WorldWideScience

Sample records for air conditioners

  1. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  2. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  3. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  4. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  5. Pulmonary function tests in air conditioner users

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya G; Kumar B.A; Kalpana M; Chand K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modernization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. House dust, mites, and indoor air pollutants have been reported to cause elevation of serum IgE levels and/or enhancement of eosinophil activity. A component of modern lifestyle is the intense use of air-conditioners (AC) that has increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Aim: To assess the effect of air conditioners on pulmonary function tests in healthy non-smokers. Methods: The study included 1...

  6. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  7. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  8. Pulmonary function tests in air conditioner users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modernization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. House dust, mites, and indoor air pollutants have been reported to cause elevation of serum IgE levels and/or enhancement of eosinophil activity. A component of modern lifestyle is the intense use of air-conditioners (AC that has increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Aim: To assess the effect of air conditioners on pulmonary function tests in healthy non-smokers. Methods: The study included 100 subjects using AC and 100 subjects who were not using AC. After ethical committee approval, pulmonary function tests were done for both study groups by using Medspiror. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed. Results: The lung functions particularly Forced vital capacity (FVC, and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, were affected more in AC users. FVC and FEV1 were found to be significantly reduced and FEV1/FVC was found to be normal. Conclusion: As FVC and FEVFEV1 were found to be significantly reduced and FEV1/FVC was found to be normal, this is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards restrictive type of respiratory disorders.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in Btu... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND...

  10. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  11. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  12. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  13. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public... discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities...

  14. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  15. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  16. Effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-LiLu; Jun-QingWu; Qiu-YingYang; Wei-JinZhou; Er-ShengGao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality. Methods: The data came from the healthy male volunteers, aged 22 to 30 years, who went to centers for maternity and children health for premarital physical examination in Shanghai,Henan, Zbejiang and Hebei from December 1998 to February 2000.

  17. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  18. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  19. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  20. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Rongxiang Zhang; Xiaodong Chu; Wen Zhang; Yutian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is c...

  1. Methodology for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Pereira (Colombia); University of Liege, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the general procedure for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners, by means of measurements carried out in a test bench specially designed for this purpose. The uncertainty analysis presented in this work looks for establishing a confidence degree or certainty of experimental results. It is particularly important considering that international standards related to this type of analysis are too ambiguous when treating this subject. The uncertainty analysis is on the other hand an indispensable requirement to international standard ISO 17025 [ISO, 2005. International Standard. 17025. General Requirement to Test and Calibration Laboratories Competences. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.], which must be applied to obtain the required quality levels according to the Word Trade Organization WTO. (author)

  2. Installation Specifications of Air-Conditioners for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background An air-conditioner known as "30% quality and 70% installation",the quality of its installation is closely related to its service life and application effect.Although air-conditioner manufacturers attach high importance to installation,and there are often the installation requirements specified in the product manual or instructions for installation,there are still no unified,scientific and complete national standards and corresponding regulations for household air-conditioner,which results in the less standardized installation of air-conditioner and the unacceptable quality of installation,and also leaves a lot of hidden quality and safety problems.By means of extensive market survey and the after-sale information statistical analysis of air-conditioner,it is discovered that the nonstandard installation of air-conditioner may lead to the following problems and accidents.

  3. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bo; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Window air conditioners (WAC) are cheap and sold in large numbers internationally as alternatives to central air-conditioning systems. There are nearly 57 million WACs currently operating within United States alone which account for approximately 1.5% of the total US residential energy use or about 0.21 quads per year. Due to global warming and other environmental concerns, there is a need to find an alternative to the currently used refrigerant R410a in WACs. There are several alternative re...

  4. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  5. Design AND Fabrication OF Homemade Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikodi Mallappa,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human always tries for better comfort and sophistication at each level of his life. Considering air conditioning, evaporative cooler are used in less humidity and dry climate. The limitation of evaporative cooler is that it is not suitable in humid environment and also their performance is poor in the places where ventilation is not proper. The objective of this project is to increase the effectiveness of the ordinary table fan by using simple mechanism and overcome the limitation of evaporative cooler. In this project the table fan is wound with copper tube by copper wire. Vinyl tube is connected with one end of the copper tube and another end of vinyl tube is connected with pump. Pump immersed in the cooling chamber. Vinyl tube is connected with another end of copper tube another end of vinyl tube is immersed in the cooling chamber. Fan and pump connected with electricity pump and is sucks the cool water from the cooling chamber.

  6. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chinnaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compression system were Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs and Hydro Chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs which contains chlorine and if any leakage in the system, these gases will go up and reach stratosphere. The chlorine atoms in the gases will act as a catalyst to destroy ozone layer and cause ozone depletion which causes health hazards, global warming, melting of polar ice caps and drought. Hence, it is necessary to minimize the Global warming and Ozone depletion. The refrigerant R22 widely used in the air-conditioners is a major Contributor of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which cause irreparable loss to the ozone layer and has to be replaced. Approach: To conserve the energy and minimize the global warming, the systems should be designed as more energy efficient and also to minimize Ozone depletion, the eco friendly refrigerants are to be selected and tested as alternative refrigerants to R22. Hence, a window air conditioner of 3.5 kW capacity fitted with Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV instead of capillary tube as an expansion device, was tested for its performance with the selected eco friendly refrigerants R407C and R290 as an alternative to R22 under fixed indoor and outdoor chamber temperatures in the experimental set up and varying the EEV opening. Results: It has been observed from the experimental studies that when the smaller capacity R22 window air conditioner with EEV is retrofitted with R407C and R290, compared to the performance given by R22, the Coefficient Of Performance

  7. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  9. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  10. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  11. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively. PMID:3236219

  12. Automotive thermoelectric generators and air conditioner/heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The US Department of Energy initiated the application of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to vehicles in 1994. This TEG was built by Hi-Z Technologies evaluated on a dynamometer test stand then tested successfully installed on a fully loaded Heavy Duty Diesel truck on the PACCAR test track for the equivalence of 550,000 miles. Today every major automobile manufacturer is investigating thermoelectric applications. The US Department of Energy is supporting the development of production prototype TEGs with teams headed by BSST and GM to integrate TEGs to directly convert engine waste heat to electricity in the BMW X6, the Ford Fusion and the Chevy Suburban. These first generation TEGs will provide a nominal 5 percent improvement in on-highway fuel economy by allowing the alternator to be downsized by at least 1/3. The 2nd generation TEG is planned to replace the alternator and provide a nominal 10 percent improvement in fuel economy. DOE/NETL conducted a competitive procurement for automotive thermoelectric air conditioners/heaters (TE HVAC) development and selected teams headed by Ford and GM to develop this technology. Current air conditioners use the R134a refrigerant gas, which produces 1300 times the 'Greenhouse Gas Effect' of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary 'Greenhouse Gas'. Approximately 41 Million Metric tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2e) are released to the atmosphere in the US annually from air conditioner compressor seal leakage and frontal collisions wherein the R134a refrigerant gas containment was ruptured. The TE HVACs are candidates to eliminate refrigerant gases from vehicles. A problem with maintaining occupant comfort in an electrically assisted vehicle was illustrated by Bob Lutz, Vice Chairman, General Motors, who drove a Chevy Volt in January in Detroit and to obtain occupant comfort had to turn on the 5 kW resistive heater which reduced the battery only propulsion mileage from 40 to 28. Preliminary analysis indicates that with TE HVAC a

  13. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  14. Energy and economic analysis of a building air-conditioner with a phase change material (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phase change material of Rubitherm20 was applied with the air-conditioner under the climate of Thailand. • PCM was used to reduce cooling load and electrical power of the air-conditioner. • Mathematical model of the packed ball bed of PCM was presented to predict the thermal performance. - Abstract: In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM) for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thailand climate. Rubitherm20 (RT-20) was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. For the experiment, 2 TR of R-134a air-conditioner was chosen to test a pack bed of PCM balls with thickness 40 cm. The pressure drops of the air flowing through the bed were considered with and without a set of by-pass tubes along the height of the storage bed. The mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that pressure drops of the bed with and without bypass tubes were nearly the same results. Thus, PCM ball pack bed using RT-20 without bypass tubes was used to improve the cooling efficiency of the air-conditioner. The experimental result of the modified unit was compared and verified with the mathematical model, which agreed quite well with the simulation result. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result, which found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased around 3.09 kW h/d. The saving cost from the PCM bed could be 9.10% of 170.03 USD/y and the payback period was around 4.15 y

  15. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  16. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  17. Analysis and optimization of an adsorption air conditioner for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.

    1994-07-27

    This paper shows an analysis of the applicability of an adsorption system for electric vehicle (EV) air conditioning. Adsorption systems are designed and optimized to provide the required cooling for four combinations of vehicle characteristics and driving cycles. The resulting adsorption systems are compared with vapor compression air conditioners that can satisfy the cooling load. The objective function is the overall system weight, which includes the cooling system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for air conditioner operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best. The results show the optimum values of all the variables, as well as temperatures and amounts adsorbed, for the adsorption and desorption processes. The results indicate that, for the conditions analyzed in this paper, vapor compression air conditioners are superior to adsorption systems, not only because they are lighter, but also because they have a higher COP and are more compact.

  18. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  19. An Application of Green Quality Function Deployment to Designing an Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peetam Kumar Dehariya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles a systematic and operational approach to Green Quality Function Deployment (GQFD, a customer oriented survey based quality management system with regular improvement in product development. GQFD shows balance between product development and environmental protection. GQFD is not used to determine their attributes and their levels. GQFD captures what product developers “think” would best satisfy customer needs considering Environmental factor. This research used Air Conditioner as a case study for implementation of GQFD. In the design of a new Air Conditioner, apply GQFD to find out the most important parameter and functions from customer point of view and then find out Technical Characteristics. These important parameters are then put into house of quality and make relation matrix between voice of customer and Technical Characteristics. From the result of QFD applied to Air Conditioner are short out the parameter which are require modification according to voice of customer and the result has used for new design.

  20. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  1. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  2. Study on Actual Performance and Exhaust Heat of Air-conditioner Concerning Heat Island Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Satoru

    A novel simple measuring method of actual performance of room air-conditioners by neural net work analysis (NNW) has been developed. The actual performance for a long term which is difficult to be measured by air enthalpy method is able to be measured easily by this method. In other words, actual performance of room air-conditioners can be measured by the proposed NNW method without measurement of air flow at indoor unit and outdoor unit which changes due to clogging of heat exchanger by dust. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed NNW method, the room air-conditioner for experiment was set up. Inputs to NNW are outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, indoor wet-bulb temperature, inlet temperature of evaporator, outlet temperature of evaporator, condensation temperature and power consumption. The output from NNW is COP. The COP by NNW method has mean errors under 2.8% in quasi-steady operation condition and has mean errors under 4.6% in unsteady operation condition, compared to the COP of air enthalpy method. Results show that the COP of air conditioners can be measured easily for a long term using NNW within a high degree of accuracy.

  3. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  4. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  6. Variable Frequency Air Conditioner is Expected to Become Mainstream Product in Rural Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>If it can be argued that in 2011 the rural market played a crucial role in the development of air conditioner industry,judging from the present growth trend,in the 2012 refrigeration year the rural market will play an even more important

  7. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 1. DEFINITIONS 2. TESTING CONDITIONS 2.1Test room... conditioners and heat pumps, and systems composed of multiple mini-split units (outdoor units located...

  9. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  10. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  11. Experimental Study of the Controlling Characteristics of Inverter-Driven Multi-type Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纪峰; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2004-01-01

    The controlling algorithm was studied for the inverter-driven multi-type air conditioner using electronic expansion valve(EEV) in outdoor unit. The performance of inverter-driven air conditioner with two different units was investigated by varying the outdoor ambient temperature and compressor speed. Based on the test results, the effect of EEV opening on the indoor unit exit superheat was discussed. For the specified outdoor ambient temperature scope and the EEV opening, the superheats of indoor units decrease with the outdoor ambient temperature rising. Improper distribution of refrigerant into each indoor unit will causes excessive superheat difference between two indoor units. Suggestions were then given for the controlling of the superheat.

  12. Experimental Study on Performance of Condenser of Two Different Types Used In Window Air Conditioner: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Jhariya; P.K. Jhinge & R.C. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    This review paper presents the work of various researchers on the performance of condenser, used in air conditioners with various refrigerants. In this research author used different type of condenser, single and multi channel tubes. They determined various parameters like coefficient of performance (COP), cooling capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the system. Various approaches have been used by different authors to predict the performance of condenser in window air conditioner using...

  13. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  14. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  15. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  16. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chinnaraj; Vijayan, R.; Govindarajan, P

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP) due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP) due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compressio...

  17. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  18. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  19. Girth welding system for vortex type refrigeration compressor of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaowen; Ma Caixia; Yang Siqian; Hu Jisheng

    2006-01-01

    According to the requirements of welding process for vortex type compressor of air conditioner manufactured in product line, a special girth welding machine with PLC as control core was developed, which had both upright and 45 ° incline service positions. And some key technologies were researched, such as structural design of machine body, reliable conduction of rotary weldments and quality control of welding process and so on. The experimental results showed that this machine could satisfy the requirements of welding quality and girth welding technology, results also proved the machine was a high-efficiency and low-cost automatic welding device.

  20. Study on Water Treatment Technology of Central Air Conditioner%中央空调水处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎代华

    2015-01-01

    随着国家提倡节能减排,空调系统的节能越发引起人们的重视。文章通过介绍南博中央空调水处理,分析中央空调水系统中存在的问题,通过中央空调水处理提高中央空调制冷效率,从而实现节能的效果。%Due to the advocation of “energy saving and emission reduction” of Chinese government,more and more people pay attention to air conditioners energy conservation. This article analyzes the problems of central air conditioner water system,and discovers that the central air conditioner refrigeration efficiency will be improved through water treatment technology, and plenty of energy will be saved.

  1. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  2. Sizing room air conditioners used in sleeping environments in the subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the subtropics, room air conditioners (RACs) have been widely used to maintain an appropriate indoor thermal environment not only at day but also at night for sleeping. However, currently RACs are often sized by rules of thumb that are based on the applications and practices of air conditioning during daytime operating periods. A method of sizing RACs used in sleeping environments has been developed in this paper. The sizing of RACs used in sleeping environments in the subtropics should not be based on the peak load that occurs at the beginning of a night air conditioning process but preferably on 70-80% of the peak load for better indoor thermal comfort and higher energy efficiency

  3. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  4. Application of adhesives in bus air conditioner%胶粘剂在大巴空调上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文

    2013-01-01

    The bus air conditioner is the important equipment for improving the riding comfort and the requirement for bus air conditioner is more and more high.The sealing problems including the leakage of refrigerant,water or air have great impact on the performance of bus air conditioner,which are important factors for the quality of bus air conditioning.This paper analyzed the applications of adhesives and sealants in the bus air conditioner.%汽车空调是提高汽车乘坐舒适性的重要设备,对汽车空调的质量要求越来越高。汽车空调中对空调性能起到很大影响的密封问题如漏制冷剂、漏水、漏风等,都是关系到空调质量的重要因素。本文就大巴空调使用胶粘剂、密封胶的情况进行了分析。

  5. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  6. Comparison of air conditioners for horticulture; Vergelijking van luchtbehandelingssystemen voor de tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, B.; Hendriksen, L. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The desire to reduce energy consumption in the greenhouse sector results into new techniques and applications. As such air conditioners are applied in greenhouses. They serve to control temperature, relative humidity and air flow in the greenhouse. However, because of the totally different climatic conditions in the greenhouses such systems must be adapted. TNO investigates how the systems can be evaluated properly [Dutch] De wens om het energieverbruik in de glastuinbouw omlaag te brengen, leidt tot nieuwe technieken en toepassingen. Zo vinden in de utiliteit gangbare luchtbehandelingssystemen nu ook hun weg naar de kas. Ze dienen om temperatuur, relatieve luchtvochtigheid en luchtbeweging in de kas te beheersen. Maar vanwege de totaal andere klimaatomstandigheden moeten de systemen worden aangepast. TNO onderzoekt hoe de systemen goed kunnen worden geevalueerd.

  7. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  8. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  9. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  11. Experimental investigations on performance of liquid desiccant-vapor compression hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled desiccant column is integrated with a conventional room air conditioner (AC) to enhance dehumidification of the room air. One desiccant column (absorber) is placed after the evaporator the other (regenerator) after the condenser of the AC unit. Such a novel liquid desiccant vapour compression hybrid air conditioning system has been fabricated and tested in a balanced ambient room type calorimeter for very low flow rates of liquid desiccant (lithium bromide solution). The moisture from the cold supply air is transferred to the hot condenser air by the desiccant flowing in the loop, thereby complimenting the dehumidification of the room air at the evaporator. The supply air is also sensibly heated during the dehumidification process by liquid desiccant in the absorber, which together enables the hybrid system to maintain low humidity in the room. Whereas the liquid desiccant is regenerated by the condenser waste heat, the entire cooling is derived only by the AC unit. The experimental results show that an increase of room temperature reduces both dehumidification of process air and regeneration of liquid desiccant, whereas an increase of room specific humidity enhances both these for the flow rate of the liquid desiccant in the range of 0.2–1.6% of the air flow rate through the absorber. - Highlights: • A liquid desiccant vapor compression hybrid system is fabricated and tested. • The liquid desiccant reduces latent load but equally increases sensible load. • Hybrid system performance is studied for varying room temperature and humidity. • Higher room temperature lowers air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration. • Increase of room specific humidity enhances dehumidification and also regeneration

  12. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  13. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  14. DISPLACEMENT CONTROL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel variable displacement compressor (VDC) for automotive air conditioner (AAC) is introduced, which inherits the advantages of common wobble plate type VDC. It has fewer parts and makes less noise, and inst ead of pneumatic valve the displacement is controlled by electronic control valv e. In order to know the control mechanism well and get a good control effect, a mathematical model for the variable displacement mechanism is developed accordin g to the geometrical and kinematical information of the compressor. Using the mo del, the effect of relevant parameters on variable displace control is estimated . It is helpful to make the optimum decision in the flow control of AAC. As the novel displacement control device, the structure and control rule of electronic control valve is introduced. It can get better effect than the conventional pneu matic valves. And by using this new electronic control device, the optimum syste mic control of AAC is available.

  15. Energy efficiency and energy saving air conditioners window and split type; Eficiencia energetica e economia de energia de condicionadores de ar tipo janela e split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Palhares de; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    The air-conditioners of window end Split type are responsible for a significant portion of energy consumption in residential sector of Brazil, from 20% of the sector. This study evaluates the impact energy of the Seal Program PROCEL in air-conditioners of window end Split type, showing the efficiency gains for the country in terms of energy saving. For this evaluation it was considered the effects of temperature and loss of performance due to age, PROCEL Stamp Program resulted in a power savings of 664 GWh in air-conditioners of window type residential sector in 2008. (author)

  16. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  17. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  18. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  19. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  20. MODEL FOR OPTIMAL BLOCK REPLACEMENT DECISION OF AIR CONDITIONERS USING FIRST ORDER MARKOV CHAINS WITH & WITHOUT CONSIDERING INFLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y HARI PRASADA REDDY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed for group replacement of a block of Air Conditioners using discrete-time First Order Markov Chains. To make the model more realistic, threeintermediate states viz., Minor Repair State, Semi-Major Repair State and Major Repair States have been introduced between Functioning State & Complete Failure States of the system. The Transition Probabilities for future periods for First Order Markov Chain (FOMC are estimated by Spectral Decomposition Method. Using these probabilities, the number of systems in each state and accordingly the corresponding average maintenance cost is computed. The forecasted inflation for Air Conditioners and the real value of money using Fisherman’s relation are employed to study and develop the real time mathematical model for block replacement decision making.

  1. Utilization of condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner%移动式空调机蒸发器冷凝水的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁贤德

    2012-01-01

    How to use the condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner is analyzed An improved method to increase the energy efficiency of portable air conditioner is studied.%对如何利用移动式空调机蒸发器产生的冷凝水进行分析,探讨提升移动式空调机能效比的一种改进方法.

  2. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  3. he Efficiency Analysis of Room Air Conditioners%房间空气调节器的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍和论述房间空调器的效率现状及其提高的途径,如高效压缩机、高效换热器、变频驱动等。%The efficiency status of room air conditioners and its improving ways are introduced and discussed in this paper , such as high-efficiency compressors , high efficiency heat exchangers , and inverter drives etc..

  4. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  5. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  6. Natural refrigerants for air conditioners in passenger cars. A contribution to climate protection. Background; Natuerliche Kaeltemittel fuer PKW-Klimaanlagen. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutz. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gabriele; Plehn, Wolfgang

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners in passenger cars contain a refrigerant which significantly increases the greenhouse effect. Currently about 30 % of global emissions of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons originate from these air conditioners. According to the directive 2006/40/EC, this refrigerant must be replaced by a less harmful substance. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration initially reports on the stock and level of air conditioning of passenger cars as well as on the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane. Subsequently, refrigerants for air conditioning of passenger cars such as carbon dioxide, 1.1-difluoroethane and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propylene are described. Overall, the refrigerant carbon dioxide is the best alternative for mobile air conditioning.

  7. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  8. Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostics Protocols Applied to Air-Cooled Vapor Compression Air-Conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Yuill, David P.; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) tools are being increasingly applied in air-conditioning systems. There are many different protocols used in these FDD tools, so an important question to ask is: how well do the protocols work? This paper describes the ongoing development of the first standardized method of evaluation for FDD protocols applied to air-cooled vapor compression air-conditioning systems. The general approach is to feed a library of data – including temperatures, pressures, an...

  9. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  10. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  11. 机房专用空调性能研究%Performance experimental research of room air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娥玉; 臧润清; 王红旭

    2009-01-01

    以名义制冷量为40kW的机房专用空调为对象,研究被控温度24℃、相对湿度50%,冷凝器进风温度-5~35℃条件下的机房空调性能.用焓差实验室测试空调机在不同冷凝温度条件下的性能参数,从而分析系统各部件的匹配关系、整机性能及在变冷凝温度下的综合性能.实验结果表明,调整蒸发器结构、增加风速、合理匹配热量膨胀阀,降低系统部件和管道阻力等,能使机房空调机在标准制冷工况下COP、变工况下COP以及综合COP都有较大幅度提高.%Performance of room air conditioner which is under temperature 24℃, 50%RH and air inlet temperature -5~35℃ was studied based on nominal refrigeration capacity 40kW. Tested performance parameters under different condensing temperature on air-enthalpy test lab, analyzed matching regulations and performance of each parts of conditioner under varietal condensing temperature. It showed that adjusting structure of evaporator, raising air flow speed, regulating the optical work opening span of thermostatic expansion valve, reducing resistance of parts and pipelines may heighten conditioner COP under various conditions.

  12. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... conditioners and heat pumps. 66 FR 7170. The amended standards would have increased the minimum SEER to 13 for... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121....

  13. 带冷凝热回收的家用空调器的研究%Study on domestic air conditioner with condensing heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德福; 陈华; 黄耀坤

    2012-01-01

    随着生活水平的提高,家用空调器的使用逐年增加.空调器在夏季向室内供冷的同时,不仅给室外环境造成了热污染,而且还造成了能源的浪费.因此,很多学者都提出了空调冷凝热回收理论并进行了实验研究.文中分析了在家用空调器回收冷凝热的可行性及研究现状;介绍了家用空调器采用的冷凝热回收系统的形式及其分类;提出了一种带冷凝热回收装置的多功能热泵系统,并对该系统循环加热式冷凝热回收进行了实验研究和分析.%With tne improvement of living standards, the use of domestic air conditioner gradually increases year by year. In summer, air conditioner will consume a lot of energy for maintaining indoor air conditions and discharge lots of condensation heat into the environment which cause the environmental thermal pollution and waste of energy. Therefore, many scholars have put forward the theory and carried out the experimental studies on air conditioner with condensing heat recovery. In this study, the feasibility of recycling condensing heat on domestic air conditioner was analyzed. The form and assortment of air conditioner system with the condensing heat recovery were introduced. A multi functional hybrid domestic air conditioner system was put out, the circulating water heater of recovering condensing heat was tested and the results were analyzed.

  14. 空调运行管理中的节能研究%Energy-saving research in operation management of air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元

    2012-01-01

    对空调系统运行管理中的节能进行了研究,并对空调系统运行管理的节能基础及节能措施进行了分析,通过采取良好的节能措施降低空调系统的能源消耗,从而有利于社会经济的良好发展。%The paper studies the energy-saving in the operation management of the air-conditioner system,analyzes the energy-saving foundation and the energy-saving measures of the operation management of the air-conditioner system,and reduces the source consumption of the air-conditioner system by adopting better energy-saving measures,so as to enhance the better development of the society and economy.

  15. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor

  16. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Ho [WiniaMando, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Yoon [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view.

  17. Study on Improvement of the Suction Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Eitaro; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshito; Sato, Taizo

    The simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner, which is developed in the previous study, is used to measure the displacement of the suction valves using as train gauge and to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the valves using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. This paper is focused on the effects of shape of the suction valve on the vibration-reduction. First, the size of the conventional valve hole and the width of the tip of the conventional valve are changed and seven new valves are manufactured to reduce the vibration of the valve. Consequently, it is found that one of the new valves is the most effective for the vibration-reduction. Next the influence of the natural frequency on the vibration-reduction is investigated using one of the new valves by changing the material and the thickness of the valve. Finally, the reason of the vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is discussed from the results of the flow analysis around the valve. The vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is confirmed by measurement of the displacement of the valve in the reciprocating compressor for the automotive air-conditioner.

  18. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  19. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view

  20. 太阳能辐射空调器的研究%On Solar Radiant Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚东; 王军

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a solar radiant air-conditioner [1], which supplies heating and cooling for an office hall in one of the colleges in Haikou, Hainan. The system of the solar radiant air-conditioner uses solar water cooler and capillary network. The composition of the system is presented, and the major energy-saving parts of the system and the energy-saving performance ratio of the conventional temperature difference in air conditioning are analyzed from the thermodynamic theory. After running half a year, the system achieved the effects of substantial energy saving and reducing the thermal pollution of the environ-ment from the test data of the indicators. The system has the advantages of low investment and high utiliza-tion rate of the equipments.%介绍一种太阳能辐射空调器[1],为海南省海口市某学院办公事务大厅提供制冷的案例。系统用太阳冷水器与毛细管网相结合,介绍了其系统组成,并用热力学理论分析了本系统各主要节能部分与常规温差空调的节能效能比。系统运行半年,从各项指标检测数据看,取得了大幅节约能源,减少了对环境热污染的效果。该系统初投资少,设备利用率高,对今后的推广有一定的指导作用。

  1. 空调器使用陋习及其解决方案分析%Analysis of the Bad Habits in Use of Air Conditioner and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱王武; 余志强; 陈志; 邹文才; 潘卢义; 徐名艳

    2015-01-01

    After the observation of the air conditioner usage, it found many bad habits in use, such as, overuse of air conditioners, turned air conditioners without person, and so on. These bad habits cause the unnecessary energy waste of air conditioner. For this, this paper proposed an energy-saving control device which is based on the outdoor temperature, indoor staff conditions and time mode, can correct the bad habits, and is suitable for small air conditioner. Application of the device can reduce unnecessary energy and labor costs, improve management efficiency, and also can bring good economic benefits to the family and unit, and it has positive significance for the energy conservation and emission reduction of society.%经过对空调器使用习惯的观察发现,普遍存在着空调器过度使用、无人却开机等多种的使用不良习惯。这些习惯造成了空调器不必要的能源浪费。对此,提出一种基于室外气温、室内人员情况和时间模式的、可纠正不良使用习惯的、面向小型空调器的节能控制装置。该装置的应用能减少不必要的能源和人工开支,提高管理效率,给单位和家庭还可带来不错的经济效益,对整个社会的节能减排具有积极意义。

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  4. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  5. 一种节能环保空调设计%The Design of A Kind of Energy-saving and Envioronment-protecting Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢满怀; 于晓光; 汤绮婷

    2011-01-01

    有别于一般的环保空调,文中设计的环保空调是以常态水为冷媒,将蒸发式、半导体和溴化锂三重制冷技术有机结合在一起,在蒸发制冷的同时又能利用半导体及溴化锂共同作用产生更多的制冷量.实验证明,与传统空调相比,文中研究的内容在节能减排、提高人体舒适度、使用便捷性、价格成本等方面有很大的创新.而又比一般的环保空调有更快的制冷速度和制冷量.在人口密集地方既能降温又能提高空气的质量,在降温速度、卫生、经济、环保等方面有显著的优点.%It is different from the ordinary environmental protection air conditioner. This new air conditioner is more energy-saved. This paper introduces the design of such an air conditioner, which takes normal water as refrigerant and integrates the technology of evaporative cooling, semiconductor refrigeration and lithium bromide absorption refrigeration. It is not only evaporative cooling, but also cools faster and output more refrigerating. The experiment proves that the new air conditioner is more energy conservation and less emission than the traditional one. It is comfortable, convenient and low cost for the human being. In the densely populated place, it can be both cooling and improving air quality, and have much prominent advantages such as the cooling speed, health, economy, environment protection, etc.

  6. Experimental Research of a Direct Expansion Household Water-resource Air-conditioner%直膨式家用水源空调器实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇富强; 李俊阳; 赵美云; 尹爱勇; 邢兵锁

    2014-01-01

    For the need of energy saving,a direct expansion water-source conditioner suitable for ordinary household is put forward and designed.In the experiment,the suction and discharge pressure,suction and exhaust temperature,power input and coefficient of performance (COP) and other parameters of the air-conditioner was analyzed and compared to the common household air-conditioner.The results shows that the refrigeration capacity is 3 5 9 3 .6 1 W in cooling condi-tions,increasing by about 5.4% compared with ordinary air-conditioner;its input power is only 67.5% that of ordinary air-conditioner;the COP is 4.45,much higher than 2.85 of the ordinary air conditioner.In heating conditions,the heating capacity is 3 407.82 W,slightly lower than the ordinary air conditioner;the input power is 82.15% of the ordinary air-conditioning;the COP is 3.93,0.56 higher than that of the ordinary air-conditioner.Thus,it can be concluded that the effect of energy-saving is significant.%出于节能需要,提出并设计了一种普通家庭直膨式水源空调器的节能实验,并对其进行了研究,给出了空调制冷和供暖时吸排气压力、吸排气温度、消耗功率、制冷/制热量、COP等参数,并与普通家用空调器进行了对比分析。结果表明,与普通的空调相比,在制冷的工况下,其制冷量为3593.61 W,比普通空调增加了约5.4%,而其输入总功率仅为普通空调的67.5%,能效系数 COP为4.45,远高于普通空调的2.85;供暖时,其供暖量为3407.82 W,比普通空调略低,输入总功率约为普通空调的82.15%,能效系数COP为3.93,比普通空调高了0.56,节能效果显著。

  7. Development and Application of Air Conditioner with Energy-saving Condensate Water Nebulization for Vehicle%车载冷凝雾化节能空调的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建萍

    2011-01-01

    The author introduces a new type of auto air-conditioner, which has marked energy-saving effect through condensation water nebulization. This auto air-conditioner could be widely applied.%介绍一种带冷凝水雾化装置的新型空调系统。该系统具有明显的节能降耗效果,应用前景广泛。

  8. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  9. 新技术在空调领跑者开发中的应用%Application of New Technology in the Development Process of Air Conditioner Pacemaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建波; 郭霞龄; 黄建华

    2014-01-01

    In order to further improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner, we has developed an air condi-tioner product KF-26GW/Wa-E0 with special energy efficiency grade by applying three new technologies:noz-zle throttle, spiral strip and condensate water energy conservation. In 2013 in the air conditioner pacemaker test competition held in China, its actual measurement energy efficiency ratio reached 5.10W/W. It has exceeded the first energy efficiency ratio grade 3.60W/W of the national standard far away. From the actual experimental data, we can learn that the three new technologies can improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner significantly.%为了进一步提高空调器的能效比,采用喷嘴节流、螺旋条、冷凝水节能三项新技术,开发了一款特级能效的空调产品KF-26GW/Wa-E0,在2013年度国家举办的空调领跑者测试评比中,实测能效比达到5.10W/W,远高于国家标准一级能效比的指标3.60W/W。从实际试验数据可知,这三项新技术能明显地提高空调器的能效比。

  10. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  11. 新技术在空调领跑者开发中的应用%Application of New Technology in the Development Process of Air Conditioner Pacemaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建波; 郭霞龄; 黄建华

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步提高空调器的能效比,采用喷嘴节流、螺旋条、冷凝水节能三项新技术,开发了一款特级能效的空调产品KF-26GW/Wa-E0,在2013年度国家举办的空调领跑者测试评比中,实测能效比达到5.10W/W,远高于国家标准一级能效比的指标3.60W/W。从实际试验数据可知,这三项新技术能明显地提高空调器的能效比。%In order to further improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner, we has developed an air condi-tioner product KF-26GW/Wa-E0 with special energy efficiency grade by applying three new technologies:noz-zle throttle, spiral strip and condensate water energy conservation. In 2013 in the air conditioner pacemaker test competition held in China, its actual measurement energy efficiency ratio reached 5.10W/W. It has exceeded the first energy efficiency ratio grade 3.60W/W of the national standard far away. From the actual experimental data, we can learn that the three new technologies can improve energy efficiency ratio of air conditioner significantly.

  12. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  13. Theoretical Study on the Multiple-source Heat Pump Air-conditioners%复合热源热泵型空调的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 颜明西

    2012-01-01

    A heal pump air-conditioner which has multiple heat sources of air and family wastewater is presented. The low-grade heat of wastewater in the family can be utilized while air is used as the heat source. It is studied that the changes of the conditioner refrigeration coefficient vary with the utilized condensing water temperature and the conditioner is operating on different fresh air ratio and in-door temperature. The relieving frost mechanism of the operating conditioner with utilizing waste water during winter is analyzed, and then the temperature changes of the refrigerator return and the changes of evaporation pressure vary with the flow of waste water and outlet temperature. It is indicated that in summer the conditioner refrigeration coefficient will increase and in winter the frosting of the out-door heat exchanger will be relieved and the heating performance will be improved by utilizing air and family wastewater as multiple heat sources.%提出了一种空气/水复合热源热泵型空调器,冬夏使用中在采用空气作为热源同时可以回收利用家庭废水的低品位热能.运用热力学原理研究了夏季在不同新风比、不同室内温度时机组制冷系数随冷凝水回收后温度变化而变化情况;分析了机组冬季制热回收废水缓解室外换热器结霜的机理,研究了采用R22和R407C工质时回气温度和蒸发压力随回收废水量和出水温度的变化.结果表明,采用空气/水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源,能够提高机组夏季制冷循环的制冷系数,冬季制热时有利于延缓室外换热器结霜、改善冬季制热性能.

  14. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Mostafa, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); Ibrahim, Talaat A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); King Saud Univ., P.O. 70908, 11577 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m{sup 3}/h and temperature of 35 C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%. (author)

  15. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 deg. C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m3/h and temperature of 35 deg. C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 deg. C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  17. 恒温恒湿空调机PLC控制程序优化%Optimization of the PLC Control Program of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建国

    2014-01-01

    optimized the PLC control program of constant temperature and humidity air conditioners in the production areas of Guangzhou Cigarette Factory. Using the methods of adjusting air moisture content of the air supply outlet to adjust relative air humidity, adopting cascade PID double loop adjustment in the PID algorithm of temperature and humidity, increasing the working condition recognition and correction of logic in each air conditioner and constructing intelligent air conditioning control module to realize automatic temperature and humidity adjustment, remarkable energy-saving effect has been achieved.%优化了广州卷烟厂生产区域空调恒温恒湿空调机的PLC控制程序,采取的措施包括调节送风口的空气中的含湿量从而调节环境的空气相对湿度,在温度及湿度的PID算法上采用串级PID双环调节,在各台空调机增加工况识别及修正逻辑,构建智能空调控制模块实现温湿度自动偏移等,取得了显著的节能效果。

  18. Fault Detection And Diagnosis For Air Conditioners And Heat Pumps Based On Virtual Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, on-line performance monitoring and diagnostic system with low cost sensors for air conditioning and heat pump equipment. Automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) has the potential for improving energy efficiency along with reducing service costs and comfort complaints. To achieve this goal, virtual sensors with low cost measurements and simple models were developed to estimate quantities that would be expens...

  19. Refrigerant and Lubricant Mass Distribution in a Convertible Split System Residential Air-Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Wujek, Scott S.; Bowers, Chad D.; Powell, Joshua W.; Urrego, Roberto A.; Hessell, Edward T.; Benanti, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    Lubricants are utilized in air-conditioning systems for the purpose of decreasing friction and wear within the compressor. While ideally the lubricant remains in the compressor, some lubricant is entrained and transported by the refrigerant to the other system components. During operational transients, the lubricant is redistributed throughout the various system components. The equilibrium distribution of lubricant depends among other things on fluid properties, phase change processes, flow r...

  20. Design and Test of Split Evaporative Air Conditioner%分体式蒸发空调器的设计与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 孙哲; 刘佳莉

    2014-01-01

    设计研究了一种蒸发冷却与半导体制冷相结合的分体式蒸发空调器,探讨了其原理及三种运行模式。总结出该分体式蒸发空调器的主要设计步骤。对样机进行了实验,得出了该分体式蒸发空调器的出水、出风温度。结果表明,室外机出风温度高于室外湿球温度3~4℃。室外机出水温度低于室外湿球温度1~2℃,经过半导体制冷再次温降后,可低于室外湿球温度4~5℃。依据实验结果,结合气象数据,计算得出该分体式蒸发空调器在我国288个城市的出风、出水温度结果。计算得出,该分体式蒸发空调器可在我国西北地区等高温低湿地区广泛采用,适用率超过90%。%A split evaporative air conditioner of evaporative cooling and semiconductor refrigeration was designed. Principle and three modes of operation were discussed, and the design step of split air conditioner was summarized. The water and air temperature of split air conditioner were tested with the experimental prototype. The results show that the air temperature of outdoor unit is 3~4 ℃ higher than outdoor wet bulb temperature. The water temperature of outdoor unit is 1~2℃ lower than outdoor wet bulb temperature. After decreasing by semiconductor refrigeration again, it can be 4~5 ℃ lower than the outdoor wet bulb temperature. According to the test results, com-bined with meteorological data, the air and water temperature in 288 cities in China was calculated . The calculated result shows that the split evaporative air conditioner is widely adopted in Northwest China and other dry areas. The applicable rate is over 90%.

  1. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  2. Spinning Reserves from Controllable Packaged Through the Wall Air Conditioner (PTAC) Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-02

    This report summarizes the feasibility of providing spinning reserves from packaged through the wall air conditioning (PTAC) units. Spinning reserves, together with non-spinning reserves, compose the contingency reserves; the essential resources that the power system operator uses to restore the generation and load balance and maintain bulk power system reliability in the event of a major generation or transmission outage. Spinning reserves are the fastest responding and most expensive reserves. Many responsive load technologies could (and we hope will) be used to provide spinning reserve. It is also easier for many loads (including air conditioning loads) to provide the relatively shorter and less frequent interruptions required to respond to contingencies than it is for them to reduce consumption for an entire peak period. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting research on obtaining spinning reserve from large pumping loads and from residential and small commercial thermostat controlled heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. The technology selected for this project, Digi-Log's retrofit PTAC controller, offers significant advantages. To evaluate the availability of spinning reserve capacity from responsive heating and air conditioning loads, ORNL obtained data from a number of units operating over a year at a motel in the TVA service territory. A total of 24 PTAC units in as many rooms were fitted with Digi-Log's supervisory control unit that could be controlled from the motel front desk. Twelve of the rooms formed the group in which the controller was controlled from the hotel front desk only. The remaining twelve rooms were controlled by the occupant and formed the uncontrolled group. This enables us to evaluate the spinning reserve capacity from PTACS that were operating normally and from those under active energy management. A second generation of the Digi-Log controller that will respond quickly enough to provide

  3. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  4. Propeller fan and outdoor machine using the same for air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Ryoji; Nagai, Makoto; Yoneyama, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yutaka; Mochizuki, Masaaki; Mochizuki, Yoshihiko; Otaguro, Toshio

    1997-09-12

    A low-noise propeller fan of a low manufacturing cost by improving the rigidity of fan blades in the axial and radial directions thereof and reducing the thickness of the fan blades to as great an extent as possible in spite of the larger diameter of the fan, whereby the moldability of and molding time for the material for the propeller fan is improved and reduced respectively, and by minimizing the amount of use of a material the cost of which accounts for a large percentage of the fan manufacturing cost. A plurality of plate type circumferential ribs projecting from acting faces towards the negative pressure side and a plurality of radial ribs projecting from the acting faces toward the negative pressure side are provided on the reverse (negative pressure) side of the fan blades, whereby the thickness of the fan blades is reduced, so that the amount of material used decreases. This causes the influence of the ribs upon a flow of the air to be minimized, and the occurrence of noise to be suppressed. (author)

  5. 电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工监理的控制要点%On controlling points for construction inspection for cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering cases,the paper analyzes the features of cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops, and illustrates the monitoring controlling points for the cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops from the materials and equipment entry,installation of air-conditioner wind system and air-conditioner water system,so as to enhance the cleaning air-conditioner system to achieve the expected effect.%结合工程案例,分析了电子工业洁净空调系统的特点,并从材料和设备进场、空调风系统安装、空调水系统安装三个方面出发,阐述了电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工的监理控制要点,促使洁净空调系统达到预期的效果。

  6. The Usage of Household Split-type Air Conditioner on Naval Vessel%家用分体式空调器在舰船上的使用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊; 施晓波

    2013-01-01

    This paper expatiates some problems of small-sized water-cooling air conditioners using on naval ships. It analyses advantages of household wind-cooling split-type air conditioners compared with marine small-sized air conditioners. Some key technologies on installing and using of household air conditioners on naval ships are pointed out. Through theoretical analysis and survey, it is thought to be practicable to use household split-type air conditioners on naval vessel.%  详细阐述了船用小型水冷式空调器在舰船使用存在的一些问题,分析当前家用分体式空调器相比船用小型空调器的优点,并指出家用空调在舰船安装使用的关键技术。通过理论分析及实船反复调研,认为舰船上采用家用分体式空调器是可行的。

  7. 并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调节能特性%Energy-saving Character of a Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner with Parallel Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康靖; 王劲柏

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid solar air-conditioner with consideration of solar energy’s characteristics is proposed in this paper. We use the air conditioner models, which established by steady-state distribution parameters method, to simulate the influence of chilling water temperature obtained by solar assisted cooling system on the hybrid air conditioner operation performance. The air conditioner operation characteristics studied by analyzing the flow rate variation. Through comparison with another kind of basic model, we obtained variation of the thermal efficiency COP, and analyzed the energy saving character of this air conditioner simply.%根据太阳能的特点,提出了一种并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调器,并用稳态分布参数法建立空调器模型,来模拟计算太阳能辅助冷却系统制取的冷水水温变化对复合式空调器运行效果的影响。通过分析制冷剂流量变化研究该空调器的运行特性,并与另一种基本运行模式对比,得到了其热效能COP值的变化情况,并对该空调器的节能特性进行了简单的分析。

  8. 电子膨胀阀在机房空调机中的应用%Application of Electronic Expansion Valve to Air Conditioner in Computer Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萦豪; 马军华

    2011-01-01

    为了提高机房空调能效比,传统的热力膨胀阀正逐步被电子膨胀阀取代.本文详细介绍了电子膨胀阀的结构、控制特点,并进行了试验分析.%The thermostatic expansion valve (TEV)is replaced by the electronic expansion valve (EEV) to increase the energy efficiency ratio (EER) in computer room air conditioner(CRAC). This paper introduces the construction, control and experimental analysis of the electron expansion valve(EEV).

  9. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  10. On exploration for construction of heat and ventilation air-conditioner design%对暖通空调设计施工问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红兵

    2014-01-01

    总结了空调设计中常见的问题,对保证空调设计质量的措施进行了探讨,并针对暖通空调施工中出现的管线设计交叉、噪声、水循环故障问题作了研究,提出了相应的解决方案,以确保暖通系统的功能满足使用者的需求。%The paper sums up some common problems in air-conditioner design,explores some measures to ensure the air-conditioner design qual-ity,researches some problems,such as the pipeline design crossing,noise,and defects in water circulation in the heat and ventilation air-condi-tioner construction,and points out respective solutions,so as to ensure the function of the system and meet demands of users.

  11. 低温超强制热家用空调器研究%Research of Super Low Temperature Heating Household Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永全; 贺素艳; 王军

    2015-01-01

    Household heat pump type air conditioner, an efficient, energy-saving and convenient air conditioning equipment, plays an important role in people's everyday life and production activities. However, in cold regions, since the low-temperature heat source itself inefficient air conditioning, heating a low output capability, seriously affect the comfort of the user area. This paper theoretically analyze the influence of Refilling and Enthalpy Increasing Device (REID) for the air conditioning system, experimental study the performance of air conditioning systems with REID in the low temperature environment, will play an important role for the future development of low temperature using air conditioner.%家用普通热泵型空调作为一种高效、节能、便捷的空气调节装置,在人们的日常生产、生活中扮演着重要的角色。但在严寒区域,由于家用空调本身低温效率低下,输出制热能力低,严重影响该地区用户使用舒适性。从理论上分析了补气增焓(REID)对空调系统低温制热性能的影响,实验研究了补气增焓空调系统在低温工况下的性能,对低温制热空调产品的设计及普及起到重要作用。

  12. Application of central air conditioner system on modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform%集中空调系统在海洋固定平台模块钻机上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立臣; 许瑞杰; 马冬辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air conditioner selection of Lu Feng7-2 oil ifeld modular drilling rig project, this paper determines two sets of selection of air conditioner by preliminary study, which are central and separation air conditioner systems, respectively. With comparison between the central air conditioner and the split air conditioner in cost, effciency, comfort, space, etc., it concludes that the central air conditioner system has the advantages of lower operation cost, higher energy effciency ratio, better comfort capability, smaller space occupation and so on. It also analyzes its superiority and prospect of application on the modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform, which can provide a certain reference for the room cooling design and the equipment selection.%结合陆丰7-2油田模块钻机项目空调选型,通过前期调查研究制定了两套空调选型方案:集中空调系统方案和分体空调系统方案。通过对比两者在费用、工作效率、舒适性、占用空间等方面的特点,得出集中空调系统具有初始投入及运行成本低、能效比高、舒适性好、占地面积小等方面的优点,并分析了集中空调在海洋固定平台模块钻机上使用的优越性以及应用前景,对海洋固定平台模块钻机的房间制冷设计及设备选型提供了一定的参考。

  13. Research on Performance of High Temperature Refrigeration Household Air Conditioner%高温制冷家用空调器性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永全; 贺素艳; 王军; 杨启荣

    2014-01-01

    Household heat pump type air conditioner, an efficient, energy-saving and convenient air conditioning equipment, plays an important role in people's everyday life and production activities.In recent years, the global climate anomalies, people production and living conditions deteriorated because of the continuous high temperature weather.The awful summer condition puts forward higher requirements for household air conditioner refrigeration per-formance at high temperature.In this paper, we put forward the use of Refilling and Enthalpy Increasing Device ( REID) way to effectively solve the problem of air conditioner refrigeration at high temperature, experimental study the performance of air conditioning systems with REID in the high temperature environment, will play a guiding role for design of high temperature refrigeration air conditioning product and the application of new environmental protec-tion refrigerant-R32.%家用普通热泵型空调作为一种高效、节能、便捷的空气调节装置,在人们的日常生产、生活中扮演着重要的角色。近年来全球气候异常,多地连续出现高温酷热天气,人们生产、生活条件恶化。夏季恶劣工况对家用空调器的高温制冷性能提出了更高的要求。文中提出了利用补气增焓( REID)的办法来有效解决空调器高温制冷问题,从理论上分析了补气增焓对空调系统高温制冷性能的影响,实验研究了补气增焓空调系统在高温工况下的性能,对高温制冷空调产品的设计及新环保冷媒R32的应用起到指导作用。

  14. 浅析两种组合式空调机喷淋回水过滤箱%Two Kinds of Filter Box of Combined Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鹏

    2016-01-01

    The filtering of combined air conditioner seems simple, but the mismanagement will make the nozzle clogging and increase the energy consumption. External spray water filter has many advantages and it can clean the filter net on-line with-out stopping, ensure the nozzle smooth and keep the air conditioner in good condition.%组合式空调机喷淋泵喷淋回水过滤看似简单,但运行管理不善会使喷嘴堵塞,喷淋效果变差,影响热湿交换效果,进而增加空调机运行能耗。通过对比,外置式喷淋回水过滤箱相比内置式有诸多优点,可实现实时在线不停机清洗过滤网,使清洗滤网更加简便,保证喷嘴通畅,使空调机随时处在良好的运行状态。

  15. 风管机风机部件振动研究%Research on the Vibration of Fan Motor Assy of the Duct Type Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛寒冬; 钟志雄; 任小辉

    2014-01-01

    风管机壳体振动的主要原因是风机部件振动,而风机部件振动与风机安装板、风叶、联轴器以及传动轴等都有关系,本文通过对风机部件振动的研究,探讨减小风管机壳体振动、降低噪音的途径,为从事类似产品设计的技术人员提供参考。%The vibration of the shell of duct type air-conditioner is mainly caused by the vibration of fan motor assy, which is related to blower mounting plate, centrifugal fan, coupling,and transmission shaft. In this paper,according to the research on the vibration of fan motor assy, approaches for reducing the vibration and noise of the shell of duct type air-conditioner have been dicussed which can provide references for the technicians engaging in the product design.

  16. 浅析可燃性冷媒空调的安全要求%Analysis on New Safety Requirements for Air Conditioner With Flammable Ignition Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建波; 陈信勇; 肖彪; 于丽

    2015-01-01

    The refrigerant of HCFCs will be phase-out and replaced gradually by environmental refrigerant which are flammable and explosible. At the same time, air conditioner are electrical equipment which contains a lot of live parts, it is easy to ignite flammable gases. This paper analyzes the protection of ignition source of the air conditioner with flammable refrigerant according to the standard. It provides the reference for related personnel.%目前空调行业有计划地进行逐步淘汰HCFCs制冷剂,取而代之的是具有可燃可爆特性的环保制冷剂.空调属于用电设备,含有大量的带电部件,容易点燃可燃性气体.本文结合空调安全标准,浅析可燃制冷剂空调点火源的防护要求,供相关人员参考.

  17. A Brief Discussion on the Development Trend of Auto- mobile Air Conditioner Evaporator from Physical Fac- tors%从物理因素浅谈汽车空调蒸发器的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国艳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the physical factors influencing automobile air conditioner evaporator, summarized the design methods and future development trend of automobile air condi-tioner evaporator, and worked out the most rational design scheme through comparisons.%本文介绍了影响汽车空调系统蒸发器的物理因素,总结了汽车空调系统蒸发器设计方法及未来发展趋势,通过对比得出最合理的设计方案。

  18. 用于可燃制冷剂空调器测试的焓差试验室设计%Enthalpy Test Apparatus Design for Flammable Refrigerants Testing Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴雪伟; 李敏; 吴俊荣; 姜敬德; 金星; 李瑛

    2014-01-01

    根据相关安全性要求对可燃制冷剂空调器焓差试验室的设计进行了研究,同时运用在制冷产品检测和试验装置研制工作中积累的实践经验,对传统空调器焓差试验室在电气、可燃制冷剂浓度监测和强制通风系统、可燃制冷剂空调器试验房间、空气处理机等方面进行技术改造和再设计,使其具有防爆能力,以满足可燃制冷剂空调器的测试要求。%According to the relevant safety requirements, the design of flammable air conditioner refrigerant enthalpy difference lab was studied. Development of work experience in refrigeration products inspection and testing device, the traditional air conditioner enthalpy difference lab was modified and redesigned in the electrical, flammable refrigerant concentration monitoring and forced ventilation system, flammable refrigerant air conditioner test room, air processor and so on, and had the ability to meet the explosive, flammable air conditioner refrigerant testing requirements.

  19. Analysis and Experimental Tests of Air Conditioner Water Heater Integrated Machine%冷暖空调-热水器一体机的理论分析与实验测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      对冷暖热泵空调原理和现有空调-热水器原理进行了理论分析,结合人们实际生活的需求,通过将以上两种技术整合,发明创造出一种新型的冷暖空调-热水器。这种热水器有三种功能:1、制热水的同时室内空调制冷;2、制热水的同时室内空调制暖;3、单独制热水。比现有空调-热水器增加了制热水的同时室内空调制暖的功能,真正做到一机三用,为人们的生产生活提供便利。%According to theoretical analysis of heat pump air conditioner principles and air conditioner water heater principle,combined with the actual daily needs of the people,a new type of air conditioner water heater is invented by the integration of these two technologies. The new type of air conditioner water heater has three functions, first, indoor air conditioning refrigerate while generate hot water, second,indoor air conditioning heat while generate hot water,third,a separate system of hot water. Compare with the air conditioner water heater,the new product has one more function,facilitate the people's production and living.

  20. 家用空调器装卸搬运系统设计及运用%TheDesignandApplicationofAirConditionerHandlingSystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊立贵

    2013-01-01

    本文针对空调器成品下线与运输入库生产环节的物流系统,设计了一条辊筒输送线的总体布局,实现了空调器输送物流的无缝连接。通过液压升降台、车内可升降辊筒输送机构等重要工位的设计,可靠地完成空调器出入库以及到运输车辆的工程操作。利用设计的图纸、加工、组装、运行实现一套输送出、入库过程,这样减少劳动力,并提高效率,产生经济效益的装卸搬运系统。%According to the logistics system of air conditioner’s production line and trans-portation into storage, the overall layout of a roller conveyor line was designed to real-ize the seamless connection of air conditioner transportation logistics. Through the design of important stations like hydraulic elevator platform and lift roller conveying mechanism in car, it reliably accomplishes the operation of air conditioners warehousing and vehicle transportation. Using the design drawings, process, assembling and operation, it accomplish-es a set of handling system for out-put and in-put of warehouse. In this way, it reduces the workforce and increases the efficiency, and generates economic benefits.

  1. Research on energy-saving measures for heating and ventilating air-conditioner system%暖通空调系统的节能措施探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志强

    2012-01-01

    From the cooling water, the wind system, the cold-hot water, the cold and hot source, and the refrigeration compressor, the paper un dertakes the energy-saving research on the heating and ventilating air conditioner system, and explores the respective energy saving measures, so as to lower the consumption of the system on the resources and enhance the strategy for the sustainable development.%从冷却水,风系统,冷热水,冷热源,制冷压缩机等环节入手,对暖通空调系统进行了节能研究,探讨了相应的节能措施,以期有效降低暖通空调系统对能源的消耗,促进可持续发展战略的实现。

  2. Experimental study of the application of intermittently operated SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effectiveness of SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) for water heating in residential buildings in Hong Kong and elsewhere has been confirmed in previous studies. However, given these studies assumed a theoretical maximum recoverable heat, whether its use is still energy effective in practice, in particular under intermittent operation, is of concern. Intermittent operation of the SEHRAC can lead to significant fluctuations in operating conditions. Adding that capillary tube is often used as the expansion device to magnify the fluctuations, whether SEHRAC can still operate satisfactorily despite the fluctuations is another concern. To address these concerns, a prototype which can be switched between the combined CH (cooling and heating) mode and the CC (conventional cooling) mode was set-up for laboratory experiments. The results showed that the water heating objective can be achieved. The operating parameters also confirmed the satisfactory operation of SEHRAC. Energy performance of the CH mode was found better than the CC mode. A prediction model was developed for evaluating the use of SEHRAC. On wider application of SEHRAC, energy use of the residential sector in Hong Kong can be reduced by 9.1%. The experimental details described in this study would become an experiment protocol to enhance future research in this area. - Highlights: • Practical use of SEHRAC (storage-enhanced heat recovery room air-conditioner) for free water heating was investigated. • Investigations were based on laboratory experiments that matched with practical situations. • Experimental results confirmed the effective operation of SEHRAC in practical situations. • Potential water heating energy saving on wider application of SEHRAC was estimated to be 9.1%. • The prototype designed and set-up for this study would become an experiment protocol to enhance future research in this area

  3. 风冷式与水冷式单元空调机组的对比%Comparison between air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2012-01-01

    从不同方面比较了风冷式和水冷式单元空调机组的优缺点,包括机组能效比、名义工况冷源综合制冷性能系数、机房面积以及对总体建筑环境的影响.指出了对于大型会展建筑中冷热负荷具有临时性的空调区域,分散式风冷单元空调机组有较好的发展前景.%Compares the advantages and disadvantages of air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners from different aspects including the unit EER, the overall nominal working condition refrigerating coefficient of performance, the area of machine room, and the influence on the building environment. Points out that to the areas in convention and exhibition buildings with temporary cooling/ heating loads, there will be a better prospect for the decentralized air-cooled unitary air conditioners.

  4. 某办公建筑空调系统新风换气机设计研究%Research on design for fresh air ventilation of air-conditioner system of some office building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景胜蓝; 王飞; 雷勇刚

    2015-01-01

    介绍了采用数码多联机空调系统的办公建筑,对新风系统采用的新风换气机进行了分析,通过研究计算结果,表明新风换气机在改善室内空气品质的同时,具有显著的节能效果和良好的经济性。%The paper introduces the digital multi-connected air-conditioner system of office buildings,analyzes the fresh air ventilation of the fresh air system,and proves by the research and calculation that the ventilation equipment can improve the indoor air quality with evident energy-saving effect and money-saving feature.

  5. Analysis on the Method to Start the Compressor of Inverter Air Conditioner%家用变频空调压缩机启动的浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆坚; 温得贤; 黄敬雁

    2014-01-01

    介绍并分析了目前行业内常用的压缩机启动方法,针对家用变频空调系统中压缩机在各负载工况下可能因启动力矩不足,而发生压缩机启动失败这一问题,通过对各品牌变频空调压缩机启动波形的分析以及实际的启动效果,得出一种较典型的压缩机启动方式。%This paper introduces and analyzes the common start methods of compressor in the industry. It is difficult to start the compressor of inverter air conditioner when the compressor is in harsh conditions. In this situation,it may put the compressor fail to start. Through the analysis of various brands of compressors of inverter air conditioners’start waveform, a typical starting mode of compressor is obtained.

  6. Simulation Analysis of the Indoor Unit of Variable Frequency Air-Conditioner%变频空调室内机仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄雅曼; 南晓红

    2015-01-01

    MATLAB language was used to mathematically simulate the indoor unit of frequency conversion air-conditioner. Based on the simulation model, change of the refrigerant and air temperature with the length of coil pipe with the unit as an evaporator under refriger-ation condition and as a condenser under heating condition was studied and analyzed. The surface heat transfer coefficient on the refrigerant side and heat transfer coefficient of the in-door unit and the evaporation pressure distribution along the coil pipe were simulated and an-alyzed. The parameters under the two operating conditions were also comparatively analyzed.%运用MATLAB软件对一变频多联室内机进行模拟仿真,分析研究了制冷工况下作为蒸发器和制热工况下作为冷凝器时制冷剂和室内空气温度随管长的变化情况,同时对制冷剂侧表面传热系数、室内机传热系数和蒸发压力沿程分布情况进行了仿真及分析.并将两种工况下的参数进行对比分析.

  7. 低温环境下风冷热泵型空调机组应用问题的探讨%Discussion of the Heat Pump Air Conditioner in Low Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎云

    2001-01-01

    The main causes for capacity reduction of the heat pump air conditioner while working at low environment was studied, a way and methods to raise the evaporation temperature of the heat pump air conditioner and to prove the feasibility by calculation was proposed.%分析了低温环境下风冷热泵型空调机组制热能力降低的主要原因,提出了在低温环境下提高风冷热泵型空调机组蒸发温度的方法及措施,并通过计算来验证其可行性。

  8. 移动空调噪声控制技术的研究与实践%The Research and Practice of Portable Air Conditioner Noise Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This text focuses on analyzing the reason and course of the noise generated from portable air conditioner. With test data and analytic technology, it concludes that present noise control technology for air conditioner, which was proved effective in practice.%  本文主要就移动空调器噪声产生的机理进行分析研究,应用试验分析技术和解析分析技术,从而总结出目前移动空调器的噪声控制方法,并且在实践中被证明是有效的。

  9. On problems in air-conditioner water system in high-rise buildings and solutions%高层建筑空调水系统存在问题及解决办法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志伟; 侯官胜

    2012-01-01

    Taking the air-conditioner system of China(Taiyuan) Coal Exchange Center as the research object, the paper has the detailed analysis of the problems in the air-conditioner water system in the project, and points out respective solutions based on the previous points, so as to en- sure the usual operation of the system and achieve for reducing the energy consumption.%以中国(太原)煤炭交易中心大楼空调系统为研究对象,对该项目空调水系统运行中存在的问题作了详细分析,在此基础上提出了相应的解决办法,以确保系统的正常运行,达到降低能耗的目的。

  10. 典型异形地铁车站通风空调系统设计分析%On analysis of design for ventilation air-conditioners of typical special-shaped subway stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜林月; 陈宜汉; 陈洋; 张宇

    2016-01-01

    根据青岛地铁3号线敦化路站的工程概况,从区间隧道、车站公共区、车站设备管理用房、空调水系统等方面,探讨了该车站区间通风空调设计方法,为地铁车站创造出舒适的环境。%Accordinf to the enfineerinf survey of Dunhua Road Station of No. 3 Metro in Qinfdao,the paper explores the desifn methods for the ventilation air-conditioner of the station from the section tunnels,station public areas,station equipment manafement housinf,and air-conditioner water system,so as to create comfortable environment for subway stations.

  11. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  12. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  13. Modular Design of Software for Air-conditioner Test System%空调检测系统软件的模块化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕叶; 蔡燕君

    2013-01-01

    After modular design of the hardware and software for air-conditioner test system, only need to modularize the software, software engineers can easily construct a new system that meets the requirements. In this way, it can shorten software’s developing and manufacturing cycle, improve system software’s quality and stability, quick response for market changes, and increase the project’s throughput.%通过对空调检测系统中的硬件、软件进行模块化设计后,软件工程师只需要对软件进行积木式的模块组合,就可以轻松生成满足要求的新系统。从而缩短软件开发制造周期,提高系统软件的质量与稳定性,快速响应市场的变化,提高项目吞吐量。

  14. 齐鲁塑料厂中央空调节能改造%ENERGY- SAVING REVAMP OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效敏

    2011-01-01

    The central air conditioner in Plastics Complex supplied heat with desalinated water as heat medium which was heated by medium - pressure steam through a exchanger. After revamp, condensed liquid in styrene process is mainly used to preheat desalinated water through heat exchanger, and then heat exchanger for medium - pressure steam is used to adjust the temperature of desalinated water. This method is steam saving by means of waste heat utilization.%齐鲁塑料厂中央空调由原来的中压蒸汽通过换热器加热脱盐水作为热媒供热,改造后主要用苯乙烯工艺凝液通过换热器预热脱盐水,然后用中压蒸汽换热器调整脱盐水到合适的温度后供热。达到利用工艺凝液的余热,节省中压蒸汽的目的。

  15. Development of Refrigeration Oil for Rotary Vane Compressor of Automobile Air Conditioner%旋叶式汽车空调冷冻机油的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美名

    2013-01-01

      介绍旋叶式汽车空调压缩机对冷冻机油的性能要求,研制一种适用于以R134a为制冷剂的压缩机的聚醚类合成冷冻机油,并分析其理化性能,通过台架试验评价其润滑性能和抗氧化性能。结果表明,研制油具有较好的理化性能,很好的润滑性能及抗氧化能力,满足旋叶式压缩机使用要求。%The requirement for performance of refrigeration oil for rotary vane compressor of automobile air conditioner was introduced,and a PAG refrigeration oil was developed for rotary vane compressor with R134a as refrigerant. The physi-cochemical properties of the refrigeration oil were analyzed,and the lubricating performances and antioxidant properties were evaluated through bench tests. The results show that the refrigeration oil has good physicochemical properties,good lu-bricating performances and excellent antioxidant properties,meeting the application requirement of the rotary vane compres-sor.

  16. 空调水铜阀断裂原因分析及预防%Fracture analysis and prevention of water copper valve used in air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩霞; 郑杨艳

    2015-01-01

    某空调使用5个月后水铜阀阀盖从螺纹根部发生断裂,采用化学成分分析、显微组织检验、宏观和微观断口形貌观察等方法对其失效原因进行了分析。结果表明,铅黄铜阀盖热处理不当,显微组织α相沿着晶界呈网状分布,导致材料脆化,最终发生断裂。%In view of the failure of the water copper valve cover fractured from the thread root used in a air conditioner after running five months.The chemical composition analysis, microstructure examination, macro and micro fractography observation and so on were used to study the failure reason of the valve.The results show that the improper heat treatment of the lead brass valve cover results in the network distribution along the grain boundary of the alpha phase in the microstructure, which lead to brittleness of the material and eventually fracture.

  17. 家用空调冷凝水节能利用探讨%Exploration on the utilization and energy saving of condensing water from household air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬利明; 祁影霞; 欧阳新萍

    2011-01-01

    There are an amount of condensed water which contained a lot of cold energy exhaused by household air conditioner. The water directly drawn outside pollute not only, but also couse cold energy to waste. In this paper, we calculated the theoretical production capacities of condensed water and evaporated water, its enhancement effect on condenser heat transfer as well as its energy saving effect, and designed a new condensate utilization device. Finally the energy - saving effect was remarkable if we make full use of the condensed water to cool condenser.%家用空调的冷凝水量可观,且含有一定冷量,但现实中常被直接排放掉,污染环境、浪费资源.实例计算了冷凝水生成量,蒸发量和冷凝水冷却冷凝器换热的强化作用以及节能效果,并设计了一种新型冷凝水回收装置.最后,指出冷凝水利用冷量冷却冷凝器,节能效果显著.

  18. Manufacturers of Copper Tube for Central Air Conditioner Use Face Mounting Pressure in the Final Quarter of the Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year,the investment growth rate of real estate industry continued to slow down,sold area of commercial housing also dropped significantly,which brought huge pressure to the domestic air conditioning manufactures.In the first half of the year,by relying on high growth in national financial expenditure,along with investment in public infrastructure

  19. 新风湿球温度在组合式空调机中的应用%Application of Fresh Air Wet Bulb Temperature in Combined Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鹏

    2016-01-01

    提出了组合式空调机运行工况判断标准,论述了新风湿球温度在春季、秋季及过渡季节的应用,讨论了湿球温度与送风温度的关系,分析了湿球温度变化趋势影响因素,对拓宽管理人员思路和提高运行人员操作水平有很好的启发和借鉴作用,可有效提升管理水平,降低空调运行能耗。%This paper presents the application of fresh air wet bulb temperature in spring, autumn and transition season to determine the operating conditions of the combined air conditioner. Then it discusses the relationship between wet bulb tem-perature and air supply temperature, analyzes the influencing factors of wet bulb temperature. It has a good reference for broadening the mind of management and improving the operational level of operators. Also it can effectively improve the management level and reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning.

  20. 家用变频空调室外机控制器PFC电路设计%The PFC Circuit Design for Household Inverter Air Conditioner Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱良红; 张浩

    2015-01-01

    PFC电路是家用变频空调室外机控制器基本的单元电路之一,根据控制电路的不同,分为无源和有源PFC两大类,有源PFC电路因其优点多而得到很好的发展。目前,有源PFC的整流滤波电路通常用少量大容值的铝电解电容组成,存在成本高和寿命短的问题。本论文介绍一种新的有源PFC高压整流滤波电路,它由多数量小容值铝电解电容并联组成,辅以电流均流化设计,有效降低电容的ESR值,减小电容的发热,提升控制器寿命。%PFC circuit is one of the basic unit circuits in the outdoor machine controller of household inverter air con-ditioner. According to the different control circuits, it can be divided into two types, passive PFC and active PFC. Ac-tive PFC is developed well because of its advantages. Currently, active PFC rectifier filter circuit is usually constituted by small amount of large capacitance aluminum electrolytic capacitors. It has the problems of high cost and short life. This paper introduces a new active PFC high voltage rectifier filter circuit, which consists of many small capacitance electrolytic capacitors connected in parallel with current average design. By this way, we can effectively reduce the ESR values of capacitors and the capacitance fever, and upgrade the lifetime of controller.

  1. 壁挂式空调器陶瓷PTC异常噪声研究%Study on Abnormal Noise of Ceramic PTC in Wall-mounted Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春生; 占庆仲; 李彬

    2015-01-01

    分体壁挂式空调器一般采用PTC这一部件来辅助制热,以提高制热效果及制热速度。在蒸发器部件、底壳风道与贯流风叶所包围的空间里,加装陶瓷PTC会产生一定的异响噪声。在设定同一制热模式下,PTC的不同结构对整机噪声的影响程度不同。本文采用CFD数值模拟与试验测试相结合的方法对PTC结构进行模拟优化和试验验证,完成两种不同结构的陶瓷PTC对噪音影响分析,并梳理出陶瓷PTC结构优化设计及推广应用的一种思路。%Generally, split wall-mounted air conditioner adopts PTC to assist heating, in order to improve heating effect and accelerate heating speed. In the space of the bottom of evaporator, pan and cross-flow fan duct surrounded, the installation of ceramic PTC will result in abnormal sound noise. In the same setting heating mode, different structures of ceramic PTCs have different degrees of influence on the noise of the whole unit. This paper adopts the method which combines the CFD numerical modeling and experimental test to simulate and optimize, and test and validate. Finally, it analyzes the noise influence of the two different structures of ceramic PTC; and puts forward an idea of structure optimization design and application of ceramic PTC.

  2. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g−1 with a median value of 1092 ng g−1, while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day−1 (median 12 ng day−1). - Highlights: • PBDEs were investigated in dust of A/C filters in occupational settings in Thessaloniki, Greece. • BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. • High levels of PBDEs were found in a newspaper building, internet cafes and electronic shops. • PBDEs were attributable to the extensive presence and/or usage of electronic devices. • Exposure of employees to PBDEs via indoor dust ingestion was estimated at 12 ng day−1. - PBDEs were for the first time measured in dust from central A/C filters in workplaces of Greece and their concentrations were used to estimate the non-dietary human exposure

  3. Implementation and Analysis of Thermodynamic Performance Test of Surface Air Cooler in Air Conditioner%空调表冷器热工性能测试的实现及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀宏; 郑立国

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种自行研制的空调表冷器热工性能测试系统,该系统是通过对实验室现有空气调节处理过程实验台进行改造制得.在压缩机和节流阀之间装设套管式蒸发器,制得冷冻水,经水泵送入表冷器中,与空气进行换热后重新返回套管式蒸发器中.通过温控器实现表冷器入口冷冻水温度的控制,表冷器进出口冷冻水温通过布置热电偶进行测量,冷冻水流量通过转子流量计进行测量,利用原有干湿球温度计测量空气进出口干湿球温度,进而在不同工况下实现表冷器析湿系数、热交换效率、接触系数和换热量的测试.依据测试结果分析风量、风速、冷冻水流量对表冷器热工性能的影响.%This paper introduces the thermodynamic performance test system of surface air cooler in air conditioner. The test system is realized by modification of the existing air-conditioning process experiment table. A double-pipe heat exchanger is installed between the compressor and the throttle valve, by which chilled water can be obtained. Then the chilled water is pumped to the surface air cooler by which heat exchange with air is realized and returned to the double-pipe heat exchanger. The surface air cooler inlet water^temperature is controlled by a thermostat. Thermocouples are used to measure the inlet and outlet chilled water temperature of the surface air cooler. Chilled water flow rate are measured by a rotor flowmeter. The dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature of air inlet and outlet are measured by the existing dry-bulb and wet-bulb thermometer. The measurement of separated water factor, efficiency of heat-exchange, contact factor, and heat transfer rate can be realized. By using the test results, the influence of air volume, air velocity and chilled water flow rate on the thermodynamic performance of the surface air cooler are analyzed.

  4. A Testing System for the Automobile Air Conditioner Control Panel Based on VC%基于VC的汽车空调控制面板测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田韶鹏; 韩明芳

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the performance of the automobile air conditioner control panel and ensure excellent performance, a performance testing system for the automobile air conditioner control panel was designed based on Visual C++ software. The testing principle was introduced. The torque balance principle and Newton’ s second law were used to test. The testing results were compared with the theory data. According to the actual testing of a sample product, each parts of the testing system runs steady and the testing re⁃sults are accurate. This system can be used to test the automobile air conditioner control panel effectively and will play an important role in the company which produces the components of vehicle.%为测试汽车空调控制面板的性能,保证汽车空调的优异操纵性能,基于VC设计了汽车空调控制面板性能测试系统。对系统测试原理进行阐述,采用平衡状态下的扭矩平衡原理及牛顿第二定律等对空调面板等进行测试,并与理论设计数值进行对比。并对某型号的空调面板进行测试,结果表明:检测数据准确,检测系统各部分性能稳定。此系统可以对空调控制面板性能进行有效的检测,在汽车空调配件厂有很高的应用价值。

  5. 空调室外机气动与声学特性的研究进展%Advances in Investigation of Acoustic and Aerodynamic Noise in Air Conditioner Outdoor Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启容; 秦静静; 吴荣华; 王硕

    2015-01-01

    Noise in air conditioner outdoor unit includes mechanical noise,electromagnetic noise and aerodynamic noise.The effects of mechanic and electromagnetic noise are minor but aerodynamic noise effect is the key in the duct system of air condi-tioner outdoor unit.The history and u-to-date development of noise in air conditioner outdoor unit were reviewed,The detail analy-sis is carried out from three ways of methods of numerical modeling,experimental studies and modal analysis according to refer-ences.On the basis of the analysis and summary,the further needed work of noise reduction are put forward.%空调室外机噪声包括机械噪声、电磁噪声和气动噪声,其中机械噪声和电磁噪声在常规状态下影响较小,气动噪声是空调室外机风道系统的主要噪声。本文回顾了国内外关于空调室外机气动噪音的研究历史与现状,结合文献着重从数值模拟、试验研究以及模态分析几个方面进行了分析。经过分析总结,提出了进一步降噪需要开展的工作。

  6. 蒸发式冷凝机房专用空调器的节能应用研究%Study on energy-saving of evaporative condenser air conditioner special for communication equipment room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小华; 程文辉; 陈永华; 杜仲文

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of evaporative condenser and its energy and water saving performance. By com⁃paring evaporative condenser air conditioner special for communi⁃cation room with air⁃cooled constant temperature and humidity air conditioner on the energy⁃saving, the result shows that the former can effectively solve the problem of low efficiency and high energy consumption. Evaporative condenser air conditioner special for communication room has considerable energy⁃saving performance with the rate of 10.97%and better economic benefit with the static payback period of 2.33 years. It runs stably and with highly effi⁃cient, suitable for communication equipment room.%介绍了蒸发式冷凝的原理及其节能性,对蒸发式冷凝机房专用空调器与风冷式恒温恒湿空调器的节能性能进行了比较,结果发现:蒸发式冷凝机房专用空调器能有效解决风冷式空调器在夏季效率低及能耗高的问题,其节电率为10.97%,节能性可观,其静态投资回收期为2.33年,经济效益较好。蒸发式冷凝专用空调器系统运行稳定高效,适用于通信机房。

  7. Experimental Analysis of Outdoor and Indoor cooling of Evaporative Air Conditioner in Xi'an%西安地区蒸发式冷气机室内外降温实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴兴; 黄翔; 申长军; 鞠昊宏; 折建利

    2015-01-01

    主要通过对室外降温蒸发式冷气机和室内降温蒸发式冷气机在西安不同使用场合的实验测试,得出两者各自的温降效果和效率,室外降温蒸发式冷气机温降范围为8.8~10.8℃,效率范围为68%~75%,室内降温蒸发式冷气机温降范围为9.4~11.5℃,效率范围为84%~95%。并且通过对已测数据的处理,分析出影响机组风量的可能因素,以及干湿球温度和效率关系,对两个机组的制冷量进行简要分析,并指出该次实验所需改进的地方。%This paper mainly through experimenal test of outdoor cooling of evaporative air conditioner and indoor cooling of evaporative air conditioner in different sites of Xi'an,drawn the both temperature drop and effic-iency of them,the scope of outdoor evaporative air conditioner temperature drop is 8.8~10.8℃,the range of efficie-ncy is 68%~75%,the scope of outdoor evaporative air conditioner temperature drop is 9.4~11.5℃,the range of eff-iency is 84%~95%.And through the processing of measured data, analysis of the possible factors that affect the un-it volume, and the relationship of wet and dry bulb temperature, circulation water temperature with the efficiency, brief analysis of the cooling capacity of two units , and points out where should be improved of this expriement.

  8. The Application of Variable Frequency Regulating Speed Control for the Water-pump of Air-conditioner in Tall-buildings%变频调速控制在大楼空调水泵上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金本立; 赖玉斌; 何卫明; 方昌始

    2000-01-01

    本文提出用于中央空调水泵变频调速的一种控制方案,介绍了该系统的结构组成及运行原理,对系统各部分的作用进行了讨论。%A control scheme of the variable frequency regulating speed used for the water-pump of the center air-conditioner is proposed in this paper.The composition and the operation principle of this control system is introduced.The function of various parts for the system is discussed.

  9. 空调压缩机铝合金连杆的液态模锻%Hydraulic Forging of the Al Alloy Connection Rod of the Air-Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈华昌

    2001-01-01

    分析了空调压缩机用铝合金连杆的工艺特点和技术要求,介绍了液态模锻的模具结构和工作过程,同时还介绍了铝合金连杆液态模锻的工艺参数。%The processing characteristics and the technical requirement of the aluminum alloy connection rod for the air-conditioner compressor were analyzed. The structure and working process of the hydraulic forging die were introduced. And the processing data for hydraulically forging the aluminum alloy connection rod were stated.

  10. 换热器结构对室内机风道系统流场特性影向的研究%Influence of Heat-exchanger Structuer on Flow Field Characteristics of Air Duct System of Indoor Air-Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕新; 刘起; 谢军龙; 陶红歌; 程德威; 姜灿华

    2011-01-01

    3D physical model of indoor air conditioner composed with cross-flow fan and heat-exchanger is established. Then the simulation is presented for the flow field of air duct system of indoor air conditioner with different heat-exchanger structures. Analyze the distribution of static press and flow field as the system has different structures. And statistics of the distribution characteristics of air flowing through the heat exchanger is also made. The work will provide the basis for further optimization of air duct system and improve air-conditioner comfortable.%建立了由贯流风机和换热器组成的空调室内机的三维物理模型,并通过Fluent计算软件对具有四种不同结构的换热器的空调室内机风道系统流场进行了模拟计算,分析了不同换热器结构的风道系统的静压以及速度分布,并统计了流经换热器的气流的分布.为改善空调室内机风道系统、提高空调舒适性提供理论的依据.

  11. Research and Evaluation for a Bed Air-conditioner by Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect%一种利用半导体热电效应的空调床的性能研究及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    为了降低夜间空调能耗,基于帕尔帖效应设计了一种床体局部空调,简称空调床.空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,在满足床内舒适温度需求的同时,可以实现“头凉脚暖”的局部温度场.测试结果表明:冬季空调床维持床内温度为22℃时,功率为0.1 kW~0.2kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高6℃;夏季当室温低于30℃,床内维持28℃时,功率为0.06kW至0.12kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高1.5℃.此外,通过系统模拟分析可知,一定条件下,空调床的使用可在冬季夜间节约空调耗电约52%,夏季节约42%.%In order to reduce energy consumption of air-conditioner during night, one zoning air-conditioner fixed on the bed, namely bed AC, is developed based on peltier effect. The bed AC is equipped with a heating unit on the foot part and a cooling unit on the head part. It not only meets the thermal comfort of a bed, but also can create a comfortable environment about "warm foot and cool head". In winter, bed AC can maintain bed air temperature at 22℃, and its power is about 0.1kW~0.2kW, and foot air temperature is approximately 6℃ higher than that of head. In summer, if room temperature is lower than 30 ℃, bed AC can keep bed air temperature at 28℃, and its power varies from 0.06kW to 0.12kW, and head air temperature is nearly 1.5℃ lower than that of foot. By system simulation, the energy-saving performance is also studied. It can be found that energy saving rate of bed AC in winter and summer sleeping time is 52% and 42% respectively, compared with traditional split air-conditioner.

  12. 一种多效应移动式节能环保空调设计%Design of mobile energy-saving air-conditioner with multiple effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢满怀; 汤绮婷; 于晓光

    2012-01-01

    It introduces the design of a kind of energy saving air-conditioner with multi- effects,with normal water as refrigerant, by applying comprehensively triple refrigeration technology of the air-conditioner covering water surface evaporative refrigeration,semiconductor refrigeration and heat lithium bromide absorption refrigerationAt the same time, higher environmental cleanliness and the result of cooling efficiency are realized by increasing air flow and controlling temperature and humidity.The experiment evidences that the new air-conditioner is more creative in energy conservation, emission reduction,human comfort improvement as well as convenience in use,cost and price than the traditional oneAs the air-conditioning design principles is not the same with the traditional, no fixed installation is necessary,which can be applied not only in open environment but also in densely populated areas for improving the quality of air and decreasing the temperature with significant advantages in the cooling rate,health,economy,and environmental protection.%介绍了一种以常态水为冷媒,综合应用水表面蒸发制冷、半导体制冷和溴化锂吸收半导体余热制冷的三重制冷技术的多效应移动式节能环保空调;同时,通过加大风流量和温湿度的控制,实现提高环境洁净度和制冷效率的效果.实验证明,与传统空调相比,研究的环保空调在节能减排、提高人体舒适度、使用便捷性、价格成本等方面有很大的创新.由于空调的设计原理与传统空调不一样,无需固定安装,使用环境可开放式,在人口密集地方既能降温又能提高空气的质量,在降温速度、卫生、经济、环保等方面有显著的优点.

  13. 基于PIC18F45J10的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统%TEC Peltier Industry Air Conditioner Control System based on PIC18F45J10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 芮贤义

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure and advantage of TEC peltier industry air conditioner system at first, and its design by bilolar control based on PICI8F45510, describes its functions and features. Then research its working principle design its input main circuit, output load circuit etc. The experiment results indicate that TEC peltier industry air conditioner control system with low cost, high efficiency is feasible.%本文首先介绍了TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的结构和优点,设计了基于PIC18F45J10的双极性控制器构成的TEC半导体工业空调,阐述了其功能和特点.接着研究TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的工作原理,设计输入主电路,输出负载控制电路等.实验结果表明低成本,高效率的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的可行性.

  14. Analysis on opening control methods of electronic expansion valve in frequency conversion air conditioner%变频空调器电子膨胀阀开度控制方案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兴

    2016-01-01

    T he basic principle and key factors of opening control for EEV (electronic expansion valve) in frequency conversion air conditioner are described .Some usual meth-ods of opening control in the industry are presented ,and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analyzed .It is concluded that the method of dynamic calculation of target discharge temperature with PID control technology is the main study direction of o-pening control of electronic expansion valve in frequency conversion air conditioner .%阐述变频空调器电子膨胀阀开度控制的基本要求及影响开度控制的关键因素,例举几种业内常用的开度控制方案,并分析各种方案的优缺点,指出目标排气温度(系统动态计算)+PID调节的控制方案是变频空调器电子膨胀阀开度控制的主要研究方向.

  15. 一种应用功能可模块组合的空调操作器%An Operation Device of Air Conditioner Which Application Function Can Be Composite Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文介绍一种易于推广及应用的空调操作器。该操作器通过有线连接的方式与空调产品的主控板连接,实现应用功能的模块组合,满足个性化用户的需求。同时,企业可以把最新的应用技术分阶段开发,以有偿的方式服务客户。%This paper introduces a kind of operation device of air conditioner which is easy to promote and is applicable. This device connects to the control board of air conditioner by cable. The application functions which can be composite module are easy to meet the various needs of personalized customers. At the same time, the enterprise can integrate the latest technology developed in stages to service customer by the means of charge.

  16. 双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用%The System With Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we prove that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, especially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.%双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组时比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。

  17. The System with Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner%双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型的空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组,比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。%The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we proved that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, es-pecially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.

  18. Study of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used in Compressor for High-Efficient Inverter Air Conditioner%高效变频空调压缩机用永磁同步电机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少丕; 陈世元; 皮明超

    2014-01-01

    Critical dimension of permanent magnet synchronous motor used in compressor for the home inverter air conditioner was confirmed by magnetic circuit analysis method, and motor performances were calculated accurately by finite element method. Comparing the difference between theoretical designed value and testing value of motor performances, compared the performance of inverter compressor and the corresponding air conditioner, the actual test showed that this method was accurate and feasible.%拟采用磁路解法确认家用变频空调器的压缩机用调速永磁同步电机的关键尺寸,再利用有限元分析方法精确计算电机的各项性能。对比电动机性能的理论设计值与实际测试值的差异,同时对比了变频压缩机和对应空调器的性能,通过实际测试说明该方法的准确性与可行性。

  19. 一种空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料的研究%AgNi Contact Material for AC Contactor of Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AgNi contact materials used in AC contactors of air conditioners were introduced. Proper-ties of AgNi contact materials with different Ni contents and different types of additives were com-pared, including the physical properties, material losses, arc energy and welding force. Results show that, because of the requirements of high rated current and long service life, the optimum Ni content in AgNi contact materials for AC contactors of air conditioners is 15%. Meanwhile the addition of trace amounts of brittle substance will improve the electrical properties of AgNi materi-als.%  介绍了空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料,比较了不同Ni含量和不同类型添加物的AgNi触点材料的力学物理性能、烧损量、燃弧能量以及熔焊力等。结果表明,对于额定电流大、电寿命要求高的空调接触器用AgNi触点材料,其最佳Ni含量为15%左右;添加微量脆性物质能改善AgNi触点材料的电性能。

  20. Energy saving and environmental protection applied in water system of refrigeration air conditioner%节能环保在制冷空调水系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玄

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application technology of inverter technology,a large temperature difference technology and condenser selec-tion in energy-saving of water system of refrigeration air conditioner,the mechanism and energy-saving about these three energy-saving methods were carried out,the results show that they can achieve the purpose of energy-saving to some extent,which has great significance for energy-sav-ing in refrigeration air conditioner water systems.%介绍了变频技术、大温差技术及冷凝器的选择等在制冷空调水系统中节能环保的应用技术,并分别对各节能方式进行了机理和节能分析,分析结果表明三种节能方式在一定程度上都可以达到节能环保的目的,对制冷空调水系统的节能具有重要的意义。

  1. 数据动态采集系统在海水源空调中应用及意义%On application of data dynamic collection system in sea water air conditioner and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立春; 穆云飞; 袁守刚

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the factual examples,the paper adopts the dynamic data collection system to undertake the dynamic test on the sea water heat-pump air conditioner,undertakes the metering for the electric quantity,collects the flow and the temperature data,and calculates and evaluates the collected data,so as to have the realistic significance for guaranteeing the safe and effective operation for the sea water heat-pump air conditioner.%结合具体实例,采用动态数据采集系统对海水源热泵空调系统进行动态检测。对电量进行计量,对流量和温度数据进行采集,并对采集的数据进行了计算和评估,对于保障海水源热泵空调系统的安全高效运行有重要的现实意义。

  2. 节能型水源热泵中央空调在居住小区中的应用%On application of energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner in residential complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳军

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic principle for the energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner,has the detailed indication of the "green,environmental-friendly,energy-saving and comfortable" new resource,undertakes the comparative analysis by comparing it with other resources by the list intercomparison from the comfortableness,the initial investment and the running cost,and concludes the energy-saving geothermic air-conditioner can bring newer and more comfortable living environment%介绍了节能型水源热泵中央空调的基本原理,对这种"绿色、环保、节能、舒适"的新能源做了详尽的说明,并通过列表比对等方法与其他能源形式从舒适性、初投资及运行费等方面进行了对比分析,得出节能型地温中央空调将为居住小区带来全新和更为舒适的生活环境的结论。

  3. 基于随机振动时可靠性约束的商用室外机管路优化%Pipes Optimization of Outdoor Unit of Commercial Air Conditioner Based on Reliability Constraint during Random Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      应用ANSYS对随机振动下商用室外机管路的响应进行分析,应用Miner线性疲劳累计损伤理论和材料的S-N曲线,估算室外机的疲劳寿命,结合正交试验表,确定商用室外机管路最佳尺寸组合,提升室外机的疲劳寿命。%In this article, the FEA software ANSYS is used to simulate the stress distribution of the outdoor unit of commercial air conditioner caused by the random vibration. The Miner’s linear fatigue accumulation rule and the S-N curve of the materials are used to estimate the fatigue life of the outdoor unit of the commercial air conditioner. The orthogonal experiment is used to analyze the optimum size of pipe structure, so as to improve the fatigue life of outdoor unit.

  4. Development of Thermodynamic Performance Test System of Surface Air Cooler in Air Conditioner%空调表冷器热工性能测试系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀宏; 王林; 郑立国

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces of the thermodynamic performance test system of surface air cooler in air conditioner.Double-pipe heat exchanger is installed between compressor and throttle valve, by which chilled water can be gained.Then the chilled water is pumped to surface air cooler to realiaze the heat exchange with air. The surface air cooler inlet water temperature is controlled by thermostat. Thermocouples are used to measure inlet and outlet chilled water temperature of surface air cooler. The chilled water flow rate is measured by rotor flowmeter. The dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature of air inlet and outlet are measured by existing dry-bulb and wet-bulb thermometer. The measurement of effiency of heat-exchange, contact factor, separated water factor, heat transfer rate can also be realiazed. The experimental table by modification can be used widely, it will play an important role in teaching and technology research.%对实验室现有空气调节处理过程实验台进行改造,在压缩机和节流阀之间装设套管式蒸发器,通过其制得冷冻水,将冷冻水经由水泵送入表冷器中,与空气进行换热后重新返回套管式蒸发器中.通过温控器实现表冷器入口冷冻水温度的控制,表冷器进出口冷冻水温通过布置热电偶进行测量,冷冻水流量通过转子流量计进行测量,利用原有干湿球温度计测量空气进出口干湿球温度,进而实现表冷器热交换效率、接触系数、析湿系数和换热量的测定.改造后的实验台还可以作为冷热源,在教学和科研中发挥作用.

  5. Modelagem de um condicionador de ar de alta precisão para uso em processamento agrícola Modeling of a high precision air conditioner for use in agricultural processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Fortes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho, estudo detalhado sobre a modelagem de um condicionador de ar com controle acurado de temperatura e umidade relativa. Desenvolveu-se um programa de computador que permite predizer o comportamento do sistema sob diferentes condições psicrométricas e de vazão do ar de entrada. O modelo global físico-matemático inclui equações de balanço de massa e de energia para três diferentes volumes de controle que compõem o condicionador. Modelaram-se os processos de mistura, evaporação (ou condensação simultânea de uma superfície d'água e de uma gota e o aquecimento de corrente de ar, separadamente. Propõem-se expressões semi-empíricas simples para os coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa inerentes ao processo de evaporação sobre uma superfície d'água e um modelo simplificado para o sistema de spray. Construiu-se um condicionador de ar no qual foram feitos testes experimentais para o ajuste das constantes que aparecem nas expressões para os coeficientes de transferência. Os dados obtidos validaram o modelo global, com precisão aceitável para projetos de engenharia.In this work, a detailed procedure for the analysis of an accurately controlled air conditioner is presented. A computer program, that allows predicting the behavior of the system under different psychrometric conditions and different input air mass flow rates, was developed. The global physical-mathematical model includes mass and energy conservation equations for three different control volumes that compose the conditioner. Thus, the processes of mixture of air, simultaneous evaporation (or condensation from a water surface and from a drop, and the air-stream heating are modeled separately. Simple semi-empiric expressions for heat and mass coefficients inherent to the evaporation process on a water surface are proposed as well a simplified model for the spray system. Experimental tests made on an air-conditioner allowed to obtain

  6. Research Status of the Noise in Rotary Air Conditioner Compressor for Automotive%车用旋转式空调压缩机噪声研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杨; 叶禾; 杨诚

    2012-01-01

    旋转式空调压缩机的噪声直接影响空调系统舒适性,回顾了旋转式压缩机噪声的国内外研究现状,对旋转式压缩机的噪声进行分类评述,最后讨论了目前研究存在的问题并对未来的研究做了展望.%The noise of rotary air conditioner compressor directly affects the comfort of air conditioning systems, this paper reviews the recent study at home and abroad which about the rotary compressor noise,classifies comments about those noises,and finally discusses the problems of current research and makes prospects for futher research.

  7. 非等温送风机柜空调的性能研究%Performance Analysis of Machine Cabinet Air Conditioner when Supplying Air with Different Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛倩倩; 臧润清; 郝莹

    2011-01-01

    The equipments in the machine room have great calorie power. The calorie power of different cabinet and the different part of a cabinet are also different. The position of the cabinets with different caloricity is indefinite, as a result, the machine room air conditioning can not satisfy the cooling. A cabinet on inequitable internal heat to cool "peer-to-peer" was presented. Through the experiment study ,for an evaporator with multi-channel ,increase the length of the boiling tube and supply the refrigerant separately ,can supply air with different temperature and realize a higher cooling efficiency. Another system equipped back pressure valves on the return gas pipe can realize supplying air with different temperature but the efficiency is lower.%机房设备具有发热量大、每个机柜发热量不同和个体机柜各个局部发热量不一致的特点.由于机房内不同发热量机柜摆放的不确定性,目前在用的机房空调不能满足降温要求.本文提出一种针对于个体机柜内部发热量不均进行"点对点"降温的机柜空调.通过试验研究可知,在一个机体上的多通路蒸发器,通过增加两个通路蒸发管长度,并与其它通路分开供液,可以实现非等温送风,且制冷系统具有较高的工作效率.另一种回气管路装有背压阀的系统虽能实现非等温送风,但制冷系统的效率较低.

  8. Distribution Performance Assessment and Structure Optimization of Distributor Applied in Small-diameter Air Conditioner%适合小管径空调器的分配器分流性能评价与结构优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 翁晓敏; 丁国良; 胡海涛; 宋吉; 高屹峰

    2016-01-01

    为了开发具有最佳流量分配性能的小管径空调分配器,本文采用数值仿真和空气⁃水实验相结合的方法评价了常用分配器的分流性能,提出分配器的结构优化方法,并利用空调整机实验验证了该结构优化方法的改进效果。对于三种比较适合于小管径空调器的分配器进行的实验和计算表明,插孔式分配器的分流性能最佳,在额定制冷和额定制热工况下流量分配不均匀度均小于6%;实验结果与仿真计算得出的分配器流量分配不均匀度结果吻合,计算结果与实验的偏差都在15%以内。利用验证过的仿真模型,对插孔式分配器进行结构优化,优化后的分配器应用于空调整机后,系统能效提高了2�2%~2�7%。%In order to develop a distributor for small⁃diameter air conditioner with a best distribution performance, a CFD model was es⁃tablished and experiments with air and water as working fluids were done to evaluate distribution performance of three types of commonly used distributors. The CFD model was validated by the experiments, the structure of the chosen distributor was optimized, and the opti⁃mized distributor was verified by its application in a room air conditioner. The results show that, the jack⁃type distributor has the best dis⁃tribution performance, and its uneven index are less than 6% under rated cooling and rated heating conditions;the CFD model can predict the performance of distributors, with the deviation of uneven index less than 15%. The validated CFD model was used to optimize the structure of the jack⁃type distributor. Application of the optimized distributor shows that it can enhance the energy efficiency of room air conditioner by 2. 2% -2. 7%.

  9. Microbiota fúngica dos condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de Teresina, PI Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mobin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com intuito de identificar a microbiota fúngica em condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos e particulares de Teresina-PI, coletou-se material sólido de dez UTIs, isolando 33 espécies pertencentes às Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, sendo primeira referência para o Piauí. Registrou-se elevada freqüência de Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%; Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%; Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%, Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr (40%. A validade da limpeza dos condicionadores de ar ultrapassou em todas as UTIs, a quantidade de unidades formadoras de colônia estava além do permitido pela Portaria 176/00 do Ministério da Saúde. É importante que os profissionais estejam munidos de equipamento de proteção individual, além de adotar medidas de controle de infecção hospitalar, sensibilizar para a existência de infecções fúngicas, melhorar ventilação de ar, possibilitando arejamento do ambiente e limpar periodicamente os condicionadores de ar, conscientizando os profissionais de saúde da importância destes fungos no ambiente hospitalar.With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%, Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50% and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40% were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve

  10. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  11. Adoption of the Energy-saving Technology of Central Air Conditioner in Modern Hospital%现代医院中央空调节能技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晶; 彭承琳; 牟帮易

    2012-01-01

      能源是当今世界性的迫切问题,提高空调的制冷效果对于节约能源和减少医院的运营成本,都具有十分重要的意义。鉴于当前节能环保、全球气候异常等问题,本文对医院中央空调系统如何“节能”问题进行了论述。目前利用废热、余热作为能源的溴化锂吸收式冷水机组越来越受到关注。本文对溴化锂吸收式冷水机组的新技术及应用也进行了介绍,并作了中央空调系统关于节能的几个方面的比较。%  Energy is the most urgent problem in the world. To improve the cooling efficiency of air conditioner plays an important role in saving energy and cost control of hospital operations. As the environmental issues and global climate changes have drawn the concern of governments and people worldwide at present time, this article elaborates energy saving of central air conditioner system in hospital. LiBr absorption chil ers which use the waste heat as the power source are get ing more and more popular today. Some new technologies and applications of LiBr absorption Chil er are also discussed in the article. Energy saving of the central air conditioning system are analyzed and compared in some aspects at the same time.

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  13. 家用水冷式空调的运行特性实验研究%Experimental Research on the Operational Characteristics of Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 黄耀坤

    2011-01-01

    The operational characteristics of domestic water-cooled air-conditioners were studied through the experiment. The relationship between the performance of the system and the changes of indoor and outdoor conditions and cooling water flow rate was presented. The research will be useful to provide theoretical support for the product development.%通过实验,研究了家用水冷式空调的运行特性。探讨了室外环境温度、室外相对湿度、室内温度、室内负荷、室内显热比及冷却水流量等参数的变化对系统性能带来的影响,有助于进一步了解系统的运行规律,为产品的开发提供一定理论支持。

  14. 空间矢量SVPWM控制算法在变频空调设计中的应用%Application of SVPWM Control Method Based on Space Vector in Inverter Air-Conditioner Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福成

    2011-01-01

    To further reduce the noise, raises the efficiency of voltage, the voltage space vector SVPWM technology be adopted to design inverter air-conditioner. By the basic standard of motor's ideal magnetic flux with three-phase symmetrical sine wave voltage power supply is considered, use the actual magnetic flux with the inverter different switch pattern to approach the base director circle magnetic flux, compares the results to decide which time the inverter's switches open and pass, forms the PWM waveforms. And regards the inverter and the electrical motor as a whole to process, It has the merit of model to be simple, the torque pulsation be small, the noise be low, voltage use factor higher and so on. The theoretical analysis and the experimental result indicated that this method can definitely satisfy the inverter air-conditioner designing requirements.%为进一步减少噪音,提高电压利用率,采用空间电压矢量SVPWM技术进行变频空调设计.以三相对称正弦波电压供电时交流电动机的理想磁通为基准,用逆变器不同的开关模式所产生的实际磁通去逼近塞准圆磁通,由它们比较的结果决定逆变器的开、关,形成PWM波形.并把逆变器和电机看成一个整体来处理,具有模型简单、转矩脉动小、噪音低、电压利用率高等优点.理论分析及实验结果表明,该方法完全能够满足变频空调的设计要求.

  15. 水力平衡调试在中央空调中节能的应用%On application of hydraulic balancing adjustment in energy-saving of central air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雷

    2012-01-01

    Based on the importance of the hydraulic balancing in the heating air-conditioning system, the paper indicates the application of the hydraulic balancing adjustment in energy-saving of central air-conditioner from the concept of the hydraulic balancing, the adjustment principle and the practical cases, so as to realize the hydraulic balance in the operation process of the central air-constioner and achieve the energy-saving.%鉴于水力平衡在暖通空调系统中的重要作用,从水力平衡的概念、调节原理以及实际应用案例等方面入手,对水力平衡调试在中央空调中节能的应用进行简单论述,以实现中央空调运行过程的水力平衡,达到节能的目的。

  16. Application Study on the MEMS Silicon-expansion Valve in Inverter Air-conditioner%微机电硅膨胀阀在变频空调器中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明军

    2013-01-01

    This article study the application of the MEMS silicon -expansion valve to improve the EER and the sys-tem stability of the invertor air -conditioners.Test on the flow characteristics of the MEMS silicon -expansion valve indicate that the linearity between the flow and the duty cycle is better within the range of 20 to 70 percent of it's maximum flow, the contact ratio of the forward flow and reverse flow is higher , and the response characteristics is better.Performance test on the KFR-25GW/Bp inverter air conditioner indicate that when using the MEMS silicon-expansion valve the cooling and heating capacity , and the EER are higher than when using the electronic expan-sion valve.So the the MEMS silicon-expansion valve can be used as the throttle element of the inverter air condi-tioners.%为提高变频空调器能效及安全稳定性,就硅膨胀阀在变频空调器中的应用展开了研究。对硅膨胀阀流量特性的实验表明在最大流量的20%~70%范围内,其流量与占空比之间线性特性较好,其正向流动和反向流动的流量特性重合度高,响应特性线性好。同时对其在KFR-25GW/Bp变频空调器中进行性能实验,实验表明相对电子膨胀阀而言,其变频空调器的制冷量、制热量以及相应的能效比更高。因而,硅膨胀阀可以作为变频空调器节流元件。

  17. Energy saving effect on cooperating cooling of conditioner and air exchanger in plant factory with artificial light%人工光植物工厂风机和空调协同降温节能效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 杨其长; 魏灵玲; 仝宇欣

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of plant factory with artificial light (PF) for plant production is gradually increasing in many countries due to its incomparable advantages compared with other plant production systems, such as improving the utilization efficiencies of water and land, improving work conditions. However, the higher initial construction and operation costs limit the further use of the PF. The main electric-energy consumption by air conditioner (AC) for cooling accounts for 15%-25% of the total energy consumption in the PF. In this experiment, the objective of this study is to reduce the electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PF. The air temperature inside the two PFs (floor area: 10.5 m2) was maintained at 25°C and 15°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively. In one PF, an air exchanger (AE, air quantity: 250 m3/h) was used along with an AC to maintain the inside air temperature at the set-point. The air exchanger was used to exchange the air inside with that outside when the air temperature outside was lower than a certain degree. When the inside air temperature could not maintained at the set-point, the AC would start. In another PF only an AC was used. The results showed that the electric-energy consumption in the PF with AE reduced by 24.6%~63.0% and 2.3%~33.6% when the outside air temperature ranged from -4°C to 12°C, and the runtime of air conditioner reduced by 36.6%~82.0%and 16.3%~64.2% when the outside air temperature ranged from -4°C to 6°C, during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, compared with the electric-energy consumption in the PF only with AC. And the reduction rates of electric consumption and the runtime of air conditioner increased with the decrease of the air temperature outside. Moreover, the air temperature inside the PF with AE could be maintained at the set-point. The above results indicate that the electric-energy consumption for cooling can be reduced by using the AE compared with the AC. Thus, the

  18. Study on Variable Volume and Gas Injection DC Inverter Air Conditioner Compressor%变频变容喷气增焓空调压缩机的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向卫民

    2016-01-01

    The lower heating capacity in low ambient temperature is the defect of the air-conditioner. Some schemes have been proposed to solve the problem, but they can't improve the quantity of heat more than 50%in low ambient tem-perature and improve efficiency in general temperature at the same time. This paper proposes a vapor-injection varicap compressor, and studies its heating capacity and efficiency properties. The experimental results show that the APF of the air-conditioner increased by 6%when using the vapor-injection varicap compressor, and the quantity of heat increased by 85%, at the same time.%低温制热能力不足问题一直是空调的诟病,研发人员在前期也提出过几种解决温制热量的方案,但都以难满足APF工况下的能效提升和低温-15℃环境温度下高制热量的两个目标。针对这一难题,提出一种集变频技术、变容技术和喷气增焓技术为一体的压缩机设计方案,通过原理分析进行了样机的结构设计,研究其性能及低温能力特性,经验证,搭载空调系统测试时,喷气能力能效提升效果明显,在喷气情况下,搭载系统APF比基准机型提高了约6%,同时,搭载系统的低温-15℃的制热能力相对基准机提升了约85%,效果显著。

  19. 高校地源热泵空调及生活热水系统设计浅析——以柳州医学高等专科学校新校区为例%On Design of Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioner and Domestic Hot Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国成; 陈捷

    2012-01-01

    通过工程实例,介绍地源热泵空调及生活热水系统的设计方法及要点,并对其先进性及难点进行了总结,供类似工程设计参考。%Through project case of Liuzhou Medical College, this paper introduces design of geothermal heat pump air conditioner and domestic hot water system for reference.

  20. 空调压缩机油粘度与油温过热度的测试研究%Experimental Study on the Oil Viscosity and Oil Superheat Temperature of Air Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏会军; 刘靖

    2015-01-01

    A method which can test the viscosity of the refrigerating oil on line is used to measure the air conditioner of 1.5HP. Combined with the actual working condition of rotary compressor, the situations which probably lead to a failure without lubricating enough is found. It can provide the data and theory basis to the study of the reliability of the rotary compressor lubrication and the evaluation standard.%通过自行建立的压缩机油粘度与油温过热度在线测试方法,对1.5HP家用变频空调系统进行测试分析,并结合滚动转子式压缩机的实际工作情况,分析了可能导致压缩机润滑失效的情况,为滚动转子式压缩机润滑可靠性的研究及评价提供了数据支持及理论依据。

  1. Flow Analysis around the Suction Valve and the Effect of the Flow on the Vibration-Reduction of the Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taizo; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Koyabu, Eitaro; Nakamura, Yusuke

    In the present study the simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner is designed to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the suction valve using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique and to measure the displacement of the valve. The displacement of the conventional valve in the test model is observed using the high speed video camera and is also measured using a strain gauge. On the other hand the velocity distributions around the suction valve are measured using PIV and the relation between the velocity distributions and the movement of the valve is investigated. Furthermore the new valve with the shape improved from the conventional valve is designed and the results of the flow visualization and the measurement of the valve displacement for the new valve are compared with those of the conventional valve. We found that the vibration of the new valve can be suppressed compared with the conventional one from the experiment using both the present test model and the commercial reciprocating compressor. The reason of the vibration-reduction for the new valve is discussed from the results of the present flow analysis.

  2. On treatment of water quality stability of superhard and super-alkali circular water of air-conditioner%超硬超碱空调循环水水质稳定性处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友岚; 杨文进

    2012-01-01

    According to the water of air-conditioner water with serious scaling of Jiangnan Group of Wuhan,the paper adopts the experiment of the water quality stability by adopting the scale inhibitor,proves by the experiment results that the scaling problem can be solved when the density of the added scaling inhibitor sodium hexametaphosphate reaches 1.39 mg/L and the carbonate hardness in water can be stabilized around 570 mg/L(CaCO3).%针对武汉江南实业集团有限公司空调水系统用水运行中结垢严重的情况,采用投加阻垢剂的方法进行了水质稳定性处理试验。试验结果表明,投加阻垢剂六偏磷酸钠浓度达到1.39 mg/L时,结垢问题得到有效解决,并可使水中碳酸盐硬度长期稳定在570 mg/L左右(以CaCO3计)。

  3. A PD Law Based Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy For Simultaneous Control Of Indoor Temperature And Humidity Using A Variable Speed Direct Expansion Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao; Xu, Xiang Guo; Deng, Shi Ming; Pan, Dong Mei

    2014-01-01

    In small to medium scale buildings located in the subtropics, such as Hong Kong, direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) systems are widely applied. This is because, as compared to chilled water based central air conditioning systems, DX A/C systems are compact, flexible for multi-room services, energy efficient and cost less to maintain and operate. However, traditionally, a DX A/C system is equipped with a single-speed compressor and supply air fan, and employs ON / OFF control strategy ...

  4. Design and Techno-economic Analysis of Domestic Solar Bubble Pump Driven Absorption Air-conditioner%一种家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调的系统设计与技术经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 周兴法; 舒欢; 刘道平; 刘妮

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the problems of high power consumption and noisy in traditional domestic air conditioner , a new type of domestic solar bubble pump absorption air-conditioner was developed .In this air conditioner , the lithium-bromide ab-sorption chiller was driven by solar and the traditional mechanical pump was replaced by the bubble pump .Under the design re-quirement of cooling capacity of 16.5kW and heating capacity of 18.0kW, bubble pump with inner diameter of 0.05m and im-mersed height of 0.5m, solar collector with area of 20m2 and heat storage tank with volume of 1m3 were selected by theoretical calculation.Finally, techno-economic comparison of this apparatus with traditional air-conditioner shows that the solar bubble pump absorption air conditioner has greater superiority .%为了有效解决传统家用空调的高耗电和噪声问题,开发了一种新型的家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调装置。该装置采用太阳能驱动溴化锂吸收式制冷机组,并以气泡泵代替传统的机械泵。在空调制冷量为16.5kW和制热量为18.0kW的设计要求下,通过理论计算选择内径为0.05m和沉浸高度为0.5m的气泡泵、集热面积为20m2太阳能集热器以及容积为1m3的蓄热水槽。最后,将该装置与普通家用空调进行技术经济比较,得出太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调有很大的优越性。

  5. 基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术研究%Research on Cooler Air conditioner Based on Thermal Conversion of Solar Radiation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕斌

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technical approach on cooler air conditioner based on thermal conver-sion of solar radiation technology,i.e.transforming solar energy to heat energy,and use the heat energy to achieve refrigeration.We developed a new solar absorption air conditioning system based on the thermal conversion of solar radiation technology.Through verification studies,the operating characteristics of so-lar collector and heat storage system of air conditioning systems,and operating characteristics of the re-frigeration unit are verified.The experiment shows:the air conditioning system can operate continuously and stably for 8 hours.The average cooling capacity is 4 kW,and the maximum cooling capacity is 4.7 kW.The system COP average is 0.3.Therefore,this new solar absorption air conditioning system based on thermal conversion of solar radiation technology provides a feasible method to realize large scale,low cost application of solar energy.%给出了以太阳能辐射技术为基础的热能转换空调制冷技术的技术方法,即将太阳能转变成热能,使用热能进行制冷。以太阳能辐射技术的热能转换为基础,研制了新型的太阳能吸收式空调系统,并且通过实验研究,验证了该系统的集热、蓄热特性以及制冷机组的运行热性。实验表明,该空调系统可连续8 h 稳定地工作,最大制冷量可达到4.7 kW,平均值也可达到4 kW,该空调系统性能参数 COP,平均可达到0.3。因此,基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术为太阳能规模化、低成本应用提供了行之有效的新方法。

  6. Analysis on vertical outlet temperature difference when heating for round-stand frequency conversion air conditioner and its improvements%圆形落地式变频空调器制热出风上下温度差异分析及改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 金海元

    2016-01-01

    The round-stand frequency conversion air conditioner's vent has large air temperature difference in the process of heating .Firstly ,the air conditioner vent is divid-ed into several sections to study ,and it's found that the outlet temperature is significantly lower in the lower portion ,which can not meet the requirements for body comfort .Then simulation and test analysis on heat exchanger are conducted .The results show that the reason for the vertical outlet temperature difference of the air conditioner in the process of heating is that the condenser's flow-path design is unreasonable ,resulting in uneven mix-ing of hot air in the wind tunnel .Finally ,the improvement measures of the condenser which is meshed with the hot and cold end of two flow-path are proposed .%圆形落地式变频空调器出风口在制热过程中存在上下出风温度差异较大的问题.本文首先将空调器出风口分成几段进行研究,发现处于下部的出风口处温度明显较低,不能满足人体对热舒适性的要求.然后进行换热器仿真分析和系统试验分析,分析结果表明,空调器出现制热出风上下温度差异的原因为冷凝器流路设计不合理,导致热空气在风道中混合不均.最后提出两流路冷热端交叉啮合的冷凝器的改善措施.

  7. 空调铝箔用高耐水性含氟丙烯酸疏水涂料的研制%Preparation of highly water-resistant fluoroacrylic hydrophobic coating for aluminum foils for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建华; 周志盛; 霍泽荣

    2014-01-01

    A fluoroacrylic resin solution was synthesized by radical polymerization based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and stearyl acrylate (SA) as materials with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as hydroxy functional monomer and fluorinated acrylate monomer as organic fluorine modifier, and then blended with curing agent to prepare a hydrophobic coating with high water resistance. The effects of different fluoroacrylate monomers on water contact angle and water dissolution rate of the coating were studied. The influence of the dosages of perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate (PFMA) and HEMA on hydrophobicity and water resistance of the coating was discussed. The optimal reaction formulation was determined as follows: MMA 57%, BA 12%, SA 4%, PFMA 20%, and HEMA 7%. The coating prepared with the optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and tested for comparison of the comprehensive performance with a commercially available product. The results indicated that the coating has a water contact angle 132.7° and a water dissolution rate of 4.1%, being matchable to the comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic coating formed from the Ultra AC series transparent vanish (a product of the Ultratech Ltd., USA, used for aluminum foils of air conditioner). The coating meets the requirement of surface treatment of aluminum foils for air conditioner.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)以及丙烯酸十八酯(SA)为原料,甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)为羟基功能单体,含氟丙烯酸酯单体为有机氟改性剂,通过溶液自由基聚合反应制备了含氟丙烯酸树脂溶液,再与固化剂配合使用制得高耐水性疏水涂膜。研究了不同含氟丙烯酸酯单体对涂膜的水接触角和水溶率的影响,讨论了甲基丙烯酸全氟烷基乙酯(PFMA)与HEMA不同用量对涂膜的疏水性和耐水性的影响,获得了最佳反应配方:MMA 57%,BA 12%,SA 4%

  8. Residential Demand-Side Valuation of Interruptible Load Management for Air Conditioner%居民空调可中断管理的需求侧价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵媛; 俞炜华; 逄金栋; 沈淑琳; 李国平; 吴锴

    2012-01-01

    智能电网可以实现针对居民家庭不同电器终端的控制.评估不同电器终端的使用价值对于寻找目标人群和目标终端,从而细化需求侧管理(demand side management,DSM)具有重要意义.应用假设市场调研法(contingent valuation model,CVM)研究西安市居民在夏季用电高峰期使用空调的愿受价值(willingness to accept,WTA).在4种情景下分析管理的目标人群及影响因素,指出针对目标人群的调控可以以低成本提高用户响应,单纯的经济刺激可能难以实现既定的调峰目标.%Smart grid makes the control of residential end users possible. Measuring the value of different end users contributes to finding target population and further improve demand side management (DSM). This paper estimates the value of households' willingness-to-accept (WTA) for air conditioner in summer peak load period of Xi'an city by using of the contingent valuation method (CVM). Four scenarios are considered respectively to identify the target population and influencing factors. Calculation results show that cost-effective and better households' response could be implemented by DSM directing to target population, and pure economic incentive such as price signal may fail to fulfill the established object of peak load regulation.

  9. A Novel Control Approach for Power Factor Correction in Residential Air-conditioner System%一种家用空调系统的功率因数校正控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2015-01-01

    In residential air-conditioner system, the active power factor correction should be started at zero-crossing phase of input AC voltage, in order to avoid the input current overshoot at non-zero phase voltage starting. A frequency self-adaptively zero-crossing detection approach is presented in this paper, which detects the voltage frequency by open-loop method and zero-crossing phase by input current peak closed-loop tracking. The proposed approach can be applied in 50Hz and 60Hz. This method is without input voltage measure, and it can detect the voltage short interruptions in real-time.%在家用空调系统的有源功率因数校正中,需要在输入电压的过零时刻开启功率因数校正功能,以避免非零相位时刻开启功率因数校正功能造成的输入电流超调冲击。提出一种频率自适应的过零检测方法,根据输入电流开环检测电网电压频率,在已知频率的基础上采用输入电流峰值闭环跟踪的方法进行过零检测。该方法不需要检测输入电压,能够自动适应50 Hz与60 Hz应用,同时该方法能够实时侦测电网电压短时中断。

  10. Current Situation Research of Domestic Air Conditioner Distribution Channel in Xuzhou and Analysis of Innovative Channel Mode:Setting Gree Air-co as an Example%徐州市家用空调器分销渠道现状调研及创新渠道模式探析--以格力空调为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 姚君秋; 周长卿; 戎晓红

    2013-01-01

    Air conditioning manufaturers in Xuzhou are facing increasingly fierce competion. As an important inflluencing factor of sales performance, choosing of distribution channel is getting more and more attention. All air conditioning manufacturers are constantly adjusting distribution strategies and exploring new channel modes. Gree Electric Appliances, Inc. of Zhuhai is a leading company in Chinese air conditioning market. This article takes Zhuhai Gree Air-co as an example to analyse the current situation of air conditioner distribution chaanel in Xuzhou and explore channel innovation modes.%  空调厂家在徐州的竞争日趋激烈,分销渠道的选择作为影响其销售业绩的重要因素,越来越受重视。各空调厂家都在不断地调整渠道策略,探索新渠道模式。珠海格力电器股份有限公司占据着中国空调市场一线品牌的领军位置。本文以珠海格力空调为例,分析徐州市家用空调器分销渠道现状,探析渠道创新模式。

  11. 蒸发冷却与半导体制冷相结合分体式蒸发空调器的试验研究%Experimental Study on Split Evaporative Air Conditioner of Evaporative Cooling and Semiconductor Refrigeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲; 黄翔; 刘佳莉

    2013-01-01

    Experimental prototype of split evaporative air conditioner of evaporative cooling and semiconductor refrigeration is developed.Simulating the outdoor and indoor air,it is under operating conditions that the outdoor dry-bulb temperature is 34℃, wet-bulb temperature is between 18℃and 23℃.The water temperature and flow,air temperature and humidity of split air condi-tioning is tested.The results shows that it doesn’t need semiconductor refrigeration device under the wet-bulb temperature of 20℃ in outdoor conditions.To tie four groups semiconductor refrigeration device,it can meet the temperature of water which sys-tem needed under wet-bulb temperature of 23℃in outdoor conditions.Also it guarantees a higher EER of semiconductor refrige-ration device.It obtains the best air-water ratio is about 2 and sub-wet bulb efficiency is about 1 10%.And thus lay the founda-tion for the optimization of design and product development for the split air-conditioning.%设计制作了蒸发冷却与半导体制冷相结合分体式蒸发空调器的试验样机,在标准的空调焓差检测实验台上,模拟室内外侧空气温湿度,在室外侧干球温度34℃,湿球温度18~23℃之间的工况下,对该分体式蒸发空调器的冷水的温度、流量,冷风的温湿度进行了试验。结果表明,该分体式蒸发空调器在室外工况湿球温度20℃以下不开启半导体制冷装置即可满足需要;配合4组半导体制冷装置即可满足室外工况湿球温度23℃时需要,同时也保证了半导体制冷装置较高的能效比;得出了该分体式蒸发空调器的最佳气水比为2,亚湿球效率为110%。进而为分体式蒸发空调器的优化设计与产品开发奠定基础。

  12. The Selection of Water Switch in the Water-cooled Air conditioner%水冷空调中水流开关的选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦川; 王晨光

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing of large and medium public buildings, the water system air conditioning solution is widely used in centralized HVAC buildings, due to its bigger cooling capacity and higher EER. As the necessary com-ponents on water cooled equipment, the use and selection of water switches is in a tremendous difference, due to the various awareness from different manufacturers. Through the deeply analysis and summary about water switch’s op-erating status, this paper will sum up a professional method for selection.%随着大中型公共建筑的越来越多,水冷空调因其较大的制冷量和较高的能效比,被人们广泛应用在集中式暖通建筑上。水流开关作为水冷空调上必备的元器件,其使用及选型原则因空调设备生产厂家的理解而千差万别,本文通过对水流开关运行状态的实际分析和总结,归纳出一种较为科学的水流开关选用方法。

  13. 转速可控型房间空调器用压缩机能效评价方法研究及应用%Analysis and Application of Evaluation Method on Compressors for Variable Speed Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海锋; 吴建华; 厉彦忠

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency requirement of room air conditioner (RAC) has became stricter and stricter with the development of global environment consciousness. The efficiency evaluation method of RAC has been updated from single working condition to aunnal performance factor (APF) with multiple working condition. Performance evaluation method of compressors must be changed accordingly which account for main energy consumption of RAC. Compressor efficiency of annual performance (COAP) is proposed to evaluate the efficiency level of inverter compressor which is applied in variable speed RAC with multiple working conditions. Actual operation efficiency can be indicated by COAP because inverter compressor performance is considered according to COAP. In order to simplify test procedure of COAP, standard test conditions and its weight are generated .Then the effect of efficiency curve of inverter compressor on COAP is discussed . Finally examples with this method are illustrated for compressor matching and design optimization.%  随着全球环境保护意识的加强,家用空调能耗水平不断增高,房间空调器能效评价方法已从单工况向全年运行效率(APF)转变。压缩机作为空调器中的主要耗能部件,其能效评价方法也要随之变化。这里提出了变速压缩机全年综合能效比指标--COAP来衡量压缩机在全年变工况条件下的运行效率,此指标综合考虑了变速压缩机全年运行的能效情况,能客观反映压缩机在不同气候条件下实际运行效率。为简化测试COAP,给出了COAP基准工况及各工况权重,讨论了压缩机效率曲线对COAP的影响,最后通过举例说明如何利用COAP进行压缩机选型及设计优化。

  14. 空调换热器用铜量对空调器性能的影响分析%Influence of copper consumption on the performance of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫荣

    2015-01-01

    从小管径铜管替代的角度出发,针对目前市场上常见的管径为Φ9.53 mm、Φ7 mm 以及Ф5 mm 的铜管空调换热器进行性能测试和成本对比分析.研究结果表明:采用Φ5 mm 铜管换热器比采用Φ7 mm 铜管换热器的用铜量最高节约了26.74%;采用Φ5 mm 铜管换热器比采用Φ9.53 mm 铜管换热器的用铜量最高节约了46.43%;而在相同实验条件下,Φ5 mm 铜管平均换热性能比Φ7 mm 铜管平均换热性能和Φ9.53 mm铜管平均换热性能均有所增加.%In the view of replacement of large diameter copper pipes with the small diameter pipes,the performance and cost of three different air conditioners were investigated,in which the common copper tubes with diameters of 9.53 mm,7 mm and 5 mm were used respectively.The results show that the copper consumption of the heat exchanger made with Φ 5 mm pipes is 26.74% lower than that of the heat exchanger made with Φ 7 mm pipes,and 46.43% lower than that of the heat exchanger made withΦ 9.53 mm pipes.Under the same experimental conditions,the heat exchange performance of the Φ 5 mm pipe is better than that of the Φ 7 mm pipe and the Φ 9.53 mm pipe.

  15. The Study of the Legionella pneumophila Pollution and Killing Effects on Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water in Huizhou City%惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染状况和杀灭效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠东; 杨建秀; 郑丽萍; 戴昌芳; 辜少红; 严琦瑞; 柯晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the Legionella pneumophila pollution and the effects of killing Legionella pneumophila by electrolyzed water of Centralized Air Ventilation System in Huizhou City.Methods We culture and identify 123 units Legionella pneumophila,which collecting in the Centralized Air-conditioners cooling circulation water of Huizhou.A new type of low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment is applied by Guang Zhou Shui Li Qing Environmental Protection Technology Co.,Ltd.It can use physical way instead of chemicals to deal with Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic microorganisms in cooling circulating water in centralized air-conditioners.Results In the survey of 123 units,448 water samples were collected,313 samples were prove out that contain Legionella pneumophila,the detection rate is 69.86%.At the same time,62 units which contain Legionella pneumophila were collected from Centralized Air-conditioners and deal with low voltage high frequency Electrolyzed Water equipment for 7-73 d.Finally,112 water samples,which from those units,were found out that all the Legionella pneumophila had been killed.The sterilizing rate for the Legionella pneumophila is 100%.Conclusion Part of Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water were Pollution by Legionella pneumophila in Huizhou,Daily inspection should be taken,The low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment can effectively control and sterilize Legionella pneumophila etc in the cooling water and chilled water in centralized air-conditioners.It has a good application prospect for this technology.%目的 了解惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染情况和电解水对其的杀灭效果观察.方法 对惠州市123个单位中央空调冷却循环水进行嗜肺军团菌的培养和鉴定;然后采用源自广州水力清环保科技有限公司的新型低压高频电解水处理器,用物理方式代替化学药剂,处理中央空调冷却循环水

  16. Application of Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature in air conditioner pipeline design and the method of bend dimensions%Pro/ENGINEER管道特征在空调管路设计中的应用及弯管尺寸标注方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明校; 肖云龙; 宗颖超; 钟光明; 陈伟; 高德锁

    2011-01-01

    According to the vector tube bending principle of the CNC pipe bender,use Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature for 3D modeling of air conditioner pipeline and 2D projection conversion,In combination with the CNC pipe bender program features, propose a reasonable way of bend dimensioning in order to facilitate Programming for the production process and parts inspection,reduce the number of test bends,to achieve productivity gains and production costs of the air-conditioner pipe fittings.%根据数控弯管机矢量弯管原理,利用Pro/ENGINEER管道特征对空调器管路进行3D建模以及2D投影图转换,并结合数控弯管机的弯管程序特性,提出一种合理的弯管尺寸标注方式,以便于生产过程中程序的编制及零件的检验,减少试弯次数,从而实现空调器管件的生产效率提高及生产成本降低.

  17. 直河道水源热泵空调系统对河水温度场影响的模拟研究%Research on Temperature Field of the Straight River Water Source Heat Pump Air-conditioner System Based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 吴国珊; 庄光亮

    2013-01-01

    应用CFD软件模拟直河道水源热泵空调系统冷却水热量对河水温度场的影响,就河水温度场随空调系统冷却水流量和温度的变化以及河水的蓄热能力展开研究,得出系统冷却水与河水之间合理的流速比和流量比,以及河水最高温度和平均温度沿河水流动方向的变化情况。%The effects of the temperature field of the straight river water source heat pump air-conditioner system are simulated in this paper,basing on the numerical simulation software of CFD.Problems of the temperature field of river water changes along with the cooling water flow and temperature of the air-conditioner system are discussed.This paper comes to the reasonable veloc-ity ratio and flow ratio of the cooling water and the river water,and the change of the river water’s maximum temperature and av-erage temperature along the flow direction.

  18. 太阳能复合能源空调热水系统中热泵系统换热性能的试验研究%Experimental Research on the Thermodynamic Performance of Heat Pump in Solar-assisted Air-conditioner with Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 郑祖义; 陈焕新; 金听祥

    2011-01-01

    通过将太阳能热水系统和空调热泵系统结合,设计出太阳能复合能源空调系统.针对该新型系统中的热泵空调热水子系统进行研究,在标准工况下,分别对该系统的3种模式下的换热性能进行试验,数据分析结果表明该系统比传统系统更为高效的,其单独制冷模式下系统最高COP可达5.34,单独热水模式下的静态加热系统COP可达5.78,制冷兼热水模式下系统COP可达4.5.%The research presents a solar-assisted air-conditioner with water heater in which solar water heater and heat pump air-conditioner are combined. The performance of heat pump in the new system is experimentally investigated. The performance of heat pump working at 3 modes under standard condition is measured. The results show that, the COP is 5.34, 5.78 and 4.5 at cooling mode, heating mode,and cooling-heating mode, respectively, which indicates that the new system is more effective than traditional systems.

  19. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  20. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  1. 商用多联机室外机电机支架动力学分析及优化设计%Dynamics analysis and optimization design of outdoor unit’s motor bracket for commercial multi-split air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2016-01-01

    利用有限元仿真技术对某商用多联机室外机电机支架进行动力学分析,并利用试验结果证明仿真计算结果的准确性。基于仿真计算结果对电机支架进行优化设计,有效解决电机支架的共振问题。%The motor bracket of one commercial multi-split air conditioner is analyzed using finite element simulation technology,and the accuracy of simulation results is proved by experiment.The optimization design of motor bracket is conducted based on the simula-tion results,and the resonance of motor bracket is solved effectively.

  2. Trends in active power line conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Hirofumi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Active power line conditioners, which are classified into shunt and series ones, have been studied with the focus on their practical installation in industrial power systems. In 1986, a combined system of a shunt active conditioner of rating 900 kVA and a shunt passive filter of rating 6,600 kVA was practically installed to suppress the harmonics produced by a large capacity cycloconverter for steel mill drives. More than one hundred shunt active conditioners have been operating properly in Japan. The largest one is 10 mVA, which was developed for flicker compensation for an arc furnace with the help of a shunt passive filter of 20 mVA. In this paper, the term of ''active power line conditioners'' would be used instead of that of ''active power filters'' because active power line conditioners would cover a wider sense than active power filters. The primary intent of this paper is to present trends in active power line conditioners using PWM inverters, paying attention to practical applications.

  3. Influence of storage methods on the surface roughness of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guan; Li, YingAi; Maeda, Takeshi; Mizumachi, Wataru; Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hamada, Taizo; Murata, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of three kinds of storage methods on surface roughness of tissue conditioners. Four commercial tissue conditioners (GC Soft Liner, Softone, Fictioner, and Hydro-Cast) were used in this study. Five samples of each material were stored in distilled water, air, and a denture cleanser (Polident). Mean surface roughness (R(a)) values of dental stone casts made from the tissue conditioners were measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion using a profilometer. Significant differences in the R(a) values of the specimens were found among the three storage methods. The values of R(a) significantly increased with increase in immersion time for each storage method, except for the materials stored in air. It was found that the materials stored in air showed the most stable and lowest values of R(a). Results obtained suggested that a tissue conditioner exhibited smooth and minimal change in surface roughness with time when stored in air than in distilled water and denture cleanser. PMID:18540387

  4. 房间空调器长效运行性能预测及优化方案的研究%Research on the Room Air Conditioner Long-term Performance Prediction and Optimization Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫江虹; 刘超鹏; 梁志豪; 张才俊

    2015-01-01

    Performance of occupied room air-conditioner(RAC) is an important evaluation index to estimate RAC continue energy saving efficiency. In order to investigate characteristic of RAC long-term performance(LTP) and acquire the cost optimation design methodology of high LTP in multi-factors impact condition, a BP neural network prediction method has been applied. The training sample of LTP prediction BP neural network acquired form experimental result of occupied RACs and data of RACs dynamic LTP on-line monitor system. By a large size of training sample, the decision weights of multi-impact factors and LTP optimation strategies can be obtained. The performances of 26 occupied RACs have also been tested. 85% of testing data ias served as training sample data and 15% of testing data ias served as validation data to LTP prediction BP neural network. The result indicated that the prediction is convergence and error is less than 5% during the BP neural network training by 22 samples. The decision weights of time weighted high temperature cooling, rated cooling, low temperature heating, rated heating normalized performance value are 0.187, 0.203, 0.312, 0.298, respectively. For further increasing the prediction precision, RAC performance online monitor system and LTP online data acquisition website has been established for data acquisition to validate LTP prediction BP neural network. Based on the acquisition database, a big data mining method has also been proposed in RAC LTP optimization design and investigation.%房间空调器实际运行过程中的能效是空调器持续节能的重要考核指标,为研究房间空调器长效运行性能特性,采用BP神经网络进行新机器的性能预测分析,获得在多因素影响下选择成本最优的空调长效性能的设计方法。BP网络的学习样本来自于旧机器实验室测试数据及房间空调器在真实运行工况下的在线监测动态衰减数据,通过对大量样本数据的学习,

  5. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  6. Research on influence law of capillary length on performance of room air conditioner in non-standard working condition%非标工况下毛细管长度对家用空调器性能影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮; 熊军; 陈绍林

    2012-01-01

    通过研究家用空调器的制冷量、能效比、排气温度、吸气温度等随室外温度和毛细管长度的变化规律,得出增加毛细管长度有利于提升高温工况下的制冷量,缩短毛细管长度有利于提升低温工况下的制冷量的结论,对于空调系统匹配有一定的指导意义.%The influence law of capillary length and outdoor temperature on cooling capacity, COP, exhaust temperature, suction temperature of room air conditioner are analyzed. The results show that increasing capillary length is benefit for cooling capacity under high temperature condition and decreasing length brings advantage to cooling capacity under low temperature condition. The study will provide reference for air-conditioning system matching.

  7. 替代高温气候区域分体式家用空调R22的低GWP制冷剂R444B实验研究%Experiment Study on R444B as an Alternative Low GWP Refrigerant of R22 Used in Room Air Conditioners in High Ambient Temperature Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恩新; 牛永明; 霍宏祥; 林云

    2015-01-01

    制冷剂R444B是霍尼韦尔最新开发的、可作为高温气候区域家用空调制冷剂R22的替代制冷剂。R444B的ODP(臭氧消耗潜能值)为零,GWP(全球变暖潜能值)仅为295;相对于R22,GWP减少85%。理论制冷循环分析表明,R444B 的制冷量和COP(性能系数)在高温工况下与R22相当。分体式空调实验结果显示:在高温气候区域的T3和T3Max工况下,R444B的制冷量和COP与R22相当,略高于R407C;R444B的排气温度与R22相当;R444B换热器压降也小于R22;R444B制冷剂流量约为R22的80%。通过优化室内机管路连接方式,优化后R444B空调制冷量和COP相对于原型提升0.3%~1.0%。R444B的制冷量和COP随高温环境衰变速率与R22相当,优于R407C。%Refrigerant R444B is developed by Honeywell as an alternative to R22 used in room air conditioners in high ambient temperature regions. R444B shows zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) and 295 GWP (global warming potential). Comparing with R22, GWP of R444B reduces 85%. Analysis on the theory refrigeration cycle at the condition of high ambient temperature shows the refrigeration capacity andCOP (coefficient of performance) of R444B are similar with that of R22. Experimental study on Mini-Split air conditioner under T3 and T3max shows that, the refrigeration capacity andCOP of R444B are similar to those of R22, and are higher than those of R407C; the discharge temperature of R444B is similar to those of R22;the pressure drop of R444B in the heat exchanger is lower than that of R22. Comparing with the original one, the refrigeration capacity andCOP of the optimized R444B air conditioner can be increased by 0.3%~1.0% through optimization on the pipeline connection of indoor unit. The degradation of refrigeration capacity and COP of R444B are similar to those of R22, and are better than those of R407C.

  8. 基于运行时间的变频型房间空调器季节能效比和潜力温度分析%Study on Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and Potential Temperature of Variable-Speed Room Air Conditioner Based on Running Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田镇; 谷波

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of three variable-speed air conditioners under three kinds of running time was analyzed, respectively. Running time frequency (RTF) was taken to characterize the distribution of running time on temperature intervals. Bar graph was used to show the distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals. The results show that, the smaller the temperature under maximum RTF, the higher the SEER is. The faster the accumulation speed of RTF on low temperature intervals, the higher the SEER is. The regularity of distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals is decided by running time. The potential temperature can be showed on the bar graph, which has high reference value in performance optimization and selection of variable-speed room air conditioner.%计算了3台变频型房间空调器基于北京、上海、广州3种运行时间的季节能效比(SEER);采用运行时间频数(RTF)表征空调器运行时间在温度区间上的分布规律;绘制了3台空调器基于3种运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图.结果表明:RTF最大值对应的温度越小,SEER越大;RTF在低温段累计速度越快,SEER越大;空调器制冷量和耗电量在温度区间上的分布规律由运行时间决定;基于运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图能够直观反映当地的潜力温度,可为空调器性能的优化和选型提供参考依据.

  9. Study of Controller for the Frequency Conversion Air Conditioner with Micro-controller MC68HC908MR16%基于MC68HC908MR16单片机的变频空调控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 干练

    2012-01-01

    针对变频空调器的特点,应用具有电机控制模块的单片机MC68HC908MR16设计了空调专用变频控制器,给出了变频空调控制器的系统结构原理图,以及空间矢量调制技术的单片机实现原理.该变频控制器采用空间矢量调制技术,提高了电源利用率和压缩机的低频转矩.%According to the characteristics on the use of air conditioners, a specific inverter is designed based on the MC68HC908MR16. The schematic circuit of the inverter and the principle of SVM achieved with MCU are given. The (SVM) is adopted,which is helpful for increasing the power utilization and low speed torque of the compressors.

  10. 有限元技术在空调应力应变中的应用分析%Analysis on the Application of Finite Element Technology on the Stress-strain of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思磊

    2015-01-01

    本文以ANSYS有限元分析软件为工具,对空调管路系统进行模态分析,并结合实验得出解决应力超标的方案,体现了有限元技术在空调应力应变分析中的重要性.%Taking the ANSYS finite element analysis software as the tool, the modal analysis is carried out for the air-conditioning pipeline system. Besides, combined with the experiments, the scheme to solve the problem of exceeding stress is proposed. It reflects the significance of finite element technology in the stress-strain analysis of air-condition-er.

  11. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  12. 水源热泵机组空调系统的运用和选择%On application and selection of air-conditioner system of water source heat pump unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰秀桂

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the air-conditioning system,indicates from the scheme of using the water source heat pump unit and the identification of ways,and points out the feasibility of the current use of the water source heat pump unit,analyzes and researches the calculation of energy efficiency,technology and economic,the environment influence,the application perspective and the risks of the air-conditioning system of the water source heat pump unit,and indicates the necessity for the extensive use of the air-conditioning system in water source heat pump unit.%对空调系统进行了分析,从使用水源热泵机组的方案论述、方式确定等方面进行了论述,指出了当前使用水源热泵的可行性,同时对水源热泵机组空调系统的能效计算、技术经济、环境影响、应用前景、风险等进行了分析研究,充分说明了水源热泵机组空调系统广泛使用的必然性。

  13. Development of residential solar air conditioning system for electricity power peak cut 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gwon Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In this research, the converter rectifier unit of the inverter air conditioner is substituted into the bidirectional PWM converter. The DC/DC power converter is established on the DC link between the photovoltaic array and the inverter air conditioner, and the photovoltaic air conditioning system which can be parallel driven which utility is developed. (author). 35 ref., 112 figs.

  14. 企业创新悖论与两栖组织模式——基于海尔空调产品开发团队案例的研究%Innovation paradox and ambidextrous organization: A case study on development teams of air conditioner in Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤彬; 江鸿

    2009-01-01

    新产品开发作为企业自主创新活动的一种重要形式,是知识探索与知识利用有机结合的过程.在对二者悖论关系及其处理方略进行系统文献综述的基础上,将两栖组织的定义从"二元结构"、"二面性结构"伸展到"两栖能力",试图在较低的组织层次上回答如何辩证地解决二者看似矛盾实则可统一的关系.在对海尔空调开发团队的成员构成及异质性知识组合案例分析后,得出的结论是,"两栖"不仅是组织层面的构念,而且可以是团队乃至像"型号经理"这样的个体员工层面的构念.%While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers.

  15. Research and Improvement of Scour Sound of Refrigerant in the Refrigeration Process of Wall-mounted Air Conditioner%分体挂壁空调制冷过程制冷剂冲刷声的研究与改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮

    2016-01-01

    分体挂壁空调制冷过程出现制冷剂冲刷声,这种低频声穿透性强、辐射面广,严重影响了使用的舒适性。经过测试体验以及现象分析,发现该声音产生的主要原因是蒸发温度与U管温度差过大,导致制冷剂状态的急剧变化产生的噪音。针对该声音产生的机理,制定了有效的改善措施,通过增加低频停留点,提高蒸发温度,减少制冷剂状态的变化,提高了使用舒适性。%In the refrigeration process of wall-mounted air conditioner, the refrigerant scour sound would appear, which has the characteristics of strong penetrability of low-frequency sound and wide radiating surface, it serious affect the comfort of use. Through the test experience and phenomenon analysis, we found the main reasons causing the noise, that is, the large temperature difference between evaporation and U pipe. The rapid change of the state of refrigerant results in the noise. According to the mechanism of the noise generation, the effective improving measure is proposed. Through adding low-frequency arrest points, it raises the evaporating temperature, reduces the changes of refrigerant states, and improves the comfort of use.

  16. Research on the Effect of Well Completion Technology of Ground Temperature Air-Conditioner Project on Groundwater System%地温空调成井工艺参数对地下水系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米庆彬; 付博; 窦明; 韩涛; 张彦; 张坤; 张华云

    2014-01-01

    在对成井环节分析的基础上,识别了对地下水系统影响较为显著的成井工艺参数(即井径和滤水管孔隙率),基于地下水水热运移基本原理,建立了地下水流动和热量输运耦合模型。选取典型地温空调项目,通过设计不同成井工艺参数,模拟地温空调运行对地下水流场和温度场的影响。结果显示:不同井径和孔隙率在地温空调运行中,对地下水系统影响程度差别较大,井径对抽水井、回水井的影响比较明显,孔隙率对抽水井的影响大于对回水井的影响,适合安阳市地温空调的井径为30 cm、滤水管孔隙率为30%。%According to the analysis of well completion process,this paper distinguished that the well completion tech-parameters (well diameter and filter porosity)could largely affect the groundwater system. Based on the fundamental principle of water and heat transfer,the coupling model of the flow of groundwater and the transport of heat was established. It selected several typical ground temperature air-conditioning projects in order to simulate the effect of ground temperature air-conditioning to the underground flow field and temperature field by design well completion technolo-gies with different parameters. From the results of simulation,it finds out that the different well diameter and filter porosity can make a great differ-ence on the effect of groundwater system. The well diameter can affect the pumping wells and recharge wells obviously,on another hand,the filter porosity parameter’s effect on the pumping wells is bigger than on recharge wells. It finds out that 30cm of well diameter and 30% of the porosity of filter are more suitable for the ground temperature air-conditioning project in Anyang City.

  17. Preparation and application of central air-conditioner environment-friendly water treatment agents%中央空调环保型水处理剂的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉林

    2011-01-01

    Based upon the water quality characteristics in Zhengzhou and the water quality and scaling analysis of the central air-conditioning circulating water system of Hualian Trade Center,Zhengzhou,a brand new lowphosphorus environment-friendly water treatment agent, HL-08 has been prepared. Its phosphorus (PO43-) content is less than 5%. The static and dynamic experiments as well as its application in central air-conditioning circulating water systems show that HL-08 has good effects on corrosion and scale inhibition. Meanwhile, the wastewater from the circulating water system contains less than 1.0 mg/L phosphorus,which meets the requirements of the discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).%根据郑州华联商贸城中央空调循环水系统的水质情况和结垢分析,结合郑州地区水质特点,制备了一种新型低磷环保型的水质处理剂HL-08,其磷含量≤5%(以PO(3-)4).静态、旋转挂片、动态试验及在中央空调循环水系统中的实际应用结果表明,该处理剂缓蚀阻垢效果良好,循环水排污水中磷质量浓度<1.0mg/L(以P计),符合国标(GB8978-1996)的要求.

  18. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernyshova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evaporation cooling and spray (aqueous and air-to-water types of the air-conditioning systems are considered, their merits and demerits are analyzed; the new scheme of a conditioner is offered.

  19. Research on the Transient Performance of the Double-Evaporator VRV Air Conditioner%双联变频空调系统的动态特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴禧; 陈武; 夏清; 王懿

    2001-01-01

    With an void fraction model equation adopted and conservation priciple applied, an unsteady distributed-parameter mathematical model based on two-phased theory, which can predict the transient performance of the system, is established. The dynamic response to the step change of inverter-aided compressor speed, opening of the EEV and air fan speed is studied.%通过引入空泡系数模型方程,应用守恒原理,建立起以蒸发器、电子膨胀阀、压缩机为一体的双联空调系统的动态分布参数数学模型;通过仿真计算对一拖二系统随变频压缩机转速、电子膨胀阀开度以及回风风机转速改变的动态特性进行研究分析;为系统的实时控制打下基础。

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  1. ANALYSIS ON REAL OPERATION AND ADSORBER PERFORMANCE OF A CONTINUOUS HEAT REGENERATIVE ADSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER%连续回热型吸附式空调实际运行与吸附床性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静怡; 王如竹; 许煜雄

    2000-01-01

    近年来,我们研制了一台连续回热型吸附式空调/热泵,该空调/热泵在100热源驱动下,单位质量制冷功率SCP可达到150 W/kg,与此同时COP达到0.4。在系统的实际运行中,吸附床起到了重要的作用。本文介绍了该机组在实际运行中为稳定工况所采取的一系列措施,以及机组运行的实际Clapeyron图,着重讨论了系统运行参数对吸附床性能的影响%A continuous heat regenerative adsorption air conditionerhas been developed, which has specific cooling power of 150 W/kg andCOP of 0.5 in heating temperature of 100. In this systemtwo adsorbers are key devices, which are made of two shell and pipeexchangers. Adsorber performance depends on real operationparameter such as desorption temperature, adsorption temperature,condensing temperature, evaporating temperature, cycle time, massrecovery time and so on. In this paper, the methods controllingtemperature of heat source and evaporatingtemperature for stabilizing working condition are introduced.Clapeyron curves of real operation are showed. The factors effectingadsorber performance, such as cycle time of system and temperature ofheat source and so on, are chiefly discussed

  2. Power conditioner without isolation transformer; Toransuresu power conditioner no shohin kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okado, C.; Itami, T.; Kimoto, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light-weight downsized and high efficiency transformer-less type 4 kW power conditioner (inverter) has been developed. This power conditioner insures the system interconnection protection by monitoring the voltage of two single-phase three-line circuits. The power conditioner has weight of 17.5 kg and efficiency of 94%. Potential fluctuation of photovoltaic cells due to the switching of power devices at the inverter was reduced. Output capacity was reduced in the low input voltage range. Outflow of DC component was prevented in high accuracy by usually correcting the zero point drift of detector, and by using the current detector with excellent linearity. To detect the DC ground fault, and to trip the output side breaker locating at the ground fault current pass, a zero phase converter detection circuit has been developed, by which the DC component can be detected at the DC input side. As a result of performance verification, the efficiency, power factor, EMI level, protection of outflow of DC component, protection of ground fault, protection of single operation detection, and noise level were satisfied. This system is prospective for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the future. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Study on the High Temperature Air-conditioner Based on Flash Evaporative Cooling Technology and Using R134a as Refrigerant%闪发蒸汽冷却技术及 R134a 用于高温空调器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文举; 王梦圆; 江辉民; 高岩; 李德英

    2015-01-01

    建立了基于闪发蒸汽冷却技术及 R134a 为工质的高温空调器数学模型,分析并比较了 R22单级压缩、R22闪发蒸汽冷却和 R134a 单级压缩制冷系统在不同室外气温度下系统冷凝压力、压缩机排气温度、制冷量、耗功和性能系数。结果表明,相同工况下 R134a 制冷系统的冷凝压力和排气温度最低,制冷量较小,较 R22制冷系统适宜于环境温度50℃以上工况。当环境温度介于42~50℃时,闪发蒸汽冷却技术可有效降低以 R22为工质的空调压缩机的排气温度,提高系统制冷量和性能系数,但冷凝压力和耗功略有升高。%Mathematical model of the high temperature air-conditioner based on flash evaporative cooling technology and using R134a as refrigerant were developed.Condensing pressure,compressor’s discharge temperature and input power,refrigerating ca-pacity and coefficient of performance (COP)of refrigeration systems including refrigeration system with R134a as refrigerant,sin-gle stage compression refrigeration system with R22 as refrigerant and flash evaporative cooling technology based refrigeration sys-tem also using R22 as refrigerant were analyzed.Results showed that refrigeration system using R134a as refrigerant had the lowest condensing pressure,compressor discharge temperature and refrigerating capacity when three refrigeration systems worked in same condition,and this system was more suitable for the condition that environment temperature was higher than 50℃.Compared with single stage compression refrigeration system with R22 as refrigerant,flash evaporative cooling technology could effectively reduce the compressor discharge temperature and improve the refrigeration system’s capacity and COP with slightly higher power con-sumption and condensing pressure when the environment temperature was between 42 ~50 ℃.

  4. 基于局部终端温度调节的中央空调需求响应控制策略%Demand Response Control Strategy for Central Air-conditioner Based on Temperature Adjustment of Partial Terminal Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚野白; 王丹; 贾宏杰; 黄仁乐; 张逸; 杨占勇

    2015-01-01

    Unlike small amounts of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs),the central air-conditioner(CAC) has huge potential ability of demand response by virtue of its large capacity.Focusing on the features of CAC demand response,an integrated model is proposed to describe CAC”s thermodynamic aspects,including the main devices,circulating water system and terminal devices.This paper presents a new CAC control strategy based on temperature adjustment of partial terminal devices which differs from previous methods in concentrating on all the CAC”s terminal devices.The effects of different precision controlling conditions can be reflected by using this model and strategy.Modeling results show that the proposed approach has better performance and efficiency by rational adjustment.%不同于传统单体温控设备,中央空调因其较大的制冷/制热容量而具有更好的需求响应可调潜力。结合中央空调需求响应特点,对其进行了热力学建模,涉及中央空调主机、循环水泵系统、终端组件等动态,形成了多终端中央空调需求响应模型。针对以往中央空调控制策略中对终端整体调节的方法,提出了一种基于局部终端温度调节的控制策略,可实现不同的控制精度。研究结果表明,基于“自下而上”的控制方法,通过合理调节关键的中央空调终端温度设定值,受控群体能够在维持较高用户舒适度的同时,精准响应外界功率信号。

  5. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-01-01

    There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of compute...

  6. New air conditioner by RMF prevents water in lubricating oils; Neu: Air-Conditioner vom RMF kontra Wasser im Schmieroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    During standstill, water condensation in wind power systems will affect the lubricating properties of the lubricating oil due to oxidation effects. This will result in early failure and irrepairable damage in mechanical components like toothing and rolling bearings. RMF Deutschland, based in Nordorf and Wiesbaden, offer a solution to prevent this. [German] Bei Stillstaenden der Windkraftanlage bildet sich Kondenswasser in nicht unerheblichen Umfang. Bekannterweise beeinflussen schon geringe Wasseranteile die Schmierfaehigkeit und Eigenschaften des Schmieroels (Oxidation im Oel). Ergebnisse sind vorzeitige Ausfaelle und irreparable Schaeden an den mechanischen Bauteilen wie Verzahnung und Waelzlager. RMF Deutschland aus Nordorf und Wiesbaden bietet die Loesung, hier vorbeugend einzugreifen. (orig.)

  7. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  8. Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  9. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  10. 允差范围内变化的房间空调器测试结果算法修正%Correcting Algorithm on Experimental Results of Room Air Conditioner Performance with Dry-bulb and Wet-bulb Temperatures Changing within Allowances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠斌; 杜垲; 黄虎; 张若楠

    2014-01-01

    提出一种求解干湿球温度在国家标准允差范围内变化的制冷量和能效比实测结果向名义工况值回归逼近的修正算法,并以制冷工况下的室内侧干湿球温度允差范围变化的房间空调器制冷量和能效比测试结果为实例进行算法修正。该算法基于制冷量和能效比实测结果,采用多元高次方程逼近求解两者的回归方程,并用贝塞尔公式验证其收敛性。运用层次分析法(Analytic hierarchy process,AHP)量化分析干湿球温度对制冷量和能效比的影响程度,进而得出在干湿球温度允差范围内制冷量和能效比的修正算法。该修正算法可对任意工况下制冷量和能效比的实测值进行修正,并以此为基础对房间空调器能效等级进行评判。修正算法能更加准确地评判房间空调器能效等级,可对现行房间空调器性能测试方法进行完善。%A correcting algorithm is provided to work out regression equations to process the experimental results of cooling capacity (CC) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of room air conditioner(RAC) when dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures (D&WBTs) change in the allowances set in national standard in China. Thereby, values of CC and EER under nominal working condition can be worked out. A case of the correcting algorithm is illustrated based on the experimental results of CC and EER with indoor D&WBTs changing in the allowances under space cooling condition. Based on the experimental results, the multiple high order equation is adopted to solve the regression equations of CC and EER respectively. Bessel formula is adopted to verify the convergence. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to present a quantitative analysis of the D&WBTs’ influence on CC and EER;thereby, the correcting equations for CC and EER with D&WBTs changing within the allowances are obtained. Within the allowances set in the national standard, these two correcting equations

  11. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  13. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  14. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  15. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  16. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  17. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  18. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  19. Evaluation of ERINA Plus as a coat conditioner in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava

    Full Text Available Coat conditioning, deodorant and cleansing properties of ERINA Plus were evaluated in fifty-one dogs of different breeds. More than 80% of dogs showed good to excellent conditioning, deodorant and cleansing effects supported ERINA Plus as safe conditioner shampoo. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 361-362

  20. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  1. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  2. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  3. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  4. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  5. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Annapandi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs to a common DC link voltage, which compensates voltage and current based distortions, independently.Using instantaneous active and reactive Power theory ,harmonic detection, reactive power compensation, voltage sag and swell have been simulated and the results are analyzed. The operation and capability of the proposed system was analyzed through simulations with MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  6. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  7. Uji Efektivitas Soil Conditioner Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi padi ( oriza sativa l. var. inpari 3 )

    OpenAIRE

    Pulungan, Astari Mita Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Uses of more inorganic fertilizer will be land degradation. Land degradation affect declining of soil quality become damaged. For increasing the growth and production of rice in the field need soil conditioner (SC) which in good quality, to complete this problem soil conditioner can be expected by the farmers because the soil conditioner has a function to fix the damaged soil because of inappropriate management, to make poor soil more useable, and to keep soil in top conditi...

  8. hermetically sealed compressor unit, temperature level, mathematical model, marine air conditioning syste

    OpenAIRE

    Lytosh, Olena V.; Dorosh, Vadym S.

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the temperature level of the hermetically sealed compressor unit for the marine self-contained air conditioners taking into account the operating conditions and machine design parameters have been given.

  9. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  10. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products. PMID:26120149

  11. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

    1998-11-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  12. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  13. Shampoo and conditioners: What a dermatologist should know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  14. Current Evaluation Procedures for Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners Used in Organic Agriculture. Proceedings of a workshop held April 29–30, 2004 at Emerson College, Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, Stefano; Stopes, Christopher; Schmid, Otto; Speiser, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Table of Contents Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Austria Alexandra Hozzank and Wilfried Hartl Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in the Czech Republic Anamarija Slabe Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in Denmark Rasmus Ørnberg Eriksen and Erik Steen Kristensen Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic farming in France Marie-Christine Monnier Fertilizers and soil conditioners in organic fa...

  15. Artificial Intelligence Based Three-Phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleykutty George

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is an important measure of the performance of an electrical power system. This paper discusses the topology, control strategies using artificial intelligent (AI based controllers and the performance of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC for power quality improvement. UPQC is an integration of shunt and series compensation to limit the harmonic contamination within 5 %, the limit imposed by IEEE-519 standard. The novelty of this paper lies in the application of neural network control (NNC algorithms such as model reference control (MRC, and nonlinear autoregressive-moving average (NARMA–L2 control to generate switching signals for the series compensator of the UPQC system. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 7.0 toolbox. Simulation results demonstrate the applicability of MRC and NARMA-L2 controllers for the control of UPQC.

  16. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  18. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Chi Cheng; Dasheng Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be contr...

  19. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  20. Influences of Oyster Shell Soil Conditioner on Soil and Plant Rhizospheric Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guoliang; LIU Yun; DING Mingyu; KONG Xiuqin

    2003-01-01

    Oyster shell soil conditioner had significant influence on soil and rhizospheric microorganisms in their biomass,respiratory intensity and nutritional requirement. It could stimulate growth of soil and rhizospheric microorganisms, especially nitrogen-fixers, and intensify soil respiration in proportion to the dose and fertilizing time of the conditioner, leading to the increase in the number of nitrogen fixing bacteria and the decrease in the number of bacteria with special nutrition demands.

  1. Analysis on the Standard Conformance of Thermal Circuit Breaker of Heat-pump Water Heater and Air-conditioner%关于热泵热水器和空调热断路器结构标准符合性浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁丹; 肖凯佳

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the standard conformance of the construction of thermal circuit breaker in air-condi-tioner and heat pump and some designs according to the standards of IEC 60335 series. Besides, it provides responding suggestions to the designers.%本文根据标准IEC 60335系列,对带电辅热的空调及热泵的热断路器及部分设计方案进行标准符合性分析,给出相应的意见,以供设计人员参考.

  2. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  3. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems.......Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...

  4. Implementing method of optimum front-end conditioner based on Butterworth filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The front-end conditioner is an essential part of digital systems of nuclear spectrometer, which functions in two ways: (1) prevents saturation of the subsequent ADC; (2) limits the bandwidth of frequency to realize anti-aliasing. To realize the above-mentioned functions, an optimum front-end conditioner for a resistive feedback charge-sensitive preamplifier is designed. In the conditioner, the pole-zero compensation (P/Z compensation) technique was used to effectively filter signals from the preamplifier. The Butterworth filter was improved after the pole-zero position was optimally set up to shape the wave of output, which tallied with the whole system. The front-end conditioner can resolve the aberration of waveform of nuclear signals in a regular Butterworth filter. Compared with the traditional triple-pole filtering circuitry, the circuitry of this conditioner is more compact and flexible.Moreover, its output waveform is more symmetrical and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is higher. The improvement in the resolution of spectrometer is also significant.

  5. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  6. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when ozone is expected to be high: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperature. Choose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when possible. Refuel cars ...

  7. CSMP commutation model for design study of a brushless dc motor power conditioner for a cruise missile fin control actuator. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, P.N.

    1985-06-01

    Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high-horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use as flight-control actuators for tactical missiles. A dynamic equivalent circuit model for the analysis of a small four pole brushless DC motor fed by a transistorized power conditioner utilizing high speed switching power transistors as final elements is presented. The influence of electronic commutation on instantaneous dynamic motor performance is particularly demonstrated and good correlation between computer simulation and typical experimentally obtained performance data is achieved. The model is implemented in CSMP language and features more accurate air gap flux representation over previous work. Hall-effect sensor rotor position feedback is simulated. Both constant and variable-air-gap flux is modeled and the variable flux model treats the flux as a fundamental and one harmonic.

  8. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  9. Active power line conditioners design, simulation and implementation for improving power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, Patricio Salmeron; Litrán, Salvador Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Active Power Line Conditioners: Design, Simulation and Implementation for Improving Power Quality presents a rigorous theoretical and practical approach to active power line conditioners, one of the subjects of most interest in the field of power quality. Its broad approach offers a journey that will allow power engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students to learn more about the latest landmarks on the different APLC configurations for load active compensation. By introducing the issues and equipment needs that arise when correcting the lack of power quality in power grids

  10. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal El-Berry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. To maintain the system forecasting for system failure rates are very important. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the air conditioning systems. The most common applied statistical distributions in reliability settings are the standard (2 parameter Weibull and Gamma distributions. Reliability estimations and predictions are used to evaluate, when the estimation of distributionsparameters is done. To estimate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several companies’ departments is checked. This air conditioning system is divided into two systems, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40 - 45oF (4 - 7oC. The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, with the application of the Weibull and Gamma distributions it is indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively . A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families is studied. It is found that Weibull method has performed well for decision making .

  11. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  12. Remote controlled signal conditioner and fiber optic data link system development CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZTH reversed-field pinch to be installed in the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) will produce a significant ambient magnetic field. To avoid ground-loop and other electrical problems, the diagnostics in direct or possible contact with the experiment will be accessed through a fiber optic data way. The frequency-modulated analog links developed for this system have a bandwidth of dc to 100 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 60 dB. The fiber optic transmitter units include a signal conditioner and a microprocessor controller. The conditioners can be configured as dc-coupled, low-noise differential amplifiers, or as high-gain, low-drift differential integrators with a very long droop time constant. Magnetic field pickup is minimized by balancing sensitive circuit areas to within 5 mm2 in all three planes of the PC boards. The gain, offset, and integrator reset are controlled and monitored by the microprocessor, and their status is displayed on the front panel of the transmitter unit. The signal conditioner can be controlled locally, or by way of a fiber optic coupled control network. The system allows fast, convenient, noise-immune control of a large number of signal conditioners from a central host computer. By varying the offset, the computer can verify the operational integrity of the data links. 2 refs., 6 figs

  13. Use of conditioners in the production of Tifton 85 grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the curve of dehydration, bromatological composition and occurrence of fungi in Tifton 85 grass, submitted to four methods of dehydration. The curves of dehydration were studied in a completely randomized design with a 4 × 11 factorial scheme with four drying systems (1 conditioning + 1 turn-over; 2 conditionings + 1 turn-over; no conditioning + 1 turn-over and no conditioning + 2 turn-overs and 11 sampling times (0, 3, 15, 18, 21, 24, 39, 42, 45 and 47 hours after the cutting, with six replicates. For the bromatological composition and fungi occurrence, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with the four drying methods of Tifton 85 grass and three periods of evaluation (before the cutting, at the time of the baling and 30 days after storage with six replicates. It was found that after the first hour after cutting and at the end of the period of dehydration, Tifton 85 plants that were treated with conditioners showed higher levels of dry matter. Stored hay that was treated with conditioners presented higher levels of acid detergent insoluble protein. Until baling, the drying methods did not alter the crude protein content of hay; however, after storage, the hay submitted only to turn-over showed crude protein content higher (13.90% than those submitted to conditioners (9.94%. There was an increase in the occurrence of fungi after storage, but the application of conditioners and one turn-over resulted in lower CUF/g, compared with other treatments, enhancing the effect of conditioners on accelerating the dehydration rate and obtaining better hay storage conditions

  14. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  15. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... publication number, it must appear in the lower right-hand corner of the label and be set in 6-point type or... left and top to bottom). Depth is variable but should follow closely the prototype labels appearing at... easily removed without the use of tools or liquids, other than water, but should be applied with...

  16. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate two miconazole conditioners for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, R; Nicklin, C E; Nerbonne, J

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen dogs with Malassezia dermatitis participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of miconazole conditioners. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive vehicle only, miconazole 1%, or miconazole 2% conditioner. Conditioners were used three times weekly for 2 weeks and then twice weekly for 2 weeks. Investigators evaluated erythema, pruritus, and yeast counts weekly. Owners scored pruritus daily. Yeast number decreased in all treatment groups. Yeast number in the vehicle group was higher than in both the miconazole treatment groups but was not different between the two miconazole groups. Clinical scores decreased but no difference was detected among groups. PMID:19757576

  18. Exergy Analysis and Optimization about Heat Pump Conditioner%热泵空调器火用分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱培根; 虞维平; 张小松

    2001-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the heat pump air-conditioner is carried out and the exer gy losses of the parts of the system are calculated. The parts and the measures of the energy conservation are proposed, in results the exergy loss of the whole heat pump system reaches the minimum one, the exergy efficiency of the system i s at the maximum one, the optimization and the energy conservation of the system is realized.%通过对热泵空调器的火 用分析,计算出各部件的火 用 损失情况,提出了系统的节能部位和应采取的措施,使整个系统的火 用损失为最小,火 用 效率最大,实现热泵节能优化。

  19. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  20. AIR CONDITIONING IN OPERATING ROOMS AND INFECTION CONTROL – A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    May Socorro Martinez Afonso; Adenicia Custodia Silva e Souza; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Eliene Aparecida Machado; Eliane Alves Lucas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This bibliographic survey in data banks such as MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO, Ministry of Health, among others aims at identifying what makes air conditioners a source of environmental contamination. The air is contaminated by particles which transport microorganisms. The sources of particles include patients and surgical staff. The control of the temperature, relative humidity, pressure, number of changes of air accomplished per hour, clothes, traffic, number of people in the rooms, mai...

  1. Analysis of development of the energy efifciency of major refrigeration and air conditioning products and equipments in China%中国典型空调产品及设备能效水平进展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 成建宏; 李红旗; 戴世龙; 张秀平; 王汝金

    2014-01-01

    The energy efficiency progress and main influencing factors of the typical refrigeration and air conditioning products and equipments are analyzed in this paper, such as room air conditioners, variable speed room air conditioners, unit air conditioners, multi-connected air condition (heat pump) units and water chillers.%本文对房间空调器、转速可控型房间空调器、单元式空气调节机、多联式空调(热泵)机组及冷水机组等典型制冷空调产品和设备能效水平进展进行了分析。

  2. A new low cost single phase ac-ac power line conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Sonar 1, Tanmoy Maity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of three topologies of recently developed voltage-fed z-source inverter (ZSI such as simple ZSI, quasi-ZSI and trans-ZSI. Different control techniques, proposed earlier for simple ZSI such as simple boost control, maximum boost control and constant boost control, have been applied here for all type of ZSI topologies. The detailed comparative evaluation of all topologies under different PWM techniques is done as power line conditioner. For the common boost factor and modulation index, the output voltage, line harmonics profile of all ZSIs powered by same source and load are evaluated. The operating principles are analysed and the boost factor, voltage gain, duty ratio and voltage stress across the switches are derived. Also the relationships among them are compared even under variable circuit parameters and switch frequency. The results would help to select suitable topology and PWM switching method for power line conditioner application.

  3. Technical development of electric power storage system. Development of load conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1988-07-01

    The load conditioner heightens the utilization ratio of facilities by the stardardization of load for the suppliers and has the consumers advantageously utilize cheap electric power. The domestic facilities are basically composed of charging rectifier, discharging self-exciting inverter and secondary battery. As there presently exists lead battery as a secondary battery, the Electric Power Research Center developed a load conditioner system by using lead battery and is making its operational study. As a secondary lithium battery satisfying the compactness of further particular importance, there are high molecule battery using high molecule compounds such as polyaniline and polyacene, intercaration type battery using vanadium oxide or molybdenum disulfide, etc. Then, in order to materialize the enlargement and life lengthening of those batteries, the steady study of all of negative electrode, positive electrode, electrolyte, battery structure. (3 figs, 2 tabs)

  4. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC) for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    OpenAIRE

    G.L. Valsala; L. Padma Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate ...

  5. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  6. In vitro evaluation of three temporary tissue conditioners submitted to penetration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maranha da ROCHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluateresilience changes of four tissue conditioners: Coe Comfort (CC, Ufi-Gel (UG, Sofreliner S (SS and Sofreliner MS (SMS, associated totheir respective surface sealers at different times. Material andmethods: A hundred and sixty capsules of acrylic resin were madeand then finished prior to the filling with the tissue conditioners. For the CC group the capsules were not treated and were filled with the material. For the conditioners UG, SS and SMS, the capsules wereinternally treated prior to the material insertion. All the materials were used following the manufacturer’s instructions. The tests were carried out after 1h, 24h, 30 days and 60 days. Results: The effect of time at the materials resilience was evaluated and it was observed that CC loses more resilience than UG, SS and SMS, what proofs that its use is limited only to a short period. UG, SS and SMS, despite having a little resilience deficiency in the first moment, showed better results after 60 days. Conclusion: It was concluded that silicon based materials keep its initial characteristics till 60 days, while acrylic resin based materials progressively lose its viscoelasticity.

  7. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  8. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  9. Efficacy of tissue conditioner acting as effective fungicidal drug delivery sysytem - An Invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George Baby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of disorders like infections, inflammatory diseases, trauma, allergicmanifestations,neoplasia etc. may affect the tissues and structures of the mouth, jaw bones andteeth. Treatment of candidal infection in denture wearers has always been a challenging task tothe Prosthodontist. There are various treatment procedures for candidal infections. Threedifferent drug delivery systems for the treatment of denture stomatitis were observed. The studyproved that the tissue conditioner (Viscogel can be used as a delivery system for the antifungaldrugs like Nystatin, Clotrimazol and Ketoconazole.

  10. A control strategy for a three-level unified power quality conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Luís F. C.; Costa, José C. C.; Aredes, Maurício; Afonso, João L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a control strategy for a three-level Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is introduced. Basically, this control strategy is based on the set of active and non-active (reactive) power definitions in the time domain, which have been proposed by Fryze in the 30´s of the last century. The goal of this work consists in expand this control strategy to deal with three-level converters. The use of three-level converters allows a better performance of the equipment, by reducing...

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing;

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced...... for railway power conditioner (RPC). This paper presents a simplified quantitative comparison of five previous modular RPC topologies for negative sequence compensation in V/V and SCOTT traction systems, aiming for an optimal selection of the compensators. Performance criteria such as transformer requirement...

  12. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  13. Reduction of energy consumption in air conditioning; Reducao do consumo de energia em aparelhos de ar condicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso, MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ochiuto, Milton de Souza [Rede Cemat, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    An energy efficiency project implemented in public buildings, with the replacement and automation of the air conditioning system, is reported in this article. After measurements of the electrical quantities and consumption, the window conditioners was changed with more efficient models and set up motion detectors to control devices like split. The results confirmed the technical feasibility and economic measures.

  14. Efficient air conditioning. Part 2. Air quality; Effiziente Klimatisierung - Teil 2. Luftqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Herbert [Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2002-05-01

    Like other air conditioning systems, solar air conditioners should provide 'dry cool air', i.e. hygienically acceptable air at a comfortable temperature. In the summer season and in big cities, this is not possible without air filtering and dehumidification. [German] Im Herbst vergangenen Jahres wurden in dieser Zeitschrift am Markt vorhandene Systeme fuer eine solargestuetzte Klimatisierung verglichen.In dem Artikel fordern die Verfasser 'trockene kuehle Luft fuer die Nutzer'. Diese Forderung sollte eigentlich lauten 'schadstoff- und staubarme Luft im Aufenthaltsbereiche mit Temperatur und Feuchte innerhalb des Behaglichkeitsfeldes' oder kurz gesagt: 'hygienisch einwandrei und angenehm temperiert'. Diese Forderung ist allerdings ohne eine Luftfilterung und ohne Entfeuchtung in den Innenstaedten im Sommer nicht realisierbar. (orig.)

  15. Development of 100-W High-Efficiency MPPT Power Conditioner and Evaluation of TEG System with Battery Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Tatsuya; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for thermoelectric generators and the operation results for a battery load system. This power conditioner comprises a high-frequency step-up/step-down switching converter and a microcontroller; a synchronized switching circuit is introduced to achieve high conversion efficiency. Furthermore, it is equipped with a battery charge control program and has a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. An impedance matching method developed for MPPT control showed excellent response against a change in the TEG output, making it suitable for solar TEGs as well as general applications.

  16. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Larry G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  17. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Moore, Larry G [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  18. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally sol...

  19. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  20. Cooling effect on open rabbit house with water conditioner system in summer%开放式兔舍水空调技术夏季降温效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    提博宇; 王美芝; 徐旨弘; 吴中红

    2011-01-01

    夏季高温严重制约中国兔业生产,蒸发降温方式在高温高湿的家兔主产区难以发挥有效作用.该研究以地下水为循环介质的非蒸发降温系统水空调用于外围护隔热性能不佳的开放式繁殖母兔舍,通过管道实现点对点局部降温,研究其降温效果.试验期内,试验舍兔笼内14:00平均气温较对照舍低2.5~3.3℃(P<0.05),相对湿度高8%.试验舍风速控制在0.7~1.4 m/s,温湿指数控制在25.5~29.0,较对照舍降低1.4~2.9 (P<0.01),综合热环境状况较对照舍明显改善.舍内母兔在午后高温时段热性喘息有所缓解.结果表明,在开放式兔舍中夏季采用水空调系统进行局部降温,较为适合中国当前家兔养殖模式,有助于缓解夏季妊娠或哺乳母兔的热应激.%High temperature in summer has serious influence on rabbit production in China because of lack of effective cooling techniques in rabbit house. The application of evaporative cooling techniques is restricted in the area with climate of high temperature and high humidity in summer. Water conditioner system is a non-evaporative cooling system which use the underground water as the cooling medium. We evaluated the cooling effect of water conditioner on the thermal environment of open rabbit house, in which cooled air from the water conditioner system was delivered to doe cages through pipes. The results showed that the temperature inside the cages in the experimental rabbit house cooling with the water conditioner system was 2.5~3.3°C lower than that of the control rabbit house without any cooling facilities (P<0.05), while the relative humidity inside the cages was 8% higher than the control at 14 o'clock. The air speed inside the cages of the experimental rabbit house varied from 0.7 to 1.4 m/s, and Temperature-Humidity Indexes (THI) inside the cages ranged from 25.5 to 29.0, which were 1.4~2.9 lower than the control (P<0.01), this indicated that the thermal environment

  1. New Application’s Approach to Unified Power Quality Conditioners for Mitigation of Surge Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a new approach for the compensation of power systems presented through the use of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC which compensates impulsive and oscillatory electromagnetic transients. The newly proposed control technique involves a dual analysis of the UPQC where the parallel compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled voltage source, while the series compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled current source, opposed to the traditional approach where the parallel and series compensators are modelled as current and voltage nonsinusoidal sources, respectively. Also a new compensation algorithm is proposed through the application of the theory of generalized reactive power; this is then compared with the theory of active and reactive instantaneous power, or pq theory. The results are presented by means of simulations in MATLAB-Simulink®.

  2. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs+) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs+ could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K+ transport system, since Cs+ uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K+). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs+ uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K+, suggesting that Cs+ and K+ uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil. (author)

  3. Modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in distribution systems load flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in load flow calculations for steady-state voltage compensation. An accurate model for this device is derived to use in load flow calculations. The rating of this device as well as direction of reactive power injection required to compensate voltage to the desired value (1 p.u.) is derived and discussed analytically and mathematically using phasor diagram method. Since performance of the compensator varies when it reaches to its maximum capacity, modeling of UPQC in its maximum rating of reactive power injection is derived. The validity of the proposed model is examined using two standard distribution systems consisting of 33 and 69 nodes, respectively. The best location of UPQC for under voltage problem mitigation in the distribution network is determined. The results show the validity of the proposed model for UPQC in large distribution systems.

  4. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10-4 rem, 1.2 x 10-3 rem, and 0.55 x 10-4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10-5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10-5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10-2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  5. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Awad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  6. Design Analysis on VRV Home Use Central Air Conditioning%浅谈VRV家用中央空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓芬; 张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    家用中央空调主要有三种系统,风管系统、冷热水系统和制冷剂系统。其中制冷剂系统适合用作住宅空调。以大金VRV家用中央空调为例,介绍了家用中央空调的系统设计方法。系统设计内容主要包括负荷计算、系统选择和设计、管路布置。%The three basic types of household central air conditioners are water-tube type, air-line type and varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner. The varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner is suitable for the family home. The system design method of household central air-conditioning is introduced in this paper, taking the DAIKIN VRV system for example. The content of system design includes load calculation, systemic selection and design, and pipeline layout.

  7. Applied refrigeration and air conditioning engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.

    1983-10-01

    The second part of this report deals with transmissions (diagrams) through walls and window panes and the heat produced by lighting, persons and insolation. A graphic description of the total cooling- and heating load of a typical window for office buildings is supplied. An air-conditioner suitable for these requirements has to have a thermal output of 1.25 kW at an outside temperature of -15/sup 0/C. Most air-conditioning systems work best if they operate continually in full-load operation under design conditions or under conditions similar to those. These considerations are followed by explanations on the interrelationship between cooling and heating illustrated with numerical examples of cooling performance. An exact analysis of the cooling or heating demands of a room is obtained by diagrams as they permit a simple determination of the kind and quantity of heat which has to be supplied or removed from or to a certain window under various loads.

  8. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  9. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  10. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  11. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  12. Seasonal performance of air conditioners - an analysis of the DOE test procedures: the thermostat and measurement errors. Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, G.D.; Tree, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of the DOE test procedures are analyzed. First, the role of the thermostat in controlling the cycling of conditioning equipment is investigated. The test procedures call for a cycling scheme of 6 minutes on, 24 minutes off for Test D. To justify this cycling scheme as being representative of cycling in the field, it is assumed that the thermostat is the major factor in controlling the cycle rate. This assumption is examined by studying a closed-loop feedback model consisting of a thermostat, a heating/cooling plant and a conditioned space. Important parameters of this model are individually studied to determine their influence on the system. It is found that the switch differential and the anticipator gain are the major parameters in controlling the cycle rate. This confirms the thermostat's dominant role in the cycling of a system. The second aspect of the test procedures concerns transient errors or differences in the measurement of cyclic capacity. In particular, errors due to thermocouple response, thermocouple grid placement, dampers and nonuniform velocity and temperature distributions are considered. Problems in these four areas are mathematically modeled and the basic assumptions are stated. Results from these models help to clarify the problem areas and give an indication of the magnitude of the errors involved. It is found that major disagreement in measured capacity can arise in these four areas and can be mainly attributed to test set-up differences even though such differences are allowable in the test procedures. An understanding of such differences will aid in minimizing many problems in the measurement of cyclic capacity.

  13. Model for predicting noise of propeller fans in air conditioners; Kuchoyo propeller fan no soon hasei model no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamaya, N.; Funabashi, S.; Takada, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-25

    A model for predicting noise of propeller fans has been developed experimentally. First, the frequency response of turbulence on the blade of a rotating propeller fan was experimentally measured. Then, propeller fan noise was predicted by this model, which calculates lift fluctuations by Sears's equation and sound pressure in the far field by Curle's equation. The model assumes that the normalized intensity of turbulence (i. e., velocity fluctuation) is small in the high-flow-coefficient range but increases sharply in the low-flow-coefficient range. And the model showed that propeller fan noise depends on averaged relative velocity, intensity of turbulence, and length scale of turbulence. These results agree with the experimental measurements. Accordingly, the model predicts propeller fan noise and noise spectrum over a wide range of flow coefficients with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  14. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  15. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  16. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  17. Comparison of the Surface Roughness of Gypsum (Dental Stone with three Types of Tissue Conditioner Impression Materials over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Although the primary use of tissue conditioners is for healing the damaged mucosa but they can also be used as functional impression; it seems that its effeicasy depends on its viscoelastic features such as compatibility with gypsum and surface roughness.Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the surface roughness of gypsum with several tissue conditioner impression materials avaliable in the market.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, three tissue conditioners (Acrosoft, viscogel & GC were used. Pars dental gypsum moldano Type III and a polyvinyl siloxane impression were used for the controls. The tissue conditioners powder liquid ratio was mixed according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and immediately poured in a mold with an internal diameter of 18 mm and depth of 2mm. The mold was completely filled. Then, a glass block with the mean roughness of 0.8 µm was placed on its surface for two hours. Then, the 5 samples were immediately placed in 37oC water for 0-24 hrs, 3, 7, and 14 days. After that, the specimens were beaded, boxed and poured with pars dental gypsum type III. The gypsum sample’s surface roughness was measured with profilometer with the length of 2.5 mm and cut-off of 0.8 mm. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: The results showed that surface roughness of Acrosoft in different storage times did not change significantly and there was no significant difference between Acrosoft and the control group. Viscogels surface roughness was significantly different with all other groups at zero time; with the increase of storage time the surface roughness decreases. The control group showed a significant difference with viscogel at zero time and with GC at 24 hrs and 3 days but it revealed no difference with the other groups. The least surface roughness belonged to GC at zero and 14 days and the highests surface roughness belonged to viscogel at zero time

  18. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Valsala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate the voltage sag/swell problems, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating voltage and current related power quality problems. Thus, the proposed topology can mitigate the voltage fluctuations and current harmonics without energy storage elements and the total harmonic distortion produced by the system also very low. It also reduced volume and cost, reduced capacitor power losses, together with higher reliability. The Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is used to control the matrix converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation results are presented to validate the approach.

  19. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  20. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  1. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  2. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  3. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  4. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  5. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  6. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSTED BIO-TOILET RESIDUE AND ITS POTENTIAL USE AS A SOIL CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Triastuti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-toilet is a dry toilet where human excreta is trapped in a lignocelluloses soil matrix such as wood sawdust, then it is decomposed by aerobic  bacteria to organic compost rich in minerals such as N, P, and K. The study aimed to characterize the bio-toilet residue and its potential use as a soil conditioner for Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in a private school of Daarut Tauhid in Bandung West Java. A bio-toilet S-50 type of Japan was constructed consisting of a composting chamber, mixer, heater, exhaust fan, and closet. The composting chamber was filled with 63 kg of Albizzia sawdust. Feces and urine was loaded daily by 54 students for 122-day observation. At the end of observation, the decomposed bio-toilet residue was evaluated for its physical properties such as bulk density (rb, porosity (%, and water retention (WR. Chemical properties such as pH, C/N ratio, N, P, and K, as well as microbiological properties such as numbers of bacteria, fungi, and worm eggs were evaluated at 14 and 122 days of decomposition process. Effect of the composted bio-toilet residue as plant growth media was evaluated using J. curcass as a plant indicator. Before it was used as a growth media, the composted bio-toilet residue was dried in a room temperature for 30 days. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with three replications. The first factor was the rate of composted biotoilet residue, i.e., 0, 20, 40, and 60% based on weight of the growth media mixture (1500 g pot-1, and the second was NPK fertilizer addition at 0 and 2 g pot-1. Each pot was planted with 2-month old of J. curcas seedlings. Parameters evaluated were leaf number, leaf area, stem height, and stem diameter measured at 12 weeks after planting. The results showed that the biotoilet residue was suitable as soil conditioner because it had high porosity (76%, low bulk density (0.19 g cm-3, high water retention (2.6 ml g-1 DM, neutral pH (6.9, C

  8. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  9. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Sun,; Len Borucki,; Yun Zhuang,; Yasa Sampurno,; Fransisca Sudargho,; Xiaomin Wei,; Sriram Anjur,; Ara Philipossian,

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  10. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  11. Waste energy recovery in window air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sasidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “Faster, mightier & smaller” is still the keyword for every invention and development. In day-to-day world we concentrate on the compactness and efficiency of every product. Keeping this in thought, the “Waste Energy Recovery in Window Air conditioning System” is designed and fabricated in an economical manner. “Human comfort is that condition of mind, which expresses itself with the thermal environment”. In this two rival properties of cool water and heat water are obtained. This system can be used continuously. By using this system there is no need of going for a separate air conditioner or water heater and water cooler. As both purposes are served by a single system, the cost is also lowered to a considerable level.   Keywords: Waste Energy, Window Air Conditioning System.

  12. Study on air conditioer SCOP experiments in Europe%欧洲空调SCOP实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张罡

    2012-01-01

    在大力提倡节能降耗的新形势下,欧洲空调能效判别也由COP转向SGOP.文中分析了标准EN14825中房间空调器季节能效比( SCOP)的概念以及计算方法.通过变频空调在不同温度下的实验数据,计算出变频空调的SCOP.还研究了室外风扇转速、压缩机频率与制热量、COP的关系,这为2013年欧洲新产品的开发提供了参考依据.%In the new situation of energy - saving and consumption reduction advocated strongly, the air conditioner energy efficiency of discrimination is changed from COP to SCOP in Europe. This paper analyzed the concept and calculation method of the room air conditioner SCOP with the standard EN14825. SCOP of inverter air conditioners was calculated with experimental data at difference temperature. This paper also studied the outdoor fan speed, the frequency of the compressor relationship with heat capacity and COP, which can provide a reference for the 2013 European development of new products.

  13. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  14. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  15. A comparison of the efficacy of nystatin and fluconazole incorporated into tissue conditioner on the in vitro attachment and colonization of Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah-Tafti

    2010-01-01

    Results: The 1% to 10% mixture of nystatin and tissue conditioner completely inhibited the attach-ment and colonization of Candida albicans, although for fluconazole only a 10% concentration caused complete inhibition. Nystatin showed a potentially higher effect in inhibition of candida at-tachment and colonization (P = 0.0001 compared to that of fluconazole and a statistically significant difference was seen between 5% and 1% fluconazole (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Tissue conditioner with 1% to 10% nystatin or 10% fluconazole can completely inhi-bit the adhesion and colonization of Candida albicans.

  16. S7-300PLC Applied in Central Air-conditioning System%S7—300PLC在中央空调系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 桂凤平; 郑访华

    2012-01-01

    介绍S7.300PLC在中央空调系统中的应用,设计了中央空调冷冻循环水、冷却循环水的PID闭环控制系统。%The application of $7-300 PLC used in central air-conditioning system is introduced. The PID closed loop con trol system of freezing cycle water and cooling circulating water of central air conditioner is designed.

  17. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  18. 使用Rejuvasoft制备自然柔顺护发素%Prepare soft & supple conditioner with Rejuvasoft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永涛; 楚勇红; 季菊芬; 马涌

    2012-01-01

    The Rejuvasoft conditioning system which is patented by Croda is a major innovation in the conditioning market.It delivers softness and combing benefits plus the attributes that panelists perceive as moisturization,shine and light.When Rejuvasoft conditioner is compared to a leading brand conditioner,there is little performance difference in softness,conditioning,detangling and salon evaluation.%使用禾大公司的专利护发产品混合物Rejuvasoft制备不含硅氧烷的自然顺滑护发素。使用动态机械分析仪测试柔软度,使用拉力试验机测试了抗缠绕和调理性能,并且进行了半头沙龙测试。结果显示,使用Rejuvasoft制备的自然柔顺护发素达到了市售高端品牌护发素的性能。

  19. Application of magnetized fly ash based soil conditioner for the improvement of soil fertility and paddy productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Buddhe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of fly ash as soil conditioner has been established as a safe method of recycle and reuse of enormous quantity of fly ash produced by thermal power plants. In this investigation, fly ash was magnetized and magnetized fly ash - Biosil - was tested for its potency in a field trial experiment on paddy crop. Recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF were fortified by Biosil at different doses (kg/ha namely 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900, keeping RDF and vermicompost (VC as controls. All doses of Biosil, especially 450 kg/ha to 900 kg/ha, improved the soil fertility and paddy productivity over and above RDF control and VC control as compared to conventional very high doses (10% to 100% of fly ash used by other authors. Trend of improvement was in the order: Biosil+RDF>VC>RDF. Biosil fortification improved the effect of RDF on soil fertility and crop productivity to the best level in the treatments. Thus, it is evident that the magnetization has improved the potency of Biosil as Soil conditioner. VC showed better results than RDF. It is, thus, recommended that further field trials with the integrated treatment of Biosil, RDF and VC will be helpful in improving the paddy crop productivity and soil fertility on sustainable way.

  20. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this

  1. Analysis of plant function as bio-thermal-conditioner using Pothos (Epipremnum aureum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Tadashi, E-mail: nack-art@y7.dion.ne.jp [Nakadai Junior High School, 1-56-23 Nakadai Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174-0064 (Japan); Inagaki, Terumi, E-mail: hotaru@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4 Chome, Nakanarusawa 12-1, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Plants absorb carbon dioxide by photosynthesis using solar energy and use thermal energy in the atmosphere by transpiration. Paying attention to the excellent functions that plants perform, we have measured the daily variation of the temperature and humidity on plant circumference of an individual level using Pothos (Epipremnum aureum), and have investigated the thermal conditioning effect of the plant irradiated white LED in a closed space covered with thermal insulation at the incubator adjusted temperature. The air-cooling effect of Pothos in a closed space at the incubator adjusted 23 Degree-Sign C was about 1 Degree-Sign C. High correlation between air temperature and that of soil was shown in the air-cooling effect, and long-time white light irradiation increased the air-cooling effect.

  2. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  3. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel control design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC. This design is enabled by a control framework that employs Genetic Algorithm which determines optimum points and angle for filtering and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique (SVPWM to offer significant flexibility to optimize waveform. In addition the same framework integrates the major functions of the UPQC with ease to unify the treatments of several power quality problems including system harmonics in the supply voltage and load current, sags/swells in the supply voltage, variations in the load demands and poor power factor at the supply side. Simulation studies on a three phase power distribution system are used to verify the performance and implementation of this control design with the UPQC.

  5. Power Quality Improvement by Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on CSC Topology Using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Dharmalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  6. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. Thus, the series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. The simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-based 3P4W distribution system.

  7. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  8. 太阳能技术在汽车空调上的应用%The application of solar - energy technology in the automotive air conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施军锞; 祁影霞

    2012-01-01

    针对国家对环境污染及能源有效利用的重视,提出了现有汽车空调存在的问题,通过分析日渐成熟的高效太阳能电池技术、充放电控制技术,特别是具有高光电转化效率材料的不断涌现,以及嵌入式单片机技术的不断创新,为实现汽车空调热电制冷以及太阳能天窗的商业化应用提供了必要的技术支持,从而解决现有的蒸汽压缩制冷所面临的制冷剂替换及耗油问题,实现环境的保护和能源的有效利用.%Due to the environment pollution from the refrigerants of traditional air conditioners, a new typf of solar - energy air conditioner in automobiles was put forward. This paper analysed the high efficience of solar - energy cells, charging and discharging techniques and high photoelectrical conversion materials. With embedded micro - controller technology development, the thermoelectrical cooling technology could he used in air conditioners in automobiles.

  9. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  10. The Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Saline Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐土上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽琴; 杨建国; 纪立东; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve soil salinization problem of Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline soil quality, and increase land productivity, the author studied the effect of BCA soil conditioner on oil sunflower growth and saline soil property, and evaluated the application effect of BGA soil conditioner through field plot experiment. The results showed that BCA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of saline soil. The soil bulk density decreased while the total porosity increased, and the contents of available nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil were increased compared with CK1. The content of soil available phosphorus was also increased compared with CK2. BCA soil conditioner also promoted growth of oil sunflower. Plant height, leaf SPAD value, and photosynthetic rate of oil sunflower were improved. The yield of oil sunflower was higher 176.7% than that in CK1 and 18.0% than that in CK2. It was feasible to use BGA soil conditioner to improve saline soil if its production cost reduced or it combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐土土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间小区试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐土油葵生长发育和土壤理化性质的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐土理化性质,较对照1降低了土壤容重,增加了土壤总孔隙度、碱解氮和有效磷含量,较对照2提高了土壤有效磷含量;BGA土壤调理剂促进了油葵生长发育,油葵株高、叶片SPAD值、光合速率提高,油葵产量较对照1提高176.7%,较对照2提高18.0%.如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良盐土是可行的,值得进一步研究应用.

  11. BGA土壤调理剂在缺水土壤上的施用效果%Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Water Shortage Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 王峰; 许强; 刘廷俊; 尚红莺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了缓解宁夏中部干旱带土壤缺水问题,提高水分生产效率和土地生产力.[方法]通过田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂对缺水土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响.[结果]与不施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了缺水土壤物理性质,促进了马铃薯、压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜和不覆膜条件下马铃薯产量,改善了红枣品质;与配方施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂促进了压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜产量,改善了红枣品质.[结论]如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,那么BGA土壤调理剂改良缺水土壤是可行的.%[Objective] The research aimed to relieve soil water shortage problem in the middle arid belt of Ningxia, and increase water use efficiency and land productivity. [Method] Through field plot experiment, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on physical and chemical properties of water shortage soil and the growth of crops was studied. [ Result ] Compared with no fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved the physical properties of water shortage soil, promoted the growth of potato, watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of potato without plastic film mulch and watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner promoted the growth of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. [ Conclusion ] It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve water shortage soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner was reduced or BGA soil conditioner was applied with chemical fertilizers together.

  12. 土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展%Advance in research and application of soil conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟锋; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress in research and application of soil conditioner. There was no uniform definition of soil conditioner at present, but there were several different classification methods. The main functions of soil conditioner included improving soil texture and structure, improving water retention and water supply ability of soil, regulating soil pH value, treatment of alkali-saline soil, improving soil nutrient supply, remediation of heavy metals pollution soil, etc. In soil improvement process, the appropriate conditioner would be chosen according to the different soil obstacle problem to the good improvement effect. However, soil conditioner application also exposed a series of problems, including the potential environmental risk problem, product function orientation and awareness problem, product quality problem, packaging and marking the problem such as the disorder, finally pointed out that a scientific evaluation system of soil conditioner should be established urgently.%综述了土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展.土壤调理剂目前尚无统一定义,且存在不同的分类方法,其主要功能包括改良土壤质地与结构、提高土壤保水供水能力、调节土壤酸碱度、改良盐碱土、改善土壤的养分供应状况、修复重金属污染土壤等.在土壤改良过程中,针对不同土壤障碍问题有针对性地选择土壤调理剂将达到较好的改良效果.然而,土壤调理剂在推广应用中也暴露出一系列问题,包括潜在的环境风险、功能定位和认识问题、产品质量良莠不齐、包装标识混乱等,因此亟待建立一套完善的土壤调理剂科学评价体系.

  13. High-power density three-phase CVCF sinewave power conditioner with new quasi-resonant DC link and single-phase high-frequency transformer link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemori, H.; Nakaoka, M. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-12-22

    The high-power density PWM type 3-phase CVCF sinewave power conditioner was proposed which incorporates a new quasi-resonant DC link and single-phase high-frequency transformer link. It was featured by the advanced control system implementation with a precise instantaneous space voltage vector regulation scheme including DSP control strategy and ZVS-PWM controlled high-frequency inverter technique in place of conventional inverter-cycloconversion systems. The operating principle of the 3-phase sinewave modulated CVCF conditioner operated at zero-voltage turn-on/off switching modes was revealed in detail, and it was proven that the 3-phase cycloconverter with zero-voltage switching and time-sharing vector-distributed schemes efficiently operates without any conventional RCD snubber circuits. In addition, it was pointed out that the proposed 3-phase power conversion system with the high-frequency AC link is suitable for CVCF distributed power supplies. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Thermal properties in phase change wallboard room based on air conditioning cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其针; 刘鑫; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room with a phase change wall (PCW) room,the effect of phase change wallboard on the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in summer was studied. And PCW room and an ordinary wall room,which are cooled by air-conditioner,were built up. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested,it is found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1-2 ℃,and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6 W/m2. Combining phase change material to building envelope can lower the indoor temperature,make the room thermal comfortable,and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of air-conditioner,the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates urgent need of the electric power. Building envelope which contains phase change wallboard can improve the indoor thermal environment,and decrease energy consumption in buildings. Phase change wallboard can make impressive effect on energy efficiency of buildings.

  15. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  16. Effect of Soil Conditioner on Growth for Oriental Hybrid Lily (Sorbonne) Cut Flowers%土壤调理剂对百合生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺; 解占军

    2013-01-01

    In the study,the greenhouse planting methods were employed to reveal effect of soil conditioner and application methods on growth for lily (oriental hybrids) cut flowers in the Lingyuan city of western Liaoning province.The results were as follows:The soil conditioner promoted the growth of the lily.The Promoting effect followed as:conditioner Ⅰ treatment > Compound microelement fertilizer treatment > brenstone treatment > vinegar residue treatment.banding applications of conditioner Ⅰ was better than its broadcast applications.The reasonable application method of chemical fertilizers was that the basal fertilizers lay particular stress on P and K,and that the top-dressing fertilizer applied largely of N,which under the principle of fractional fertilization.%采用温室栽培方法,通过施用各种土壤酸性改良剂,探讨土壤改良剂和不同施用模式对辽西凌源市的百合生长发育的影响.结果表明,土壤改良剂明显促进了百合的生长,其中以调制剂1号处理为最好,其次为复合微肥处理,再次为硫磺处理,最次为醋渣处理,其中,调制剂1号沟施效果明显好于全层施用效果.施用化肥采用基施偏重P、K肥,轻施N肥;追施化肥要以氮肥为主,P、K肥为辅进行分量多次的施肥原则.

  17. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan was used as a restorative material in Groups 1 and 2. Capsulated glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan was used in Groups 3 and 4. Samples were sectioned and viewed under stereomicroscope to check for the presence of voids within the cement and at the cement-tooth junction. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Group 4 showed statistically significant results (P<0.05 when compared to Groups 1 and 2 for voids within the cement. However, for voids at the margins, the results were statistically insignificant.

  19. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    European countries (Ignasi Gurruchaga); (21) Optimisation potential of a large solar adsorption cooling plant (Antoine Dalibard); (22) Planning, commissioning and practical experience with first summer of operation of a cost effective solar air conditioning system for a Canteen at Munich Airport (Carsten Hindenburg); (23) Energy and economic performance of solar cooling systems (Ursula Eicker); (24) Solar-driven adsorption chiller controlled by hot and cooling water temperature (Jan Albers); (25) Comparative results of monitored solar assisted heating and cooling installations (Wolfram Sparber); (26) Heating and cooling with a small scale solar driven adsorption chiller combined with a borehole system - recent results (Tomas Nunez); (27) Solar heating and cooling - Town hall Gleisdorf (Alexander Thuer); (28) Solar dessicant cooling system operating in Palermo (Italy): Results and Validation of simulation models (Marco Beccali); (29) The application of a liquid-dessicant air conditioner to solar cooling (Andrew Lowenstein); (30) A compact solid adsorption chiller for solar air conditioning (Robert Critoph); (31) Development of a two-stage absorption chiller for solar-assisted cooling and heating (Manuel Riepl); (32) Ionic liquids - a promising solution for solar absorption chillers? (Annett Kuehn);(33) Parabolic trough design optimization for high temperature lift solar cooling applications (Marcello Aprile); (34) Tentative R and D program forgetting adsorbents effective for solar air conditioning (Yury Aristov); (35) An energy efficient solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system: Experiment and case study (Yanjun Dai); (36) Performance of a flat plate collector-regenerator that uses earth-to-air heat exchangers for regeneration of water-lithium chloride solution in a solar coolant plant (Roberto Bruno); (37) 350 KW of dual solar cooling for optimal flexibility and economic performance (Roel de Coninck); (38) Global performance of a solar absorption cooling

  20. Is the Stirling refrigerator suitable for use in refrigeration engineering and air conditioning?; Ist die Stirling-Kaeltemaschine fuer den Einsatz in der Kuehl- und Klimatechnik geeignet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschuetza, H. [AEG AG, Heilbronn (Germany); Bareiss, M. [AEG AG, Heilbronn (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Stirling refrigerators are in wide use particularly in the area of cryogenics. The present paper inquires into their use in automobile air conditioners and in refrigerators and freezers. In this context it deals with the following topics: Stirling cycle, heat exchange, helium as refrigerant, air as refrigerant. (BWI) [Deutsch] Vor allem im Bereich der Kryotechnik sind Stirling-Kaeltemaschinen bislang sehr weit verbreitet. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrages wurde der Einsatz in einer Kfz-Klimaanlage sowie in Kuehl- und Gefrierschraenken untersucht. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themen angesprochen: Stirling-Prozess, Waermeaustausch, Helium als Arbeitsmedium, Luft als Arbeitsmedium. (BWI)

  1. Field Study on Humidification Performance of a Desiccant Air-Conditioning System Combined with a Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kawamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A desiccant air-conditioning system was developed as a latent-load-processing air conditioner in a dedicated outdoor air system during the summer. This study investigated the application of this air-conditioning system to humidification during the winter without using make-up water, thereby eliminating the cause of microbial contamination in air-conditioning systems. The experiments were conducted with a system used for summer applications to determine the feasibility of adsorbing vapor from outdoor air and supplying it to an indoor space. The humidification performance, energy efficiency, and operating conditions were examined. Although the conditions were subpar because the experiments were performed with an actual dedicated outdoor air system, the results showed that it is possible to supply air with a minimum humidity ratio of 5.8 g/kg dry air (DA when the humidity ratio of outdoor air ranges from 1.8 to 2.3 g/kg DA. The minimum humidification performance required for a dedicated outdoor air system was achieved by increasing the airflow rate of the moisture-adsorption side to 2–3 times that of the humidification side. In addition, air leaking from the moisture-adsorption side to the humidification side, improving the mechanical structure, such as by the insulation of the moisture-adsorption side, and an efficient operating method were examined for humidification during the winter.

  2. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  3. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  5. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  6. Discussions on Energy Saving of Air-Cooled Compressed Air-Conditioning Unit%风冷压缩单元式空调器节能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯璐; 陆黎明

    2012-01-01

    Analyzes the operating principle of air-cooled air conditioner,put forward two types of modular units produced hot water and room refrigeration in order to increase the comprehensive usage efficiency of energy and conserve the building energy.%从分析风冷压缩单元式空调器的制冷原理入手,提出了两种空气源热泵热水模块+空气源压缩制冷模块机,为提高能源综合利用效率、节约建筑能耗提供了一定的实践思路。

  7. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  8. 变频调速在空调系统中的应用%The application of the frequency control of motor speed in air con ditionin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈文斌; 赵政

    2013-01-01

    For the people's living environment and promoting energy - saving technology,I describes the adv antage of inverter air conditioner,compares fixed-frequency airconditioning. based on the basic principle of frequency control of motor speed,compressor stator voltage and frequency relation,this paper in detail in troduces inverter air conditioning system's working principle,the results show that the frequency conversi on air conditioning has entered a rapid development period,the frequency conversion air conditioning in our country will become the inevitable trend of air conditioner development.%针对人们对生活环境的要求和节能技术的推进,介绍变频空调相对于定频空调节能舒适的优势,通过对变频调速的基本原理、压缩机的定子电压与频率关系的论述,详细分析将变频器引入空调系统的工作原理,结果表明变频空调已进入快速发展期,在我国变频空调将成为空调发展的必然趋势。

  9. Effective Ventilation Parameters and Thermal Comfort Study of Air-conditioned Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roonak Daghigh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents objective and subjective studies of thermal comfort levels and ventilation characteristics of two air-conditioned postgraduate study offices. The observations were performed at the offices of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, in University Putra Malaysia. Thermal comfort variables were measured while the students answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Concurrently, tracer gas analysis, based on concentration decay method, is employed to determine air exchange rate, age of air and air exchange effectiveness. During the air conditioner is working, the study offices had not conditions within the comfort zone, of ASHRAE standard 55 causing occupants to report cold thermal sensations and the objective data analysis showed that the offices were uncomfortable. The thermal neutralities were significantly higher that proposed by ASHRAE Standard 55:1992. The monitored air exchange rates are indicated that the provisions of outside air for ventilation based on design occupancy are adequate for these two study offices. In addition, questionnaires were completed by the students in order to provide a subjective assessment of thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Finally, the outcomes of over 30 surveys for each office responses to the thermal comfort questions are presented and discussed.

  10. Effect of Polymeric Soil Conditioners on Seeds Germination%高分子土壤改良剂对种籽萌芽之影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 周良勋; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 李茂田

    2005-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the adhesive for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Previous studies showed that the polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. However the inhibition of seeds germination by the polymers was seldom discussed. In this study the effects of polymers on the germination of Bahia grass seeds are experimental observed. Polyvinyl alcohol and acrylic polymer are used in the experiments. Experimental results showed acrylic polymer, the most often used soil conditioner, would evidently inhibit the plant germination. However with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to acrylic polymer will increase the germination of the seeds. The percentage germination and germination energy are discussed in this study.%以高分子材料为土壤改良剂可使土壤团粒化, 增加水份入渗效率, 减少土壤冲蚀, 为研究环境问题之重要课题.但此类土壤改良剂可能抑制植物种籽萌芽, 为使用此种材料的一大问题.以压克力与聚乙烯醇对 Bahia种籽做一系列萌芽实验探讨.实验结果发现, 压克力对种籽萌芽率与萌芽势能有严重之抑制作用.但适量之聚乙烯醇添加可克服此问题.

  11. Effect of Fly Ash Based Soil Conditioner (Biosil) and Recommen ded Dose of Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Suhas Tejram Buddhe; Mahendra Thakre; Pramod R. Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash has been used in agriculture for improving the soil health and to increase the crop productivity with very high doses 10% to 80% of fly ash. In order to mitigate the impact of excess dose in terms of boron and heavy metal toxicity, present investigation was undertaken to process fly ash into improved soil conditioner “Biosil” through magnetization and to conduct field trials using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety GW-273 with Biosil fortified by recommended dose of chemical fertili...

  12. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of allergic disorders in this area.

  14. Effects of Applying BGA Soil Conditioner and Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium Together on Yield of Spring Maize%BGA土壤调理剂与氮磷钾肥配施对春玉米产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩全辉; 黄洁; 许瑞丽; 罗春芳

    2013-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂与氮、磷、钾肥配施对玉米产量及其主要产量构成因素的影响。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施比CK(不施肥)增产54.9%,纯施BGA土壤调理剂比CK增产7.5%,而BGA土壤调理剂与氮肥、钾肥、氮磷钾复合肥配施分别比CK减产22.5%、9.4%、13.8%。因此,推荐在玉米生产上采用BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施,并建议加强BGA土壤调理剂与化肥配施对其他作物产量影响的研究。%Under the field experiment,the effects of applying BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium together on the yield of spring maize were studied. The results showed that comparing with the CK (no fertilizer),BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application increased the kernal yield by 54.9%,BGA soil conditioner single application increased the kernal yield by 7.5% ,while BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen fertilizer,potassium fertilizer,compound fertilizer combined application decreased the kernal yield by 22.5%,9.4%,13.8%, respectively.We suggested BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application on maize plantation,and the study of the yield of BGA soil conditioner combined application with fertilizer on other crops should be focused on.

  15. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  16. Design of Air Conditioner Central Control System Based on ARM-Linux-Qt%基于ARM-Linux-Qt的空调集中控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨都; 赖东锋; 肖焕明; 叶铁英

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a central control system based on embedded technology, communication technology and HMI (Human and Machine Interactive) technology designed is introduced. The system selects TI AM335x hardware plat-form which based on ARM Cortex A8 processor, and Linux operation system as the software platform. The HMI in-terface is designed using Qt technology, and the communication is designed using CAN bus technology. The functions of the system include Multi-VRF centralized control, real time inspect, and schedule management. In addition, a high definition LCD and capacitive touch screen is provided to make system interactive conveniently and efficiently.%基于嵌入式技术、通信技术和人机交互技术设计了空调集中控制系统。该系统基于ARM Cortex A8的高速处理器TI AM335X硬件平台,采用嵌入式Linux操作系统,利用Qt设计了人机交互界面,通过CAN总线通讯技术,实现了多联机空调集中控制、实时监控、日程管理等功能。该系统采用7寸高分辨率彩色液晶屏和电容式触摸,较好的解决了以往空调集中控制器人机交互便捷性差、效率低下的问题。

  17. 空调制造业对生物污染的防治策略%THE STRATEGY TO PREVENT BIOLOGIC POLLUTION FOR AIR CONDITIONER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞炳丰; 张斌; 孔琼香

    2003-01-01

    非典型肺炎的流行,使得室内空气品质再次成了人们关注的问题.本文介绍了室内空气品质的影响因素,总结了现有的防治室内生物污染的一些有效措施,并提出了若干建议.

  18. Energy-conserving Measure Discussion of Water System of Central Air conditioner%中央空调水系统节能措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2008-01-01

    针对中央空调水系统常出现的大流量、小温差的情况,提出以水泵变频调速、采用环保型水处理剂、优化税系统的设计及加强系统的运行管理的措施来降低中央空调水系统的能耗.

  19. Development of a spinning cup atomizer for eliminating condensed water in air conditioners%旋杯式空调滴水雾化器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩厚德

    1999-01-01

    介绍了为消除窗式、分体式和柜式空调器滴水现象而研制的旋杯式空调滴水雾化器的结构、工作原理、安装位置及其它特点,认为雾化器不仅可用于空调行业,也可以用于喷雾作业.

  20. 实验动物房洁净空调的研究综述%Talk about Cleaning Air-Conditioner of Animal Test Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才廷波; 董少宁

    2007-01-01

    实验动物房饲养实验动物种类齐全,是集科研、新药开发、药品质量检验等于一体的综合实验动物房,本文介绍了洁净空调的系统划分、实验动物房的特点及其采取的有效措施.

  1. 变频空调功率器件散热器设计%Design of Power Semiconductor Sink of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔; 李发顺

    2015-01-01

    很多空调功率散热器的设计基本按照厂家做样后实验测试,根据器件的温升来判定设计是否合理,具有设计冗余,盲目性等缺点。本文目的在于给出散热器的基本设计思路,以格力某一款新型变频空调散热器实际设计过程为例,根据热力学基本理论以及散热器所在的特定环境、功率器件可以耐受的最高温升,通过理论计算及仿真,设计出能够满足使用要求的散热器。%Many designs of AC power radiator generally follow the sample test result from the factory to judge rea-sonableness according to the temperature rise of the device. It has the disadvantage of redundancy, purposelessness for design. This paper aims to propose the basic design concept for radiator through the actual radiator design process of one new type of invert AC from GREE. It’s on the basis of basic theory of thermodynamics, the special environments of radiator, the withstanding highest temperature rise of power device, through the theoretical calculations and simula-tions to design the radiator which can meet the use requirements.

  2. 用DMAIC方法论改进空调遥控设计%DMAIC Methodology Applied to Design in Air Conditioner Remote Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘少华; 李怀; 欧阳景权

    2007-01-01

    DMAIC是一种包括定义、测量、分析、改进、控制等五个阶段的结构化、有规律的和严谨的过程改进方法论.本文从实际出发,提供了一种基于DMAIC方法的设计改进思路.并具体讨论了DMAIC方法在空调遥控设计改进中的应用,从而实现改善遥控发射和接收性能的目的.

  3. A new-type window air conditioner based on adsorption refrigeration%吸附制冷窗式空调器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽溥

    1992-01-01

    本文介绍了以吸附式制冷原理为基础的新型窗式空调器,并详细阐述了其制冷过程、结构和功能以及与机械压缩制冷窗式空调器的比较,说明了可以以热代电满足空调要求.

  4. R290家用空调器的可靠性设计%Design on reliability of household R290 air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健

    2014-01-01

    通过对比R290和R22的热物性,指出R290是一种理想的替代制冷剂,但是存在易燃易爆的安全隐患.基于R290的可燃性,论述家用空调器采用R290作为制冷剂的可靠性方案设计与控制方式.

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  6. Modeling solar-driven ejector refrigeration system offering air conditioning for office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Shen, H.G. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-02-15

    A lumped method combined with dynamic model is proposed for use in investigating the performance and solar fraction of a solar-driven ejector refrigeration system (SERS) using R134a, for office air conditioning application for buildings in Shanghai, China. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model were used to provide basic data for accurate analysis of the system performance. Results indicate that during the office working-time, i.e., from 9:00 to 17:00, the average COP and the average solar fraction of the system were 0.48 and 0.82 respectively when the operating conditions were: generator temperature (85 C), evaporator temperature (8 C) and condenser temperature varying with ambient temperature. Compared with traditional compressor based air conditioner, the system can save upto 80% electric energy when providing the same cooling capacity for office buildings. Hence, the system offers a good energy conservation method for office buildings. (author)

  7. 复合(混)肥专用调理剂(营养胶水)的研究%Study of Special Conditioner (Nutritional Glue) for Compound (Mixed) Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焕银; 彭华平

    2013-01-01

    针对黏土矿物在复合(混)肥造粒工艺中存在的问题,开发了复合(混)肥专用调理剂.试验结果表明:在复合(混)肥中加入该调理剂,可使肥料成粒率由50%提高至70%,返料比下降;可以提高土壤对NH4+,NO3-,K+和PO43-的吸附量,其效果优于传统的保水剂聚丙烯酰胺及聚丙烯酸钠;可以起到养分缓释和防止肥料结块的作用.%As problems exist in the use of clay minerals in the granulation of compound (mixed) fertilizers,a conditioner is developed specially for use in compound (mixed) fertilizers.The experimental results show that with the addition of the conditioner into the compound (mixed) fertilizers,the granulation rate rises from 50% to 70%,and the recycle rate decreases; the soil adsorbs more NH4+,NO3-,K + and P043-,and its result is better than that of the conventional water-retaining agents polyacrylamide and sodium polyacrylate; and it plays the role of slow release of nutrients and prevention of fertilizer caking.

  8. 水稻施用禾康土壤调理剂效果试验%Experiment on the Application of Hekang Soil Conditioner in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展广军; 徐久升; 李成坤; 于艳青; 黄河

    2012-01-01

    对禾康土壤调理剂不同施入量进行试验研究,结果表明:禾康土壤调理剂为生物制剂,无毒无污染,能够杀灭土壤病菌、提高水稻抗病能力,促早熟,增加千粒重、水稻单位面积有效穗数、叶面积指数、高效叶面积率、干物质产量、齐穗后干物质积累量占籽粒产量百分比、水稻抗性,增产效果显著。%The test on different quantity of Hekang soil conditioner were made and the results indicated that the soil conditioner was biologicals, non-toxic, non-polluting, safe to use. It can kill germs in soil, increase the disease-resistant capacity of rice, promote precocity, increase the 1000-grain weight, effective panicles per unit area, leaf area index, effective leaf area rate, yield of dry matter, the rate that dry matter accumulation in the grains yield after heading, and the yield effects reached the significant level.

  9. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Shariatmadar Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1 and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2 or CPF alone (control. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD, clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG. SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups. Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained.

  10. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  11. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  12. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期、角果期和成熟期土壤 pH 值分别提高了0.13、0.03、0.11和0.38。酸化土壤施用调理剂能明显促进油菜生长发育,提高籽粒产量和土壤 pH 值。%A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage

  13. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage,respectively.It is indi-cated that the acid soil conditioner can be applied to improve the growth of oilseed rape and soil pH un-der acid soils.%采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期

  14. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  15. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  16. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  17. 16 CFR 305.4 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditioners, pulse combustion and condensing furnaces, fluorescent lamp ballasts, showerheads, faucets, water... central air conditioner or any pulse combustion or condensing furnace if its manufacture was completed... printed material pertaining to any central air conditioners or pulse combustion or condensing...

  18. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  19. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  20. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  1. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  2. Effects of Two Mineral Conditioners on Soil Physico-chemical Property of Garlic Fields%两种矿物源土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅; 王春兰; 杨淑娟; 范建芝; 李艳霞

    2013-01-01

    研究了两种不同类型的土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质和大蒜产量的影响.结果表明:两种调理剂均能降低土壤容重,提高土壤孔隙度.两种调理剂对速效养分的影响则有所不同:蒙脱石提高了土壤速效氮和钾含量,降低了土壤速效磷含量,麦饭石对土壤速效氮和磷影响不大,对土壤速效钾影响表现为先升高后降低.蒙脱石、麦饭石均能提高土壤有机质,对大蒜产量亦有所提高.综合比较两种土壤调理剂,应用蒙脱石效果较好.%The effects of two kinds of representative soil conditioners on soil physico - chemical properties and yield of garlic were studied in this paper. The results showed that the two conditioners could reduce the soil bulk density but improve the soil porosity. There were some differences between the two soil conditioners on soil available nutrients. The montmorillonite conditioner increased the content of available N and K, but reduced the content of available P. The medical stone had no obvious impact on available N and P, but made the soil available K increased firstly and then decreased. Both of them could increase the soil organic matter and garlic yield. Comprehensively considering the effect, the montmorillonite conditioner was better.

  3. 78 FR 77668 - Certification Reports, Compliance Statements, Application for a Test Procedure Waiver, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...) Commercial air conditioners and heat pumps (air-cooled, water-cooled, and water-sourced); (31) Packaged... flow systems; (34) Computer room air conditioners; (35) Commercial water heating equipment; (36... and freezers; (2) Room air conditioners; (3) Central air conditioners and heat pumps, including...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such air conditioners are rated at 0.3 inch water column static pressure or greater for the cooling air... following shall be supplied in the Comfort Cooling Certificate: Air Conditioner Manufacturer Air Conditioner... Conditioner Manufacturer Certified Capacity ___ BTU/Hr. in accordance with the appropriate Air......

  5. Efeito de condicionadores químicos sobre a qualidade da cama de frango Effect of chemical conditioners on poultry litter quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Oliveira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade química da cama de frango submetida, por três lotes consecutivos de criação, a diferentes condicionadores químicos. Foram utilizadas 1320 aves, 440 por lote, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (Trat. 1 - cama sem tratamento; Trat. 2 - cama tratada com sulfato de alumínio; Trat. 3 - cama tratada com gesso agrícola; Trat. 4 - cama tratada com superfosfato simples e Trat. 5 - cama tratada com cal hidratada e quatro repetições. As amostras de cama foram coletadas no 42º dia de utilização. Não houve influência dos condicionadores (P>0,05 sobre a matéria seca. O sulfato de alumínio reduziu (PThe chemical quality of poultry litter submitted, for three consecutive flocks, to different chemical conditioners was evaluated. One-thousand-three-hundred and twenty birds, 440 birds per each flock, were allotted to five treatments (Treat. 1 - untreated litter; Treat. 2 - litter treated with aluminum sulfate; Treat. 3 - litter treated with gypsum; Treat. 4 - litter treated with single superphosphate and Treat. 5 - litter treated with hydrated lime in a completely randomized block design with four replicates. Sample litters were collected at 42 days. No influence of the conditioners (P>0.05 on the dry matter results was observed. Aluminum sulfate reduced (P<0.002 pH (7.42, 7.07 and 6.00, respectively in the first, second and third flocks and reduced (P<0.05 the quantity of volatilized ammonia (3.14, 1.36 and 1.79 mg/100g, respectively in the first, second and third flocks, in comparison to other treatments. Aluminum sulfate can be added to poultry litter to reduce pH and to inhibit the ammonia volatilization.

  6. 盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Influence of Saline-alkali Land Conditioners on Alfalfa Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑普山; 冯悦晨; 郝保平; 李屹峰; 薛志强

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Desulfurized gypsum, Guochan 1, Cuochan 2 conditioners on yield of alfalfa in the waste saline—alkali soil with heavy soda under field conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control, soil pH reduced 0.15 ~ 1.26, the emergence rale of alfalfa increased from 17.8% to 30.5% after application of three soil conditioners. The order of increasing emergence rate was Desulfurized gypsum > Cuochan 2> Cuochan 1. The total fresh biomass of alfalfa were increased by 3 107.5 ~ 6 971.3 kg/hm2, and the order of enhancing fresh biomass was Cuochan 2 > Guochan 1 > Desulfurized gypsum.%通过田间试验,研究了重度苏打盐碱荒地施用脱硫石膏、国产1号和国产2号3种盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿出苗率和鲜草产量的影响.结果表明,与不施土壤改良剂(对照)相比,施用3种盐碱地改良剂的土壤(0~20 cm )pH值降低0.15~1.26,紫花苜蓿出苗率提高17.8% ~ 30.5%,提高出苗率由大到小的顺序为脱硫石膏>国产2号>国产1号;鲜草总产量增加3107.5 ~6971.3 kg/hm2,促进鲜草产量增加由大到小的顺序为国产2号>国产1号>脱硫石膏.

  7. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Rae Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient. All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set. ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.

  8. Recovery and Utilization of Air-conditioning Condensing Water%空调冷凝水的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华勇

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了空调冷凝水的回收应用,空调冷凝水降低冷凝温度对制冷系数的影响,并对其进行了经济计算,对冷凝水其他回收利用方式的可行性讨论进行了研究。%This paper discussed the recycling application of air-conditioning condensing water and the influence of air conditioner condensing water on refrigeration coefficient by reducing condensing temperature. The author also carried out an economic calculation and analyzed the feasibility of the other recycling modes of the condensed water.

  9. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the {sup 222}Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of {sup 222}Rn levels. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m{sup -3}. There are no significant correlations between the {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO{sub 2} concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure.

  10. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  11. Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland%钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  12. 钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①%Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  13. The Experimental Study on Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Aeolian Sandy Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在风沙土上的施用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 谢华; 孙权; 李明; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of land desertification in Ningxia, improve aeolian sandy soil quality and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on aeolian sandy soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that, compared with no fertilizer, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape, cherry tomato and liquorice, increased significantly the yield of wine grape and cherry tomato, improved the quality of wine grape and liquorice. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape and cherry tomato, decreased significantly the yield of liquorice, improved the quality of wine grape. The application of BGA soil conditioner greatly increased the investment cost of production. It was proposed to reduce production cost of BGA soil conditioner and combine application of BGA soil conditioner with chemical fertilizers.%为了解决宁夏土地沙化问题,提高风沙土土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对风沙土土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.研究结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄、樱桃番茄和甘草的生长发育,显著提高了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的产量,改善了酿酒葡萄和甘草品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的生长发育,显著降低了甘草产量,改善了酿酒葡萄品质.施用BGA土壤调理剂大幅度增加了生产投入成本,建议进一步降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用.

  14. CERIT air-conditioning system powered by solar energy: Two years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Romagnoni, P.; Casasola, L. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici CERIT S.p.A., Pordenone (Italy) Padova Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    The largest European solar air conditioner (equipped with 440 square meters of aluminized Myler reflection panels; 440 square meters of Cortec evacuated tube solar collectors; 150 and 43 cubic meter, respectively, cold and hot water storage tanks; 50 kW absorption machine; 4 cylinder compression chiller; and natural gas fired boiler for winter space heating) was built at the CERIT (Regional Technological Research Center) of Pordenone, Italy. This article, with the aid of flowsheets, outlines the plant's key design and operational features, and tables performance and energy consumption data to back up a discussion of the major results achieved during two years of operation. Particular attention is given to the plant's seasonal performance.

  15. Transient characteristics and performance analysis of a vapor compression air conditioning system with condensing heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ming Liu; Wu, Jing Yi; Xu, Yu.Xiong; Wang, Ru Zhu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of condensing heat recovery on the dynamic behavior and performance of air conditioners. The article includes a test procedure utilized to evaluate the condensing heat recovery system, relevant experimental results, a detail analysis of the mechanisms, and improvement measure on such a system. The experimental results indicate that although the condensing heat recovery has a negative effect on the cooling capacity at the start of the heat recovery process, the average cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the system can be improved. The study also incorporates a control scheme of the electronic expansion valve (EEV) of the condensing heat recovery system. The experimental comparison between the EEV and the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) demonstrates that the EEV has better performance in both stability and efficiency in the condensing heat recovery system. (author)

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  17. 16 CFR 305.8 - Submission of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... water heaters) or the energy efficiency rating (for room air conditioners, central air conditioners... Aug. 1 Freezers Aug. 1 Central air conditioners July 1 Heat pumps July 1 Dishwashers June 1 Water heaters May 1 Room air conditioners May 1 Furnaces May 1 Pool heaters May 1 Clothes washers Oct....

  18. Effects of Soil Conditioners on Acid Soil Improvement%不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎庆芬; 程健超

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To explore the effects of soil conditioners on acid soil improvement.[Method] The test varieties were Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998.There were in all four treatments.Effects of some soil conditioners on acid soil improvement were researched , such as calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer.[Result] calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer could be used as soil conditioners in acid rice field, which enhanced the pH, soil organic matter, rapidly available phos-phorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium.The effects were the optimal when applying calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer.The organic matter content of total nitrogen content in Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 1.50, 0.17 g/kg and 1.70, 0.10 g/kg, respectively, compared with those of the control.The contents of rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 0.20, 4.00, 16.60, 1.60 mg/kg and 0.19, 5.00, 18.50, 1.70 mg/kg, respectively compared with those of the control.At the same time, soil conditioner ( combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer ) enhanced the rice yields.The yields of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 increased by 499.5 and 598.5 kg/hm2 , respectively, compared with those of the control.The amplification reached 7.38%and 12.20%, showing extremely significant level by variance analysis.[Conclusion] Applying soil conditioner is helpful to the growth of rice;and combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer shows the optimal effects on soil improvement.%[目的]模索施用不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果。[方法]供试品种早造为盐两优888,晚造为金稻优998,共设4个处理,研究钙

  19. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  20. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  1. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  2. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  3. Effects of Different Conditioners on Improvement of Leek Acid Soil%不同土壤调理剂对韭菜酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德西; 何忠全; 郭云建; 刘富平; 谢安详

    2012-01-01

    Due to long-term use of large number of chemical fertilizer and serious shortage of inputs of organic fertilizer, a lot of leek soils showed acidification trends. In order to solve the soil acidity problem of vegetable bases and restore the productivity of the soils, effects of different conditioners such as BCA, tianshifu and lime soil conditioner on improvement of acid soil properties and growth of leek were researched by topdressing conditioner pot experiments,so that we can evaluate the application effects of different soil conditioners. The results showed that the effect of improving pH of soil conditioner was lime > tianshifu > BCA. BGA improved the soil available phosphorus, potassium and organic matter content in acid soil, made up the calcium, magnesium and boron deficiency; Tianshifu conditioner can loose soil, make the soil dark, increase the soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; lime can improve the effective nitrogen and phosphorus, but decrease potassium content. The three conditioners had significant control effects on leek dry tip, and improved leek plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, obviosly increase the yield of leek,but had little effect on photosynthetic indexes and quality. The three conditioners can be applied in improment of leek acid soils.%为解决蔬菜基地土壤酸性化问题,恢复土壤的生产力,通过在韭菜酸性土壤上追施不同调理剂的小区试验,研究了BGA土壤调理剂、“田师傅”土壤调理剂和生石灰对土壤理化性质和韭菜生长发育的影响,评价不同土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,调理剂对土壤pH的提高效果为生石灰>田师傅>BGA.BGA提高了土壤有效磷、有效钾和有机质含量,弥补了酸性土壤中钙、镁和硼的缺乏;田师傅调理剂能疏松土壤,使土质黝黑,提高有效氮、磷和钾含量;生石灰处理能提高有效氮和磷含量,降低有效钾含量.3种调理剂对防治韭菜干尖效

  4. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Soil Improvement in Greenhouse in Ningxia%土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤改良效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王生明; 刘登彪

    2012-01-01

    土壤调理剂改良土壤结果析表明:土壤调理剂可改善宁夏灌淤土日光温室土壤结构,增加土壤有效养分,降低pH0.08;促进番茄生长发育,提高外观品质,增加产量7.9%。%The results of soil improvement using soil conditioner showed that soil conditioner could optimize the structure of the irrigation silting soil in greenhouse in Ningxia, increase available nutrients in soil and reduce 0.08 pH and meanwhile it could promote the growth of tomato and improve its appearance quality, and it also could improve tomato yield by 7.9%.

  5. Efecto de acondicionadores naturales y sintéticos sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un Aridisol Effect of natural and synthetic conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration in an Aridisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Henríquez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diversos acondicionadores sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un suelo Vertic Haplocambid, arcilloso muy fino, de la depresión de Quibor, Venezuela. Fueron aplicadas soluciones de acondicionadores naturales de cardón dato (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose y de cardón lefaria (Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, a concentraciones de2.000, 1.000 y 500 mg L-1, solución de un acondicionador sintético, la poliacrilamida, en concentración de 10 mg L-1 y agua del acueducto local. Las soluciones de cada uno de esos tratamientos fueron vertidas sobre mini canales rellenos del suelo, para simular el flujo del agua en surcos. Los acondicionadores naturales incrementaron la infiltración y produjeron una relación Ca-Mg-Na en el suelo, mas adecuada que la producida con la aplicación de la poliacrilamida o el agua sin aditivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of several conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration on a fine clay Vertic Haplocambid soil collected on the Quibor depression, Venezuela. Solutions of two natural conditioners from dato cactus (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose and lefaria cactus(Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, on concentrations of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg L-1, a synthetic polyacrilamide conditioner solution of 10 mg L-1 and local tap water were applied to the soil. All solutions and the tap water were poured in a mini flume to simulate the irrigation process on furrows. The natural conditioners increased the infiltration and produced a better Ca-Mg-Na relationship as compared with that produced by the polyacrilamide and the tap water without additives.

  6. Application Effect of Soil Conditioner on Acidified Soil Improvement of Tobacco Filed%土壤调理剂在烟田酸化改良中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒照鹤; 冯成恩; 孔伟; 尹虎成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为寻求烟区烟田土壤酸化治理的改良方法.[方法] 2010~2012年,湖北省鹤峰县在烟叶生产上共累计推广施用土壤调理剂767 hmm2.在烟田酸化地块烟田起垄时,垄沟施750、1125 kg/hm2土壤调理剂.[结果]在烟田酸化土壤地块施土壤调理剂750~1125 kg/hm2,能有效推迟烟叶土传病害的发病时间10~15 d,小区试验有效率达95%,大面积示范施用土壤调理剂平均有效率为68.2%.[结论]该研究为烟叶可持续发展提供了参考.%[Objective] The research aimed to find the methods to control the soil acidification. [Method] Soil conditioners were used wildly in tobacco production about 767 hm2 in Hefeng county of Hubei province. 750 - 1 125 kg/hm2 soil conditioner was applied in the filed. [Result] Soil conditioners could delayed efficiently soil-borne diseases by 10 - 15 days. The effective rate of plot experiments was 95% and the trial and demonstration of soil conditioner reached 68.2% . [Conclusion] The research provided a reference for the sustainable production of tobacco.

  7. Performance analysis of four-partition desiccant wheel and hybrid dehumidification air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jongsoo; Yamaguchi, Seiichi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao [Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1-58-210 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    A desiccant dehumidification system with air can decrease energy consumption because it can be driven by low-grade waste heat below 80 C. If this system can be driven by low-temperature heat sources whose temperature is below 50 C, exhausted heat from fuel cells or air conditioners that exist everywhere can be used as heat sources. This could lead to considerable energy saving. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the performance of a four-partition desiccant wheel to make a low-temperature driving heat source possible and achieve considerable energy saving by the simulation and experiment. Further, the study investigates the in-depth performance of a hybrid air-conditioning system with a four-partition desiccant wheel by simulation. As a result, it was clear that there exists an optimum rotational speed to maximize the dehumidification performance and that the hybrid air-conditioning system improves COP by approximately 94% as compared to the conventional vapour compression-type refrigerator. (author)

  8. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  9. Study on the application of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield%“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李智强; 刘军; 李越; 姚虞; 高娃; 孙国良

    2015-01-01

    为了探明“施地佳”土壤调理剂对耕地的养分利用是否具有改善作用,在施用“施地佳”的耕地进行种植马铃薯的田间试验,明确“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响,结果表明施用“施地佳”土壤调理剂后马铃薯增产效果显著。%In order to ex plore whether farmland nutrient utilization of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner was improved, a field experiment was carried out in the application of “Shi Di Jia”on planting potato arable land. To clear out the effect of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield, the results showed that the use of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner increased potato yield effect significantly.

  10. Preliminary Study on Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Yield of Cassava%BGA土壤调理剂对木薯产量的影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁根; 林洪鑫; 袁展汽; 肖运萍; 汪瑞清

    2012-01-01

    以木薯品种华南205为试验材料,研究了施用BGA土壤调理剂对红壤旱地木薯产量的影响.结果表明:在不同处理中,以一次性施用2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量最高.施用1200~2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量高于施用300 kg/hm2复合肥处理的产量.%Using cassava variety South China 205 as experimental material, the effect of applying BGA soil conditioner on the yield of cassava in upland red soil was studied. The results indicated that: among different treatments, the treatment of applying 2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner once got the highest yield. The cassava yield in the treatments of applying 1200 -2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner was higher than that in the treatment of applying 300 kg/hm1 compound fertilizer.

  11. Study on the application of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield%“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李智强; 刘军; 李越; 姚虞; 高娃; 孙国良

    2015-01-01

    In order to ex plore whether farmland nutrient utilization of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner was improved, a field experiment was carried out in the application of “Shi Di Jia”on planting potato arable land. To clear out the effect of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield, the results showed that the use of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner increased potato yield effect significantly.%为了探明“施地佳”土壤调理剂对耕地的养分利用是否具有改善作用,在施用“施地佳”的耕地进行种植马铃薯的田间试验,明确“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响,结果表明施用“施地佳”土壤调理剂后马铃薯增产效果显著。

  12. Technical differences between multi-split air conditioners and water cooling central air conditioning systems and countermeasures%多联机与水系统集中空调技术差距及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏晨

    2007-01-01

    从实用角度对比分析了进口多联机与传统水系统集中空调的技术差距和发展前景,认为传统集中空调设备厂家应该具有危机感,政府应该重视和支持企业的技术创新和组织管理.鉴于冷(热)媒水量(能量)调节已成为制约集中空调市场竞争力的关键技术难题,研制了基于功能材料的传感-控制-驱动/执行一体化自适应控制器,认为其经济、可行.

  13. Software and Hardware Design of Electric Railway Power Quality Conditioner System%一种铁路功率调节器的样机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟; 罗安; 马伏军; 张久林

    2011-01-01

    分析了铁路功率调节器(Railway Static Power Conditioner,简称RPC)的基本结构和补偿原理,提出一种RPC的样机设计方法.控制系统采用基于TMS320F2812的数字控制器,集成了DSP,SRAM,EEPROM,A/D,PWM等模块,硬件部分设计采样电路和硬件死区延时模块.控制器软件分为主程序和中断程序,实时检测负载电流并计算得到负序与谐波补偿参考量,采用双闭环策略控制直流侧电压和逆变器输出电流,内环电流采用多模递推PID控制算法,实现有功功率转移以及谐波和无功补偿.实验结果表明,在所设计的硬件模块和软件系统下,RPC具有良好的负序和谐波补偿性能.%This paper analyzes the basic structure as well as compensation principles of railway static power conditioner,and proposes a model machine design method.The control system adopts digital controller based on TMS320F2812, which is integrated with DSP, SRAM, EEPROM, A/D, PWM modules and so on. In hardware section, it focuses on design of sampling circuit and dead-time delay module. Software of the controller is divided into two parts,the main program and interruption routines, which can detect load current in real-time and calculate negative sequence and harmonic compensation reference volume. DC-side voltage and output current of inverter is controlled with dual-loop strategy, and the inner current adopts multi-recursive mode PID control algorithm to achieve active power transfer and harmonic and reactive compensation. Experimental results show that RPC has a good negative sequence and harmonic compensation performance under the designed hardware modules and software systems.

  14. 电压质量调节器功率流协调控制策略%Coordinated Control Strategy of Power Flow in Voltage Quality Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兴田; 韦统振; 齐智平

    2013-01-01

    Voltage quality conditioner (VQC) can be used to solve many kinds of power quality problems in distribution network and in conventional control the series converter of VQC mainly outputs active power to cope with voltage sag and is usually in standby state, so it is not fully utilized. According to the structure of the designed VQC and based on active circulating current a coordinated control strategy for power flow in VQC is proposed, that is, the reactive power compensation function of parallel converter is shared by outputting reactive power by series converter. The reactive power allocation strategy between series and parallel converters, the composite control strategy of series converter and the compensation strategy of energy storage component are attained by analyzing the variation of both power flow and active circulation current in the system, thus coordinated control of units in the VQC is implemented. Results from simulation and experiments verify both effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control strategies.%电压质量调节器(voltage quality conditioner,VQC)常规控制中,其串联变流器主要输出有功功率处理电压暂降问题,通常处于待机状态,未得到充分利用.文章针对所设计的VQC结构,提出基于有功环流的VQC功率流协调控制策略,利用串联变流器输出无功功率,分担并联变流器的无功补偿功能.通过分析系统中功率流和有功环流的变化,得到串并联变流器的无功分配策略、串联变流器的复合控制策略和储能单元的补偿策略,实现了VQC各单元的协调控制.仿真与实验结果验证了所提控制策略的有效性与可行性.

  15. Research Progress of Soil Conditioner Polyacrylamide%土壤改良剂聚丙烯酰胺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆绍娟; 王占礼

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening soil and water conservation and soil fertility are important tasks of the current land improvement. Summing up the previous soil conditioner polyacrylamide ( PAM) research results, this paper summarized the regulation effect and that mechanism of soil conditioner PAM, the application prospect of PAM, in order to provide references for further research and extension the use of PAM. PAM can cement soil particles, improve soil physical properties, prevent the losses of soil, water and fertilizer, increase crop yields, improve the saline and prevent wind erosion without toxic effects on the environment. The regulation effect of PAM on soil depends on its molecular weight, hydrolysis the degree and the dose and so on, which hinders its promotion of use in the actual production. Application technical theoretical system of PAM should be established and the new PAM research should be accelerated to improve the regulation effect and economic benefits of PAM, and for PAM used to provide theoretical support in the actual production.%加强水土保持和培肥土壤是当前国土整治的重要任务之一。综合前人的研究成果,归纳总结土壤改良剂PAM对土壤的调控效应及作用机理,展望PAM的应用前景,以期为深入研究和推广运用PAM提供参考。 PAM可以胶结土壤颗粒,改善土壤物理性状,防止土、水、肥流失,提高作物产量,还可以改善盐碱地、防治风蚀,对环境并无毒害作用,但PAM对土壤的调控效应受其分子量、水解度、施用量等的影响,影响其在实际生产中的推广运用。应加强PAM施用技术理论体系建立,加快新型PAM研发,提高PAM对土壤的调控效应及其带来的经济效益,为PAM在实际生产中的推广运用提供理论支撑。

  16. 智能环保节能新风系统设计%The design of intelligent environmental protection energy-saving air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小斌; 田爱军

    2014-01-01

    为了降低基站空调能耗,设计了一套集通风系统、控制系统于一体的节能系统。该系统具有对室内外温湿度数据、粉尘值、滤网堵塞状况、烟雾、风阀状态、门禁、加湿器状态、水浸等检测功能,以及加湿器、混风机、空调、风机机组、风阀的控制功能。与空调联动对基站内温湿度进行实时有效控制,减少空调使用时间,以降低能耗。%In order to reduce the base station air -conditioning energy consumption , design a set of air ventilation system , control system in one of the energy saving system .The system has on the indoor and outdoor such as temperature and humidity data , dust , filter blockage , smoke , air valve status , ac-cess control , humidifier state , water flooding detection function , and the control function of the humidifi-er, air mixing machine, air conditioner, fan, air valve.And air conditioning linkage real -time effective control on the base of temperature and humidity , reduce air-conditioning use of time .

  17. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  18. Influence of Soil Conditioner on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Effect in Greenhouse%土壤调理剂对设施菜田土壤理化性状的影响及环境效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 孙碧恺; 姚颖; 张明洁; 李凤鸣; 刘继璇; 毛振娟; 翁福军; 卢树昌

    2015-01-01

    The decline of greenhouse soil quality restricted the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The influence of different conditioner on the physical and chemical properties and the nutrients environmental effect were studied by experiment. The result showed that the experiment treatments had lower surface soil bulk density and higher field moisture capacity by applying test materials, and soil improvement effect of woody conditioner was better than the humic acid potassium and herb source conditioner. By applying test materials, the contents of soil organic matter were improved, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were also improved, the contents of the total nitrogen were decreased, soil carbon and nitrogen ratio was risen. Using woody source and herb source conditioners would reduce soil nitrogen movement. In addition, using potassium humate and woody source conditioner to cucumber made higher output than other treatments. This study would have some reference value for improving soil properties and soil quality.%设施菜田土壤质量下降制约着蔬菜产业持续发展. 采用不同调理剂对设施土壤理化性状及氮磷环境效应进行试验研究.结果表明,施用试验材料的表层土壤容重均低于对照,田间持水量均高于对照,其中木本调理剂改土作用优于腐植酸钾和草本源调理剂处理;施用试验材料土壤有机质含量有所上升,土壤有效氮磷钾含量均有所提高,全氮含量有所下降,土壤C/N比有所增加;施用木本源和草本源调理剂对减缓土壤氮下移有一定作用. 另外,腐植酸钾和木本源调理剂处理黄瓜产量均显著高于其他处理. 该研究对改善土壤性状与提升设施土壤质量具有一定参考价值.

  19. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco and Physicochemical Properties of Soil%土壤改良剂对烤烟产质量和土壤理化性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富欣; 司贤宗; 张翔; 毛家伟; 桂炎伟; 陈启龙

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applying different soil conditioners on the agronomic characters , economic traits, yield, and quality of flue-cured tobacco as well as the physicochemical properties of soil were studied through field tests .The results showed that: in comparison with the control ( not applying soil conditioner ) , applying soil conditioner could increase the plant height , leaf length and leaf width of flue-cured tobacco, could increase the yield and production value of flue -cured tobacco by 54.00~315.00 kg/hm2, 2703.00~6759.15 yuan/hm2, respectively, could enhance the proportion of superior and medium tobacco leaves , and aver-age price, could significantly increase the contents of total sugar , potassium and reducing sugar in tobacco leaf , and could effectively reduce soil pH-value and soil bulk density .Among the applications of different soil conditioners , the application of 225 kg/hm2 humic-acid-type soil conditioner acquired the best effects .%通过田间试验,研究了施用不同土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状、经济性状、产量、质量及土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:与不施用土壤改良剂相比,施用土壤改良剂能增加烤烟的株高、叶长和叶宽;增加烤烟的产量和产值,分别增加54.00~315.00 kg/hm2、2703.00~6759.15元/hm2;增加上中等烟比例和均价;显著增加烟叶中总糖、钾和还原糖含量;能有效降低土壤pH值和土壤容重;以施用225 kg/hm2腐殖酸型土壤改良剂的效果最好。

  20. Effects of Acid Soil Conditioner on Yongyou 538%土壤调理剂在酸化稻田连作晚稻上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建军; 林采舜; 叶斌斌; 何杰; 许剑锋

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of soil conditioner on soil physical-chemical properties and the yield of continuous cropping late rice, exploit high yield potential of Yongyou 538, the 32%soil conditioner application amount experiment was carried out. The re-sults showed that the yield of Yongyou 538 was accelerated with the increase of soil conditioner application, about 8.31% to 9.52%. The soil conditioners not only improved the chemical and physical properties of acid soil, increased the soil available organic, nitro-gen, phosphous and ptotassium, but also increased the effective panicles and 1 000-grain weight. The suitable amount of acid soil conditioner is 600~900 kg/hm2.%为了探明土壤调理剂对酸化稻田土壤理化性状及连作晚稻产量的影响效应,挖掘甬优538高产潜力,设置了土壤调理剂32%氨基质钙镁肥不同用量试验。结果表明,施用土壤调理剂对甬优538有明显增产效应,其中每hm2施600 kg、900 kg、1125 kg的处理比未施用对照增产8.31%~9.52%,达显著水平;其增产效应主要在于增加有效穗数和提高千粒重;施用土壤调理剂还能有效改善酸化稻田土壤理化性状,促进碱解氮、有效磷及速效钾的释放利用和有机质提升。通过一系列数学关系模型分析后发现,在生产上土壤调理剂施用量以600~900 kg/hm2为宜。

  1. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    在温室条件下,采用植物盆栽试验,研究4种土壤调理剂不同施用量对酸性红壤铝毒害的缓解效果。结果表明,4种土壤调理剂均显著降低土壤中交换性铝含量及毒害性铝含量,显著提高玉米株高、生物量;各处理土壤中交换性铝含量与玉米株高及生物量之间呈显著相关性。牡蛎壳、白云石、钾长石、麦饭石4种土壤调理剂0.2%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了63.8%、70.5%、53.0%、12.3%;0.4%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了90.5%、92.0%、80.5%、23.4%。土壤中交换性铝、毒害性铝的含量随着4种土壤调理剂的施用量增加而降低,土壤中毒害性铝含量由低到高依次为白云石、牡蛎壳、钾长石、麦饭石。%A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  2. 土壤改良剂对烤烟产质量和土壤理化性状的影响%Effects of Soil Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco and Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富欣; 司贤宗; 张翔; 毛家伟; 桂炎伟; 陈启龙

    2014-01-01

    通过田间试验,研究了施用不同土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状、经济性状、产量、质量及土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:与不施用土壤改良剂相比,施用土壤改良剂能增加烤烟的株高、叶长和叶宽;增加烤烟的产量和产值,分别增加54.00~315.00 kg/hm2、2703.00~6759.15元/hm2;增加上中等烟比例和均价;显著增加烟叶中总糖、钾和还原糖含量;能有效降低土壤pH值和土壤容重;以施用225 kg/hm2腐殖酸型土壤改良剂的效果最好。%The effects of applying different soil conditioners on the agronomic characters , economic traits, yield, and quality of flue-cured tobacco as well as the physicochemical properties of soil were studied through field tests .The results showed that: in comparison with the control ( not applying soil conditioner ) , applying soil conditioner could increase the plant height , leaf length and leaf width of flue-cured tobacco, could increase the yield and production value of flue -cured tobacco by 54.00~315.00 kg/hm2, 2703.00~6759.15 yuan/hm2, respectively, could enhance the proportion of superior and medium tobacco leaves , and aver-age price, could significantly increase the contents of total sugar , potassium and reducing sugar in tobacco leaf , and could effectively reduce soil pH-value and soil bulk density .Among the applications of different soil conditioners , the application of 225 kg/hm2 humic-acid-type soil conditioner acquired the best effects .

  3. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  4. 土壤调理剂在酸化稻田连作晚稻上的应用效果%Effects of Acid Soil Conditioner on Yongyou 538

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建军; 林采舜; 叶斌斌; 何杰; 许剑锋

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of soil conditioner on soil physical-chemical properties and the yield of continuous cropping late rice, exploit high yield potential of Yongyou 538, the 32%soil conditioner application amount experiment was carried out. The re-sults showed that the yield of Yongyou 538 was accelerated with the increase of soil conditioner application, about 8.31% to 9.52%. The soil conditioners not only improved the chemical and physical properties of acid soil, increased the soil available organic, nitro-gen, phosphous and ptotassium, but also increased the effective panicles and 1 000-grain weight. The suitable amount of acid soil conditioner is 600~900 kg/hm2.%为了探明土壤调理剂对酸化稻田土壤理化性状及连作晚稻产量的影响效应,挖掘甬优538高产潜力,设置了土壤调理剂32%氨基质钙镁肥不同用量试验。结果表明,施用土壤调理剂对甬优538有明显增产效应,其中每hm2施600 kg、900 kg、1125 kg的处理比未施用对照增产8.31%~9.52%,达显著水平;其增产效应主要在于增加有效穗数和提高千粒重;施用土壤调理剂还能有效改善酸化稻田土壤理化性状,促进碱解氮、有效磷及速效钾的释放利用和有机质提升。通过一系列数学关系模型分析后发现,在生产上土壤调理剂施用量以600~900 kg/hm2为宜。

  5. 土壤调理剂对设施菜田土壤理化性状的影响及环境效应%Influence of Soil Conditioner on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Environmental Effect in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 孙碧恺; 姚颖; 张明洁; 李凤鸣; 刘继璇; 毛振娟; 翁福军; 卢树昌

    2015-01-01

    The decline of greenhouse soil quality restricted the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The influence of different conditioner on the physical and chemical properties and the nutrients environmental effect were studied by experiment. The result showed that the experiment treatments had lower surface soil bulk density and higher field moisture capacity by applying test materials, and soil improvement effect of woody conditioner was better than the humic acid potassium and herb source conditioner. By applying test materials, the contents of soil organic matter were improved, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were also improved, the contents of the total nitrogen were decreased, soil carbon and nitrogen ratio was risen. Using woody source and herb source conditioners would reduce soil nitrogen movement. In addition, using potassium humate and woody source conditioner to cucumber made higher output than other treatments. This study would have some reference value for improving soil properties and soil quality.%设施菜田土壤质量下降制约着蔬菜产业持续发展. 采用不同调理剂对设施土壤理化性状及氮磷环境效应进行试验研究.结果表明,施用试验材料的表层土壤容重均低于对照,田间持水量均高于对照,其中木本调理剂改土作用优于腐植酸钾和草本源调理剂处理;施用试验材料土壤有机质含量有所上升,土壤有效氮磷钾含量均有所提高,全氮含量有所下降,土壤C/N比有所增加;施用木本源和草本源调理剂对减缓土壤氮下移有一定作用. 另外,腐植酸钾和木本源调理剂处理黄瓜产量均显著高于其他处理. 该研究对改善土壤性状与提升设施土壤质量具有一定参考价值.

  6. BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤和枸杞生长发育的影响%Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Saline Soil and Chinese Wolfberry Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立东; 杨建国; 尚红莺; 樊丽琴; 李淑玲; 杜永霞; 吴秀玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of soil salinization in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, increase saline soil quality and land productivity, the effect of BGA soil conditioner on saline soil and Chinese wolfberry growth was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that compared with no fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline soil, promoted the growth of Chinese wolfberry, improved the yield of Chinese wolfberry very significantly, increased the fertilization benefit of Chinese wolfberry. Compared with balanced fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline soil, increased significantly the yield of Chinese wolfberry, also increased the fertilization benefit of Chinese wolfberry. Chinese wolfberry belongs to perennial shrub, the after effect of BGA soil conditioner and the effect of long-term application of BGA soil conditioner on saline soil and Chinese wolfberry growth need further study.%为解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐渍化土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤的理化性质和枸杞生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐渍化土壤的理化性状,促进了枸杞生长发育,极显著地提高了枸杞产量,增加了枸杞施肥效益.与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐渍化土壤的理化性质,显著地提高了枸杞产量,增加了枸杞施肥效益.枸杞属多年生灌木,BGA土壤调理剂后期效果及长期施用BGA土壤调理剂对盐渍化土壤的理化性质和枸杞生长发育性状的影响还有待于进一步研究.

  7. Aspectos de contaminação biológica em filtros de condicionadores de ar instalados em domicílios da cidade de Manaus - AM Aspects of biological contamination in air conditioning filters installed in Manaus city houses (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira Cartaxo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta resultados da pesquisa de contaminação dos filtros de condicionadores de ar instalados no setor residencial da cidade de Manaus. A pesquisa foi realizada no âmbito do projeto CAEMA (Condicionadores de Ar, Energia e Meio Ambiente que consistiu na troca de aparelhos de ar condicionado ineficientes por eficientes na zona urbana da cidade. Dos 500 condicionadores de ar retirados do sistema pelo projeto, foram selecionados 50 filtros (10% para a análise de contaminação biológica, tendo sido identificada uma enorme variedade de agentes prejudiciais à saúde humana, entre bactérias e fungos. A bactéria mais vezes identificada foi a Staphylococcus sp e o fungo mais freqüente foi o Penicillium sp. Também foi possível verificar, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas junto a 37 usuários desses equipamentos, a grande incidência de sintomas associados a problemas de insuficiente qualidade de ar nos ambientes residenciais. Circunstâncias que motivaram a oportunidade desta pesquisa também impossibilitaram a coleta das amostras por unidade de volume, com os condicionadores ainda em funcionamento. Esse fato não comprometeu os objetivos da pesquisa, de promover a reflexão sobre os cuidados com a correta limpeza dos condicionadores de ar residenciais.This work presents the results of a research about the contamination caused by air conditioners filters that are installed in the residential area in Manaus. The research took place in the scope of CAEMA’s project (Conditioning of Air, Energy and Environment, which one consisted in changing inefficient conditional air devices for efficient ones in the urban zone of the city. Amongst 500 air conditioners removed of the system by the project, 50 filters (10% were selected for biological contamination analysis, having been identified an enormous variety of agents, like bacteria and fungus, that are harmful for human health. The most identified bacterium was the Staphylococcus

  8. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  9. Effect of Fly Ash Based Soil Conditioner (Biosil and Recommen ded Dose of Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Tejram Buddhe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash has been used in agriculture for improving the soil health and to increase the crop productivity with very high doses 10% to 80% of fly ash. In order to mitigate the impact of excess dose in terms of boron and heavy metal toxicity, present investigation was undertaken to process fly ash into improved soil conditioner “Biosil” through magnetization and to conduct field trials using wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety GW-273 with Biosil fortified by recommended dose of chemical fertilizers keeping Vermicompost and recommended dose of chemical fertilizers as control treatments. Very low Biosil doses resulted in improvement in soil quality, fertility, crop growth & productivity. The optimum concentration of Biosil dose was recorded to be in the range of 450 kg/ha to 900 kg/ha which were effective in reducing bulk density and improving organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc which are generally deficient in Indian soils as per the results of national soil survey by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR. Vermicompost and chemical fertilizers were also effective in improving soil fertility. The Plant height, number of leaves/plant, length of earhead, number of grains/earhead, test weight, grain yield and straw yield showed improvement with the increasing Biosil doses. Vermicompost and chemical fertilizers were next to Biosil in improving the growth and yield of wheat. It is recommended that long term trials with Biosil fortified by chemical fertilizers and Vermicompost would be more beneficial for sustainable agriculture.

  10. Introduction to Soil Acidification and Use of Conditioners on Acid Soil%土壤酸化及酸性土壤调理剂应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍荣; 余根德; 白云飞; 陈德康; 宁维

    2013-01-01

    Acidification of soil not only aggravates leaching and fixation of soil nutrients and promotes the release and activation of poisonous elements, but also affects the life activity of soil micro organism and increases the ambient pressure. An introduction is given to present status and causes of soil acidification in China, and on this point measures are proposed for improvement of soil acidification by application of such acid soil conditioners as lime, boron and refined organic manure.%土壤酸化不仅会加剧土壤营养元素的淋溶和固定、促进有毒元素的释放和活化,而且会影响土壤微生物的生命活动、增加环境压力.概述了我国土壤酸化的现状及原因,针对性地提出了施用石灰类、硼泥类、精制有机肥类等酸性土壤调理剂改良治理土壤酸化的措施.

  11. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  12. Study on the Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Saline-alkaline Obstacle Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐碱障碍型土壤上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立东; 杨建国; 樊丽琴; 黄菊莹; 雷金银; 何文寿; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of soil saline-alkaline obstacle in Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline-alkaline obstacle soil quality, and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on saline-alkaline soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The Tesults showed that, compared with no fertilizer BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline-alkaline obstacle soil, promoted the growth of oil sunflower, rice and Chinese wolfberry, increased significantly the yield of three crops, improved the quality of oil sunflower and rice. Compared with balanced fertilization BGA soil conditioner improved the physical and chemical properties of saline-alkaline obstacle soil, promoted the growth of oil sunflower and rice, increased significantly the yield of three crops, improved the quality of oil sunflower; It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve saline-alkaline obstacle soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner could be reduced effectively and BGA soil conditioner could be combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐碱障碍问题,提高盐碱障碍型土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间试验,研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质及作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明:与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质.促进了油葵、水稻及枸杞的生长发育,显著提高了3种作物产量,改善了油葵、水稻的品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐碱障碍型土壤理化性质,促进了油葵、水稻的生长发育,显著提高了3种作物产量,改善了油葵的品质.如果能够有效降低BGA土壤调理剂生产成本并配合化肥合理施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良

  13. 基于 ADPI 的房间空调器气流组织性能评价%Evaluation of Indoor Air Diffusion of Room Air-condition Based on ADPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓光; 敬成君; 李冰

    2013-01-01

      The thermal environment and air diffusion of an air-conditioned office was simulated by the AIRPAK software. Discusses the indoor velocity fields and temperature fields, at the same time, according to ISO7730 standard, evaluation of indoor thermal comfort is carried out using Effective Draft Temperature (ΔET) and Air Distribution Profile Index (ADPI ). It is helpful for the optimum design of the air distribution and comfortably study in the compartment with air conditioner.%  利用 Airpak 软件对某空调办公室的气流组织和热环境进行数值模拟,对该办公室速度场、温度场进行了分析研究,并按照 ISO7730标准,采用有效吹风感温度ΔET 和空气分布特性指标 ADPI 对室内气流组织性能进行评价,为空调室内气流组织形式的优化设计及热舒适性的改善提供了依据。

  14. Discussion on air-conditioning design from the aspect of energy conservation%从节能的角度谈空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴达祥

    2012-01-01

    从合理选择设计参数、负荷计算、水力计算、系统划分等多方面详细阐述了在空调设计方面的重要性,并对节能设计提出了可以采取的一些措施,从而保证空调系统的节能运行。%The paper describes the signifieanee of air-conditioning design from various aspects of rational design parameter selection, load calculation, hydraulic calculation and system division, and puts forward some suitable measures of energy-saving design, so as to ensure the energysaving operation of the air-conditioner system.

  15. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  16. Discuss the Hospital Clean Operating Room Air Conditioning Four Control Superiority%论医院洁净手术室空调四管制的优越性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管德赛; 张为

    2012-01-01

    介绍了医院洁净手术室对空调系统的要求,特别是温湿度控制方面。通过对空调水系统四管制与二管制的分析比较,阐述了四管制空调的优越性,能有效解决温湿度控制问题。%Introduces the clean operating room to air conditioning system requirements,especially temperature and humidity control aspect.Through the air conditioning water system with four control and comparison of the two control,this paper expounds the advantages of four control air conditioner,temperature and humidity control problems can be effectively.

  17. Conditioning the middle ear reflex at sensation levels below reflex threshold: air jet and electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel-Bacon, L; Fulton, R T; Laskowski, R P

    1980-01-01

    An ABAB functional analysis, conditioning and generalization, design was used in 3 experiments (2 were formal studies and 1 was empirical in nature) to investigate the conditionability of the middle ear reflex. The conditioned stimuli were subreflex threshold pure tones of various frequencies and intensities. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was an auricular air jet to the contralateral ear in the first experiment and cutaneous electrical stimulation to the ipsolateral, probe ear in the last 2 experiments. Reflexes were monitored by an otoadmittance meter, storage oscilloscope, and strip chart recorder. In the first experiment (air jet UCS), no subjects met the conditioning criterion within the maximum presentation of 400 paired trials, despite pilot evidence which indicated conditioning was feasible. In the second experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), 2 subjects met conditioning criterion; however, only one subject reconditioned and demonstrated partial generalization to other conditioned stimuli. In the third experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), one of 3 subjects who had previously been unconditionable with the air jet UCS met conditioning and reconditioning criterion and demonstrated partial generalization. Results indicate that the middle ear reflex can be conditioned to be elicited by subreflex threshold pure tones, however, results are limited.

  18. 机房专用空调风冷冷凝器高热密度与噪声超标治理工程简论%Management of Air-cooled Condenser Heat Density and Noise Exceeding the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇慧; 董陈卫

    2013-01-01

      针对某风冷型机房专用空调存在着夏季运行时频繁出现高压报警、空调停机故障及室外风冷冷凝器运行时产生噪声超标等问题,开创性地采用了双冷凝器(水冷+风冷)制冷系统治理方案。该方案不仅彻底解决了以上2个问题,还提高了机房专用空调机组的运行效率及可靠性。%Air-conditioners appear high pressure alarm frequently in summer, and the operating noise of air-cooled condensers exceeds the standard. It presents the scheme of double condenser( water cooling and air cooling system control program). The scheme can not only solve the above two problems, but also can improve the room air-conditioner unit operation efficiency and reliability.

  19. Air quality modelling as a tool used in selecting technological alternatives for developing a new abrasive facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihăiescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of abrasive compounds employs the use of various organic materials as adhesivesor as conditioners. During the baking process, a significant amount of air pollutant substances, includingvarious forms of organic compounds are emitted in the atmosphere. Selecting the most suitabletechnological process is a procedure that involves a cost benefit analysis as well as procedures forcomplying with BAT requirements (best available techniques. Assessing the resulting environmentquality in the vicinity of a new facility is also important, IPPC Directive clearly specifies that a new facilitymust not induce changes of the quality of the environment. This is highly dependent on localmeteorological and topographical conditions. The ISCST3 model was applied to assess the atmosphericdispersions associated with several potential technological designs, and compare their impacts on theenvironment.

  20. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  1. Numerical analysis of an air condenser working with the refrigerant fluid R407C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As CFC (clorofluorocarbon) and HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) refrigerants which have been used as refrigerants in a vapour compression refrigeration system were know to provide a principal cause to ozone depletion and global warming, production and use of these refrigerants have been restricted. Therefore, new alternative refrigerants should be searched for, which fit to the requirements in an air conditioner or a heat pump, and refrigerant mixtures which are composed of HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) refrigerants having zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) are now being suggested as drop-in or mid-term replacement. However also these refrigerants, as the CFC and HCFC refrigerants, present a greenhouse effect. The zeotropic mixture designated as R407C (R32/R125/R134a 23/25/52% in mass) represents a substitute of the HCFC22 for high evaporation temperature applications as the air-conditioning. Aim of the paper is a numerical-experimental analysis for an air condenser working with the non azeotropic mixture R407C in steady-state conditions. A homogeneous model for the condensing refrigerant is considered to forecast the performances of the condenser; this model is capable of predicting the distributions of the refrigerant temperature, the velocity, the void fraction, the tube wall temperature and the air temperature along the test condenser. Obviously in the refrigerant de-superheating phase the numerical analysis becomes very simple. A comparison with the measurements on an air condenser mounted in an air channel linked to a vapour compression plant is discussed. The results show that the simplified model provides a reasonable estimation of the steady-state response and that this model is useful to design purposes

  2. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  3. Airing It Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  4. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  5. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  6. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  7. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  8. A Wavelet-Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Eliminate Wind Turbine Non-Ideality Consequences on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such as load current. Firstly the fundamental positive sequence of the source voltage, obtained using a wavelet, is used as the input signal of the PLL through an orthogonal signal generator process. Then, the generated orthogonal signals are applied through the SRF-based compensation algorithm to synchronize the SAPF’s reference with power grid. To further force the remained uncompensated grid current harmonics to pass through the SAPF, an improved series filter (SF equipped with a current harmonic suppression loop is proposed. Concurrent operation of the improved SAPF and SF is coordinated through a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The DC-link capacitor of the proposed UPQC, used to interconnect a photovoltaic (PV system to the power grid, is regulated by an adaptive controller. Matlab/Simulink results confirm that the proposed wavelet-based UPQC results in purely sinusoidal grid-end currents with total harmonic distortion (THD = 1.29%, which leads to high

  9. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  10. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  12. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  13. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  14. 氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟生长及产量的影响%Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Combined with Soil Conditioner on Growth and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文汇; 司贤宗; 毛家伟; 杨立均; 徐敏; 张翔

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner on agronomic characters, leaf SPAD value,yield,output value and proportion of superior tobacco leaves were studied by field split-plot randomized block design experiment,so as to provide theoretical and technical basis for soil improvement and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.Results showed that,plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate;the application of soil conditioner could increase plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,leaf SPAD values increased at vigorous growth stage,and first increased and then decreased at resettling stage and round top stage;the application of soil conditioner could decrease leaf SPAD values.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,tobacco leaf yield and output value increased,average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves both first increased and then decreased with the peak value at nitrogen application rate of 45·0 kg/ha,67·5 kg/ha, respectively;the application of soil conditioner could increased yield and output value,but when the nitrogen application rate was greater than or equal to 67·5 kg/ha,the application of soil conditioner decreased the average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves.Overall,the application of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner could promote the growth of tabacco,and increase the yield of tobacco.%通过裂区随机区组设计田间试验,研究了氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶片SPAD 值、产量、产值、上等烟比例的影响,以期为烟区土壤改良、合理施用氮肥提供理论和技术依据。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积均增加;土壤改良剂能促进烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积增加。随着

  15. Effects of soil conditioners on cucumber growth and soil conditions under protected culture%土壤改良剂对设施黄瓜生长及土壤状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍; 吴珏; 杨银娟; 曹欢欢; 牛庆良; 黄丹枫

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse culture of cucumber was carried out to study the effects of 4 soil conditioners on the plant growth ,soil physical and chemical characteristics and soil microorganism. The experimental result showed that compared with CK,Conditioner 1 treatment increased the plant's stem diameter, maximal leaf area and yield respectively by 19.2%, 15.0% and 4.1%,decreased the soil nitrate nitrogen and EC value respectively by 57.5% and 31.5% ,and increased the total soil microorganism by 84.3%; Conditioner 2 treatment increased the plant's maximal leaf area and the total soil microorganism respectively by 15.9% and 36.1%, but decreased the soil nitrate nitrogen and EC value and the yield respectively by 61.8% ,39.3% and 3.4%; Conditioner 3 and 4 treatments had not a significant effect on the plant growth and the soil conditions but reduced the yield respectively by 6.3% and 4.1%. It was concluded that in terms of the plant growth and yield and the soil quality,Conditioner 1 treatment was the most suitable for greenhouse culture of cucumber,and Conditioner 2 treatment was next.%以黄瓜为供试材料,研究4种土壤改良剂对植株生长、土壤理化性状及微生物的影响.结果表明:制剂1处理的黄瓜植株茎粗、最大叶面积、产量分别较对照提高19.2%、15.0%、4.1%,土壤硝态氮含量及EC值分别降低57.5%和31.5%,土壤微生物总量提高84.3%;制剂2处理的黄瓜最大叶面积较对照提高15.9%,土壤硝态氮含量及EC值分别降低61.8%、39.3%,微生物总量提高36.1%,但产量降低3.4%;制剂3和4对黄瓜植株生长和土壤状况影响不显著,但产量分别较对照降低6.3%和4.1%.以黄瓜生长、产量及土壤品质作为衡量指标,设施黄瓜的土壤改良及修复以土壤改良剂1处理为宜,其次是制剂2.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Combined with Soil Conditioner on Growth and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco%氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文汇; 司贤宗; 毛家伟; 杨立均; 徐敏; 张翔

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner on agronomic characters, leaf SPAD value,yield,output value and proportion of superior tobacco leaves were studied by field split-plot randomized block design experiment,so as to provide theoretical and technical basis for soil improvement and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.Results showed that,plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate;the application of soil conditioner could increase plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,leaf SPAD values increased at vigorous growth stage,and first increased and then decreased at resettling stage and round top stage;the application of soil conditioner could decrease leaf SPAD values.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,tobacco leaf yield and output value increased,average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves both first increased and then decreased with the peak value at nitrogen application rate of 45·0 kg/ha,67·5 kg/ha, respectively;the application of soil conditioner could increased yield and output value,but when the nitrogen application rate was greater than or equal to 67·5 kg/ha,the application of soil conditioner decreased the average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves.Overall,the application of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner could promote the growth of tabacco,and increase the yield of tobacco.%通过裂区随机区组设计田间试验,研究了氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶片SPAD 值、产量、产值、上等烟比例的影响,以期为烟区土壤改良、合理施用氮肥提供理论和技术依据。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积均增加;土壤改良剂能促进烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积增加。随着

  17. Technology of Producing Organic Soil Conditioner with Organic Waste from Alcohol Device%酒精装置有机废弃物制有机土壤调理剂技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 薛宏光; 杜小光; 毛士玲

    2015-01-01

    Using Gore membrane covered odorless, high temperature, aerobic fermentation and desiccation stacking aging process, with organic waste anaerobic-aerobic sludge, which is the byproduct in producing alcohol by cassava, as main raw material, using plant ash from biomass power plant as conditioner, the green and ecological organic soil conditioner is produced, realizing waste minimization and agricultural reutilization.After years of experiment, the heavy metal content of the organic soil conditioner is less than the requirements of related standards, it can improve saline-alkali soil property, having significant yield-increasing effect, and increasing utilization efficiency of fertilizer nutrients.%采用戈尔(Gore)膜覆盖无臭高温好氧发酵干化堆置陈化工艺,利用木薯制酒精装置产生的有机废弃物厌氧-好氧污泥为主要原料,以生物质电厂废弃物秸秆灰等作为调节剂,制取环保生态型有机土壤调理剂,从而实现废弃物减量化、农用资源化。经多年试验,该有机土壤调理剂的重金属含量优于有关标准的要求,可明显改善盐碱地土壤性能,作物增产效果明显,且可提高肥料养分利用率。

  18. 花生施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂效应分析%The Effects of Rare Earth Micronutrients and Soil Conditioner Application on Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 李文金; 张利民; 任志红; 张艳艳

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner on pho-tosynthetic rate and yield of peanut, the different effect of fertilization in the field were determined with the experimental material of Shanhua9.The test of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut led that the number of branches, pod number, 100-pod weight,100-seed weight and shelling percentage increased, and photosynthetic rate increased between seedling stage and the period of maturity.The yield and economic benefit of peanut were raised.Rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut had obvious increase effect which enhancedthe yield by 18.97%comparing with the control treatment.%为探明施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生光合速率及产量的影响,本研究以山花9号为花生试材,采用大田小区试验研究稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生的增产效果。试验结果表明,施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂能明显增加花生分枝数、荚果数,提高百果重、百仁重和出仁率,提高苗期至饱果期的光合速率,最终提高花生产量。产量较对照增产18.97%,增产效果显著。

  19. Efeito de condicionadores químicos na cama de frango sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effect of chemical conditioners in the poultry litter on the broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ferreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de condicionadores químicos na cama de frango sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte criados em três lotes consecutivos. Foram utilizadas 1320 aves, 440 em cada lote, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (Trat. 1 - cama sem tratamento; Trat. 2 - cama tratada com sulfato de alumínio; Trat. 3 - cama tratada com gesso agrícola; Trat. 4 - cama tratada com superfosfato simples e Trat. 5 - cama tratada com cal hidratada e quatro repetições. As aves e as rações foram pesadas no início e no final do período experimental para obtenção do peso final, do consumo de ração, da conversão alimentar e da viabilidade. O uso dos condicionadores não influenciou (P>0,05 o peso final, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. A adição do sulfato de alumínio e do superfosfato simples reduziu (PThe effect of chemical conditioners in the poultry litter on the performance of broilers reared in three consecutive flocks was studied. One-thousand-three-hundred and twenty birds, 440 birds per each flock, were allotted to five treatments (Treat. 1 - untreated litter; Treat. 2 - litter treated with aluminum sulfate; Treat. 3 - litter treated with gypsum; Treat. 4 - litter treated with single superphosphate; and Treat. 5 - litter treated with hydrated lime in a completely randomized block design and four replicates. Body weight, feed consumption, feed:gain ratio and viability were obtained. The conditioners did not affect (P>.05 body weight, feed consumption and feed:gain ratio. The aluminum sulfate and single superphosphate addition significantly reduced (P<.05 bird viabilities. Conditioners are not necessary for reused poultry litter until the third flock.

  20. The Effects of Rare Earth Micronutrients and Soil Conditioner Application on Peanut%花生施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 李文金; 张利民; 任志红; 张艳艳

    2014-01-01

    为探明施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生光合速率及产量的影响,本研究以山花9号为花生试材,采用大田小区试验研究稀土微肥与土壤调理剂对花生的增产效果。试验结果表明,施用稀土微肥与土壤调理剂能明显增加花生分枝数、荚果数,提高百果重、百仁重和出仁率,提高苗期至饱果期的光合速率,最终提高花生产量。产量较对照增产18.97%,增产效果显著。%In order to evaluate the effect of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner on pho-tosynthetic rate and yield of peanut, the different effect of fertilization in the field were determined with the experimental material of Shanhua9.The test of rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut led that the number of branches, pod number, 100-pod weight,100-seed weight and shelling percentage increased, and photosynthetic rate increased between seedling stage and the period of maturity.The yield and economic benefit of peanut were raised.Rare earth micronutrients and soil conditioner application on peanut had obvious increase effect which enhancedthe yield by 18.97%comparing with the control treatment.