallboard can improve the indoor thermal environment,and decrease energy consumption in buildings. Phase change wallboard can make impressive effect on energy efficiency of buildings.

  12. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  13. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  14. Studying radiation-induced modification of polymer to make water-superabsorber as a soil moisture conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water superabsorbent polymer has been applied widely in health care, personal care and agriculture. The research and development of the material have been grown rapidly for their special benefits. The similar products that exist in different categories such as Terra-Sorb, Moist-Soil, Bioplex, SAP, Sky Gel, Aqua-Sorb, Horta-Sorb, Stockosorb in USA, England, South Africa, Australia, Japan, and so on are now commercializing throughout the world. Some alike are present in Vietnam such as coloured soil granular, Bioplex gel, and etc. An identical product named H2O super gel resulted in a study work of Chemical Institute, Hanoi. A project 'Studying radiation - induced modification of polymer to make water - superabsorber as a soil moisture conditioner' was carried out at VINAGAMMA in 2003. The results of the project are very promising to expand a new study phase aimed to fulfilling a perfect process of irradiation and of production of the gel. The further study has been going on for determination of residual components of degraded Tb-g-AAc samples in soil, analysis of retained AAc monomer in the sample after irradiation, estimation of physical chemistry characteristics of Tb-g-AAc product, analysis of technical economy studies of the product on small-scale production, study of field trials using the gel on no-soil planting matrix (sand, bagasse, saw-dust, agrowaste, rice husk, etc.) for growing strawberry transplanting tree, green tree of red-pine, water morning-glory, Chinese cabbage. It is expected that the study results of the project will be the milestone for the permitted gel production in Vietnam. (author)

  15. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    European countries (Ignasi Gurruchaga); (21) Optimisation potential of a large solar adsorption cooling plant (Antoine Dalibard); (22) Planning, commissioning and practical experience with first summer of operation of a cost effective solar air conditioning system for a Canteen at Munich Airport (Carsten Hindenburg); (23) Energy and economic performance of solar cooling systems (Ursula Eicker); (24) Solar-driven adsorption chiller controlled by hot and cooling water temperature (Jan Albers); (25) Comparative results of monitored solar assisted heating and cooling installations (Wolfram Sparber); (26) Heating and cooling with a small scale solar driven adsorption chiller combined with a borehole system - recent results (Tomas Nunez); (27) Solar heating and cooling - Town hall Gleisdorf (Alexander Thuer); (28) Solar dessicant cooling system operating in Palermo (Italy): Results and Validation of simulation models (Marco Beccali); (29) The application of a liquid-dessicant air conditioner to solar cooling (Andrew Lowenstein); (30) A compact solid adsorption chiller for solar air conditioning (Robert Critoph); (31) Development of a two-stage absorption chiller for solar-assisted cooling and heating (Manuel Riepl); (32) Ionic liquids - a promising solution for solar absorption chillers? (Annett Kuehn);(33) Parabolic trough design optimization for high temperature lift solar cooling applications (Marcello Aprile); (34) Tentative R and D program forgetting adsorbents effective for solar air conditioning (Yury Aristov); (35) An energy efficient solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system: Experiment and case study (Yanjun Dai); (36) Performance of a flat plate collector-regenerator that uses earth-to-air heat exchangers for regeneration of water-lithium chloride solution in a solar coolant plant (Roberto Bruno); (37) 350 KW of dual solar cooling for optimal flexibility and economic performance (Roel de Coninck); (38) Global performance of a solar absorption cooling

  16. Effect of Polymeric Soil Conditioners on Seeds Germination%高分子土壤改良剂对种籽萌芽之影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 周良勋; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 李茂田

    2005-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the adhesive for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Previous studies showed that the polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. However the inhibition of seeds germination by the polymers was seldom discussed. In this study the effects of polymers on the germination of Bahia grass seeds are experimental observed. Polyvinyl alcohol and acrylic polymer are used in the experiments. Experimental results showed acrylic polymer, the most often used soil conditioner, would evidently inhibit the plant germination. However with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to acrylic polymer will increase the germination of the seeds. The percentage germination and germination energy are discussed in this study.%以高分子材料为土壤改良剂可使土壤团粒化, 增加水份入渗效率, 减少土壤冲蚀, 为研究环境问题之重要课题.但此类土壤改良剂可能抑制植物种籽萌芽, 为使用此种材料的一大问题.以压克力与聚乙烯醇对 Bahia种籽做一系列萌芽实验探讨.实验结果发现, 压克力对种籽萌芽率与萌芽势能有严重之抑制作用.但适量之聚乙烯醇添加可克服此问题.

  17. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  18. Effect of Fly Ash Based Soil Conditioner (Biosil) and Recommen ded Dose of Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Suhas Tejram Buddhe; Mahendra Thakre; Pramod R. Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash has been used in agriculture for improving the soil health and to increase the crop productivity with very high doses 10% to 80% of fly ash. In order to mitigate the impact of excess dose in terms of boron and heavy metal toxicity, present investigation was undertaken to process fly ash into improved soil conditioner “Biosil” through magnetization and to conduct field trials using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety GW-273 with Biosil fortified by recommended dose of chemical fertili...

  19. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  20. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  1. Effects of Applying BGA Soil Conditioner and Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium Together on Yield of Spring Maize%BGA土壤调理剂与氮磷钾肥配施对春玉米产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩全辉; 黄洁; 许瑞丽; 罗春芳

    2013-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂与氮、磷、钾肥配施对玉米产量及其主要产量构成因素的影响。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施比CK(不施肥)增产54.9%,纯施BGA土壤调理剂比CK增产7.5%,而BGA土壤调理剂与氮肥、钾肥、氮磷钾复合肥配施分别比CK减产22.5%、9.4%、13.8%。因此,推荐在玉米生产上采用BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施,并建议加强BGA土壤调理剂与化肥配施对其他作物产量影响的研究。%Under the field experiment,the effects of applying BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium together on the yield of spring maize were studied. The results showed that comparing with the CK (no fertilizer),BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application increased the kernal yield by 54.9%,BGA soil conditioner single application increased the kernal yield by 7.5% ,while BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen fertilizer,potassium fertilizer,compound fertilizer combined application decreased the kernal yield by 22.5%,9.4%,13.8%, respectively.We suggested BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application on maize plantation,and the study of the yield of BGA soil conditioner combined application with fertilizer on other crops should be focused on.

  2. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  3. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  4. R290家用空调器的可靠性设计%Design on reliability of household R290 air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健

    2014-01-01

    通过对比R290和R22的热物性,指出R290是一种理想的替代制冷剂,但是存在易燃易爆的安全隐患.基于R290的可燃性,论述家用空调器采用R290作为制冷剂的可靠性方案设计与控制方式.

  5. 实验动物房洁净空调的研究综述%Talk about Cleaning Air-Conditioner of Animal Test Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才廷波; 董少宁

    2007-01-01

    实验动物房饲养实验动物种类齐全,是集科研、新药开发、药品质量检验等于一体的综合实验动物房,本文介绍了洁净空调的系统划分、实验动物房的特点及其采取的有效措施.

  6. 空调制造业对生物污染的防治策略%THE STRATEGY TO PREVENT BIOLOGIC POLLUTION FOR AIR CONDITIONER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞炳丰; 张斌; 孔琼香

    2003-01-01

    非典型肺炎的流行,使得室内空气品质再次成了人们关注的问题.本文介绍了室内空气品质的影响因素,总结了现有的防治室内生物污染的一些有效措施,并提出了若干建议.

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  8. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Shariatmadar Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1 and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2 or CPF alone (control. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD, clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG. SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups. Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained.

  9. 复合(混)肥专用调理剂(营养胶水)的研究%Study of Special Conditioner (Nutritional Glue) for Compound (Mixed) Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焕银; 彭华平

    2013-01-01

    针对黏土矿物在复合(混)肥造粒工艺中存在的问题,开发了复合(混)肥专用调理剂.试验结果表明:在复合(混)肥中加入该调理剂,可使肥料成粒率由50%提高至70%,返料比下降;可以提高土壤对NH4+,NO3-,K+和PO43-的吸附量,其效果优于传统的保水剂聚丙烯酰胺及聚丙烯酸钠;可以起到养分缓释和防止肥料结块的作用.%As problems exist in the use of clay minerals in the granulation of compound (mixed) fertilizers,a conditioner is developed specially for use in compound (mixed) fertilizers.The experimental results show that with the addition of the conditioner into the compound (mixed) fertilizers,the granulation rate rises from 50% to 70%,and the recycle rate decreases; the soil adsorbs more NH4+,NO3-,K + and P043-,and its result is better than that of the conventional water-retaining agents polyacrylamide and sodium polyacrylate; and it plays the role of slow release of nutrients and prevention of fertilizer caking.

  10. 水稻施用禾康土壤调理剂效果试验%Experiment on the Application of Hekang Soil Conditioner in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展广军; 徐久升; 李成坤; 于艳青; 黄河

    2012-01-01

    对禾康土壤调理剂不同施入量进行试验研究,结果表明:禾康土壤调理剂为生物制剂,无毒无污染,能够杀灭土壤病菌、提高水稻抗病能力,促早熟,增加千粒重、水稻单位面积有效穗数、叶面积指数、高效叶面积率、干物质产量、齐穗后干物质积累量占籽粒产量百分比、水稻抗性,增产效果显著。%The test on different quantity of Hekang soil conditioner were made and the results indicated that the soil conditioner was biologicals, non-toxic, non-polluting, safe to use. It can kill germs in soil, increase the disease-resistant capacity of rice, promote precocity, increase the 1000-grain weight, effective panicles per unit area, leaf area index, effective leaf area rate, yield of dry matter, the rate that dry matter accumulation in the grains yield after heading, and the yield effects reached the significant level.

  11. Effective Ventilation Parameters and Thermal Comfort Study of Air-conditioned Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roonak Daghigh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents objective and subjective studies of thermal comfort levels and ventilation characteristics of two air-conditioned postgraduate study offices. The observations were performed at the offices of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, in University Putra Malaysia. Thermal comfort variables were measured while the students answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Concurrently, tracer gas analysis, based on concentration decay method, is employed to determine air exchange rate, age of air and air exchange effectiveness. During the air conditioner is working, the study offices had not conditions within the comfort zone, of ASHRAE standard 55 causing occupants to report cold thermal sensations and the objective data analysis showed that the offices were uncomfortable. The thermal neutralities were significantly higher that proposed by ASHRAE Standard 55:1992. The monitored air exchange rates are indicated that the provisions of outside air for ventilation based on design occupancy are adequate for these two study offices. In addition, questionnaires were completed by the students in order to provide a subjective assessment of thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Finally, the outcomes of over 30 surveys for each office responses to the thermal comfort questions are presented and discussed.

  12. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期、角果期和成熟期土壤 pH 值分别提高了0.13、0.03、0.11和0.38。酸化土壤施用调理剂能明显促进油菜生长发育,提高籽粒产量和土壤 pH 值。%A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage

  13. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage,respectively.It is indi-cated that the acid soil conditioner can be applied to improve the growth of oilseed rape and soil pH un-der acid soils.%采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期

  14. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  15. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  16. Modeling solar-driven ejector refrigeration system offering air conditioning for office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Shen, H.G. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-02-15

    A lumped method combined with dynamic model is proposed for use in investigating the performance and solar fraction of a solar-driven ejector refrigeration system (SERS) using R134a, for office air conditioning application for buildings in Shanghai, China. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model were used to provide basic data for accurate analysis of the system performance. Results indicate that during the office working-time, i.e., from 9:00 to 17:00, the average COP and the average solar fraction of the system were 0.48 and 0.82 respectively when the operating conditions were: generator temperature (85 C), evaporator temperature (8 C) and condenser temperature varying with ambient temperature. Compared with traditional compressor based air conditioner, the system can save upto 80% electric energy when providing the same cooling capacity for office buildings. Hence, the system offers a good energy conservation method for office buildings. (author)

  17. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  19. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  20. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  1. Effects of Two Mineral Conditioners on Soil Physico-chemical Property of Garlic Fields%两种矿物源土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅; 王春兰; 杨淑娟; 范建芝; 李艳霞

    2013-01-01

    研究了两种不同类型的土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质和大蒜产量的影响.结果表明:两种调理剂均能降低土壤容重,提高土壤孔隙度.两种调理剂对速效养分的影响则有所不同:蒙脱石提高了土壤速效氮和钾含量,降低了土壤速效磷含量,麦饭石对土壤速效氮和磷影响不大,对土壤速效钾影响表现为先升高后降低.蒙脱石、麦饭石均能提高土壤有机质,对大蒜产量亦有所提高.综合比较两种土壤调理剂,应用蒙脱石效果较好.%The effects of two kinds of representative soil conditioners on soil physico - chemical properties and yield of garlic were studied in this paper. The results showed that the two conditioners could reduce the soil bulk density but improve the soil porosity. There were some differences between the two soil conditioners on soil available nutrients. The montmorillonite conditioner increased the content of available N and K, but reduced the content of available P. The medical stone had no obvious impact on available N and P, but made the soil available K increased firstly and then decreased. Both of them could increase the soil organic matter and garlic yield. Comprehensively considering the effect, the montmorillonite conditioner was better.

  2. Efeito de condicionadores químicos sobre a qualidade da cama de frango Effect of chemical conditioners on poultry litter quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Oliveira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade química da cama de frango submetida, por três lotes consecutivos de criação, a diferentes condicionadores químicos. Foram utilizadas 1320 aves, 440 por lote, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (Trat. 1 - cama sem tratamento; Trat. 2 - cama tratada com sulfato de alumínio; Trat. 3 - cama tratada com gesso agrícola; Trat. 4 - cama tratada com superfosfato simples e Trat. 5 - cama tratada com cal hidratada e quatro repetições. As amostras de cama foram coletadas no 42º dia de utilização. Não houve influência dos condicionadores (P>0,05 sobre a matéria seca. O sulfato de alumínio reduziu (PThe chemical quality of poultry litter submitted, for three consecutive flocks, to different chemical conditioners was evaluated. One-thousand-three-hundred and twenty birds, 440 birds per each flock, were allotted to five treatments (Treat. 1 - untreated litter; Treat. 2 - litter treated with aluminum sulfate; Treat. 3 - litter treated with gypsum; Treat. 4 - litter treated with single superphosphate and Treat. 5 - litter treated with hydrated lime in a completely randomized block design with four replicates. Sample litters were collected at 42 days. No influence of the conditioners (P>0.05 on the dry matter results was observed. Aluminum sulfate reduced (P<0.002 pH (7.42, 7.07 and 6.00, respectively in the first, second and third flocks and reduced (P<0.05 the quantity of volatilized ammonia (3.14, 1.36 and 1.79 mg/100g, respectively in the first, second and third flocks, in comparison to other treatments. Aluminum sulfate can be added to poultry litter to reduce pH and to inhibit the ammonia volatilization.

  3. 盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Influence of Saline-alkali Land Conditioners on Alfalfa Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑普山; 冯悦晨; 郝保平; 李屹峰; 薛志强

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Desulfurized gypsum, Guochan 1, Cuochan 2 conditioners on yield of alfalfa in the waste saline—alkali soil with heavy soda under field conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control, soil pH reduced 0.15 ~ 1.26, the emergence rale of alfalfa increased from 17.8% to 30.5% after application of three soil conditioners. The order of increasing emergence rate was Desulfurized gypsum > Cuochan 2> Cuochan 1. The total fresh biomass of alfalfa were increased by 3 107.5 ~ 6 971.3 kg/hm2, and the order of enhancing fresh biomass was Cuochan 2 > Guochan 1 > Desulfurized gypsum.%通过田间试验,研究了重度苏打盐碱荒地施用脱硫石膏、国产1号和国产2号3种盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿出苗率和鲜草产量的影响.结果表明,与不施土壤改良剂(对照)相比,施用3种盐碱地改良剂的土壤(0~20 cm )pH值降低0.15~1.26,紫花苜蓿出苗率提高17.8% ~ 30.5%,提高出苗率由大到小的顺序为脱硫石膏>国产2号>国产1号;鲜草总产量增加3107.5 ~6971.3 kg/hm2,促进鲜草产量增加由大到小的顺序为国产2号>国产1号>脱硫石膏.

  4. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  5. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  6. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  7. Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland%钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  8. 钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①%Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  9. The Experimental Study on Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Aeolian Sandy Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在风沙土上的施用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 谢华; 孙权; 李明; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of land desertification in Ningxia, improve aeolian sandy soil quality and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on aeolian sandy soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that, compared with no fertilizer, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape, cherry tomato and liquorice, increased significantly the yield of wine grape and cherry tomato, improved the quality of wine grape and liquorice. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape and cherry tomato, decreased significantly the yield of liquorice, improved the quality of wine grape. The application of BGA soil conditioner greatly increased the investment cost of production. It was proposed to reduce production cost of BGA soil conditioner and combine application of BGA soil conditioner with chemical fertilizers.%为了解决宁夏土地沙化问题,提高风沙土土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对风沙土土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.研究结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄、樱桃番茄和甘草的生长发育,显著提高了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的产量,改善了酿酒葡萄和甘草品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的生长发育,显著降低了甘草产量,改善了酿酒葡萄品质.施用BGA土壤调理剂大幅度增加了生产投入成本,建议进一步降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用.

  10. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  11. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  12. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  13. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  15. Effects of Soil Conditioners on Acid Soil Improvement%不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎庆芬; 程健超

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To explore the effects of soil conditioners on acid soil improvement.[Method] The test varieties were Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998.There were in all four treatments.Effects of some soil conditioners on acid soil improvement were researched , such as calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer.[Result] calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer could be used as soil conditioners in acid rice field, which enhanced the pH, soil organic matter, rapidly available phos-phorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium.The effects were the optimal when applying calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer.The organic matter content of total nitrogen content in Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 1.50, 0.17 g/kg and 1.70, 0.10 g/kg, respectively, compared with those of the control.The contents of rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 0.20, 4.00, 16.60, 1.60 mg/kg and 0.19, 5.00, 18.50, 1.70 mg/kg, respectively compared with those of the control.At the same time, soil conditioner ( combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer ) enhanced the rice yields.The yields of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 increased by 499.5 and 598.5 kg/hm2 , respectively, compared with those of the control.The amplification reached 7.38%and 12.20%, showing extremely significant level by variance analysis.[Conclusion] Applying soil conditioner is helpful to the growth of rice;and combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer shows the optimal effects on soil improvement.%[目的]模索施用不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果。[方法]供试品种早造为盐两优888,晚造为金稻优998,共设4个处理,研究钙

  16. DESIGN OF A VRF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WITH ENERGY CONSERVATION ON COMMERCIAL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Gulam Abul Hasan*

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the field if air conditioning design is more technologically challenging than ever before. While design innovations and product improvements promise sleeker, more versatile, more powerful and more energy – efficient air conditioners, the challenge today lies identifying the most appropriate product, or mix of products, for the application at hand. Indeed, today the emphasis is no more on understanding air conditioning products but on creating solutions and not just solutions, but customized solutions that suit specific cooling need of specific business and establishments. The consultant or designer who understands the dynamics of those clients business is more likely to offer better long term cooling solutions than who does not. Every air conditioning application has its own special needs and provided its own challenges. Airports, hotels, shopping malls, office complexes and banks need uniform comfort cooling in every corner of their sprawling spaces and activities involving computers, electronics, aircraft products, precision manufacturing, communication networks and operation in hospitals, infect many areas of programming will come to a halt, so air conditioning is no longer a luxury but an essential part of modern living. There are various stages in the complete design of an air conditioning system. One of the important modules in the process is the duct design. The efficient duct design process enables the proper supply of air quantity, equal distribution of air at every corner of the Air conditioned space. Further the proper designing ensures minimum losses and hence energy conservation is obtained. In the present paper design of Air conditioning is done by using VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow for a commercial building. The main aim of his project is to conserve the energy by using VRF techniques when compared to conventional chille

  17. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Soil Improvement in Greenhouse in Ningxia%土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤改良效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王生明; 刘登彪

    2012-01-01

    土壤调理剂改良土壤结果析表明:土壤调理剂可改善宁夏灌淤土日光温室土壤结构,增加土壤有效养分,降低pH0.08;促进番茄生长发育,提高外观品质,增加产量7.9%。%The results of soil improvement using soil conditioner showed that soil conditioner could optimize the structure of the irrigation silting soil in greenhouse in Ningxia, increase available nutrients in soil and reduce 0.08 pH and meanwhile it could promote the growth of tomato and improve its appearance quality, and it also could improve tomato yield by 7.9%.

  18. Effects of Different Conditioners on Improvement of Leek Acid Soil%不同土壤调理剂对韭菜酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德西; 何忠全; 郭云建; 刘富平; 谢安详

    2012-01-01

    Due to long-term use of large number of chemical fertilizer and serious shortage of inputs of organic fertilizer, a lot of leek soils showed acidification trends. In order to solve the soil acidity problem of vegetable bases and restore the productivity of the soils, effects of different conditioners such as BCA, tianshifu and lime soil conditioner on improvement of acid soil properties and growth of leek were researched by topdressing conditioner pot experiments,so that we can evaluate the application effects of different soil conditioners. The results showed that the effect of improving pH of soil conditioner was lime > tianshifu > BCA. BGA improved the soil available phosphorus, potassium and organic matter content in acid soil, made up the calcium, magnesium and boron deficiency; Tianshifu conditioner can loose soil, make the soil dark, increase the soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; lime can improve the effective nitrogen and phosphorus, but decrease potassium content. The three conditioners had significant control effects on leek dry tip, and improved leek plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, obviosly increase the yield of leek,but had little effect on photosynthetic indexes and quality. The three conditioners can be applied in improment of leek acid soils.%为解决蔬菜基地土壤酸性化问题,恢复土壤的生产力,通过在韭菜酸性土壤上追施不同调理剂的小区试验,研究了BGA土壤调理剂、“田师傅”土壤调理剂和生石灰对土壤理化性质和韭菜生长发育的影响,评价不同土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,调理剂对土壤pH的提高效果为生石灰>田师傅>BGA.BGA提高了土壤有效磷、有效钾和有机质含量,弥补了酸性土壤中钙、镁和硼的缺乏;田师傅调理剂能疏松土壤,使土质黝黑,提高有效氮、磷和钾含量;生石灰处理能提高有效氮和磷含量,降低有效钾含量.3种调理剂对防治韭菜干尖效

  19. 空调冷凝水的回收利用%Recovery and Utilization of Air-conditioning Condensing Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华勇

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the recycling application of air-conditioning condensing water and the influence of air conditioner condensing water on refrigeration coefficient by reducing condensing temperature. The author also carried out an economic calculation and analyzed the feasibility of the other recycling modes of the condensed water.%本文讨论了空调冷凝水的回收应用,空调冷凝水降低冷凝温度对制冷系数的影响,并对其进行了经济计算,对冷凝水其他回收利用方式的可行性讨论进行了研究。

  20. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Rae Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient. All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set. ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.

  1. Application Effect of Soil Conditioner on Acidified Soil Improvement of Tobacco Filed%土壤调理剂在烟田酸化改良中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒照鹤; 冯成恩; 孔伟; 尹虎成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为寻求烟区烟田土壤酸化治理的改良方法.[方法] 2010~2012年,湖北省鹤峰县在烟叶生产上共累计推广施用土壤调理剂767 hmm2.在烟田酸化地块烟田起垄时,垄沟施750、1125 kg/hm2土壤调理剂.[结果]在烟田酸化土壤地块施土壤调理剂750~1125 kg/hm2,能有效推迟烟叶土传病害的发病时间10~15 d,小区试验有效率达95%,大面积示范施用土壤调理剂平均有效率为68.2%.[结论]该研究为烟叶可持续发展提供了参考.%[Objective] The research aimed to find the methods to control the soil acidification. [Method] Soil conditioners were used wildly in tobacco production about 767 hm2 in Hefeng county of Hubei province. 750 - 1 125 kg/hm2 soil conditioner was applied in the filed. [Result] Soil conditioners could delayed efficiently soil-borne diseases by 10 - 15 days. The effective rate of plot experiments was 95% and the trial and demonstration of soil conditioner reached 68.2% . [Conclusion] The research provided a reference for the sustainable production of tobacco.

  2. Study on the application of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield%“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李智强; 刘军; 李越; 姚虞; 高娃; 孙国良

    2015-01-01

    为了探明“施地佳”土壤调理剂对耕地的养分利用是否具有改善作用,在施用“施地佳”的耕地进行种植马铃薯的田间试验,明确“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响,结果表明施用“施地佳”土壤调理剂后马铃薯增产效果显著。%In order to ex plore whether farmland nutrient utilization of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner was improved, a field experiment was carried out in the application of “Shi Di Jia”on planting potato arable land. To clear out the effect of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield, the results showed that the use of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner increased potato yield effect significantly.

  3. Preliminary Study on Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Yield of Cassava%BGA土壤调理剂对木薯产量的影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁根; 林洪鑫; 袁展汽; 肖运萍; 汪瑞清

    2012-01-01

    以木薯品种华南205为试验材料,研究了施用BGA土壤调理剂对红壤旱地木薯产量的影响.结果表明:在不同处理中,以一次性施用2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量最高.施用1200~2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量高于施用300 kg/hm2复合肥处理的产量.%Using cassava variety South China 205 as experimental material, the effect of applying BGA soil conditioner on the yield of cassava in upland red soil was studied. The results indicated that: among different treatments, the treatment of applying 2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner once got the highest yield. The cassava yield in the treatments of applying 1200 -2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner was higher than that in the treatment of applying 300 kg/hm1 compound fertilizer.

  4. Study on the application of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield%“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李智强; 刘军; 李越; 姚虞; 高娃; 孙国良

    2015-01-01

    In order to ex plore whether farmland nutrient utilization of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner was improved, a field experiment was carried out in the application of “Shi Di Jia”on planting potato arable land. To clear out the effect of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield, the results showed that the use of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner increased potato yield effect significantly.%为了探明“施地佳”土壤调理剂对耕地的养分利用是否具有改善作用,在施用“施地佳”的耕地进行种植马铃薯的田间试验,明确“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响,结果表明施用“施地佳”土壤调理剂后马铃薯增产效果显著。

  5. 电压质量调节器功率流协调控制策略%Coordinated Control Strategy of Power Flow in Voltage Quality Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兴田; 韦统振; 齐智平

    2013-01-01

    Voltage quality conditioner (VQC) can be used to solve many kinds of power quality problems in distribution network and in conventional control the series converter of VQC mainly outputs active power to cope with voltage sag and is usually in standby state, so it is not fully utilized. According to the structure of the designed VQC and based on active circulating current a coordinated control strategy for power flow in VQC is proposed, that is, the reactive power compensation function of parallel converter is shared by outputting reactive power by series converter. The reactive power allocation strategy between series and parallel converters, the composite control strategy of series converter and the compensation strategy of energy storage component are attained by analyzing the variation of both power flow and active circulation current in the system, thus coordinated control of units in the VQC is implemented. Results from simulation and experiments verify both effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control strategies.%电压质量调节器(voltage quality conditioner,VQC)常规控制中,其串联变流器主要输出有功功率处理电压暂降问题,通常处于待机状态,未得到充分利用.文章针对所设计的VQC结构,提出基于有功环流的VQC功率流协调控制策略,利用串联变流器输出无功功率,分担并联变流器的无功补偿功能.通过分析系统中功率流和有功环流的变化,得到串并联变流器的无功分配策略、串联变流器的复合控制策略和储能单元的补偿策略,实现了VQC各单元的协调控制.仿真与实验结果验证了所提控制策略的有效性与可行性.

  6. Software and Hardware Design of Electric Railway Power Quality Conditioner System%一种铁路功率调节器的样机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟; 罗安; 马伏军; 张久林

    2011-01-01

    分析了铁路功率调节器(Railway Static Power Conditioner,简称RPC)的基本结构和补偿原理,提出一种RPC的样机设计方法.控制系统采用基于TMS320F2812的数字控制器,集成了DSP,SRAM,EEPROM,A/D,PWM等模块,硬件部分设计采样电路和硬件死区延时模块.控制器软件分为主程序和中断程序,实时检测负载电流并计算得到负序与谐波补偿参考量,采用双闭环策略控制直流侧电压和逆变器输出电流,内环电流采用多模递推PID控制算法,实现有功功率转移以及谐波和无功补偿.实验结果表明,在所设计的硬件模块和软件系统下,RPC具有良好的负序和谐波补偿性能.%This paper analyzes the basic structure as well as compensation principles of railway static power conditioner,and proposes a model machine design method.The control system adopts digital controller based on TMS320F2812, which is integrated with DSP, SRAM, EEPROM, A/D, PWM modules and so on. In hardware section, it focuses on design of sampling circuit and dead-time delay module. Software of the controller is divided into two parts,the main program and interruption routines, which can detect load current in real-time and calculate negative sequence and harmonic compensation reference volume. DC-side voltage and output current of inverter is controlled with dual-loop strategy, and the inner current adopts multi-recursive mode PID control algorithm to achieve active power transfer and harmonic and reactive compensation. Experimental results show that RPC has a good negative sequence and harmonic compensation performance under the designed hardware modules and software systems.

  7. Research Progress of Soil Conditioner Polyacrylamide%土壤改良剂聚丙烯酰胺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆绍娟; 王占礼

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening soil and water conservation and soil fertility are important tasks of the current land improvement. Summing up the previous soil conditioner polyacrylamide ( PAM) research results, this paper summarized the regulation effect and that mechanism of soil conditioner PAM, the application prospect of PAM, in order to provide references for further research and extension the use of PAM. PAM can cement soil particles, improve soil physical properties, prevent the losses of soil, water and fertilizer, increase crop yields, improve the saline and prevent wind erosion without toxic effects on the environment. The regulation effect of PAM on soil depends on its molecular weight, hydrolysis the degree and the dose and so on, which hinders its promotion of use in the actual production. Application technical theoretical system of PAM should be established and the new PAM research should be accelerated to improve the regulation effect and economic benefits of PAM, and for PAM used to provide theoretical support in the actual production.%加强水土保持和培肥土壤是当前国土整治的重要任务之一。综合前人的研究成果,归纳总结土壤改良剂PAM对土壤的调控效应及作用机理,展望PAM的应用前景,以期为深入研究和推广运用PAM提供参考。 PAM可以胶结土壤颗粒,改善土壤物理性状,防止土、水、肥流失,提高作物产量,还可以改善盐碱地、防治风蚀,对环境并无毒害作用,但PAM对土壤的调控效应受其分子量、水解度、施用量等的影响,影响其在实际生产中的推广运用。应加强PAM施用技术理论体系建立,加快新型PAM研发,提高PAM对土壤的调控效应及其带来的经济效益,为PAM在实际生产中的推广运用提供理论支撑。

  8. Transient characteristics and performance analysis of a vapor compression air conditioning system with condensing heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ming Liu; Wu, Jing Yi; Xu, Yu.Xiong; Wang, Ru Zhu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of condensing heat recovery on the dynamic behavior and performance of air conditioners. The article includes a test procedure utilized to evaluate the condensing heat recovery system, relevant experimental results, a detail analysis of the mechanisms, and improvement measure on such a system. The experimental results indicate that although the condensing heat recovery has a negative effect on the cooling capacity at the start of the heat recovery process, the average cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the system can be improved. The study also incorporates a control scheme of the electronic expansion valve (EEV) of the condensing heat recovery system. The experimental comparison between the EEV and the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) demonstrates that the EEV has better performance in both stability and efficiency in the condensing heat recovery system. (author)

  9. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... type of commercial HVAC equipment, such as packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs) and heat pumps...-cooled, evaporatively-cooled, and water-source) Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps Computer room air conditioners Single package vertical air conditioners and heat pumps Variable...

  10. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  11. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  13. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco and Physicochemical Properties of Soil%土壤改良剂对烤烟产质量和土壤理化性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富欣; 司贤宗; 张翔; 毛家伟; 桂炎伟; 陈启龙

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applying different soil conditioners on the agronomic characters , economic traits, yield, and quality of flue-cured tobacco as well as the physicochemical properties of soil were studied through field tests .The results showed that: in comparison with the control ( not applying soil conditioner ) , applying soil conditioner could increase the plant height , leaf length and leaf width of flue-cured tobacco, could increase the yield and production value of flue -cured tobacco by 54.00~315.00 kg/hm2, 2703.00~6759.15 yuan/hm2, respectively, could enhance the proportion of superior and medium tobacco leaves , and aver-age price, could significantly increase the contents of total sugar , potassium and reducing sugar in tobacco leaf , and could effectively reduce soil pH-value and soil bulk density .Among the applications of different soil conditioners , the application of 225 kg/hm2 humic-acid-type soil conditioner acquired the best effects .%通过田间试验,研究了施用不同土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状、经济性状、产量、质量及土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:与不施用土壤改良剂相比,施用土壤改良剂能增加烤烟的株高、叶长和叶宽;增加烤烟的产量和产值,分别增加54.00~315.00 kg/hm2、2703.00~6759.15元/hm2;增加上中等烟比例和均价;显著增加烟叶中总糖、钾和还原糖含量;能有效降低土壤pH值和土壤容重;以施用225 kg/hm2腐殖酸型土壤改良剂的效果最好。

  14. Effects of Acid Soil Conditioner on Yongyou 538%土壤调理剂在酸化稻田连作晚稻上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建军; 林采舜; 叶斌斌; 何杰; 许剑锋

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of soil conditioner on soil physical-chemical properties and the yield of continuous cropping late rice, exploit high yield potential of Yongyou 538, the 32%soil conditioner application amount experiment was carried out. The re-sults showed that the yield of Yongyou 538 was accelerated with the increase of soil conditioner application, about 8.31% to 9.52%. The soil conditioners not only improved the chemical and physical properties of acid soil, increased the soil available organic, nitro-gen, phosphous and ptotassium, but also increased the effective panicles and 1 000-grain weight. The suitable amount of acid soil conditioner is 600~900 kg/hm2.%为了探明土壤调理剂对酸化稻田土壤理化性状及连作晚稻产量的影响效应,挖掘甬优538高产潜力,设置了土壤调理剂32%氨基质钙镁肥不同用量试验。结果表明,施用土壤调理剂对甬优538有明显增产效应,其中每hm2施600 kg、900 kg、1125 kg的处理比未施用对照增产8.31%~9.52%,达显著水平;其增产效应主要在于增加有效穗数和提高千粒重;施用土壤调理剂还能有效改善酸化稻田土壤理化性状,促进碱解氮、有效磷及速效钾的释放利用和有机质提升。通过一系列数学关系模型分析后发现,在生产上土壤调理剂施用量以600~900 kg/hm2为宜。

  15. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    在温室条件下,采用植物盆栽试验,研究4种土壤调理剂不同施用量对酸性红壤铝毒害的缓解效果。结果表明,4种土壤调理剂均显著降低土壤中交换性铝含量及毒害性铝含量,显著提高玉米株高、生物量;各处理土壤中交换性铝含量与玉米株高及生物量之间呈显著相关性。牡蛎壳、白云石、钾长石、麦饭石4种土壤调理剂0.2%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了63.8%、70.5%、53.0%、12.3%;0.4%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了90.5%、92.0%、80.5%、23.4%。土壤中交换性铝、毒害性铝的含量随着4种土壤调理剂的施用量增加而降低,土壤中毒害性铝含量由低到高依次为白云石、牡蛎壳、钾长石、麦饭石。%A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  16. Influence of Soil Conditioner on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Effect in Greenhouse%土壤调理剂对设施菜田土壤理化性状的影响及环境效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 孙碧恺; 姚颖; 张明洁; 李凤鸣; 刘继璇; 毛振娟; 翁福军; 卢树昌

    2015-01-01

    The decline of greenhouse soil quality restricted the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The influence of different conditioner on the physical and chemical properties and the nutrients environmental effect were studied by experiment. The result showed that the experiment treatments had lower surface soil bulk density and higher field moisture capacity by applying test materials, and soil improvement effect of woody conditioner was better than the humic acid potassium and herb source conditioner. By applying test materials, the contents of soil organic matter were improved, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were also improved, the contents of the total nitrogen were decreased, soil carbon and nitrogen ratio was risen. Using woody source and herb source conditioners would reduce soil nitrogen movement. In addition, using potassium humate and woody source conditioner to cucumber made higher output than other treatments. This study would have some reference value for improving soil properties and soil quality.%设施菜田土壤质量下降制约着蔬菜产业持续发展. 采用不同调理剂对设施土壤理化性状及氮磷环境效应进行试验研究.结果表明,施用试验材料的表层土壤容重均低于对照,田间持水量均高于对照,其中木本调理剂改土作用优于腐植酸钾和草本源调理剂处理;施用试验材料土壤有机质含量有所上升,土壤有效氮磷钾含量均有所提高,全氮含量有所下降,土壤C/N比有所增加;施用木本源和草本源调理剂对减缓土壤氮下移有一定作用. 另外,腐植酸钾和木本源调理剂处理黄瓜产量均显著高于其他处理. 该研究对改善土壤性状与提升设施土壤质量具有一定参考价值.

  17. BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤和枸杞生长发育的影响%Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Saline Soil and Chinese Wolfberry Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立东; 杨建国; 尚红莺; 樊丽琴; 李淑玲; 杜永霞; 吴秀玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of soil salinization in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, increase saline soil quality and land productivity, the effect of BGA soil conditioner on saline soil and Chinese wolfberry growth was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that compared with no fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline soil, promoted the growth of Chinese wolfberry, improved the yield of Chinese wolfberry very significantly, increased the fertilization benefit of Chinese wolfberry. Compared with balanced fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline soil, increased significantly the yield of Chinese wolfberry, also increased the fertilization benefit of Chinese wolfberry. Chinese wolfberry belongs to perennial shrub, the after effect of BGA soil conditioner and the effect of long-term application of BGA soil conditioner on saline soil and Chinese wolfberry growth need further study.%为解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐渍化土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤的理化性质和枸杞生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐渍化土壤的理化性状,促进了枸杞生长发育,极显著地提高了枸杞产量,增加了枸杞施肥效益.与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐渍化土壤的理化性质,显著地提高了枸杞产量,增加了枸杞施肥效益.枸杞属多年生灌木,BGA土壤调理剂后期效果及长期施用BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤的理化性质和枸杞生长发育性状的影响还有待于进一步研究.

  18. 土壤调理剂在酸化稻田连作晚稻上的应用效果%Effects of Acid Soil Conditioner on Yongyou 538

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建军; 林采舜; 叶斌斌; 何杰; 许剑锋

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of soil conditioner on soil physical-chemical properties and the yield of continuous cropping late rice, exploit high yield potential of Yongyou 538, the 32%soil conditioner application amount experiment was carried out. The re-sults showed that the yield of Yongyou 538 was accelerated with the increase of soil conditioner application, about 8.31% to 9.52%. The soil conditioners not only improved the chemical and physical properties of acid soil, increased the soil available organic, nitro-gen, phosphous and ptotassium, but also increased the effective panicles and 1 000-grain weight. The suitable amount of acid soil conditioner is 600~900 kg/hm2.%为了探明土壤调理剂对酸化稻田土壤理化性状及连作晚稻产量的影响效应,挖掘甬优538高产潜力,设置了土壤调理剂32%氨基质钙镁肥不同用量试验。结果表明,施用土壤调理剂对甬优538有明显增产效应,其中每hm2施600 kg、900 kg、1125 kg的处理比未施用对照增产8.31%~9.52%,达显著水平;其增产效应主要在于增加有效穗数和提高千粒重;施用土壤调理剂还能有效改善酸化稻田土壤理化性状,促进碱解氮、有效磷及速效钾的释放利用和有机质提升。通过一系列数学关系模型分析后发现,在生产上土壤调理剂施用量以600~900 kg/hm2为宜。

  19. 土壤改良剂对烤烟产质量和土壤理化性状的影响%Effects of Soil Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco and Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富欣; 司贤宗; 张翔; 毛家伟; 桂炎伟; 陈启龙

    2014-01-01

    通过田间试验,研究了施用不同土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状、经济性状、产量、质量及土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:与不施用土壤改良剂相比,施用土壤改良剂能增加烤烟的株高、叶长和叶宽;增加烤烟的产量和产值,分别增加54.00~315.00 kg/hm2、2703.00~6759.15元/hm2;增加上中等烟比例和均价;显著增加烟叶中总糖、钾和还原糖含量;能有效降低土壤pH值和土壤容重;以施用225 kg/hm2腐殖酸型土壤改良剂的效果最好。%The effects of applying different soil conditioners on the agronomic characters , economic traits, yield, and quality of flue-cured tobacco as well as the physicochemical properties of soil were studied through field tests .The results showed that: in comparison with the control ( not applying soil conditioner ) , applying soil conditioner could increase the plant height , leaf length and leaf width of flue-cured tobacco, could increase the yield and production value of flue -cured tobacco by 54.00~315.00 kg/hm2, 2703.00~6759.15 yuan/hm2, respectively, could enhance the proportion of superior and medium tobacco leaves , and aver-age price, could significantly increase the contents of total sugar , potassium and reducing sugar in tobacco leaf , and could effectively reduce soil pH-value and soil bulk density .Among the applications of different soil conditioners , the application of 225 kg/hm2 humic-acid-type soil conditioner acquired the best effects .

  20. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  1. 土壤调理剂对设施菜田土壤理化性状的影响及环境效应%Influence of Soil Conditioner on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Effect in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 孙碧恺; 姚颖; 张明洁; 李凤鸣; 刘继璇; 毛振娟; 翁福军; 卢树昌

    2015-01-01

    The decline of greenhouse soil quality restricted the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The influence of different conditioner on the physical and chemical properties and the nutrients environmental effect were studied by experiment. The result showed that the experiment treatments had lower surface soil bulk density and higher field moisture capacity by applying test materials, and soil improvement effect of woody conditioner was better than the humic acid potassium and herb source conditioner. By applying test materials, the contents of soil organic matter were improved, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were also improved, the contents of the total nitrogen were decreased, soil carbon and nitrogen ratio was risen. Using woody source and herb source conditioners would reduce soil nitrogen movement. In addition, using potassium humate and woody source conditioner to cucumber made higher output than other treatments. This study would have some reference value for improving soil properties and soil quality.%设施菜田土壤质量下降制约着蔬菜产业持续发展. 采用不同调理剂对设施土壤理化性状及氮磷环境效应进行试验研究.结果表明,施用试验材料的表层土壤容重均低于对照,田间持水量均高于对照,其中木本调理剂改土作用优于腐植酸钾和草本源调理剂处理;施用试验材料土壤有机质含量有所上升,土壤有效氮磷钾含量均有所提高,全氮含量有所下降,土壤C/N比有所增加;施用木本源和草本源调理剂对减缓土壤氮下移有一定作用. 另外,腐植酸钾和木本源调理剂处理黄瓜产量均显著高于其他处理. 该研究对改善土壤性状与提升设施土壤质量具有一定参考价值.

  2. Effect of Fly Ash Based Soil Conditioner (Biosil and Recommen ded Dose of Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Tejram Buddhe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash has been used in agriculture for improving the soil health and to increase the crop productivity with very high doses 10% to 80% of fly ash. In order to mitigate the impact of excess dose in terms of boron and heavy metal toxicity, present investigation was undertaken to process fly ash into improved soil conditioner “Biosil” through magnetization and to conduct field trials using wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety GW-273 with Biosil fortified by recommended dose of chemical fertilizers keeping Vermicompost and recommended dose of chemical fertilizers as control treatments. Very low Biosil doses resulted in improvement in soil quality, fertility, crop growth & productivity. The optimum concentration of Biosil dose was recorded to be in the range of 450 kg/ha to 900 kg/ha which were effective in reducing bulk density and improving organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc which are generally deficient in Indian soils as per the results of national soil survey by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR. Vermicompost and chemical fertilizers were also effective in improving soil fertility. The Plant height, number of leaves/plant, length of earhead, number of grains/earhead, test weight, grain yield and straw yield showed improvement with the increasing Biosil doses. Vermicompost and chemical fertilizers were next to Biosil in improving the growth and yield of wheat. It is recommended that long term trials with Biosil fortified by chemical fertilizers and Vermicompost would be more beneficial for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Introduction to Soil Acidification and Use of Conditioners on Acid Soil%土壤酸化及酸性土壤调理剂应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍荣; 余根德; 白云飞; 陈德康; 宁维

    2013-01-01

    Acidification of soil not only aggravates leaching and fixation of soil nutrients and promotes the release and activation of poisonous elements, but also affects the life activity of soil micro organism and increases the ambient pressure. An introduction is given to present status and causes of soil acidification in China, and on this point measures are proposed for improvement of soil acidification by application of such acid soil conditioners as lime, boron and refined organic manure.%土壤酸化不仅会加剧土壤营养元素的淋溶和固定、促进有毒元素的释放和活化,而且会影响土壤微生物的生命活动、增加环境压力.概述了我国土壤酸化的现状及原因,针对性地提出了施用石灰类、硼泥类、精制有机肥类等酸性土壤调理剂改良治理土壤酸化的措施.

  4. Study on the Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Saline-alkaline Obstacle Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐碱障碍型土壤上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立东; 杨建国; 樊丽琴; 黄菊莹; 雷金银; 何文寿; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of soil saline-alkaline obstacle in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline-alkaline obstacle soil quality, and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on saline-alkaline soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The Tesults showed that, compared with no fertilizer BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline-alkaline obstacle soil, promoted the growth of oil sunflower, rice and Chinese wolfberry, increased significantly the yield of three crops, improved the quality of oil sunflower and rice. Compared with balanced fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline-alkaline obstacle soil, promoted the growth of oil sunflower and rice, increased significantly the yield of three crops, improved the quality of oil sunflower; It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve saline-alkaline obstacle soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner could be reduced effectively and BGA soil conditioner could be combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐碱障碍问题,提高盐碱障碍型土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间试验,研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质及作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明:与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质.促进了油葵、水稻及枸杞的生长发育,显著提高了3种作物产量,改善了油葵、水稻的品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质,促进了油葵、水稻的生长发育,显著提高了3种作物产量,改善了油葵的品质.如果能够有效降低BGA土壤调理剂生产成本并配合化肥合理施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良

  5. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  6. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  7. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  8. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  9. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  10. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  11. A Wavelet-Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Eliminate Wind Turbine Non-Ideality Consequences on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such as load current. Firstly the fundamental positive sequence of the source voltage, obtained using a wavelet, is used as the input signal of the PLL through an orthogonal signal generator process. Then, the generated orthogonal signals are applied through the SRF-based compensation algorithm to synchronize the SAPF’s reference with power grid. To further force the remained uncompensated grid current harmonics to pass through the SAPF, an improved series filter (SF equipped with a current harmonic suppression loop is proposed. Concurrent operation of the improved SAPF and SF is coordinated through a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The DC-link capacitor of the proposed UPQC, used to interconnect a photovoltaic (PV system to the power grid, is regulated by an adaptive controller. Matlab/Simulink results confirm that the proposed wavelet-based UPQC results in purely sinusoidal grid-end currents with total harmonic distortion (THD = 1.29%, which leads to high

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. 基于 ADPI 的房间空调器气流组织性能评价%Evaluation of Indoor Air Diffusion of Room Air-condition Based on ADPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓光; 敬成君; 李冰

    2013-01-01

      The thermal environment and air diffusion of an air-conditioned office was simulated by the AIRPAK software. Discusses the indoor velocity fields and temperature fields, at the same time, according to ISO7730 standard, evaluation of indoor thermal comfort is carried out using Effective Draft Temperature (ΔET) and Air Distribution Profile Index (ADPI ). It is helpful for the optimum design of the air distribution and comfortably study in the compartment with air conditioner.%  利用 Airpak 软件对某空调办公室的气流组织和热环境进行数值模拟,对该办公室速度场、温度场进行了分析研究,并按照 ISO7730标准,采用有效吹风感温度ΔET 和空气分布特性指标 ADPI 对室内气流组织性能进行评价,为空调室内气流组织形式的优化设计及热舒适性的改善提供了依据。

  14. 氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟生长及产量的影响%Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Combined with Soil Conditioner on Growth and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文汇; 司贤宗; 毛家伟; 杨立均; 徐敏; 张翔

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner on agronomic characters, leaf SPAD value,yield,output value and proportion of superior tobacco leaves were studied by field split-plot randomized block design experiment,so as to provide theoretical and technical basis for soil improvement and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.Results showed that,plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate;the application of soil conditioner could increase plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,leaf SPAD values increased at vigorous growth stage,and first increased and then decreased at resettling stage and round top stage;the application of soil conditioner could decrease leaf SPAD values.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,tobacco leaf yield and output value increased,average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves both first increased and then decreased with the peak value at nitrogen application rate of 45·0 kg/ha,67·5 kg/ha, respectively;the application of soil conditioner could increased yield and output value,but when the nitrogen application rate was greater than or equal to 67·5 kg/ha,the application of soil conditioner decreased the average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves.Overall,the application of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner could promote the growth of tabacco,and increase the yield of tobacco.%通过裂区随机区组设计田间试验,研究了氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶片SPAD 值、产量、产值、上等烟比例的影响,以期为烟区土壤改良、合理施用氮肥提供理论和技术依据。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积均增加;土壤改良剂能促进烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积增加。随着

  15. Effects of soil conditioners on cucumber growth and soil conditions under protected culture%土壤改良剂对设施黄瓜生长及土壤状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍; 吴珏; 杨银娟; 曹欢欢; 牛庆良; 黄丹枫

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse culture of cucumber was carried out to study the effects of 4 soil conditioners on the plant growth ,soil physical and chemical characteristics and soil microorganism. The experimental result showed that compared with CK,Conditioner 1 treatment increased the plant's stem diameter, maximal leaf area and yield respectively by 19.2%, 15.0% and 4.1%,decreased the soil nitrate nitrogen and EC value respectively by 57.5% and 31.5% ,and increased the total soil microorganism by 84.3%; Conditioner 2 treatment increased the plant's maximal leaf area and the total soil microorganism respectively by 15.9% and 36.1%, but decreased the soil nitrate nitrogen and EC value and the yield respectively by 61.8% ,39.3% and 3.4%; Conditioner 3 and 4 treatments had not a significant effect on the plant growth and the soil conditions but reduced the yield respectively by 6.3% and 4.1%. It was concluded that in terms of the plant growth and yield and the soil quality,Conditioner 1 treatment was the most suitable for greenhouse culture of cucumber,and Conditioner 2 treatment was next.%以黄瓜为供试材料,研究4种土壤改良剂对植株生长、土壤理化性状及微生物的影响.结果表明:制剂1处理的黄瓜植株茎粗、最大叶面积、产量分别较对照提高19.2%、15.0%、4.1%,土壤硝态氮含量及EC值分别降低57.5%和31.5%,土壤微生物总量提高84.3%;制剂2处理的黄瓜最大叶面积较对照提高15.9%,土壤硝态氮含量及EC值分别降低61.8%、39.3%,微生物总量提高36.1%,但产量降低3.4%;制剂3和4对黄瓜植株生长和土壤状况影响不显著,但产量分别较对照降低6.3%和4.1%.以黄瓜生长、产量及土壤品质作为衡量指标,设施黄瓜的土壤改良及修复以土壤改良剂1处理为宜,其次是制剂2.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Combined with Soil Conditioner on Growth and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco%氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文汇; 司贤宗; 毛家伟; 杨立均; 徐敏; 张翔

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner on agronomic characters, leaf SPAD value,yield,output value and proportion of superior tobacco leaves were studied by field split-plot randomized block design experiment,so as to provide theoretical and technical basis for soil improvement and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.Results showed that,plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate;the application of soil conditioner could increase plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,leaf SPAD values increased at vigorous growth stage,and first increased and then decreased at resettling stage and round top stage;the application of soil conditioner could decrease leaf SPAD values.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,tobacco leaf yield and output value increased,average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves both first increased and then decreased with the peak value at nitrogen application rate of 45·0 kg/ha,67·5 kg/ha, respectively;the application of soil conditioner could increased yield and output value,but when the nitrogen application rate was greater than or equal to 67·5 kg/ha,the application of soil conditioner decreased the average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves.Overall,the application of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner could promote the growth of tabacco,and increase the yield of tobacco.%通过裂区随机区组设计田间试验,研究了氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶片SPAD 值、产量、产值、上等烟比例的影响,以期为烟区土壤改良、合理施用氮肥提供理论和技术依据。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积均增加;土壤改良剂能促进烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积增加。随着

  17. 花生施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂效应分析%The Effects of Rare Earth Micronutrients and Soil Conditioner Application on Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 李文金; 张利民; 任志红; 张艳艳

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner on pho-tosynthetic rate and yield of peanut, the different effect of fertilization in the field were determined with the experimental material of Shanhua9.The test of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut led that the number of branches, pod number, 100-pod weight,100-seed weight and shelling percentage increased, and photosynthetic rate increased between seedling stage and the period of maturity.The yield and economic benefit of peanut were raised.Rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut had obvious increase effect which enhancedthe yield by 18.97%comparing with the control treatment.%为探明施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生光合速率及产量的影响,本研究以山花9号为花生试材,采用大田小区试验研究稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生的增产效果。试验结果表明,施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂能明显增加花生分枝数、荚果数,提高百果重、百仁重和出仁率,提高苗期至饱果期的光合速率,最终提高花生产量。产量较对照增产18.97%,增产效果显著。

  18. Efeito de condicionadores químicos na cama de frango sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of chemical conditioners in the poultry litter on the broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ferreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de condicionadores químicos na cama de frango sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte criados em três lotes consecutivos. Foram utilizadas 1320 aves, 440 em cada lote, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (Trat. 1 - cama sem tratamento; Trat. 2 - cama tratada com sulfato de alumínio; Trat. 3 - cama tratada com gesso agrícola; Trat. 4 - cama tratada com superfosfato simples e Trat. 5 - cama tratada com cal hidratada e quatro repetições. As aves e as rações foram pesadas no início e no final do período experimental para obtenção do peso final, do consumo de ração, da conversão alimentar e da viabilidade. O uso dos condicionadores não influenciou (P>0,05 o peso final, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. A adição do sulfato de alumínio e do superfosfato simples reduziu (PThe effect of chemical conditioners in the poultry litter on the performance of broilers reared in three consecutive flocks was studied. One-thousand-three-hundred and twenty birds, 440 birds per each flock, were allotted to five treatments (Treat. 1 - untreated litter; Treat. 2 - litter treated with aluminum sulfate; Treat. 3 - litter treated with gypsum; Treat. 4 - litter treated with single superphosphate; and Treat. 5 - litter treated with hydrated lime in a completely randomized block design and four replicates. Body weight, feed consumption, feed:gain ratio and viability were obtained. The conditioners did not affect (P>.05 body weight, feed consumption and feed:gain ratio. The aluminum sulfate and single superphosphate addition significantly reduced (P<.05 bird viabilities. Conditioners are not necessary for reused poultry litter until the third flock.

  19. Technology of Producing Organic Soil Conditioner with Organic Waste from Alcohol Device%酒精装置有机废弃物制有机土壤调理剂技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 薛宏光; 杜小光; 毛士玲

    2015-01-01

    Using Gore membrane covered odorless, high temperature, aerobic fermentation and desiccation stacking aging process, with organic waste anaerobic-aerobic sludge, which is the byproduct in producing alcohol by cassava, as main raw material, using plant ash from biomass power plant as conditioner, the green and ecological organic soil conditioner is produced, realizing waste minimization and agricultural reutilization.After years of experiment, the heavy metal content of the organic soil conditioner is less than the requirements of related standards, it can improve saline-alkali soil property, having significant yield-increasing effect, and increasing utilization efficiency of fertilizer nutrients.%采用戈尔(Gore)膜覆盖无臭高温好氧发酵干化堆置陈化工艺,利用木薯制酒精装置产生的有机废弃物厌氧-好氧污泥为主要原料,以生物质电厂废弃物秸秆灰等作为调节剂,制取环保生态型有机土壤调理剂,从而实现废弃物减量化、农用资源化。经多年试验,该有机土壤调理剂的重金属含量优于有关标准的要求,可明显改善盐碱地土壤性能,作物增产效果明显,且可提高肥料养分利用率。

  20. The Effects of Rare Earth Micronutrients and Soil Conditioner Application on Peanut%花生施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 李文金; 张利民; 任志红; 张艳艳

    2014-01-01

    为探明施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生光合速率及产量的影响,本研究以山花9号为花生试材,采用大田小区试验研究稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生的增产效果。试验结果表明,施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂能明显增加花生分枝数、荚果数,提高百果重、百仁重和出仁率,提高苗期至饱果期的光合速率,最终提高花生产量。产量较对照增产18.97%,增产效果显著。%In order to evaluate the effect of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner on pho-tosynthetic rate and yield of peanut, the different effect of fertilization in the field were determined with the experimental material of Shanhua9.The test of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut led that the number of branches, pod number, 100-pod weight,100-seed weight and shelling percentage increased, and photosynthetic rate increased between seedling stage and the period of maturity.The yield and economic benefit of peanut were raised.Rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut had obvious increase effect which enhancedthe yield by 18.97%comparing with the control treatment.

  1. 酒精装置有机废弃物制有机土壤调理剂技术%Technology of Producing Organic Soil Conditioner with Organic Waste from Alcohol Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 薛宏光; 杜小光; 毛士玲

    2015-01-01

    Using Gore membrane covered odorless, high temperature, aerobic fermentation and desiccation stacking aging process, with organic waste anaerobic-aerobic sludge, which is the byproduct in producing alcohol by cassava, as main raw material, using plant ash from biomass power plant as conditioner, the green and ecological organic soil conditioner is produced, realizing waste minimization and agricultural reutilization.After years of experiment, the heavy metal content of the organic soil conditioner is less than the requirements of related standards, it can improve saline-alkali soil property, having significant yield-increasing effect, and increasing utilization efficiency of fertilizer nutrients.%采用戈尔(Gore)膜覆盖无臭高温好氧发酵干化堆置陈化工艺,利用木薯制酒精装置产生的有机废弃物厌氧-好氧污泥为主要原料,以生物质电厂废弃物秸秆灰等作为调节剂,制取环保生态型有机土壤调理剂,从而实现废弃物减量化、农用资源化。经多年试验,该有机土壤调理剂的重金属含量优于有关标准的要求,可明显改善盐碱地土壤性能,作物增产效果明显,且可提高肥料养分利用率。

  2. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  3. 土壤改良剂节水增产效应的田间试验研究%Field Experimental Study of the Water-saving and Production-increase Effects of Soil Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军勇; 吴普特; 冯浩; 王百群; 杜红霞

    2009-01-01

    采用田间试验,探讨了施用土壤改良剂对冬小麦的产量及水肥利用效率的影响.结果表明,施加土壤改良剂能降低作物生育期耗水量,提高冬小麦的产量,增加水肥利用效率.在不灌水条件下,施加土壤改良剂1 500 kg/hm~2,能够使冬小麦较对照增产15%,水分利用效率(WUE)提高了21.65%,磷肥利用效率(PUE)较单施磷肥增加2.92%.在灌水33.3 mm的条件下,施加土壤改良剂较对照可增产28.57%,将土壤改良剂与磷肥混施增产可达到42.86%.而且,PUE较单施磷肥增加了11.11%,WUE达到25.06kg/(hm~2·mm).%A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of the application of a new soil conditioner to grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency (PUE) of winter wheat. Results showed that the application of the new soil conditioner could improve grain yield, WUE, and PUE. When the new soil conditioner was used at 1 500 kg/Km~2 in a wheat field, grain yield and WUE were increased by 15 % and 21. 65%, respectively. PUE was 2. 92 % higher than that under single application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Grain yield by applying the new soil conditioner with irrigating water at 33. 3 mm level was 28. 57 % more than that under control and mixing with P fertilizer could increase grain yield by 42. 86%. PUE was 11. 11% higher than that by single application of P fertilize and WUE was up to 25. 06 kg/(hm~2·mm).

  4. Effect of Soil BGA Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Dry Land Potato%BGA土壤调理剂对旱作马铃薯产量与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余峰; 郭永忠; 王峰; 杜建民; 李浩霞

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨BGA土壤调理剂施入对马铃薯产量和品质的影响,进行了BGA土壤调理剂、PF施肥和CK(对照)处理比较研究。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂的施入可使马铃薯的生殖生长阶段提前5 d左右,延迟了马铃薯的成熟时期。BGA土壤调理剂处理后马铃薯不同生育时期的株高比CK增加19.99%~46.78%,冠幅比CK增加21.17%~24.26%,马铃薯产量较CK增产了47.6%,虽然产量较PF降低了12.8%,但商品薯产量相差不大,因此也就避免了马铃薯增产不增收的现象发生;BGA土壤调理剂施入后,延迟了马铃薯的成熟期,造成马铃薯的品质下降,但与生育期相差不大的PF相比,马铃薯的干物质、粗蛋白、总糖和还原糖含量都有所提高。%In order to study the effect of soil BGA conditioner application on the yield and quality of potato, a comparative study was conducted with three treatments, namely, soil BGA conditioner、PF fertilization and CK treatments. The results showed that soil BGA conditioner advanced the potato reproductive growth period for 5 days, it also delayed the maturity period of potato. The plant height and crown ratio of the potato under soil BGA conditioner treatment increased by 25%~47% and 21%~24% respectively compared with that of CK treatment. The potato yield increased by 47.6% compared with CK, although the yield was 12.8% lower than that of PF treatments, but there was no difference in the yield of commercial potato. Therefore, the phenomenon of output increasing while without income increasing in potato production was avoided. The application of soil BGA conditioner delayed maturity of potato, causing a decline in the quality of potato, but compared with PF treatment of same growth stage, the dry matter, crude protein, total sugar and reducing sugar content of the potato increased to certain extent.

  5. BGA土壤调理剂对旱作马铃薯产量与品质的影响%Effect of Soil BGA Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Dry Land Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余峰; 郭永忠; 王峰; 杜建民; 李浩霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of soil BGA conditioner application on the yield and quality of potato, a comparative study was conducted with three treatments, namely, soil BGA conditioner、PF fertilization and CK treatments. The results showed that soil BGA conditioner advanced the potato reproductive growth period for 5 days, it also delayed the maturity period of potato. The plant height and crown ratio of the potato under soil BGA conditioner treatment increased by 25%~47% and 21%~24% respectively compared with that of CK treatment. The potato yield increased by 47.6% compared with CK, although the yield was 12.8% lower than that of PF treatments, but there was no difference in the yield of commercial potato. Therefore, the phenomenon of output increasing while without income increasing in potato production was avoided. The application of soil BGA conditioner delayed maturity of potato, causing a decline in the quality of potato, but compared with PF treatment of same growth stage, the dry matter, crude protein, total sugar and reducing sugar content of the potato increased to certain extent.%为了探讨BGA土壤调理剂施入对马铃薯产量和品质的影响,进行了BGA土壤调理剂、PF施肥和CK(对照)处理比较研究。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂的施入可使马铃薯的生殖生长阶段提前5 d左右,延迟了马铃薯的成熟时期。BGA土壤调理剂处理后马铃薯不同生育时期的株高比CK增加19.99%~46.78%,冠幅比CK增加21.17%~24.26%,马铃薯产量较CK增产了47.6%,虽然产量较PF降低了12.8%,但商品薯产量相差不大,因此也就避免了马铃薯增产不增收的现象发生;BGA土壤调理剂施入后,延迟了马铃薯的成熟期,造成马铃薯的品质下降,但与生育期相差不大的PF相比,马铃薯的干物质、粗蛋白、总糖和还原糖含量都有所提高。

  6. Air quality modelling as a tool used in selecting technological alternatives for developing a new abrasive facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihăiescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of abrasive compounds employs the use of various organic materials as adhesivesor as conditioners. During the baking process, a significant amount of air pollutant substances, includingvarious forms of organic compounds are emitted in the atmosphere. Selecting the most suitabletechnological process is a procedure that involves a cost benefit analysis as well as procedures forcomplying with BAT requirements (best available techniques. Assessing the resulting environmentquality in the vicinity of a new facility is also important, IPPC Directive clearly specifies that a new facilitymust not induce changes of the quality of the environment. This is highly dependent on localmeteorological and topographical conditions. The ISCST3 model was applied to assess the atmosphericdispersions associated with several potential technological designs, and compare their impacts on theenvironment.

  7. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair has been developed, and some operating results are summarized. This system is used for providing air conditioning for the driver's cab of an internal combustion locomotive. Unlike a normal adsorption air conditioner, the system starts running with the adsorption process, during which the cold energy stored is discharged, and ends running with the generation process. The adsorbent temperature decreases during the cold storing period between two runs. The refrigeration power output for the whole running cycle is about 4.1 kW. It appears that such a system is quite energetically efficient and is comparatively suitable for providing discontinuous refrigeration capacity when powered by low grade thermal energy, such as industrial exhausted heat or solar energy

  8. 土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤理化性质和蔬菜产量、 品质的影响%Effects of soil conditioners on soil physical-chemical properties and yield and quality of vegetable in solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉晓娟; 路遥; 王艳; 梁鸣早; 杨军; 路森; 张余良; 王正祥

    2015-01-01

    试验研究了土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤理化性质和蔬菜产量、 品质的影响. 结果表明, 施用土壤调理剂能够明显改善土壤结构, 增强土壤保水能力, 与对照相比, 施用2次调理剂后土壤容重降低6. 36%, 土壤总孔隙度增加4. 97%, 田间持水量增加6. 75%, 渗透系数提高46. 28%; 调理剂还能增加土壤养分含量, 提高土壤保肥能力; 调理剂能够提高蔬菜的产量和品质, 对番茄品质的改善效果尤为明显; 调理剂与秸秆配合施用效果更佳.%The experiments were conducted to study the effects of soil conditioners on soil physical-chemical properties and yield and quality of vegetable in greenhouse. The results showed that soil conditioners obviously improved soil structure and soil retention capacity. Compared with the control treatment, when soil conditioners were applied twice, soil bulk density was reduced by 6. 36%, soil porosity was increased by 4. 97%, soil permeability coefficient was increased by 46. 28%, and soil field capacity was increased by 6. 75%. Soil conditioners also increased soil nutrient contents and improved the ability of soil fertility maintenance. And soil conditioners had improved yield and quality of vegetable, especially in quality of tomato. Co-application of soil conditioners and straw would obtain better effect.

  9. Effects of soil conditioners on soil physical-chemical properties and yield and quality of vegetable in solar greenhouse%土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤理化性质和蔬菜产量、 品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉晓娟; 路遥; 王艳; 梁鸣早; 杨军; 路森; 张余良; 王正祥

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to study the effects of soil conditioners on soil physical-chemical properties and yield and quality of vegetable in greenhouse. The results showed that soil conditioners obviously improved soil structure and soil retention capacity. Compared with the control treatment, when soil conditioners were applied twice, soil bulk density was reduced by 6. 36%, soil porosity was increased by 4. 97%, soil permeability coefficient was increased by 46. 28%, and soil field capacity was increased by 6. 75%. Soil conditioners also increased soil nutrient contents and improved the ability of soil fertility maintenance. And soil conditioners had improved yield and quality of vegetable, especially in quality of tomato. Co-application of soil conditioners and straw would obtain better effect.%试验研究了土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤理化性质和蔬菜产量、 品质的影响. 结果表明, 施用土壤调理剂能够明显改善土壤结构, 增强土壤保水能力, 与对照相比, 施用2次调理剂后土壤容重降低6. 36%, 土壤总孔隙度增加4. 97%, 田间持水量增加6. 75%, 渗透系数提高46. 28%; 调理剂还能增加土壤养分含量, 提高土壤保肥能力; 调理剂能够提高蔬菜的产量和品质, 对番茄品质的改善效果尤为明显; 调理剂与秸秆配合施用效果更佳.

  10. Numerical analysis of an air condenser working with the refrigerant fluid R407C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As CFC (clorofluorocarbon) and HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) refrigerants which have been used as refrigerants in a vapour compression refrigeration system were know to provide a principal cause to ozone depletion and global warming, production and use of these refrigerants have been restricted. Therefore, new alternative refrigerants should be searched for, which fit to the requirements in an air conditioner or a heat pump, and refrigerant mixtures which are composed of HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) refrigerants having zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) are now being suggested as drop-in or mid-term replacement. However also these refrigerants, as the CFC and HCFC refrigerants, present a greenhouse effect. The zeotropic mixture designated as R407C (R32/R125/R134a 23/25/52% in mass) represents a substitute of the HCFC22 for high evaporation temperature applications as the air-conditioning. Aim of the paper is a numerical-experimental analysis for an air condenser working with the non azeotropic mixture R407C in steady-state conditions. A homogeneous model for the condensing refrigerant is considered to forecast the performances of the condenser; this model is capable of predicting the distributions of the refrigerant temperature, the velocity, the void fraction, the tube wall temperature and the air temperature along the test condenser. Obviously in the refrigerant de-superheating phase the numerical analysis becomes very simple. A comparison with the measurements on an air condenser mounted in an air channel linked to a vapour compression plant is discussed. The results show that the simplified model provides a reasonable estimation of the steady-state response and that this model is useful to design purposes

  11. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  12. Unified power quality conditioner using emotional intelligent controller%基于情感智能控制器的统一电能质量调节器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨达亮; 卢子广; 杭乃善

    2013-01-01

    To solve the control problem of DC link voltage stability for unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), a novel control strategy is presented using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC). The parallel compensation and series compensation converter mathematical models are established by switching function description method for UPQC system that consists of two pulse width modulation (PWM) converters connected back-to-back on the DC side. According to the structure and emotion-processing mechanism of brain emotional learning (BEL) computational model, a multi-objective control block diagram is proposed for UPQC device based on intelligent controller BELBIC. The simulation and experimental results indicate the UPQC system achieves the DC link voltage stabilization and output compensation for reactive current and active voltage. The UPQC has good dynamic and static performance. The results verify the correctness and effectiveness of this method.%为解决统一电能质量调节器(Unified Power Quality Conditioner,UPQC)直流侧电压稳定控制问题,提出一种基于大脑情感学习的智能控制器(Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller,BELBIC)新型控制策略。基于背靠背脉宽调制(Pulse Width Modulation,PWM)变流器结构的UPQC电路系统,采用开关函数描述方法建立并联补偿控制和串联补偿控制电路的数学模型。根据大脑情感学习(Brain Emotional Learning,BEL)计算模型的结构特点和作用机理,提出基于BELBIC智能控制的UPQC系统多目标控制框图。仿真及实验结果表明可以实现电流和电压的补偿输出,直流侧电压稳定,系统具有良好的动静态特性,验证了所提方法的正确性和有效性。

  13. Research on Mechanism of Action and Application of New Kind of Humic Acid Soil Conditioner%新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂的作用机理和应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊思健; 陈绍荣

    2014-01-01

    A description is given of the current situation of soil acidification and cadmium pollution of paddy field in China , and preliminary study is carried out of mechanism of action of new kind of humic acid soil conditioner .According to field experiment data , it is demonstrated that the new kind of humic acid soil conditioner plays a certain part in improvement of acid soil and repair farm land polluted by cadmium , and can be applied to agricultural production .%概述了我国土壤酸化和稻田镉污染的现状,对新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂的作用机制进行了初步研究。根据田间试验资料,论证了新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂对治理酸性土壤和修复被镉污染农田具有一定作用,可应用于农业生产中。

  14. Research on Mechanism of Action and Application of New Kind of Humic Acid Soil Conditioner%新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂的作用机理和应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊思健; 陈绍荣

    2014-01-01

    概述了我国土壤酸化和稻田镉污染的现状,对新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂的作用机制进行了初步研究。根据田间试验资料,论证了新型腐殖酸土壤调理剂对治理酸性土壤和修复被镉污染农田具有一定作用,可应用于农业生产中。%A description is given of the current situation of soil acidification and cadmium pollution of paddy field in China , and preliminary study is carried out of mechanism of action of new kind of humic acid soil conditioner .According to field experiment data , it is demonstrated that the new kind of humic acid soil conditioner plays a certain part in improvement of acid soil and repair farm land polluted by cadmium , and can be applied to agricultural production .

  15. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  17. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  18. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  19. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  20. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  1. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  2. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  3. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  4. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  5. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  6. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  7. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  8. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  9. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  10. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  11. Fuzzy logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a variable structure fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered air conditioning system and its advantages are investigated in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. Two different control schemes for the DC motors rotational speed adjustment are implemented and tested: the first one is a pure fuzzy controller, its output being the control signal for the DC motor driver. A 7 x 7 fuzzy matrix assigns the controller output with respect to the error value and the derivative of the error. The second scheme is a two-level controller. The lower level is a conventional PID controller, and the higher level is a fuzzy controller acting over the parameters of the low level controller. Step response of the two control loops are presented as experimental results. The contribution of this design is that in the control system, the fuzzy logic is implemented through software in a common, inexpensive, 16-bit microcontroller, which does not have special abilities for fuzzy control

  12. Experimental verification of a condenser with liquid–vapor separation in an air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three liquid–vapor separation condensers (LSC) were tested to evaluate their ability to automatically separate the liquid and vapor during condensation. Each was used in a split-type air conditioner to investigate the performance. The performance of the LSC system having the greatest cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) was then compared with that of the system having a baseline fin-and-tube condenser for various ambient temperatures from 29 °C to 43 °C. The results showed that both the cooling capacity and EER of the two systems were almost the same at the three standard conditions in the Chinese standard GB/T 7725-2004, with the LSC having just 67% of the heat transfer area of the baseline condenser. In addition, the LSC system was charged with only 80% of the refrigerant in the baseline system. -- Highlights: ► We tested three liquid–vapor separation condensers in an air conditioning system. ► The best system had the most uniform wall temperature and the smallest pressure drop. ► The LSC system performance with only 67% condenser area was as good as the baseline system. ► LSC system operations are compared for various outdoor temperatures

  13. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  15. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  16. Numerical simulation study on the thermal environment of an air-conditioned office in summer based on Airpak%基于Airpak的夏季空调室内热环境数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄寿元; 赵伏军; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    基于Airpak软件,选用室内零方程湍流模型对一夏季空调办公室内热环境进行了三维数值模拟,得到室内气流组织下的流场、温度场分布.采用PMV-PPD与空气龄指标对室内人员热舒适性及空气品质进行了评价,并通过测试室内温度、风速参数,验证了数值模拟结果的准确性.研究表明:对于分体式空调器房间,气流组织分布与空调器的安装位置、室内设备的摆设以及室内人员的分布有关,不同的气流组织将形成不同速度场和温度场.室内温度场分布在水平方向比较均匀,在垂直方向产生明显的温度分层;室内零方程湍流模型能准确快速模拟空调通风房间气流组织分布,PMV-PPD与空气龄指标能对人体热舒适及空气品质进行数值预测与评价,为房间空调器送风温度、速度参数的合理设定提供参考依据;热环境数值模拟对空调系统的气流组织设计、运行调节具有重要的指导意义.%The thermal environment of an air - conditioned office in summer was simulated in three -dimension, which choose zero - equation turbulence model based on Airpak. The air distnbutions of velocity and temperature fields were obtained. The PMV - PPD ( Predicted Mean Vote - Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) and air age indexes were applied that to evaluate the human tbermal comfort and air quality. Numerical simulation results were experimental verification by testing the air temperature and velocity. Numerical and experimental results indicate that the air distribution relations between air conditioner, the equipment and person ' s distributions in split type air conditioner room, the different air distribution for the different temperature and velocity distribution. It was uniform in horizontal direction and Iayered in vertical direction of temperature distribution. The air distribution in room by using of zero - equation turbulence model was reasonable and rapidly. PMV - PPD and air age

  17. Agri土壤调理剂用量对烟叶香气质量的影响%Effects of Application Rate of Agri Soil Conditioner on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.

  18. Effects of Agri-star Soil Conditioner on Growth and Economic Traits of Tobacco%Agri-star松土促根剂对烤烟生长发育及经济性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守刚; 毛家伟; 司贤宗; 刘春增; 张传忠

    2015-01-01

    采用大田对比试验,以中烟100为材料,研究了Agri-star松土促根剂对烤烟生长发育、主要病害及经济性状的影响。结果表明,与不施松土促根剂相比,施用Agri-star松土促根剂处理烟株的农艺性状均有提高,移栽后45 d,株高增加4.4 cm,茎围增加0.26 cm,叶片数增加0.8片,叶面积增加184.1 cm2,其中叶面积提高最明显;降低了烟草花叶病和气候斑点病的发病率,二者分别下降14.3、7.5个百分点,提高了烟株的抗病能力;增加了烟株根、茎、叶干物质质量和根系体积,促进了根系发育;使得烟叶的经济性状有了明显提高。%In this study, a specific Agri-star soil conditioner was tested to investigate its effect on the growth,main diseases and economic traits of tobacco using the variety Zhongyan 100 as tested material. The results indicated that, compared with the conventional fertilization, treatment with Agri-star soil conditioner improved the tobacco agronomic traits, which increased the plant height, stem girth, leaf number and leaf area by 4. 4 cm,0. 26 cm,0. 8 and 184. 4 cm2 at 45 d after transplanted,respectively, with the leaf area increase being the most obvious. The rate of tobacco mosaic and weather speck decreased 14. 3 percentage points and 7. 5 percentage points,respectively. Agri-star soil conditioner could enhance the growth of root, stem, leaf biomass of tobacco significantly, and also improved the economic traits.

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. 红黄壤土壤结构改良剂应用效果研究%Study on Applied Effect of Red-Yellow Soil Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先茂; 章发根; 邓国强; 关贤交; 唐先干; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    为探明红黄壤土壤结构改良剂在红壤旱地上应用的改土培肥效果及其不同用量的产量效应,在典型红壤丘陵区选取3个不同试验点,设计不同用量处理并以花生、红薯、烟草为供试作物进行田间试验,2年定位试验的结果表明:在红壤旱地上施用红黄壤土壤结构改良剂可有效调节土壤酸性、改善土壤结构、提高土壤养分及有机质含量,具有较好的改土培肥效果,其中土壤pH值提高了0.15~0.19、土壤容重降低了5~6个百分点、土壤有机质提高了2.2~2.8 g/kg;在花生、红薯、烟草上应用,其适宜施用量分别为1500~2000、2250~3000、1500~1800 kg/hm2,与对照(不施改良剂量)相比分别增产8%~11%、9%~14%、6%~9%,效益明显。%In order to explore the effect of improving soil structure and fertility of Red -Yellow Soil Conditioner ( RYSC) appli-cation in red soil upland and its yield -increasing effect under the condition of different application rates , we carried out peanut , sweet potato and tobacco field tests for the application rate of RYSC at three test points in the representative hilly red soil region . The results of 2-year location tests indicated that the application of RYSC in the red soil upland had favorable effect of improving soil structure and fertility , it could effectively adjust soil acidity , improve soil structure , and increase soil nutrient and organic mat-ter content.After the application of RYSC, the soil pH -value was increased by 0.15~0.19, the bulk density of soil was de-creased by 5~6 percent, and the soil organic matter content was enhanced by 2.2~2.8 g/kg.As for the application of RYSC in peanut, sweet potato and tobacco fields , its suitable application rate was 1500~2000, 2250~3000, 1500~1800 kg/hm2 respec-tively, and the yield was increased by 8%~11%, 9%~14%, 6%~9%respectively in comparison with the control ( without the application of

  2. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  3. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  4. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  5. Emergency air supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  6. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  7. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  8. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  9. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  10. Effects of tillage method and soil conditioner interaction on peanut yield and quality%耕作方式与土壤调理剂互作对花生产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司贤宗; 毛家伟; 张翔; 李亮; 李国平; 余辉

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tillage method and soil conditioner interaction on peanut yield and quality were studied by field experi-ment with split-plot randomized block design. The results indicated that the ridge planting method increased the peanut yields by 5. 7% ~12. 0%, compared with flat planting method. Obviously, soil conditioner application increased the peanut yield by 7. 4% ~18. 6% in flat planting method, and 5. 6% ~25. 6% in ridge planting method treatment, compared with control, respectively. According to the effect of improving the peanut yield, soil conditioner treatments was ranked as straw ash>biologi-cal carbon>humic acid. The study showed that the interaction of ridge tillage and soil conditioner application not only increased the peanut full pod number, 100-pod weight, kernel rate, plant height, lateral branch length, branch number, valid branch number, but also increased the peanut kernel nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents, protein and crude fat yield as com-pared to control. In particular, the interaction of ridge planting method with straw ash treatment had relatively high peanut pod, peanut kernel protein and crude fat yield in this study.%采用大田裂区随机区组设计试验,研究了耕作方式(垄作、平作)与土壤调理剂互作对花生产量及品质的影响。结果表明,垄作方式比平作方式花生增产5.7%~12.0%;无论是平作或垄作方式下,与对照相比,施用不同土壤调理剂均能使花生增产,增产幅度分别为7.4%~18.6%、5.6%~25.6%,不同土壤调理剂对花生增产的大小顺序为秸秆灰分>生物炭>腐植酸。垄作和土壤调理剂互作能显著增加花生的饱果数、百果重、出仁率、花生株高、侧枝长、分枝数和结果枝数,提高花生籽粒中的氮、磷和钾含量,增加花生蛋白质和粗脂肪的产量。本试验条件下,采用起垄与增施秸秆灰分互作的处理的花生产量、蛋白质产量和粗脂肪产量均最高。

  11. Effects of tillage method and soil conditioner interaction on peanut yield and quality%耕作方式与土壤调理剂互作对花生产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司贤宗; 毛家伟; 张翔; 李亮; 李国平; 余辉

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tillage method and soil conditioner interaction on peanut yield and quality were studied by field experi-ment with split-plot randomized block design. The results indicated that the ridge planting method increased the peanut yields by 5. 7% ~12. 0%, compared with flat planting method. Obviously, soil conditioner application increased the peanut yield by 7. 4% ~18. 6% in flat planting method, and 5. 6% ~25. 6% in ridge planting method treatment, compared with control, respectively. According to the effect of improving the peanut yield, soil conditioner treatments was ranked as straw ash>biologi-cal carbon>humic acid. The study showed that the interaction of ridge tillage and soil conditioner application not only increased the peanut full pod number, 100-pod weight, kernel rate, plant height, lateral branch length, branch number, valid branch number, but also increased the peanut kernel nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents, protein and crude fat yield as com-pared to control. In particular, the interaction of ridge planting method with straw ash treatment had relatively high peanut pod, peanut kernel protein and crude fat yield in this study.%采用大田裂区随机区组设计试验,研究了耕作方式(垄作、平作)与土壤调理剂互作对花生产量及品质的影响。结果表明,垄作方式比平作方式花生增产5.7%~12.0%;无论是平作或垄作方式下,与对照相比,施用不同土壤调理剂均能使花生增产,增产幅度分别为7.4%~18.6%、5.6%~25.6%,不同土壤调理剂对花生增产的大小顺序为秸秆灰分>生物炭>腐植酸。垄作和土壤调理剂互作能显著增加花生的饱果数、百果重、出仁率、花生株高、侧枝长、分枝数和结果枝数,提高花生籽粒中的氮、磷和钾含量,增加花生蛋白质和粗脂肪的产量。本试验条件下,采用起垄与增施秸秆灰分互作的处理的花生产量、蛋白质产量和粗脂肪产量均最高。

  12. 土壤调理剂对不同成土母质Cd污染稻田的修复效果%Remediation Effect of Soil Conditioner to Cd Polluted Paddy Field from Different Soil Parent Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 铁柏清

    2016-01-01

    Choosing different soil parent materials of typical Cd polluted paddy soil, researching the soil conditioners’ effect on soil Cd morphology and rice Cd absorption, toprovidea scientiifc basis for repairing different soil parent material of Cd polluted paddy. The result showed that the application of soil conditioner had no signiifcant effect on rice yield, but it could signiifcantly reduce the content of Cd in rice and improve soil pH value, it also reduced the content of Cd in soil effectively. The application of soil conditioner was mainly affected by the strong alkali on soil acid adjustment and reduced the effectiveness of soil Cd, also affected by adjustment of soil parent materials.%选择不同成土母质发育的典型Cd污染稻田,研究土壤调理剂对土壤Cd形态及水稻Cd吸收的效果,为修复不同成土母质Cd污染稻田土壤提供科学依据。研究结果表明,施用土壤调理剂对水稻产量无显著影响,但能显著降低水稻稻米和植株Cd含量,并显著提高土壤pH值,有效降低土壤有效态Cd含量。施用土壤调理剂主要受其强碱性对土壤的调酸及降低土壤Cd有效性的影响,并受成土母质的调节。

  13. 聚丙烯醇做土壤改良剂研究:老化与作用力分析%PVA Used as a Soil Conditioner: Aging and Interaction Forces with Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 周良勋; 李茂田

    2007-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the capability for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. In this work polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used. Its degradation in soils and its intermolecular interaction force with soils were studied. Pure PVA film、PVA with silica and PVA with alumina oxide were heated or treated with ultra-visible light. FTIR was used to observe the aging of PVA. The surfaces of the specimens were observed with SEM and AFM (atomic force microscope). Interaction force between PVA and the tip was measured with AFM. The effects of soils on the aging of PVA were discussed according to the experimental results. Effects of treating methods on the interaction force between soils and PVA were also discussed in this study.%聚烯醇可生物分解且无毒性,可做为土壤改良剂.其在土壤中受温度、紫外线影响而老化的问题为本研究的一部份.以加热及UV处理PVA膜与PVA与SiO2混合物.样品以FT-IR光谱了解其劣化情况.PVA膜与土壤之作用力则以原子力显微镜量测其力曲线与观察表面变化.此外PVA与SiO2混合物则以SEM观察其受热与受UV处理的结果.

  14. YNEC土壤改良剂对早熟禾土壤微生物的影响%Effects of YNEC Soil Conditioner on Soil Microbes of Kentucky bluegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 王有国

    2012-01-01

    通过对草坪土壤施加不同剂量的土壤改良剂,采用实验室平板涂抹记数法,观测不同处理下土壤微生物数量的变化,对土壤改良剂的施用效果做出评价。结果表明:根际细菌数量与土壤改良剂剂量呈正相关,随着土壤改良剂剂量的增加根际细菌数量呈上升趋势;根际放线菌数量随土壤改良剂剂量的增加呈先下降后上升的趋势;根际真菌数量与土壤改良剂剂量呈负相关,随着剂量的增加,根际真菌的数量逐渐减少。%Different amounts of the soil conditioner applied to Kentucky bluegrass soil, the number of soil microbes was observed by introduced flat counting process and the effect of different soil conditioner treatments was evaluated. The main results showed that the quantity of microbes presented positive correlation with soil nutrients and the quantity showed increase with the amount increase of soil condition while the quantity of rhizosphere fungi presented negative correlation with soil condition and it increased gradually with decrease of the soil condition.

  15. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  16. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  17. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  18. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  19. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  20. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  1. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  2. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  3. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  4. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  5. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  6. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  7. A Kind of Multipurpose Robot of Single Station for the Air-conditioner Assembly Line%空调外机总装线的一种单工位多用途机器人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建伟; 奚源

    2015-01-01

    通过机器人末端夹具的模块化和一体化设计,实现了1台机器人驱动3套机器人末端夹具模块,不仅很好地满足了线体节拍要求,而且成倍提高了机器人的使用效率。为机器人使用方节省了自动化改造成本,促进工业机器人产业的持续健康发展。%Through modularized and integrated design of the robot fixture, a single robot can drive three sets of ro-bot fixture. It not only can satisfy the requirements of the line, but also improve the robot’s efficiency. In this way, it saves the cost for the robot’s user, so to promote the sustained and healthy development of the industrial robot indus-try.

  8. ynamic Simulation of Multi-Step Forming Processes Based on the Bulkhead Plate of Air-Conditioner%空调电机端盖冲压拉深工序的动态仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛兰斌; 邢亚从; 邹甲军

    2007-01-01

    通过对空调电机端盖冲压件的复杂多次冲压工艺分析,初步确定工件各道工序的形状与尺寸,然后利用DYNAFORM软件对冲压式序进行动态模拟,分析冲压工序的合理性.通过修改参数,确定切实可行的冲压方案.再根据确定的方案设计制造模具,冲压出符合要求的工件.对冲压工序的设计方法和多道成形的动态模拟方法进行了说明,确保了模具设计的成功,缩短了生产周期,降低了生产成本.

  9. 空调电机端盖冲压拉深工序的动态仿真%Dynamic Simulation of Multi-step Forming Processes Based on Bulkhead Plate of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛兰斌; 邢亚从

    2007-01-01

    通过对空调电机端盖冲压件的复杂多次冲压工艺分析,初步确定工件各道工序的形状与尺寸,然后利用DYNAFORM软件对冲压工序进行动态模拟,分析冲压工序的合理性.通过修改参数,确定切实可行的冲压方案,再根据确定的方案设计制造模具,冲压出符合要求的工件.对冲压工序的设计方法和多道成形的动态模拟方法进行了说明,确保了模具设计的成功,缩短了生产周期,降低了生产成本.

  10. CBN砂轮高效内圆磨削空调压缩机活塞孔的研究%Research on CBN High Efficiency Grinding of the Air-Conditioner Compressor Piston Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟刚; 姜滨; 郑师光

    2010-01-01

    针对空调压缩机活塞孔高效内圆磨削的需求,基于所研制的CBN砂轮数控内圆磨床,开展了CBN砂轮高效内圆磨削技术的研究.通过大量的磨削试验及对CBN砂轮磨削机理的深入分析,调整并优化磨削工艺,针对性地解决了活塞孔高效磨削中出现的问题,保证了高效连续磨削的精度稳定性.现场超过10万件的磨削试验证明该磨削技术及工艺稳定可靠,可大大提高磨削效率,降低磨加工成本.

  11. THE SIMULATION ON THE OUTDOOR ENVIROMENT OF SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER IN ONE HOTEL%某酒店分体空调室外环境的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姝; 卓献荣; 陈胜

    2010-01-01

    根据上海某酒店建筑格局,针对当地夏季工况,用CFD软件Fluent采用数值模拟方法对安装于建筑物外室外分体空调机环境的温度场和速度场进行数值模拟,分析此建筑格局的气流组织对分体空调机运行中对冷凝温度、压缩机运行、设备效率等问题的影响,为工程的实际应用提供理论参考和优化指导.

  12. 家用变频空调与公用电网谐波污染%Frequency Inverter Air Conditioner in Household and Harmonic Pollution in Public Supply Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范忠瑶; 论立勇; 王松岭; 谢英柏

    2005-01-01

    变频空调因为省电,舒适性好等优点,市场占有率不断提高,但是目前市场上变频空调产品层次参差不齐.本文通过总结当前家用变频空调技术现状,分析当前市场上仍采用交流变频技术的家用空调器运行过程中对电网的谐波污染的机理和其产生的危害,在技术上总结了一些谐波污染的防治措施,并指出了出台相应技术法规规范变频空调器市场的急迫性.

  13. Working Principle of the Air-conditioner Controller on Bus TOYOTA HIACE%丰田海狮(HIACE)客车空调控制器工作原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁垚

    2007-01-01

    根据实物分别测绘整理出丰田海狮客车RZ系列、Y系列发动机空调控制器(空调放大器)内部的电路原理图.介绍其电源电路、前电磁阀控制电路、后电磁阀控制电路、电磁离合器继电器控制电路等的构成及工作状态,在此基础上讲述整个系统不同情况下的工作过程.

  14. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Effects of Different Types of Soil Conditioners on Heavy Metal Content in Soil-Rice System%不同类型土壤调理剂对土壤-水稻系统重金属含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤鹏; 谷雨; 冯光辉; 吴海勇; 刘琼峰; 李明德

    2016-01-01

    以天然矿物类土壤调理剂、复合微生物肥、微生物菌剂为材料,在湖南省典型稻田开展田间试验,研究不同类型土壤调理剂对土壤-水稻系统重金属含量的影响。结果表明:施用天然矿物类土壤调理剂和复合微生物肥均能提高土壤的pH值,降低土壤中的有效镉和稻米中的总镉含量;施用不同类型土壤调理剂可以降低稻米中的重金属镉、铬、汞、砷含量,其中,天然矿物类土壤调理剂对于降低稻米中总镉和总铬的效果比复合微生物肥和微生物菌剂更明显,但施用天然矿物类土壤调理剂后,水稻产量有所降低;施用复合微生物肥和微生物菌剂对于降低稻米中的总镉、总铬含量也有一定效果,且可提高水稻产量。%Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different types of soil conditioners (natural mineral class soil conditioners, compound microbial fertilizers, microbial inoculants) on heavy metal content in soil-rice system at the typical paddy ifelds of Hunan. The results showed that applying natural mineral class soil conditioners and compound microbial fertilizers could improve the soil pH values, and reduce the available Cd content in soil and the total Cd content in rice. Application of different types of soil conditioners could reduce the content of Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in rice. Among them, natural mineral class soil conditioners were better than compound microbial fertilizers and microbial inoculants for the effects about reducing the total content of Cd and Cr in rice. But the rice yield decreased when applying natural mineral class soil conditioners. Compound microbial fertilizers and microbial inoculants had certain effects on reducing the content of the total content of Cd and Cr, and could increase the yield of rice.

  17. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  19. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  20. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  1. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  2. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  3. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  4. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  5. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  12. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  13. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  14. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  15. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  16. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  17. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  18. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  19. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  1. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  3. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  4. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  5. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  6. Interaction of temperature, humidity, driver preferences, and refrigerant type on air conditioning compressor usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C; Younglove, T; Barth, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have shown large increases in vehicle emissions when the air conditioner (AC) compressor is engaged. Factors that affect the compressor-on percentage can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and can also lead to prediction errors in current emissions models if not accounted for properly. During 1996 and 1997, the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) conducted a vehicle activity study for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the Sacramento, CA, region. The vehicles were randomly selected from all registered vehicles in the region. As part of this study, ten vehicles were instrumented to collect AC compressor on/off data on a second-by-second basis in the summer of 1997. Temperature and humidity data were obtained and averaged on an hourly basis. The ten drivers were asked to complete a short survey about AC operational preferences. This paper examines the effects of temperature, humidity, refrigerant type, and driver preferences on air conditioning compressor activity. Overall, AC was in use in 69.1% of the trips monitored. The compressor was on an average of 64% of the time during the trips. The personal preference settings had a significant effect on the AC compressor-on percentage but did not interact with temperature. The refrigerant types, however, exhibited a differential response across temperature, which may necessitate separate modeling of the R12 refrigerant-equipped vehicles from the R134A-equipped vehicles. It should be noted that some older vehicles do get retrofitted with new compressors that use R134A; however, none of the vehicles in this study had been retrofitted. PMID:11288304

  7. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e

  8. Provision of Supplementary Load Frequency Control via Aggregation of Air Conditioning Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of large-scale renewable energy poses great challenges for the operation of power system because of its increased frequency fluctuations. More load frequency control (LFC resources are demanded in order to maintain a stable system with more renewable energy injected. Unlike the costly LFC resources on generation side, the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs on the demand side become an attractive solution on account of its substantial quantities and heat-storage capacity. It generally contains air conditioners (ACs, water heaters and fridges. In this paper, the supplementary LFC is extracted by the modeling and controlling of aggregated ACs. We first present a control framework integrating the supplementary LFC with the traditional LFC. Then, a change-time-priority-list method is proposed to control power output taking into account customers’ satisfaction. Simulations on a single-area power system with wind power integration demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The impact of ambient temperature changes and customer preferences on room temperature is also involved in the discussion. Results show that the supplementary LFC provided by ACs could closely track the LFC signals and effectively reduce the frequency deviation.

  9. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  10. 土壤调理剂对红壤pH值及空心菜产量和品质的影响%Effects of soil conditioner on red soil pH and yield and quality of water spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育鹏; 胡海燕; 李兆君; 孔庆波; 戴春山; 张永清

    2014-01-01

    土壤酸化是制约土壤高产稳产的重要因素,严重影响了我国农业的可持续发展。通过大田试验研究了以碳酸钙为主要原料生产的土壤调理剂对酸性土壤pH值、硅铝率及空心菜产量和品质的影响。结果表明,土壤调理剂可以增加土壤pH值和硅铝率,提高空心菜的产量,改善空心菜的品质;与对照相比,土壤调理剂用量为600~1800 kg/hm2时,可使土壤pH值增加3.60%~21.65%,空心菜产量增加5.81%~44.45%,维生素C含量增加2.48%~23.97%,可溶性糖含量增加4.18%~26.48%;土壤调理剂对空心菜硝酸盐含量没有显著影响。研究发现,土壤调理剂用量为1500 kg/hm2时较为经济合理,表面撒施后旋耕是非常合理且有效的施用方法。%Soil acidification is a key restricting factor to high and stable yields of crop. It also seriously affects the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In this paper, the effects of soil conditioner which mainly consisted of calcium carbonate on red soil pH, silica-alumina ratio and vegetable yield and quality were studied through field experiments. The results showed that soil conditioner could significantly increase soil pH and silica-alumina ratio, and could also improve water spinach yields and its quality. Compared with the control, soil pH was increased by 3. 60% ~21. 65%, water spinach yield was increased by 5. 81% ~44. 45%, vitamin C content was increased by 2. 48% ~23. 97%, and soluble sugar content was increased by 4. 18% ~26. 48% when the soil conditioner application concentration ranged from 600 to 1 800 kg/hm2 . Meanwhile, the ni-trate content of spinach had no significantly changes. It was found that the 1 500 kg/hm2 application amount was more reasona-ble. And, rotary tillage after surface fertilizer was a very reasonable and effective application method.

  11. 土壤调理剂对茶园土壤理化性质和茶叶品质的影响%Effects of Soil Conditioners on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Tea Garden and Quality of Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 王煌平; 栗方亮; 孔庆波; 扈亲怀; 罗涛

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil conditioners on soil physical and chemical properties of tea garden and tea quality were studied through field experiments. The results showed that the bulk density decreased and the specific weight of soil and porosity increased after applying soil conditioners. Soil bulk density of humic acid and weathered coal treatments were decreased by 12.5% and 5.7%, respectively compared with the fertilizer treatment. Soil bulk density of humic acid and weathered coal co-application treatment varied between them. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in tea of humic acid treatment were all higher than those of other treatments due to the high contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil treated by humic acid. Humic acid treatment had the highest yield with increase of 11.5%. Tea polyphenols and water extractive contents of humic acid treatment were higher than those of other treatments with increase of 20.8% and 9.4%, respectively compared with chemical fertilizer treatment. Soil conditioners can improve soil structure, provide good soil environment for plant growth, and increase the yield of improve the quality of tea.%通过田间小区试验,研究不同土壤调理剂对土壤理化性质和茶叶品质的影响。结果表明,施入土壤调理剂的处理土壤容重均降低,孔隙度均增加,腐殖酸和风化煤处理土壤容重分别比化肥处理降低12.5%和5.7%,腐殖酸+风化煤处理土壤容重低于腐殖酸处理高于风化煤处理。茶叶中氮、磷、钾矿质养分含量以腐殖酸处理最高,这与腐殖酸处理土壤中速效氮、磷、钾含量较高有关。茶青产量增加,以腐殖酸的效果较好,增产11.5%;腐殖酸处理茶叶中茶多酚和水浸出物含量都高于其他处理,分别比化肥处理提高20.8%和9.4%。可见,土壤调理剂的施入既能改善土壤结构,对植物生长提供良好的土壤环境,又能增加茶青产量,提高茶叶品质。

  12. 土壤调理剂对红壤pH值及空心菜产量和品质的影响%Effects of soil conditioner on red soil pH and yield and quality of water spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育鹏; 胡海燕; 李兆君; 孔庆波; 戴春山; 张永清

    2014-01-01

    Soil acidification is a key restricting factor to high and stable yields of crop. It also seriously affects the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In this paper, the effects of soil conditioner which mainly consisted of calcium carbonate on red soil pH, silica-alumina ratio and vegetable yield and quality were studied through field experiments. The results showed that soil conditioner could significantly increase soil pH and silica-alumina ratio, and could also improve water spinach yields and its quality. Compared with the control, soil pH was increased by 3. 60% ~21. 65%, water spinach yield was increased by 5. 81% ~44. 45%, vitamin C content was increased by 2. 48% ~23. 97%, and soluble sugar content was increased by 4. 18% ~26. 48% when the soil conditioner application concentration ranged from 600 to 1 800 kg/hm2 . Meanwhile, the ni-trate content of spinach had no significantly changes. It was found that the 1 500 kg/hm2 application amount was more reasona-ble. And, rotary tillage after surface fertilizer was a very reasonable and effective application method.%土壤酸化是制约土壤高产稳产的重要因素,严重影响了我国农业的可持续发展。通过大田试验研究了以碳酸钙为主要原料生产的土壤调理剂对酸性土壤pH值、硅铝率及空心菜产量和品质的影响。结果表明,土壤调理剂可以增加土壤pH值和硅铝率,提高空心菜的产量,改善空心菜的品质;与对照相比,土壤调理剂用量为600~1800 kg/hm2时,可使土壤pH值增加3.60%~21.65%,空心菜产量增加5.81%~44.45%,维生素C含量增加2.48%~23.97%,可溶性糖含量增加4.18%~26.48%;土壤调理剂对空心菜硝酸盐含量没有显著影响。研究发现,土壤调理剂用量为1500 kg/hm2时较为经济合理,表面撒施后旋耕是非常合理且有效的施用方法。

  13. Effects of Soil Conditioners on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Tea Garden and Quality of Tea%土壤调理剂对茶园土壤理化性质和茶叶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 王煌平; 栗方亮; 孔庆波; 扈亲怀; 罗涛

    2014-01-01

    通过田间小区试验,研究不同土壤调理剂对土壤理化性质和茶叶品质的影响。结果表明,施入土壤调理剂的处理土壤容重均降低,孔隙度均增加,腐殖酸和风化煤处理土壤容重分别比化肥处理降低12.5%和5.7%,腐殖酸+风化煤处理土壤容重低于腐殖酸处理高于风化煤处理。茶叶中氮、磷、钾矿质养分含量以腐殖酸处理最高,这与腐殖酸处理土壤中速效氮、磷、钾含量较高有关。茶青产量增加,以腐殖酸的效果较好,增产11.5%;腐殖酸处理茶叶中茶多酚和水浸出物含量都高于其他处理,分别比化肥处理提高20.8%和9.4%。可见,土壤调理剂的施入既能改善土壤结构,对植物生长提供良好的土壤环境,又能增加茶青产量,提高茶叶品质。%The effects of soil conditioners on soil physical and chemical properties of tea garden and tea quality were studied through field experiments. The results showed that the bulk density decreased and the specific weight of soil and porosity increased after applying soil conditioners. Soil bulk density of humic acid and weathered coal treatments were decreased by 12.5% and 5.7%, respectively compared with the fertilizer treatment. Soil bulk density of humic acid and weathered coal co-application treatment varied between them. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in tea of humic acid treatment were all higher than those of other treatments due to the high contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil treated by humic acid. Humic acid treatment had the highest yield with increase of 11.5%. Tea polyphenols and water extractive contents of humic acid treatment were higher than those of other treatments with increase of 20.8% and 9.4%, respectively compared with chemical fertilizer treatment. Soil conditioners can improve soil structure, provide good soil environment for plant growth, and increase the yield of improve

  14. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect

  15. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  17. 用于故障限流与电能补偿的多换流器式统一电能质量调节器%Multiconverter-unified power quality conditioner for fault current limitation and power compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰; 郑建勇; 梅军; 王立峰; 朱超

    2011-01-01

    介绍了由一个并联电压源换流器(shunt-VSC)和两个串联电压源换流器(series-VSC)组成的多换流器式统一电能质量调节器(Multiconverter-Unified Power Quality Conditioner),用于连接两条具有不同负载特性的配电线路,三个换流器共用一组电容,采用背靠背方式,实现动态电压恢复、有源滤波、故障限流等功能,提高供电质量和可靠性.采用series-VSC串接限流电感的方法限制故障电流,不消耗有功功率.对功率在不同换流器之间的流动情况进行分析和说明.仿真结果表明,MC-UPQC可有效治理电压、电流谐波污染,同时降低网络故障电流水平,易于不同网络互连.%This paper presents Multiconverter-Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MC-UPQC) composed of one shunt voltage source converter (shunt-VSC) and two series voltage source converters(series-VSC), which is connected to two distribution lines with different loads and all converters share a common DC-link capacitor. Using back-to-back mode, the proposed apparatus can realize the function of dynamic voltage restoration, active power filter and fault current limitation in order to enhance power quality and power reliability.Fault current limitation is realized by series-VSC with a series current limiting inductor inserted in the line without consuming active power. The paper analyses how the power flows between different VSCs and illustrates the process. Some simulation studies are conducted to verify that MC-UPQC can control the voltage and current harmonic pollution, in the mean time, decrease the fault current level, which will be suitable for different networks to be connected.

  18. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  19. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  20. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry