WorldWideScience

Sample records for air conditioners

  1. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  2. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  3. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  4. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  5. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  6. Feasibility analysis of solar air conditioner for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Yongwang; Ma, Weibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion; Wu, Guoxiang [Guangzhou City Construction and Development Co. Ltd. (China)

    2008-07-01

    Technical and economic feasibility analysis on solar air conditioner for buildings is made in this paper, including the analysis of scientific and technological situation and development on solar air conditioner, the comparison on the technological characteristics among several styles of solar air conditioner, the analysis on the several ways of integration for solar air conditioners and buildings, energy consumption of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner that supplied with fossil energy and solar energy are compared. A theoretical analysis on solar air conditioner driven by high temperature solar energy is presented. The conclusion is that the way of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner for buildings supplied with one solar collector system is technical and economic feasible. (orig.)

  7. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  8. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  9. Alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Waghmare, A.V.; Domkundwar, B.M. [College of Engineering, Pune (India); Sawant, N.N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Some selected fluids have been assessed for their suitability as alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners. Only those refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential are considered. NIST CYCLE{sub D} has been used for the comparative thermodynamic analysis. Among the refrigerants studied (HFC-134a, HC-290, R-407C, R-410A, and three blends of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-125), HFC-134a offers the highest COP, but its capacity is the lowest and requires much larger compressors. The characteristics of HC-290 are very close to those of HCFC-22, and compressors require very little modification. Therefore, HC-290 is a potential candidate provided the risk concerns are mitigated as had been accomplished for refrigerators. For retrofitting, R-407C is probably the best candidate. (Author)

  10. EnerGuide room air conditioner directory 2004 : energy ratings for room air conditioners[Includes Energy Star qualified room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This guide lists all room air conditioners sold in Canada and offers advice on how to buy an energy efficient model as labelled under the EnerGuide rating system. The EnerGuide label is regulated under Canada's Energy Efficiency Regulations and is designed to help consumers estimate the annual electricity cost of running an appliance. The EnerGuide compares the energy consumption or energy efficiency of major household appliances and room air conditioners. The EnerGuide label displays a bar scale with an arrow that positions the model compared to the most energy-efficient and least energy efficient models in the same class. The EnerGuide concept uses standardized methods, in which all models of appliances sold in Canada are tested to determine their yearly energy use. The EnerGuide program was developed to protect the environment by reducing the demand for energy in Canada and to help consumers spend less money on energy. This simple guide allows consumers to determine the exact size of room air conditioner they need to meet their cooling needs. It was noted that the operating cost of a room air conditioner will vary depending on the climate, the energy efficiency rating of the air conditioner, temperature setting of the unit, fan operation and the local cost of electricity. The guide includes tables which reveal the energy consumption in kWh by province during the cooling season. tabs.

  11. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  12. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  13. Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip M Hulke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the modern lifestyle, use of air conditioner (AC has become very common. Aims: The present study was planned to assess the effect of ACs on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker adults. Settings and Design: This study was a cross-sectional observational study. Sixty-six young adults (40 males and 26 females using ACs were compared with 70 non-AC users (young adults, 40 males and 30 females. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary function test was done using medical international research (MIR Spirolab II during home visits. Statistical Analysis Used: GraphPad Prism 5 software was used for analysis. Unpaired t test was used for lung function parameter. Chi- square test was used for the comparison of respiratory symptoms. Results: The results showed significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC (P < 0.05, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (P < 0.05, FEV1 as percentage of FVC in % [FEV1 (%] (P < 0.05, peak expiratory flow rate in L/s (PEFR (P < 0.05, forced expiratory flow rate in L/s in 25% of FVC (FEF25% (P < 0.05, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV (P < 0.01. Frequency of respiratory symptoms was higher in AC users. Conclusions: The results are suggestive of predisposition of AC users toward respiratory disorders in the form of mild airflow obstruction.

  14. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  15. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  16. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public... discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities...

  17. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  18. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  19. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  20. Effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-LiLu; Jun-QingWu; Qiu-YingYang; Wei-JinZhou; Er-ShengGao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality. Methods: The data came from the healthy male volunteers, aged 22 to 30 years, who went to centers for maternity and children health for premarital physical examination in Shanghai,Henan, Zbejiang and Hebei from December 1998 to February 2000.

  1. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  3. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  4. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  5. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric air conditioner driven by solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lizhen; Li Yan; Qin Feng; Chen Changhe [Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education of China, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua Univ., BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The thermoelectric devices can convert solar energy into a temperature difference to act as coolers or heater with the help of PV arrays, especially in the remote area without power network. The experiment device is composed of thermoelectric refrigeration modules, fan, air channel, cooling cabinet and temperature measurement system. The thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) system is tested with different working electric voltage of thermopile; its operational parameters are obtained for different operational conditions. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) is analyzed in experimental ways. The factors that affect the efficiency of TEAC are discussed on the basis of experimental investigation by air-cooled thermoelectric module and water-cooled thermoelectric module. (orig.)

  6. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  7. Installation Specifications of Air-Conditioners for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background An air-conditioner known as "30% quality and 70% installation",the quality of its installation is closely related to its service life and application effect.Although air-conditioner manufacturers attach high importance to installation,and there are often the installation requirements specified in the product manual or instructions for installation,there are still no unified,scientific and complete national standards and corresponding regulations for household air-conditioner,which results in the less standardized installation of air-conditioner and the unacceptable quality of installation,and also leaves a lot of hidden quality and safety problems.By means of extensive market survey and the after-sale information statistical analysis of air-conditioner,it is discovered that the nonstandard installation of air-conditioner may lead to the following problems and accidents.

  8. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  9. Methodology for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Pereira (Colombia); University of Liege, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the general procedure for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners, by means of measurements carried out in a test bench specially designed for this purpose. The uncertainty analysis presented in this work looks for establishing a confidence degree or certainty of experimental results. It is particularly important considering that international standards related to this type of analysis are too ambiguous when treating this subject. The uncertainty analysis is on the other hand an indispensable requirement to international standard ISO 17025 [ISO, 2005. International Standard. 17025. General Requirement to Test and Calibration Laboratories Competences. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.], which must be applied to obtain the required quality levels according to the Word Trade Organization WTO. (author)

  10. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  11. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chinnaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compression system were Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs and Hydro Chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs which contains chlorine and if any leakage in the system, these gases will go up and reach stratosphere. The chlorine atoms in the gases will act as a catalyst to destroy ozone layer and cause ozone depletion which causes health hazards, global warming, melting of polar ice caps and drought. Hence, it is necessary to minimize the Global warming and Ozone depletion. The refrigerant R22 widely used in the air-conditioners is a major Contributor of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which cause irreparable loss to the ozone layer and has to be replaced. Approach: To conserve the energy and minimize the global warming, the systems should be designed as more energy efficient and also to minimize Ozone depletion, the eco friendly refrigerants are to be selected and tested as alternative refrigerants to R22. Hence, a window air conditioner of 3.5 kW capacity fitted with Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV instead of capillary tube as an expansion device, was tested for its performance with the selected eco friendly refrigerants R407C and R290 as an alternative to R22 under fixed indoor and outdoor chamber temperatures in the experimental set up and varying the EEV opening. Results: It has been observed from the experimental studies that when the smaller capacity R22 window air conditioner with EEV is retrofitted with R407C and R290, compared to the performance given by R22, the Coefficient Of Performance

  12. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  13. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  14. Design AND Fabrication OF Homemade Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikodi Mallappa,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human always tries for better comfort and sophistication at each level of his life. Considering air conditioning, evaporative cooler are used in less humidity and dry climate. The limitation of evaporative cooler is that it is not suitable in humid environment and also their performance is poor in the places where ventilation is not proper. The objective of this project is to increase the effectiveness of the ordinary table fan by using simple mechanism and overcome the limitation of evaporative cooler. In this project the table fan is wound with copper tube by copper wire. Vinyl tube is connected with one end of the copper tube and another end of vinyl tube is connected with pump. Pump immersed in the cooling chamber. Vinyl tube is connected with another end of copper tube another end of vinyl tube is immersed in the cooling chamber. Fan and pump connected with electricity pump and is sucks the cool water from the cooling chamber.

  15. Research on a compact adsorption room air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.Z.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Keletigui, Daou; Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong, Z.H.; Yang, X. [Panasonic R and D Center, Suzhou Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2006-09-15

    A novel compact adsorption room air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 1kW has been designed, and two prototypes have been built. A two bed, continuous adsorption refrigeration cycle with heat recovery and mass recovery is adopted. Micropore spherical silica gel and water are selected as the working pair. A gravity heat pipe with methanol as working medium is designed to output the cooling. Experimental investigations have indicated that under typical air conditioning conditions, for the first prototype, a cooling capacity of 687W and a COP (coefficient of performance) of 0.307 can be obtained. However, for the improved one, a cooling capacity of 790W and a COP of 0.446 can be reached. It is also proved that the operating temperatures have strong influences on the performance. The designed room air conditioner can be driven by a low grade heat source (<90{sup o}C) and has small dimensions of 300mm (depth), 500mm (width) and 950mm (height). (author)

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  17. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  18. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and... air conditioners and heat pumps. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated in the prototype and sample.... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Systems for Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R. Chaudhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world there is exponential increase in the use of air conditioning devices. The enhancement in utilization of such devices makes it essential for them to work with their full capability and efficiency. The fuzzy inference systems are best suited for the applications requiring easy interpretation, human reasoning, accurate decision making and control. The fuzzy inference systems resemble human decision making and generate precise solutions from approximate information. A comprehensive review of fuzzy inference systems with weighted average and defuzzification is covered in this paper. The objective of the paper is to provide the comparative analysis of fuzzy inference systems. This paper is a quick reference for the researchers in studying the characteristics of fuzzy inference system in air conditioner.

  20. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  1. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  2. Application of evaporative cooling on the condenser of window-air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajidavalloo, Ebrahim [Shahid Chamran University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Golestan St., Ahwaz, Khoozestan 61355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hajidae_1999@yahoo.com

    2007-08-15

    Reduction of energy consumption is a major concern in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle especially in the area with very hot weather conditions (about 50 deg. C), where window-air-conditioners are usually used to cool homes. In this weather condition performance of air condenser window-air-conditioners decrease sharply and electrical power consumption increase considerably. These problems have activated the research programs in order to improve the performance of window-air-conditioners by enhancing heat transfer rate in the condenser. In this article, a new design with high commercialization potential for incorporating of evaporative cooling in the condenser of window-air-conditioner is introduced and experimentally investigated. A real air conditioner is used to test the innovation by putting two cooling pads in both sides of the air conditioner and injecting water on them in order to cool down the air before it passing over the condenser. The experimental results show that thermodynamic characteristics of new system are considerably improved and power consumption decreases by about 16% and the coefficient of performance increases by about 55%.

  3. Thermoeconomic optimization of small size central air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z. [Hunan University (China). College of Civil Engineering

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermoeconomic optimization design in an air-conditioning system is important in achieving economical life cycle cost. Previous work on thermoeconomic optimization mainly focused on directly calculating exergy input into the system. However, it is usually difficult to do so because of the uncertainty of input power of fan on the air side of the heat-exchanger and that of pump in the system. This paper introduces a new concept that exergy input into the system can be substituted for the sum of exergy destruction and exergy output from the system according to conservation of exergy. Although it is also difficult for a large-scale system to calculate exergy destruction, it is feasible to do so for a small-scale system, for instance, villa air conditioner (VAC). In order to perform thermoeconomic optimization, a program is firstly developed to evaluate the thermodynamic property of HFC 134a on the basis of Martin-Hou state equation. Authors develop thermodynamic and thermoeconomic objective functions based on second law and thermoeconomic analysis of VAC system. Two optimization results are obtained. The design of VAC only aimed at decreasing the energy consumption is not comprehensive. Life cycle cost at thermoeconomic optimization is lower than that at thermodynamic optimization. (author)

  4. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  5. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  6. Analysis and optimization of an adsorption air conditioner for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.

    1994-07-27

    This paper shows an analysis of the applicability of an adsorption system for electric vehicle (EV) air conditioning. Adsorption systems are designed and optimized to provide the required cooling for four combinations of vehicle characteristics and driving cycles. The resulting adsorption systems are compared with vapor compression air conditioners that can satisfy the cooling load. The objective function is the overall system weight, which includes the cooling system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for air conditioner operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best. The results show the optimum values of all the variables, as well as temperatures and amounts adsorbed, for the adsorption and desorption processes. The results indicate that, for the conditions analyzed in this paper, vapor compression air conditioners are superior to adsorption systems, not only because they are lighter, but also because they have a higher COP and are more compact.

  7. An assessment of energy benefits of efficient household air-conditioners in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbino Cardoso, R.; Horta Nogueira, L.A.; Palhares de Souza, E.; Haddad, J. [EXCEN Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica, Universidade Federal de Itajuba-UNIFEI, Av. BPS 1303, CEP 37.500-903, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Increasing efficiency of electrical equipment is essential to national energy rationality, enabling energy consumption reduction and postponing inversion in distribution, transmission and generation, as well as mitigating environmental impacts associated with such activities. Considering such purposes, two actions have been promoted in Brazil: (a) minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have been required for some appliances and (b) consumers have been informed about the most efficient products by 'endorsement labeling'. The purpose of this study is to assess window and split air-conditioners with Brazilian MEPS. To evaluate the impact of efficient air-conditioners in this market, a model was developed based on estimates for quantity of equipment in operation and unitary consumption, as determined by local temperature records. From this model, it was deduced that using only efficient conditioners (class A for Brazilian Labeling Program/INMETRO, with PROCEL Label) an annual saving of 322 GWh and a reduction in demand of 109 MW could be obtained in 2007. Furthermore, it was observed that the current MEPS established by Brazilian legislation for air-conditioners may be considered relatively low. Considering that MEPS are similar to those observed in China (the main exporter of air-conditioners to the Brazil), an energy saving of roughly 222 GWh could be achieved in the same year. Impacts on emission of greenhouse gases are also estimated.

  8. An Application of Green Quality Function Deployment to Designing an Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peetam Kumar Dehariya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles a systematic and operational approach to Green Quality Function Deployment (GQFD, a customer oriented survey based quality management system with regular improvement in product development. GQFD shows balance between product development and environmental protection. GQFD is not used to determine their attributes and their levels. GQFD captures what product developers “think” would best satisfy customer needs considering Environmental factor. This research used Air Conditioner as a case study for implementation of GQFD. In the design of a new Air Conditioner, apply GQFD to find out the most important parameter and functions from customer point of view and then find out Technical Characteristics. These important parameters are then put into house of quality and make relation matrix between voice of customer and Technical Characteristics. From the result of QFD applied to Air Conditioner are short out the parameter which are require modification according to voice of customer and the result has used for new design.

  9. Prospect of Gas Air-conditioners Development%燃气空调器的发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金佳宾; 焦文玲

    2000-01-01

    分析了燃气空调器的发展前景,提出了推广使用燃气空调器的途径。%In the paper, the wide prospect of gas air-conditioners development are analyzed, the way to popularize and use of gas air-conditioners are proposed.

  10. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  11. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that the simulated data agreed quite well with the experimental result at the discrepant around 2–4%. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result which was found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased 3.09 kW h/d. The electrical power consumption of the modified unit was 36.27 kW h/d at the operating time 15 h/d compared with 39.36 kW h/d of the normal unit at the operating time 12 h/d. The saving cost of the PCM bed could be 9.10% or 170.03 USD and the payback period was 4.15 y.

  12. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners I Appendix I to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central...

  15. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  16. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... industrial equipment, including residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. (42 U.S.C. 6292(3))...

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Variable Frequency Air Conditioner is Expected to Become Mainstream Product in Rural Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>If it can be argued that in 2011 the rural market played a crucial role in the development of air conditioner industry,judging from the present growth trend,in the 2012 refrigeration year the rural market will play an even more important

  19. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 1. DEFINITIONS 2. TESTING CONDITIONS 2.1Test room... conditioners and heat pumps, and systems composed of multiple mini-split units (outdoor units located...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  1. Comparative Research on Air Conditioner with Gas-injected Rotary Compressor through Injection Port on Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Xingru, Liu; Baolong, Wang; Wenxing, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Rotary compressors are widely utilized in air conditionders and heat pumps. However, when rotary compressors were applied in room air conditioners, VRFs and domestic water heaters, the systems will experience heavily degradation of the heating capacity and COP as the ambient temperature goes low. Aimed at these problems, considerable research has been carried out to raise a series of solutions, such as economizer technology, cascade-type vapor compression heat pump system and two stage coupli...

  2. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  3. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  4. Solar Application in Air Conditioner Field%太阳能在空调领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the background of solar application in air conditioner field was introduced, in other words, century conundrum of energy crisis and environmental pollution gave birth to solar research and develop-ment of air conditioner. Secondly, from view of technology, the author review solar air conditionerindustry sta-tus in photothermal utilization and photovoltaic utilization. Thirdly, from view of human sustainable develop-ment and market demand, solar air conditioner application prospect was analyzed. Finally, combined with the solar energy and air conditioner industry technical development direction, the author analyze future development trend of solar air conditioner, and on this basis , the author put forward effective popularizing ways of solar air conditioner.%  本文介绍了太阳能在空调领域应用背景,从技术层面对太阳能空调的光热和光电利用现状进行了回顾和分析,并从人类可持续发展和市场需求角度对太阳能空调的应用前景做出分析。结合太阳能和空调行业的技术发展方向研究,分析了太阳能空调的未来发展趋势,并在此基础上提出太阳能空调推广的有效途径。

  5. 浅谈纺织空调节能设计%Discussion on Energy Saving Design of Textile Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兴霞; 贺晋; 李淑萍

    2012-01-01

    文章从纺织空调系统的设计角度,提出几种行之有效的节能措施,为纺织空调设计提供几种节能方案。%Several effective energy saving measures were put forward from the aspects of design of air-conditioner system, and several energy saving methods were provided for the design of air-conditioner.

  6. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Jiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. (author)

  7. Performance Analysis of Electronic Expansion Valve in 1 TR Window Air Conditioner using Various Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENNUCHETTY CHINNARAJ,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A window air conditioner of 3.5 K.W capacity fitted with expansion devices such as capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve and Electronic expansion valve was tested for its coefficient of performance, power required and refrigeration effect with respect to the refrigerants R22 and R407C under different operating conditions .Initially evaporator temperature was maintained at 279 K and condenser temperature was varied and then the test was conducted again in the same window air conditioner with electronic expansion valve alone as expansion device and by varying the refrigerant super heat temperature at inlet to the compressor from 273K to 293K for the refrigerants R 22, R 407C and R 290 The performance of electronic expansion valve with eco friendly refrigerants shows a positive effect and enable the industry to favorably displace the R22 and other types of expansion devices.

  8. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weijiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Chunlu, E-mail: chunlu.zhang@carrier.utc.co [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  9. 电子机柜空调器%Electronic Control Cabinet Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了一种小型电子机柜空调器的设计方案,该空调器解决了密闭电子机柜散热的问题,能够在较小尺寸下达到1000W的制冷量,实现对相对密闭电子机柜小环境内温湿度的有效控制,提高机柜内电子设备的可靠性。%This paper introduces the design of a small electronic cabinet air-conditioner, the air-conditioner solves the sealed electronic cabinet cooling problems, have the cooling capacity of 1000W at a smaller size, realize the effective control of the rela-tive closed electronic cabinet small environment temperature and humidity, to improve the reliability of electronic equipment cabinet.

  10. Experimental Study of the Controlling Characteristics of Inverter-Driven Multi-type Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纪峰; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2004-01-01

    The controlling algorithm was studied for the inverter-driven multi-type air conditioner using electronic expansion valve(EEV) in outdoor unit. The performance of inverter-driven air conditioner with two different units was investigated by varying the outdoor ambient temperature and compressor speed. Based on the test results, the effect of EEV opening on the indoor unit exit superheat was discussed. For the specified outdoor ambient temperature scope and the EEV opening, the superheats of indoor units decrease with the outdoor ambient temperature rising. Improper distribution of refrigerant into each indoor unit will causes excessive superheat difference between two indoor units. Suggestions were then given for the controlling of the superheat.

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented

  12. Small fan assisted air conditioner for thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atthajariyakul, Surat; Lertsatittanakorn, Charoenporn [Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantaravichai, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2008-10-15

    From the fact that Thai people have a tolerance to high air temperature and are accustomed to high air movement from electric fans in non-air conditioned space, this paper proposes the use of small fan assisted air conditioners for human thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand. In the study, a total 15 students were tested in a 2.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 m{sup 3} test room equipped with a 12,000 Btu/h split type air conditioner. During the tests, the room air temperature was varied from 25, 26, 27 and 28{sup o}C every 1 h. A small fan with 15 cm diameter was placed in front of each subject. In each hour, the small fan was varied to supply a small area with velocity from 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. In each condition, the subjects were asked to vote for their thermal sensation. The results showed that the temperature set point could be increased up to 28{sup o}C when a small fan was used to supply local air velocity from 0.5 to 2 m/s according to individual preference. This would reduce the electricity consumption of the air conditioning unit. According to the proposed method, this can save energy for office buildings in the commercial sector as high as 1959.51 GWh/year. (author)

  13. Performance Characteristics of Cross-Fin-Tube-Type Heat Exchanger for Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Kakiyama, Shiro; Sanuki, Noriyoshi

    The effects of enhanced heat transfer tube with ability to control the heat transfer disturbance by mechanical tube expanding were experimentally investigated on the performance characteristics of air-cooled cross-fin-tube-type heat exchanger for air conditioner. Three kinds of the enhanced heat transfer tube were developed and used in the experiment. The enhanced heat transfer tube was a kind of spirally grooved tube and composed with the fins smaller than those of the conventional spirally grooved tube excepting four fins located in orthogonal position on the tube circumference. The optimum groove number to enhance the performance of heat exchanger was also shown.

  14. Performance of a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner - An experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Shahab [Queensland University of Technology, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper the results of testing a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) in the tropical climate of Queensland, Australia have been presented. The system uses polymer plate heat exchanger (PPHE) for dehumidification/indirect evaporative cooling, and a cooling pad as the direct evaporative cooler for the dry air leaving the PPHE. Lithium chloride, which is an effective desiccant in air dehumidification, was used in the experiments and a scavenger air regenerator concentrates the dilute solution from the dehumidifier using hot water from flat plate solar collectors. The data obtained from performance monitoring of the solar LDAC operating on a commercial site in Brisbane was compared with a previously developed model for the PPHE. The comparison reveals that good agreement exists between the experiments and model predictions. The inaccuracies are well within the measuring errors of the temperature, humidity and the air and solution flow rates. The above tests further indicate a satisfactory performance of the unit by independently controlling the air temperature and humidity inside the conditioned space. In order to prevent carryover of the solution particles into the environment, eliminators are used at outlet of the absorber unit and the regenerator. An alternative method in preventing the carryover is the use of indirect cooling, in which the supply air does not contact the solution. The method can be used to produce potable water from the atmospheric air in remote areas. The liquid desiccant system can be used in the HVAC industry, either as a packaged roof-top air conditioner, or as an air handler unit for commercial applications. The system could also be used for space heating in winter due to the property of desiccants to provide heat when wetted. (author)

  15. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  16. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  17. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  18. Design of heat recovery system for a split air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; Pundoor, M. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    The growth in demand for electrical energy is far exceeding the growth of the power supply. There is a significant demand to reduce energy consumption by all means. There is also a greater demand for energy efficient equipment. Although most houses have separate cooling and water heating systems, this paper demonstrated that air conditioning units and a water heaters can be combined. For example, the heat recovered from the condenser of an air-conditioner can be effectively used to heat water which can offer significant savings in electricity consumption. With the design of a heat recovery system, a percentage of heat rejected from an air conditioning unit can be reclaimed for heating. The paper presented the working principles including a system diagram of a combined air conditioner and hot water generation system. It also discussed the conceptual designs of a heat reclaim module. The six different design concepts were then presented. Design selection and criteria for design selection were also identified along with the advantages and limitations of each concept. Based on a comprehensive analysis and research with the help of a Pugh chart of convergence matrix, the final concept was chosen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  20. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  1. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of aluminium foam parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, Z. M.; Chang, H. W.; Wang, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    Open cell aluminium foam was used in parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner, and two condensers with different pore density were fabricated. The experimental study was conducted on the heat transfer performance and temperature distribution. The experimental results show that both of the heat transfer load and air pressure drop increase with the increase of pore density, air velocity is 2.5m/s, the heat transfer capacities of the condenser with 10PPI and 8PPI are 4.786kw and 3.344kW respectively. Along the flow direction of refrigerant, the outlet temperatures of refrigerant drop with the rise of air velocity when the inlet temperature is constant. The outlet temperature of the refrigerant decreases with the increase of pore density.

  2. Experimental Study of the Effects of the Cycle Characteristics on the Refrigerant-Induced Noise in System Air-Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyung Suk; Mo, Jin Yong; Lee, Jae Kwon [Samsung Electronics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The main sources of the refrigerant-induced noise can be classified 2 types according to its characteristics. One is due to the cyclic characteristics such as quality, velocity of the refrigerant, pressure drop and mass flow rate. The other is due to the structural characteristics such as distributed path pipe layout, distributor and expansion device. In this paper, the effects of cycle characteristics on the noise of multi-type system air-conditioner are investigated experimentally. In the indoor unit of multi-type air-conditioner, the variation of noise is examined when the in-flowing and out-flowing refrigerant to the indoor unit are 2-phase state according to its cycle control. And several factors are recommended in order to reduce the refrigerant-induced noise of the air-conditioner.

  3. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yitai, M.; Shengchun, L.; Lirong, M. [Tianjin Univ., Thermal Energy Research Inst., Tianjin (China)]. E-mail: liushch@tju.edu.cn

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  4. Study on Water Treatment Technology of Central Air Conditioner%中央空调水处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎代华

    2015-01-01

    随着国家提倡节能减排,空调系统的节能越发引起人们的重视。文章通过介绍南博中央空调水处理,分析中央空调水系统中存在的问题,通过中央空调水处理提高中央空调制冷效率,从而实现节能的效果。%Due to the advocation of “energy saving and emission reduction” of Chinese government,more and more people pay attention to air conditioners energy conservation. This article analyzes the problems of central air conditioner water system,and discovers that the central air conditioner refrigeration efficiency will be improved through water treatment technology, and plenty of energy will be saved.

  5. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  6. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  7. Experimental investigation of a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner prototype was designed and constructed. The compressor was of swash plate design; the gas cooler and evaporator were made of fin-tubes; a manual expansion valve and an internal heat exchanger accumulator were used. The lubricant, the CO{sub 2} charge, the evaporator outlet pressure, the compressor speed, the air inlet temperature and flow rate of the gas cooler and the air flow rate of the evaporator were varied and the performance of the prototype was experimentally investigated in detail. The cooling capacity, compressor power consumption, CO{sub 2} mass flow rate, and COP value were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the CO{sub 2} system performance was greatly affected by different lubricants; the CO{sub 2} system performance was sensitive to the mass charge; the high side pressure affected the system performance greatly and a high side pressure controller was needed. (author)

  8. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  9. Application of adhesives in bus air conditioner%胶粘剂在大巴空调上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文

    2013-01-01

    The bus air conditioner is the important equipment for improving the riding comfort and the requirement for bus air conditioner is more and more high.The sealing problems including the leakage of refrigerant,water or air have great impact on the performance of bus air conditioner,which are important factors for the quality of bus air conditioning.This paper analyzed the applications of adhesives and sealants in the bus air conditioner.%汽车空调是提高汽车乘坐舒适性的重要设备,对汽车空调的质量要求越来越高。汽车空调中对空调性能起到很大影响的密封问题如漏制冷剂、漏水、漏风等,都是关系到空调质量的重要因素。本文就大巴空调使用胶粘剂、密封胶的情况进行了分析。

  10. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  11. Development of light-weight Al scroll compressor for car air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.; Park, Y. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea); Choi, I. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Korea Maritime Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The scroll compressor with high cooling efficiency and lower oscillating noise can be a candidate material for a part of car air conditioner, household air conditioner and so on. When Al alloy with high strength is used for scroll compressor instead of cast iron, rotation speed can be increased by weight reduction. To design Al alloy which has enough mechanical properties to replace cast iron, the effect of alloying elements, such as Si(13-15%), Cu(4-5%), and Mg(0.5-1%) and cooling rates on the mechanical properties of squeeze cast Al alloy was studied. The influence of Sr and P modification treatment on Si morphology was also studied. Aluminum alloy over 400MPa of tensile strength and 2% elongation was developed. Al scroll samples was fabricated by squeeze casting machine(UBE 800ton) with using 2 cavity mold. Flow-3D which is a three dimensional melt flow analysis program was used to find most proper mold design and optimum process conditions for squeeze casting before making samples. Relationship between secondary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate was simulated by Flow-3D and compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  13. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  14. Automatic line of high speed air-conditioner wing of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing%YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周富才

    2001-01-01

    Construction and action principle of automatic line of high speed punching production of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing have been introduced in details.%介绍了YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线的结构及其动作原理。

  15. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  16. Performance assessment of HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Padalkar, A.S. [Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008 (India); Sane, N.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli 416 415 (India)

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental performance analysis of a 1.5 TR window air-conditioner, retrofitted with R-407C, as a substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that R-407C, for the operating conditions covered in this study, had lower cooling capacity in the range 2.1-7.9% with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for R-407C was lower in the range 7.9-13.5%. The power consumption of the unit with R-407C was higher in the range 6-7% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for R-407C were higher in the range 11-13% than HCFC-22. This paper also presents simulation results of heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.A. The simulated evaporator capacities are within +/-3% of the experimentally measured cooling capacities for both refrigerants. Simulation results for R-407C and HCFC-22 are compared. The exit temperatures of R-407C are lower by 1.9{sup o}C to 5.2{sup o}C in the condenser and are higher by 3.2{sup o}C to 3.8{sup o}C in the evaporator than HCFC-22. Evaporating pressures of R-407C are higher by 4.5-5.3% as compared to HCFC-22. The pressure drops of R-407C are lower in both the evaporator and the condenser as compared to HCFC-22. The outlet temperatures of air for HCFC-22 and R-407C in both heat exchangers are nearly the same. (author)

  17. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  18. DISPLACEMENT CONTROL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel variable displacement compressor (VDC) for automotive air conditioner (AAC) is introduced, which inherits the advantages of common wobble plate type VDC. It has fewer parts and makes less noise, and inst ead of pneumatic valve the displacement is controlled by electronic control valv e. In order to know the control mechanism well and get a good control effect, a mathematical model for the variable displacement mechanism is developed accordin g to the geometrical and kinematical information of the compressor. Using the mo del, the effect of relevant parameters on variable displace control is estimated . It is helpful to make the optimum decision in the flow control of AAC. As the novel displacement control device, the structure and control rule of electronic control valve is introduced. It can get better effect than the conventional pneu matic valves. And by using this new electronic control device, the optimum syste mic control of AAC is available.

  19. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  20. Energy efficiency and energy saving air conditioners window and split type; Eficiencia energetica e economia de energia de condicionadores de ar tipo janela e split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Palhares de; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    The air-conditioners of window end Split type are responsible for a significant portion of energy consumption in residential sector of Brazil, from 20% of the sector. This study evaluates the impact energy of the Seal Program PROCEL in air-conditioners of window end Split type, showing the efficiency gains for the country in terms of energy saving. For this evaluation it was considered the effects of temperature and loss of performance due to age, PROCEL Stamp Program resulted in a power savings of 664 GWh in air-conditioners of window type residential sector in 2008. (author)

  1. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  2. 大型空调器节能装置%Large Air-conditioner Energy-saving Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扶岗; 李征涛; 李振华

    2012-01-01

    基于传统空调器性能测试台温度控制的原理,提出一种大型空调器节能实验装置,并简单介绍了该装置的节能原理。该试验台与传统空调器性能测试台不同的是在空气处理系统中加入了热回收换热器,有效利用室内外机室热回收换热器的热量来满足温度控制要求,从而减少了电加热器的能耗,节省了能源。%Based on the principle of temperature control of traditional air conditioner performance-testing bench, a new energy-saving equipment for large air conditioner is put forward. The energy saving principle of this equipment has been simply introduced. A heat recovery exchanger is put in the air handling system compared with the traditional air-conditioner laboratory. It is used to heat the air satisfying the demands for the temperature control in testing room, reducing the consumption of electric heaters and saving energy.

  3. Utilization of condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner%移动式空调机蒸发器冷凝水的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁贤德

    2012-01-01

    How to use the condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner is analyzed An improved method to increase the energy efficiency of portable air conditioner is studied.%对如何利用移动式空调机蒸发器产生的冷凝水进行分析,探讨提升移动式空调机能效比的一种改进方法.

  4. Corrosion Resistance of Zn and Cu Coated Steel Pipes as a Substitute for Cu Pipe in an Air Conditioner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Gyeong; Park, Chan Jin; Hong, Sung Kil [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    We investigated the corrosion resistance of Zn and Cu coated steel pipes as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system. In addition, the galvanic corrosion tendency between two dissimilar metal parts was studied. The corrosion resistance of the Cu electroplated steel was similar to that of Cu, while the corrosion rate of the Zn electro-galvanized and the galvalume (Zn-55 % Al) coated steels was much higher and not suitable for Cu substitute in artificial sea water and acidic rain environments. Furthermore, the galvanic difference between Cu electroplated steel and Cu was so small that the Cu coated steel pipe can be used as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system.

  5. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  6. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  7. Performance Improvement of EMQ Bearings for Air-Conditioner%空调电机轴承的性能改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2013-01-01

      依据调查结果阐述、分析空调电机轴承国产化现状及存在问题,论述问题产生原因并提出改进建议。%Based on findings of the investigation,elaborate and analyse current situation and existing issues of localized EMQ bearings for air-conditioners. Illustrate the root cause of issues and propose the actions to improve.

  8. he Efficiency Analysis of Room Air Conditioners%房间空气调节器的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍和论述房间空调器的效率现状及其提高的途径,如高效压缩机、高效换热器、变频驱动等。%The efficiency status of room air conditioners and its improving ways are introduced and discussed in this paper , such as high-efficiency compressors , high efficiency heat exchangers , and inverter drives etc..

  9. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  10. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  11. Performance assessment of HC-290 as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Padalkar, A.S. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Process Development Division; Sane, N.K. [Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    As per the Montreal Protocol, CFCs and HCFCs are being phased out. HCFC-22 is used in window air conditioners. This paper presents the experimental performance study of a window air conditioner with propane (HC-290), a natural refrigerant, as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that HC-290 had 6.6% lower cooling capacity for the lower operating conditions and 9.7% lower for the higher operating conditions with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for HC-290 was 7.9% higher for the lower operating conditions and 2.8% higher for the higher operating conditions. The energy consumption of the unit with HC-290 was lower in the range 12.4-13.5% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for HC-290 were lower in the range 13.7-18.2% than HCFC-22. For HC-290, the pressure drop was lower than HCFC-22 in both heat exchangers. This paper also presents simulation results for the heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner with HC-290 as a drop-in substitute. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology. EVAP-COND: simulation models for finned-tube heat exchangers, Maryland, USA (2003). http://www2.bfrl.nist.gov/software/evap-cond/ [18

  12. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  13. Natural refrigerants for air conditioners in passenger cars. A contribution to climate protection. Background; Natuerliche Kaeltemittel fuer PKW-Klimaanlagen. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutz. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gabriele; Plehn, Wolfgang

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners in passenger cars contain a refrigerant which significantly increases the greenhouse effect. Currently about 30 % of global emissions of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons originate from these air conditioners. According to the directive 2006/40/EC, this refrigerant must be replaced by a less harmful substance. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration initially reports on the stock and level of air conditioning of passenger cars as well as on the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane. Subsequently, refrigerants for air conditioning of passenger cars such as carbon dioxide, 1.1-difluoroethane and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propylene are described. Overall, the refrigerant carbon dioxide is the best alternative for mobile air conditioning.

  14. Implementation of a model for the reduction of latent capacity of an air-conditioner at part-load conditions with continuous fan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K.H.; Blake, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The performance of air-conditioners and their moisture removal effectiveness is degraded when the indoor circulation fan is in continuous mode and the compressor is off. Early experiments have shown that when the compressor is off, the cooling coil acts as an evaporative cooler and vapour condensates on its surface. This vapour goes back into the air stream and back to the conditioned space, resulting in higher humidity levels. A model has been developed by previous examiners to predict the degradation of the performance of the air-conditioner. The model accounts for the conditions of the air entering the coil, thermostat cycling rate, air-conditioner transient performance, and the moisture-retaining characteristics of the cooling coil. However, this model has not been used within a building energy simulation program. This paper demonstrates how the model can be used as part of an air-conditioning model in the ESP-r/HOT3000 building energy analysis program. Within ESP-r/HOT3000, the model can determine the effect of moisture evaporation from the coil, during compressor off-cycle within continuous fan operation. It can also examine the effect on temperature and relative humidity inside a residential building during the cooling season. The model can also determine the effect of equipment latent capacity degradation on electricity use by air conditioners. The study identifies the problems associated with an over-sized air conditioner. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  16. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Rong-Hwa Yang [National Taipei University of Technology (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 1 00% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional unloading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter. (author)

  17. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  18. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Yang, R.-H

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 100% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional un-loading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter.

  19. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  20. Design and performance prediction of a novel zeolite-water adsorption air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xia, Z.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu, J.Y. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: jywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    A novel adsorption air conditioner is designed that supplies 8-12 deg. C chilled water for the fan coil in the locomotive operator cabin. Different from other two-bed adsorption cooling systems, this system has two adsorption/desorption chambers. One adsorber, one condenser and one evaporator are housed in one and the same adsorption/desorption chamber. There are no valves installed in the vacuum side. So, the reliability of the system is improved greatly. This machine uses zeolite and water as the working pairs. This system is driven by 350-450 deg. C exhaust gas generated by the internal combustion engine of the locomotive. The designed refrigerating power and COP (coefficient of performance) are 5 kW and 0.25, respectively, according to the requirements for the refrigeration output in the locomotive operator cabin and the waste heat provided by the engine. In this paper, a model for this system is described, and the simulation results are discussed. The model is validated in principle by limited experimental data. According to the calculation results, the refrigerating power of the machine is up to 10 kW with gas inlet temperature of 450 deg. C and evaporating temperature of 6.5 deg. C. The adsorber can be heated from 97 deg. C to 423 deg. C or cooled from 423 deg. C to 97 deg. C in 1320 s. Therefore, the heat and mass transfer performance of the adsorber is improved greatly. A few experimental data prove these conclusions.

  1. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Waide, Paul [Navigant Consulting Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, of Air Conditioner (AC) efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.1 The International Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with Navigant Consulting Inc. performed the analysis. SEAD aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) “raise the efficiency ceiling” by pulling superefficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) “raise the efficiency floor” by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) “strengthen the efficiency foundations” of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities.2 The objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improve the efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countries. We find that even the best currently available technology offers large efficiency improvement opportunities (35% to 50% reduction in energy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries. The cost effective efficiency improvements range from 20% to 30% reduction in energy consumption based on a consumer perspective.

  2. 连接管在空调器降成本机型中的灵活运用%Flexible application of connecting pipe into the cost reduction machine type of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健; 梁勤奋

    2012-01-01

    在原有空调器配置不变的前提下,空调器连接管的灵活搭配应用,不但可以改善空调器制冷效果,而且能够降低空调器整机成本,提高其市场竞争力.%Under the original air conditioner configuration unchanged, the application of flexible collocation into air conditioner's connecting pipe,not only can improve the refrigeration effect of air conditioner,but also can reduce the cost of air conditioner and improve their market competitiveness.

  3. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  4. Choice of a system for heat recovery. Efficiency of an air conditioner; Systeemkeuze voor warmteterugwinning. Meer efficientie uit luchtbehandelingsinstallatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gorkom, F.H.J.

    2004-05-01

    The use of heat recovery in an air conditioning system improves the efficiency. An overview is given of different air conditioners where heat recovery is applied: twincoil, heat exchanger, heat wheel, and the Kantherm system. [Dutch] Warmteterugwinning levert efficiente luchtbehandelingsinstallaties op. Voor het toepassen van warmteterugwinning is een aantal systemen beschikbaar. In dit artikel komen zowel de twincoil, de platenwisselaar, het warmtewiel en het Kantherm-systeem aan bod. De systemen worden kort beschreven en daarnaast beoordeeld op hun rendement, toepassingsmogelijkheden, voor- en nadelen en kosten voor de levenscyclus.

  5. 常规空调器用于低温制冷研究%Study on Low Temperature Refrigeration with Conventional Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 时红臣

    2015-01-01

    对常规空调器用于低温制冷进行了研究,通过控制系统改造实现了系统在低温下稳定运行,控制系统改造方案可以实现常规空调机组低温制冷功能。%n this paper, how to achieve low temperatur air conditioning with conventional air conditioner were studied, through the control system renovation, air conditioning system run stably at low temperatur , the control system renovation scheme can realize the low temperature refrigeration function of conventional air conditioner.

  6. Air cooler ducts. A simple kind of air conditioner; Luftkuehlschaechte. Eine einfache Teilklimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, B. [F und E TGA, Joessnitz (Germany); Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (F.H.) (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Air cooler duct cabinets are used increasingly for cooling and demoisturizing of room air and fresh air, sometimes also as auxiliary heating systems. They are more complex than conventional and have specific characteristics concerning construction, dimensioning, optimisation and control. A newly developed computer program enables pre-assessment of specific operational situations. (orig.)

  7. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  8. Performance evaluation of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Won, Jong Phil [Thermal Management Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Park, Yong Sun; Lim, Tae Won [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi 449-912 (Korea); Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A relation between the heat release from a fuel cell stack and an air conditioning system's performance was investigated. The air conditioning system installed in a fuel cell vehicle can be used for stack cooling when additional stack heat release is required over a fixed radiator capacity during high vehicle power generation. This study investigated the performance of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner at various operating conditions. Also, the heat releasing effectiveness and mutual interference were analyzed and compared with those for the conventional radiator cooling system with/without cabin cooling. When the radiator coolant inlet temperature and flow rate were 65 C and 80 L/min, respectively, for the outdoor air inlet speed of 5 m/s, the heat release of the stack cooling system with the aid of CO{sub 2} air conditioner increased up to 36% more than that of the conventional radiator cooling system with cabin cooling. Furthermore, this increased by 7% versus the case without cabin cooling. (author)

  9. 机车空调电源的比较与分析%Comparison and Analysis of Locomotive Air-conditioner Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽武

    2013-01-01

    总结了内燃机车、电力机车常用的空调电源的电路结构形式,简单探讨了空调电源电路的设计要点,并对电力机车的交直交与直交2种形式的空调电源电路进行了较为详细的对比分析,指出了各自的优点与不足;同时,介绍了机车空调电源变频调速的一般性原理,比较了定频与变频机车空调电源各自的优缺点.%Circuit structures of air-conditioner power supply for diesel locomotive and electric locomotive were summarized,and key points of air-conditioner power supply design were discussed.Two types of air-conditioner power supply circuit i.e.AC/DC/AC and DC/AC convert circuit were compared in detail,advantages and defects of which were pointed out.At the same time,principle of air-conditioner variable frequency speed regulation was introduced,as well as the characteristics of fix-frequency and vari-frequency air-conditioner was compared.

  10. Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Feng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lu, Manqi; Yang, Ke [Engineering Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhou, Yimin [Research Center, Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province 317200 (China)

    2007-10-15

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi{sub 4.61}Mn{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.13}/La{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 4.8}Mn{sub 0.2} was developed working at 120-200 C/20-50 C/-10-0 C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Van't-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat plateau slopes, fast reaction dynamics and small hystereses; the reaction enthalpy of the refrigeration hydride is -27.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2} and system theoretical COP is 0.711. Mean particle sizes during cycles were verified to be an intrinsic property affected by constitution, heat treatment and cycle numbers rather than initial grain sizes. Based on this work pair, cylindrical reactors were designed and a function proving metal hydride intermittent refrigeration system was constructed with heat conducting oil as heat source and water as heat sink. The reactor equivalent thermal conductivity is merely 1.3 W/(m K), which still has not meet practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power is 84.6 W at 150 C/30 C/0 C with COP being 0.26. The regulations of cycling performance and minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) were determined by altering heat source temperature. Results showed that cooling power and system COP increase while MRT decreases with the growth of heat source temperature. This study develops a new hydride pair and confirms its application in automobile refrigeration systems, while their heat transfer properties still need to be improved for better performance. (author)

  11. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  12. On the performance of air conditioner with heat pipe for cooling air in the condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naphon, Paisarn, E-mail: paisarnn@swu.ac.t [Thermo-Fluids and Heat Transfer Enhancement Laboratory (TFHT), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Srinakharinwirot University, 63 Rangsit-Nakhornnayok Rd., Ongkharak, Nakhorn-Nayok 26120 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Improvement of the air conditioning system performance by using the heat pipe for cooling air before entering the condenser is presented. In the experiment, the heat pipe is fabricated from the straight copper tube with the diameter and length of 10, 600 mm, respectively. The arrangements of the heat pipe sets are arranged in the staggered layout with the tube rows of 1, 2, 3. R134a refrigerant is used as working fluid in the heat pipe set for this present study. By comparing with a conventional air conditioning system, the air conditioning system with three rows of heat pipe gives the highest COP and EER with increasing of 6.4%, 17.5%, respectively. On the global warming and environment problems, the results of this study are expected to lead to guidelines that will allow the improved performance of the air conditioning systems which reduce its energy consumption.

  13. 带冷凝热回收的家用空调器的研究%Study on domestic air conditioner with condensing heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德福; 陈华; 黄耀坤

    2012-01-01

    随着生活水平的提高,家用空调器的使用逐年增加.空调器在夏季向室内供冷的同时,不仅给室外环境造成了热污染,而且还造成了能源的浪费.因此,很多学者都提出了空调冷凝热回收理论并进行了实验研究.文中分析了在家用空调器回收冷凝热的可行性及研究现状;介绍了家用空调器采用的冷凝热回收系统的形式及其分类;提出了一种带冷凝热回收装置的多功能热泵系统,并对该系统循环加热式冷凝热回收进行了实验研究和分析.%With tne improvement of living standards, the use of domestic air conditioner gradually increases year by year. In summer, air conditioner will consume a lot of energy for maintaining indoor air conditions and discharge lots of condensation heat into the environment which cause the environmental thermal pollution and waste of energy. Therefore, many scholars have put forward the theory and carried out the experimental studies on air conditioner with condensing heat recovery. In this study, the feasibility of recycling condensing heat on domestic air conditioner was analyzed. The form and assortment of air conditioner system with the condensing heat recovery were introduced. A multi functional hybrid domestic air conditioner system was put out, the circulating water heater of recovering condensing heat was tested and the results were analyzed.

  14. Discussion on Refitting Air Conditioner on EVs%关于电动汽车空调改装探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷丰

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis and explanation of its working principle and refitting method, the author presents the basic thinking of electric refit of air conditioner on traditional vehicles.%针对纯电动汽车空调在传统汽车空调基础上的改装,结合其工作原理及改装方法进行一定的分析说明,提出对传统汽车空调电动化改装的基本思路。

  15. 空调运行管理中的节能研究%Energy-saving research in operation management of air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元

    2012-01-01

    对空调系统运行管理中的节能进行了研究,并对空调系统运行管理的节能基础及节能措施进行了分析,通过采取良好的节能措施降低空调系统的能源消耗,从而有利于社会经济的良好发展。%The paper studies the energy-saving in the operation management of the air-conditioner system,analyzes the energy-saving foundation and the energy-saving measures of the operation management of the air-conditioner system,and reduces the source consumption of the air-conditioner system by adopting better energy-saving measures,so as to enhance the better development of the society and economy.

  16. R407C在客车空调中的应用技术%Application Technology of R407C to Bus/Coach Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉文

    2015-01-01

    The author introduces the calculation method of R407C and R134a theoretical thermodynamic cycle, an-alyzes the effects variation of R407C on the bus/coach air-conditioner performance, and the selection of parts and materials for R407C bus/coach air-conditioner. This can provide a reference for the design of R407C bus/coach air-conditioner.%介绍R407C与R134a理论热力循环计算方法;对R407C客车空调系统性能的变化、零部件和材料的选用进行技术分析;为R407C客车空调器的研发设计提供参考。

  17. Analysis on Technology and Economic Feasibility of Air Conditioner%天然气空调的技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何于涛; 魏敦崧; 刘敏飞

    2001-01-01

    文章简述了天然气应用于空调机组的技术概况,通过办公室空调冷热源的四种方案比较,分析了以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组的经济性,此外文章还就以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组对环境的影响以及在小区集中供冷供热中的应用前景进行了讨论.%This article briefs on the technology of applying NG to air conditioner. with the comparison between 4proposals on cooling and warming resources for office air conditioner, the economic feasibility of NG as drivingenergy is analyzed. Furthermore, this article discusses the environmental impact of air conditioner using NG,

  18. 谈建筑暖通空调的设计要点%On design for architectural heat-ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康成

    2015-01-01

    The paper indicates the concept for the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system,describes its basic key points of design from the design planning,loading calculation of air-conditioners,and ventilation system design,and puts forward the matters needing attention in the design,so as to ensure the design quality of the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system.%简述了暖通空调系统的含义,从设计规划、空调负荷计算、通风系统设计等方面,论述了建筑暖通空调的基本设计要点,提出了在设计中应该注意的问题,以保证暖通空调系统的设计质量。

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  20. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  1. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  2. 空调器运行性能影响因素简析%Analysis on the Long-term Performance of Air Conditioner Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建军; 戴兴学; 叶檀

    2013-01-01

    The effects of on-off controlled air conditioners, outdoor temperature and dust contaminate on the performance of air conditioner are carried out on the 3 different rated capacity air conditioners in the paper. The results show that the effects on the cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio are not more than 4% and 5% by on-off controlled air conditioner, 10% and 15% by temperature, 12% and 16% by dust contaminate respectively. So the dust contaminate and temperature on the air conditioner are important factors on evaluating the air conditioner is compliance with the long-term energy saving.%  本文通过3种不同额定制冷量的热泵型房间空调器研究了开停机、室外温度以及粉尘污染等因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响规律。结果表明,开停机对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过4%,EER不超过5%,室外温度对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过10%,EER不超过15%,粉尘污染对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过12%,EER不超过16%。因此,在实际评价空调器是否满足长效节能要求时,需着重考虑粉尘污染和温度负荷两个因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响。

  3. 房间空调器综合性能优化及应用研究%Room Air Conditioner Combination Performance Optimization and Applied Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 张士友; 董际鼎

    2014-01-01

    制冷量、制热量、能效比和噪声是房间空调器最重要的性能指标。通过对空调器的噪声控制和降低噪声方法进行研究,合理处理空调器噪声、节能与产品成本的关系;采用提高空调器配机系数和高传热系数的热交换器提升空调器能效系数和冷重比。从理论分析结合实际操作方法,介绍了在降低噪声和产品成本的同时,提高空调器产品能效比、冷重比、配机系数等性能优化方法,并取得较好效果。%There are many performance indexes for room air conditioner, such as cooling capacity, heating capacity, EER and noise. Through research on the method of noise control and reducing of air conditioner, the relationship with noise, energy conservation and product cost of air conditioner is managed rationally. In order to increase the energy efficiency coefficient and cooling-weight ratio of air conditioner, the heat exchangers which could increase matching coefficient and heat transfer coefficient of air conditioner are used. The method of theoretical analysis and practical operating experience is used. Meanwhile the performance optimization methods for increasing EER, cooling-weight ratio and matching coefficient of air conditioner are introduced with inducing noise and product cost which achieve better efficiency.

  4. Optimal Design Principle for Air Conditioner with Refrigerant R290%R290空调器的优化设计原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶丹; 丁国良; 王婷婷; 高屹峰; 宋吉

    2013-01-01

    The principle for optimal design for air conditioners with refrigerant R290 is proposed. The principle is based on the thermal performance analysis and comparison of the three refrigerants, which are R290, R22 and R410A. The principle includes the optimal design of compressor, condenser, evaporator and orifice set: the compressor discharge rate of R290 air conditioner should be bigger; the condenser of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes; the evaporator of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes;the capillary length of R290 air conditioner should be about 39%longer than that of R22 air conditioner, and should be about 44%shorter than that of R410A air conditioner. Meanwhile, the suggestion of how to guarantee the security of R290 air conditioner is also proposed in this paper.%  在分析比较 R290、R22、R410A 三种工质热力性能的基础上,对采用 R290工质的空调器提出了优化设计原则。优化设计原则主要针对压缩机、冷凝器、蒸发器、节流装置四大部件:R290空调器的压缩机应增加排量;R290空调器的冷凝器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的蒸发器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的毛细管应比R22空调器的长约39%,比R410A空调器的短约44%。在提出R290空调器优化设计原则的同时,本文对保证R290空调器安全性提出了建议。

  5. A close look at air-conditioner air-filters; Klimaanlagen-Luftfilter unter der Lupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, F.

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a long-term study made on air-filters. Results of measurements made according to EN 779 under ideal conditions are discussed and their use as a basis for the assessment of performance in practice is looked at critically. The two-year, long-term study follows up earlier studies on the hygiene of air-conditioning systems. Real-life installations with F7 and F9 filters were tested. Measurement methods used are discussed and the characteristics of the filters with respect to micro-organisms looked at. Various factors considered are examined and alternative filter combinations are briefly discussed. The results are presented in graphical form. EN 779-specific tests made and the results obtained are discussed.

  6. Effect of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Department of Power and Energy Engineering, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD. The relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the shape and the steel wire diameter of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that the circular shape of air outlet louver gives benefit of noise decrease. An air outlet louver with different diameters of steel wires is designed on the basis of analysis of the influence of the steel wire diameter of the air outlet louver on the noise. The computation and experiment validate that the air outlet louver with different diameters of steel wires can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  7. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Ho [WiniaMando, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Yoon [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view.

  8. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  9. Electrical and Control System Air Conditioner Teaching%空调器电气与控制系统教学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 阳丽

    2013-01-01

    空调器电气与控制系统部分是整个空调器教学中十分重要的内容,作者通过理论与实践教学,发现了当下在空调器教学中遇到的问题,并反思总结了一些有意义的经验做法。%Conditioner electrical and control parts of the system is the air conditioner is very important teaching content through the theory and practice of teaching, found a moment in the air conditioner problems encountered in teaching and reflect summa-rizes some meaningful experience approach.

  10. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor

  11. 提高空调产品性能研究%The Research of Improve the Air-conditioner Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本研究通过对家用空调结构优化设计,提高内机循环风量,以及对蒸发器结构优化,输入输出管采用多进多出管,使制冷剂流入、流出均匀,大大提高空调制冷能力和能效。%Using the optimized design for the structure of air conditioner can improve the circulating air flow of indoor unit. Optimizing the structure of the evaporator, and using multiple-out tube for input & output pipe can make the inflow & outflow of refrigerant uniform, which greatly improves product’s ability and energy efficiency.

  12. 中央空调节能技术分析%On technical analysis of central air-conditioner for saving energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云龙

    2009-01-01

    From three aspects of the air-conditioner design, the control in key links, the energy-saving measures in using process and the management of the central air-conditioner, the paper analyzes and sums up the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system and provides opinions for the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system, so as to enhance the devdopment of the architectural energy-saving and the creation of the conservation-mined society.%从空调设计中的关键环节控制、空调使用过程中的节能措施以及中央空调的管理三个方面,对中央空调系统的节能进行了分析和总结,为中央空调系统的节能提供了有意义的看法,以促进建筑节能的发展和节约型社会的创建.

  13. Fire cause investigation of a air conditioner fault fire%对一起空调器故障引发火灾的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于深源

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一起空调器故障引发火灾的现场勘查认定.在未能发现空调器是否发生过故障的情况下,根据空调室内机内及室内部分冷媒管线聚氨酯保温护套的异常痕迹,证明了空调器异常运行、冷媒管异常发热的情况,并结合中国科学院沈阳金属研究所鉴定结论,正确认定了火灾原因.%Fire scene renaissance of a air conditioner fault fire was analyzed. In the event that air conditioner failure could' t be identified, based on abnormal traces of air conditioner indoor unit and some indoor refrigerant pipeline polyurethane insulation sheath, it was proved that the air conditioner didn't run properly and the refrigerant pipe heated abnormally. Combined with identification of Institute of Metal Research, Chinese A-cademy of Sciences, fire cause was identified.

  14. Analysis on Thermodynamic Perfectibility of Room Air Conditioners%房间空调器的热力学完善度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓凤; 马一太; 闫秋辉

    2013-01-01

    According to analysis on the energy efficiency standards of the constant speed room air conditioner and the variable speed type, differences between the two kinds of air conditioners exist in division standard, grades of energy efficiency and outdoor temperature starting refrigeration. Therefore, a survey was made about cooling capacity and EER as well as energy efficiency grades of the constant and variable speed room air conditioners. The thermodynamic perfectibility of the two types of room air conditioners was calculated for the performance evaluation. The calculation results show that energy efficiency standard of variable speed room air conditioners in 2008 is lower than that of constant room air conditioners. A new energy efficiency standard of the variable speed air conditioner is suggested in accordance with the consistent thermodynamic perfectibility.%  通过对定速与转速可控房间空调器能效标准的分析,发现两类房间空调器的能效划分标准、划分等级以及制冷运行室外温度发生时间均有不同的规定。因此对国内市场上的定速房间空调器制冷量和制冷循环的能效比(EER)、转速可控房间空调器制冷量和制冷季节能效比(SEER)、以及定速房间空调器与转速可控房间空调器的能效等级现状等方面进行了调研统计。利用热力学完善度对两类房间空调器能效等级进行计算,发现2008版转速可控房间空气调节器的能效等级的热力学完善度偏低,根据热力学完善度相一致的原则,提出转速可控房间空调器新的能效标准等级的建议。

  15. Experimental investigation of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a mixture in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabaraj, D.B.; Avinash, P.; Lal, D. Mohan; Renganarayan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2006-09-15

    HCFC22, one of the widely used refrigerants in window air conditioners must be phased out soon as per the Montreal protocol. Presently, HFC407C is considered as a potential drop in substitute for HCFC22, but retrofitting HCFC22 systems with HFC407C with polyol ester oil (POE) is a major issue as HFC407C is immiscible with mineral oil. The miscibility issue of HFC407C with mineral oil was overcome with the addition of a HC blend to it. The above technoeconomic feasibility issues to retrofit the existing HCFC22 systems with an ozone friendly refrigerant and retain the energy efficiency of the system are challenges in the air conditioning sector. In this present work, an experimental analysis has been conducted in a window air conditioner retrofitted with eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil. Its performance, as well as energy consumption, was compared with the conventional one. It is observed that the mixtures demand lengthening of the condenser in order to maintain the discharge pressure within acceptable limits. This also resulted in better heat transfer at the condenser. Therefore, in this study, the condenser tube length was increased by 19% to suit the mixtures as compared to HCFC22. Compared to HCFC22, the refrigeration capacity of the new mixture was 9.54-12.76% higher than that of HCFC22, while the actual COP was found to be 11.91-13.24% higher than that of HCFC22. The overall performance has proved that the HFC407C/HC blend refrigerant mixture could be an eco-friendly substitute to phase out HCFC22. (author)

  16. AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF REFRIGERANT CHARGE LEVEL AND OUTDOOR CONDITION ON A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Herbert Raj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available R22 is an hydrochlorofluorocarbon widely used in refrigerant and air conditioning plants and although it has a low ozone depletion potential (0.05, it is necessary to consider the large amount that commonly escapes from commercial units to the atmosphere. This paper presents experimental investigation on the performance of a window air conditioner operated with R22 and the M20 (80% R407C and 20% HC blend by wt. refrigerant mixture tested under different refrigerant charge levels and outdoor conditions. Experiments were conducted in accordance with the Bureau of Indian standards procedure in a psychrometric test facility. Capillary and charge optimization tests were conducted for the both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture based on maximum coefficient of performance. Refrigerant charge in the air conditioner was systematically varied and the influences of refrigerant charge quantities and outdoor conditions on system performance are studied for both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture. At each charge levels, the outdoor room conditions were changed in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards. It is observed that R22 is more sensitive to deviations in charge levels as compared to the M20 refrigerant mixture. A decrease in charge level of about 7% reduced the system refrigerating capacity by 11.3% with R22 while with the M20 refrigerant mixture it reduces by 6.9% only. Similarly an over charge by 7% reduces the refrigerating capacity of the system by 13.8% with R22 while with M20 it reduces by 6.5% only.

  17. 太阳能辐射空调器的研究%On Solar Radiant Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚东; 王军

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a solar radiant air-conditioner [1], which supplies heating and cooling for an office hall in one of the colleges in Haikou, Hainan. The system of the solar radiant air-conditioner uses solar water cooler and capillary network. The composition of the system is presented, and the major energy-saving parts of the system and the energy-saving performance ratio of the conventional temperature difference in air conditioning are analyzed from the thermodynamic theory. After running half a year, the system achieved the effects of substantial energy saving and reducing the thermal pollution of the environ-ment from the test data of the indicators. The system has the advantages of low investment and high utiliza-tion rate of the equipments.%介绍一种太阳能辐射空调器[1],为海南省海口市某学院办公事务大厅提供制冷的案例。系统用太阳冷水器与毛细管网相结合,介绍了其系统组成,并用热力学理论分析了本系统各主要节能部分与常规温差空调的节能效能比。系统运行半年,从各项指标检测数据看,取得了大幅节约能源,减少了对环境热污染的效果。该系统初投资少,设备利用率高,对今后的推广有一定的指导作用。

  18. 空调器使用陋习及其解决方案分析%Analysis of the Bad Habits in Use of Air Conditioner and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱王武; 余志强; 陈志; 邹文才; 潘卢义; 徐名艳

    2015-01-01

    After the observation of the air conditioner usage, it found many bad habits in use, such as, overuse of air conditioners, turned air conditioners without person, and so on. These bad habits cause the unnecessary energy waste of air conditioner. For this, this paper proposed an energy-saving control device which is based on the outdoor temperature, indoor staff conditions and time mode, can correct the bad habits, and is suitable for small air conditioner. Application of the device can reduce unnecessary energy and labor costs, improve management efficiency, and also can bring good economic benefits to the family and unit, and it has positive significance for the energy conservation and emission reduction of society.%经过对空调器使用习惯的观察发现,普遍存在着空调器过度使用、无人却开机等多种的使用不良习惯。这些习惯造成了空调器不必要的能源浪费。对此,提出一种基于室外气温、室内人员情况和时间模式的、可纠正不良使用习惯的、面向小型空调器的节能控制装置。该装置的应用能减少不必要的能源和人工开支,提高管理效率,给单位和家庭还可带来不错的经济效益,对整个社会的节能减排具有积极意义。

  19. Effect of deflecting ring on noise generated by outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-05-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD, the relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the width and contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that there is an optimal width of the deflecting ring, corresponding to the minimum noise generated by the outdoor set. In addition, the influence of the contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed and a double contoured duct is designed. The results of computation and experiment verify that the deflecting ring with double contoured duct can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  20. Performance of mixture refrigerant R152a/R125/R32 in domestic air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Chu, Yingjie; Hu, Jing; Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This work reports a ternary blend R152a/R125/R32 with a mass ratio of 48/18/34 as a potential alternative to R22. A computer code has been developed with NIST REFPROP 7.0 for the comparative analysis of thermophysical properties and refrigerant performance of this new mixture and of R22. A drop-in test of this new mixture was performed in a domestic air-conditioner originally designed for R22. Both the calculation and experimental results showed that this new mixture could be regarded as a most likely drop-in substitute for R22 in many applications. The flammability of this ternary blend was also studied with an explosion apparatus to prove that it could be used safely. Besides, simulation of the refrigerant cycle leakage showed that the variation of composition due to leakage was so little that there is no much performance degradation. (author)

  1. 无人值守基站空调室外机防盗方案探讨%Discussion of Guard Against Theft for Outdoor Air Conditioner in Unattended Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫保辉

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor air conditioners are missing seriously from unattended base station.In this paper,the discussion of guard against theft is given from the following aspects: installation of outdoor air conditioner,report of alarms,and accurate location of GPS terminal to lost outdoor air conditioner.%无人值守基站空调室外机丢失严重。文中从室外机安装,告警上报,GPS定位终端对丢失的室外机精确定位几方面提出了一种空调室外机防盗方案。

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. VRF air conditioner connected to the central control system. LON interface in the Sparkasse Greiz administrative building; Einsatz einer VRF-Klimaanlage mit Anbindung an die GLT. Ermoeglicht in der Sparkasse Greiz durch LON-Schnittstelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, L. [Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Central monitoring and control systems ensure automatic control and optimum operating conditions of heating systems, air conditioners and ventilation systems. The operating cost is minimized by early intervention. (orig.)

  4. Development and Application of Air Conditioner with Energy-saving Condensate Water Nebulization for Vehicle%车载冷凝雾化节能空调的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建萍

    2011-01-01

    The author introduces a new type of auto air-conditioner, which has marked energy-saving effect through condensation water nebulization. This auto air-conditioner could be widely applied.%介绍一种带冷凝水雾化装置的新型空调系统。该系统具有明显的节能降耗效果,应用前景广泛。

  5. Strict Implementation of Air-Conditioner Temperature Control Standards to Actively Help Public Building Energy Saving%严格执行空调温控标准积极助力公共建筑节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海市节能监察中心

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了2015年空调温控监察工作,提出了存在的主要问题、解决方法及今后空调温控监察的打算和建议.%The article introduces air-conditioner temperature control supervision work and puts forward existing problems, solutions and plans and suggestions on air-conditioner temperature control supervision in the future.

  6. Air- conditioner Energy Saving Renovation of Gaokai District IDC Telecom Room in Tangshan%IDC机房空调节能改造工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 田浩

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了中国联通唐山分公司高开区IDC(互联网数据中心)机房空调的节能改造工程,根据改造后空调机组耗电量的实测数据,对节能型机房空调与普通型机房空调的能耗进行了对比,证实了改造后机房空调方案具有很好的节能效果,可为相似老旧通信机房的节能改造提供参考.%The air - conditioner energy saving renovation of Gaokai district IDC (Internet Data Center) telecom room of China Unicom Tangshan Branch was introduced in this paper. According to the measured power consumption of the air conditioning units after renovation, the energy consumption of energy - sav-ing telecom room air conditioners and common telecom room air conditioners were also compared in this paper. It was proved that the energy saving effect after renovation was extremely obvisus. This paper may be a reference for the energy saving renovation of similar old telecom rooms.

  7. 谈暖通空调节能问题%On energy-saving issues in heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宇

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces the meanings in the energy-saving design of heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners,illustrates the design methods from the heat-supply,ventilation and air-conditioners,and sums up the precautions in the energy-saving design,so as to improve the u-tility ratio of the resources and enhance the extension of the energy-saving technique.%介绍了暖通空调节能设计的意义,从供暖、通风、空调三方面,阐述了暖通空调节能设计的方法,总结了节能设计中的注意事项,有利于提高能源的利用率,促进节能技术的推广应用。

  8. Simulation System of Modular Air Conditioner Control Based on WinCC%基于WinCC的模块式空调机控制仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤志强

    2016-01-01

    本设计是仿真模块式空调机的控制系统,系统的基本工艺流程是:通过温度传感器对室内外的温度进行检测,设定温度与室内温度进行比较,确定空调加热还是制冷。利用四通阀、热交换器、压缩机进行温度调节。%This design is simulating modular air conditioner control system,the basic process of the system is: measure the temperature of exterior and interior used to text by the temperature sensor,setting a temperature compare with the interior temperature, then determine the air conditioner is heating or cooling, in the end adjust the temperature by four-way valves,switches,and compressors.

  9. Study on breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu, China%芜湖地区居室空调粉螨污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛孝东; 陈琪; 郭伟; 李朝品

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖地区居室内空调粉螨的污染情况.方法 于2012年6-10月采集芜湖市居民家用柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网的灰尘,对孳生的螨类进行分类鉴定,并按种统计个体数.率的比较采用x2检验.结果 共收集202份空调隔尘网积尘样本,检出螨类3265只,其中粉螨2796只,隶属6科14属18种;平均孳生密度为10.39只/g,孳生率为70.79%;柜式空调隔尘网积尘中螨类孳生率为58.73%,壁挂式空调螨类孳生率为76.26%,二者差异有统计学意义(x2=6.442,P<0.05).麦食螨科、粉螨科和食甜螨科构成比较高,分别为53.47%、20.96%和18.13%.结论 芜湖地区柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网粉螨孳生情况严重,物种多样性丰富.%Objective To investigate the breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu,China.Methods Dust was collected from the dust screens of the cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners used by Wuhu residents from June to October 2012.The mites breeding in the dust were classified and identified,and the mites of each species were counted.The mite breeding rates were compared by chi-square test.Results A total of 202 dust samples were collected from the dust screens of air conditioners; 3265 mites,including 2796 acaroid mites,were detected from the dust samples,and they were identified as 18 species,14 genera,and 6 families.The mean breeding density was 10.39 mites/g of dust,and the breeding rate was 70.79%.The mite breeding rate for the cabinet air conditioners was 58.73%,versus 76.26% for the wall-mounted air conditioners (x2=6.442,P<0.05).Pyroglyphidae,Acaridae,and Glycyphagidae were commonly seen and accounted for 53.47%,20.96%,and 18.13% of the total tmites,respectively.Conclusion In Wuhu,acaroid mites breed heavily in the dust screens of cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners,with high species diversity.

  10. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  11. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  13. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  14. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  15. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guobing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang, Yufeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed. (author)

  16. Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianyong; Yu, Jianlin [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a new refrigeration cycle (NRC) using the binary non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture R32/R134a is presented, which can be an alternative refrigeration cycle applied in residential air-conditioner. In the NRC, refrigerant circuit of the evaporator is separated into two branches. Because the non-azeotropic mixture has the characteristic of temperature glide, an important benefit of such configuration is that the Lorentz cycle can be realized. Compared with that of conventional cycle configuration, the new cycle efficiency can be improved. The calculating results show that, in the conventional refrigeration cycle (CRC), the mixture R32/R134a has a close performance to that is obtainable with pure refrigerant R22. However, the mixture R32/R134a in the NRC will result in a better performance. The maximal COP can be improved in a range of 8-9% over that of the CRC, and the volumetric refrigerating capacity can be approximately increased by 9.5%. (author)

  17. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Diddi, Saurabh [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Bureau of Energy Efficiency; Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  18. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  19. Study on Energy Efficiency Decay of on-duty Room Air Conditioners%在用房间空气调节器能效衰减研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何曙; 袁雅青; 吴志东; 田波; 戴兴学

    2015-01-01

    53 sets of on-duty room air conditioners coming from different temperature areas, made from different manufactures, having different cooling capacities and having been used no less than 5 years were tested and ana-lyzed.Results show that except for the decay rate of energy efficiency of products with different brands various signifi-cantly, the effect of service temperature areas, on-duty duration and cooling capacity on the decay rate of energy ef-ficiency is negligible.The energy efficiency of domestic air conditioners served for more than 5 years is much less than the minimum allowable energy efficiency values stipulated in current standards with majority 20%~30%lower, some even 54%lower.In order to analyze the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction caused by accel-erating eliminating the on-duty domestic air conditioners, the market share of on-duty air conditioners in China in 2008 was taken for case study.Results indicate that even if the on-duty air conditioners were replaced by new air con-ditioners of minimum allowable energy efficiency, it will save 214.7 billion kWh power and reduce carbon dioxide e-mission 214.7 million ton every cooling season.If they are replaced by higher energy efficiency air conditioners or vari-able-speed ones, the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction will be bigger.%对53台来自在不同温区、不同品牌的、不同制冷量、使用了5年及以上的在用房间空气调节器能效进行了测试分析,结果表明除不同品牌的产品能效衰减率差异较大外,使用温区、使用年限、产品制冷量对空调能效衰减率的影响不大。使用了5年或更长时间的家用空调器能效水平远低于当前标准规定的能效限定值,普遍低20%~30%,最高可低54%。为分析加速淘汰在用空调器的节能减排潜力,以2008年中国在用空调器的保有量进行估算,即使以当前最低能效水平的空调器进行

  20. 恒温恒湿空调机PLC控制程序优化%Optimization of the PLC Control Program of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建国

    2014-01-01

    optimized the PLC control program of constant temperature and humidity air conditioners in the production areas of Guangzhou Cigarette Factory. Using the methods of adjusting air moisture content of the air supply outlet to adjust relative air humidity, adopting cascade PID double loop adjustment in the PID algorithm of temperature and humidity, increasing the working condition recognition and correction of logic in each air conditioner and constructing intelligent air conditioning control module to realize automatic temperature and humidity adjustment, remarkable energy-saving effect has been achieved.%优化了广州卷烟厂生产区域空调恒温恒湿空调机的PLC控制程序,采取的措施包括调节送风口的空气中的含湿量从而调节环境的空气相对湿度,在温度及湿度的PID算法上采用串级PID双环调节,在各台空调机增加工况识别及修正逻辑,构建智能空调控制模块实现温湿度自动偏移等,取得了显著的节能效果。

  1. Air Conditioner Selection with TOPSIS and VIKOR Methods In Multi Criteria Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERTUĞRUL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological and global changes nowadays enable air conditioning sector to gain a higher importance. Short and long term risks for comsumers, the use of air conditioningtechnology with cost minimization, the increase of product charesteristics and firms, and the variability of product features have led to the need for multi-criteria decision. Therefore, caring the multiple criteria and the alternatives, the multi-criteria decision making techniques are taken to the scope of application. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors which affect the decision of air conditioning choice and to present the preference ranking suggestion. Having the nearly have got the approximately equivalent heating and cooling capacity, air conditionings in A+ class are included in the scope of related research. In application, when choosing air conditioning products, Topsis and Vikor that are multi-criteria decision-making methods are used and the results are compared and evaluated. When choosing air conditioning products, preference plansa re presented in the application.

  2. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  3. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Mostafa, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); Ibrahim, Talaat A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); King Saud Univ., P.O. 70908, 11577 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m{sup 3}/h and temperature of 35 C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%. (author)

  4. Practical experiments on an adsorption air conditioner powered by exhausted heat from a diesel locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Jianzhou, S.; Xu, Y.X.; Wu, J.Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics

    2004-05-01

    Experimental studies on the practical performance of an adsorption air conditioning system powered by exhausted heat from a diesel locomotive are presented. The system incorporates one adsorbent bed and utilizes zeolite-water as a working pair to provide chilled water for conditioning the air in the driver's cab of the locomotive. Performance tests under different running conditions have been carried out. Experimental results show that the suggested adsorption system is technically feasible and can be applied for space air conditioning of the locomotive driver's cab, except the case when the locomotive tracts a way train. The average refrigeration power ranging from 3.0 to 4.2 kW has been obtained under typical running conditions. (author)

  5. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  6. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  8. The Usage of Household Split-type Air Conditioner on Naval Vessel%家用分体式空调器在舰船上的使用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊; 施晓波

    2013-01-01

    This paper expatiates some problems of small-sized water-cooling air conditioners using on naval ships. It analyses advantages of household wind-cooling split-type air conditioners compared with marine small-sized air conditioners. Some key technologies on installing and using of household air conditioners on naval ships are pointed out. Through theoretical analysis and survey, it is thought to be practicable to use household split-type air conditioners on naval vessel.%  详细阐述了船用小型水冷式空调器在舰船使用存在的一些问题,分析当前家用分体式空调器相比船用小型空调器的优点,并指出家用空调在舰船安装使用的关键技术。通过理论分析及实船反复调研,认为舰船上采用家用分体式空调器是可行的。

  9. 并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调节能特性%Energy-saving Character of a Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner with Parallel Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康靖; 王劲柏

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid solar air-conditioner with consideration of solar energy’s characteristics is proposed in this paper. We use the air conditioner models, which established by steady-state distribution parameters method, to simulate the influence of chilling water temperature obtained by solar assisted cooling system on the hybrid air conditioner operation performance. The air conditioner operation characteristics studied by analyzing the flow rate variation. Through comparison with another kind of basic model, we obtained variation of the thermal efficiency COP, and analyzed the energy saving character of this air conditioner simply.%根据太阳能的特点,提出了一种并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调器,并用稳态分布参数法建立空调器模型,来模拟计算太阳能辅助冷却系统制取的冷水水温变化对复合式空调器运行效果的影响。通过分析制冷剂流量变化研究该空调器的运行特性,并与另一种基本运行模式对比,得到了其热效能COP值的变化情况,并对该空调器的节能特性进行了简单的分析。

  10. 基于Matlab的CRH2动车组空调变频控制仿真%Simulation of Air Conditioner Frequency Conversion Control of CRH2 EMUs Based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏海龙; 杨美传; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CRH2动车组空调控制系统,并用Matlab/Simulink对动车组空调系统进行建模仿真,将空调变频控制系统与通断式空调控制系统二者作用下的客室温度和制冷量作比较分析,同时对过分相时动车组空调运行做了仿真.仿真模型能够较好地模拟动车组空调运行过程中客室温度和制冷量的变化.%Air conditioner control system of CRH2 EMUs was introduced and simulated based on Matlab/Simulink. Passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with frequency conversion control air conditioner system and on/off air conditioner control system was compared and analyzed, as well as air conditioner operation during train passing neutral sections was simulated. The built model simulates passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with air conditioner system well.

  11. 电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工监理的控制要点%On controlling points for construction inspection for cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering cases,the paper analyzes the features of cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops, and illustrates the monitoring controlling points for the cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops from the materials and equipment entry,installation of air-conditioner wind system and air-conditioner water system,so as to enhance the cleaning air-conditioner system to achieve the expected effect.%结合工程案例,分析了电子工业洁净空调系统的特点,并从材料和设备进场、空调风系统安装、空调水系统安装三个方面出发,阐述了电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工的监理控制要点,促使洁净空调系统达到预期的效果。

  12. On design for air-conditioners and ventilation in some orient home household square in Shanxi%山西某地东方家园家居广场的空调与通风设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业辉

    2012-01-01

    重点介绍了某家居广场的空调、通风的设计特点,阐述了空调方式、防排烟、空调自控及节能等的设计,强调了空调设计中节能的重要性及消防设计的重要性,以期引起相关设计人员重视。%The paper mainly introduces the design features for the air-conditioners and ventilation of the household square,mainly illustrates the design for the air-conditioning ways,the smoke control,the auto-control system of air-conditioners,and its energy-saving,and emphasizes the importance of the energy-saving and the fire-control design in the air-conditioner design,so as to draw the attention of relative design personnel.

  13. Performance analysis of a ground-assisted direct evaporative cooling air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Khalajzadeh, Vahid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran); Delfani, Shahram [Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), P O Box 13145-1696, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, the results of performance analysis of a ground-assisted hybrid evaporative cooling system in Tehran have been discussed. A Ground Coupled Circuit (GCC) provides the necessary pre-cooling effects, enabling a Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) that cools the air even below its wet-bulb temperature. The GCC includes four vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE) which were arrayed in series configuration. In order to have an accurate prediction of the optimum performance of a GCC, a computational fluid dynamic simulation was performed. Simulation results revealed that the combination of GCC and DEC system could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the simulation results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than 100%. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems. (author)

  14. Decentralized ventilation. Air conditioner of the future; Gedecentraliseerde ventilatie. De luchtbehandelingsinstallatie van de toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, T. [Swegon Ltd, Kvaenum (Sweden); Hartmans, J.L.F. [Bergschenhoek, Berkel Rodenrijs (Netherlands)

    2005-11-01

    An overview is given of arguments to apply decentralized air conditioning systems instead of large central ventilation and air conditioning systems. It appears that savings can be realized with respect to investment, exploitation and the use of energy. [Dutch] Bij het ontwerpen van een ventilatie en/of luchtbehandelingssysteem voor gebouwen ging lange tijd de voorkeur uit naar het plaatsen van grote luchtbehandelingskasten die de ventilatie van het overgrote deel van het gebouw moesten regelen. De achterliggende gedachte hiervan was dat dit het goedkoopst zou zijn. Er zijn tal van redenen te bedenken waarom met een gedecentraliseerde luchtbehandelings-installatie veel beter op de investerings- en exploitatiekosten kan worden bespaard en een grotere efficientie van de energiebronnen kan worden bereikt. Ook kunnen in het ontwerp van de installatie bepaalde factoren worden opgenomen die bijdragen aan een veel beter totaal resultaat.

  15. Revisiting solar-powered ejector air conditioner - the greener the better

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbel, A. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bet-Dagan (Israel). Department of Central Agriculture and Environmental Engineering; Sokolov, M. [Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

    2004-07-01

    Previous work on solar-powered ejector air-conditioning system is updated for refrigerant R-142b to replace R-114 as the working fluid. Such update offers viable alternative to the system, which previously used the now banned R-114. Cycles with and without compression enhancements are analyzed to produce variety of systems to suit variety of local considerations. The result of the analysis and simulation introduces not only an environmentally compatible but also a more efficient system. (author)

  16. High energy efficiency desiccant assisted automobile air-conditioner and its temperature and humidity control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: nagaya@me.gunma-u.ac.jp; Senbongi, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Li, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Zheng, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Murakami, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The energy efficiency is of importance in air conditioning systems for automobiles. The present article provides a new type air conditioning system for automobiles in which energy loss is small in comparison with the previous system. In the system, a desiccant is installed in the air conditioning system for controlling both temperature and humidity. The control is performed by an electromagnetic control valve, which controls an inclination of the rotating plate of a compressor. It is difficult to control both temperature and humidity precisely, because there are some delays in the control due to the time of heat exchange and that of coolant flow from the actuator (electromagnetic valve) to the evaporator. In order to have precise control, this article also presents a method of control with consideration of control delays. The energy of our system is compared with that in the previous conventional system in the same condition. It is shown that our controlled results and energy efficiency are better than those in the previous system.

  17. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in the lecture room with 4-way cassette air-conditioner and mixing ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kwang-Chul; Jang, Jae-Soo; Oh, Myung-Do [Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We performed the experimental and the numerical studies on thermal comfort (TC) and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the lecture room with cooling loads when the operating conditions are changed. Predicted mean vote (PMV) value and CO{sub 2} concentration of the lecture room were measured and compared to the numerical results. Both of them showed a reasonable agreement with each other and then we applied the numerical model to analyze TC and IAQ for a couple of different operating conditions. From the results we found that the increment of the discharge angle of 4-way cassette air-conditioner makes uniformity of TC worse, but rarely affects IAQ. It turned out that TC and IAQ are hardly affected by the variation of the discharge airflow. Finally TC was merely affected by the increment of the ventilation rate, but when the ventilation rate is more than 800m{sup 3}/h, the average CO{sub 2} concentration can be satisfied with the standard limits of Japanese in our case studies. (author)

  18. Autonomous solar air conditioner. 100 percent solar powered; Solar autarke Klimatisierung. Mit 100% Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindenburg, C. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Autonomous solar cooling is an interesting option in all cases where storage of chilled products brings about large inherent thermal (cold) storage potential, e.g. wine production. There are also applications in air conditioning of buildings in which autonomous solar cooling systems are technically feasible and economically interesting. (orig.) [German] Generell sind alle Faelle von Prozesskuehlung, in denen durch die Lagerung von gekuehlten Produkten prozessinhaerent grosse thermische (Kaelte-)Speicher vorhanden sind, fuer die solar autarke Kuehlung interessant, beispielsweise die Weinherstellung. Es gibt aber auch Anwendungsfaelle im Bereich der Gebaeudeklimatisierung, bei denen eine solar autarke Kuehlung technisch machbar und zugleich oekonomisch darstellbar ist. (orig.)

  19. Oil Return Measurements In A Unitary Split System Air Conditioner Using Different Refrigerant Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Feichter, Gabriel A.; Eckhard A. Groll; Kurtulus, Orkan; Meng, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this paper is an experimental investigation of the oil return characteristics of alternative refrigerants for residential air conditioning systems using R22. Due to the phase-out of HCFC refrigerants, the production of R22 will be stopped by the year 2020. In some cases of vapor compression systems installed in the field, it will be necessary to replace the R22 with alternative drop-in refrigerants as a part of maintenance procedures. Since R22 system typical...

  20. Introduction of the New Edition of Air-conditioner Safety Standard%关于新版空调安全标准介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the new major points of the air-conditioner standard GB 4706.32-2012, and points out the key points of changes of new standard, and briefly interprets the concept of software evaluation.%  本文介绍了新版空调标准GB 4706.32-2012的主要新增点,指出了关键性的变化点,对软件评估的概念做了简要解读。

  1. Plug-bit design of residential air conditioners Thinking%住宅外挂空调机位设计的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许群枫

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the existing exterior design of residential external air conditioners bit placement method,concludes its four possible seat designs,and further leads to thinking and looking forward to a better future.%对现行住宅外观设计上的外挂空调机位摆置方式进行了调查研究,总结其四种可行的机位设计,并进一步引出思考,展望美好的未来。

  2. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  3. Segregated residential air conditioner load model behavior with temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj, C.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; El Ferik, S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper considered the impact of outdoor weather conditions on air conditioning residential loads in Saudi Arabia. Humidity and temperature loads were analyzed separately. Weather data were collected for a period of 6 months at a typical household in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Inside and outside temperatures, and electrical variables of the household power system were recorded every 5 minutes. Humidity levels were then divided into 3 different comfort levels. A 3-dimensional analysis of the data was then conducted. Mathematical equations were obtained to represent power usage related to humidity and temperature. A regression model was then used to evaluate the influence of humidity on power loads. Field data were then used to validate the regression model. Results of the study showed that the model was able to accurately predict power consumption profiles related to air conditioning in the region. It was concluded that the division of humidity levels into 3 discrete intervals allowed for an improved understanding of the nonlinear relationship between humidity, temperature, and power demand. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Leakage Evaluation of Blend Refrigerant HCFC-22/HFC-152a for Auto mobile Air Conditioners%混合工质HCFC-22/HFC-152a汽车空调系统中泄漏性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 谷松

    2001-01-01

    A analysis of leakage is carried out for automobile air conditioner charged with HCFC-22/HFC-152a. The performance of automobile air conditioners doesn,t obvio usly change when leakage of the blend refrigerant happens. The HCFC-22/HFC-152a( 40/60mass%) can be used as alternative refrigerant in the transition period of e xisting automobile air conditioners.%对采用HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂的汽车空调的 泄漏性能进行了分析;说明了HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂不会因泄漏引起制冷系统性 能的显著变化,它可作为现有的汽车空调系统的过渡替代工质。

  5. New Test Requirement for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioner for European Market%关于欧盟市场空调新能效的测试要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 刘勃宏

    2013-01-01

      According to the new energy requirement for air conditioner performed from Jan. 1, 2013 and the newly-released European Standards (EN14825: 2012), the testing and calculation method of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) of air conditioner was illustrated with inverter air-conditioner, and it could be taken for reference.%  本文根据欧盟2013年1月1日起执行生效的空调新的能源要求,以及最新发布的欧洲标准(EN14825:2012),以变频空调为例阐述空调季节能效比(SEER)和季节性能系数(SCOP)的测试计算方法,以供相关人员参考。

  6. 中央空调风系统管道清洗的调查探讨%On exploration for investigation of pipeline cleaning of central air-conditioner wind system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温嘉

    2012-01-01

    The study illustrates the necessity for the cleaning of the central air-conditioner system,introduces the development status and problems in the cleaning industry of the central pipeline air-conditioner system at home and abroad,and has the perspective for the future of the cleaning industry of the central air-conditioner system in China.%阐述了中央空调风系统清洗的必要性,介绍了国内外中央空调风系统管道清洗行业的发展状况和存在的问题,展望了我国中央空调风系统管道清洗行业发展的大好前景。

  7. Evaluation of the air conditioner quality in the health care sector; Uitvoeringskwaliteit luchtbehandelingsunit in de zorgsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Haperen, K. [Carrier Holland Heating, Waalwijk (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    To specify the required quality standards for an air conditioning unit, the user must critically consider a number of criteria in order to decide what design and construction standards the unit and its built in components must meet; and these will depend on the application. The principle criteria involved are undoubtedly energy consumption, durability, reliability and maintenance costs. The choice of the manufacturer or supplier also plays an important part. [Dutch] Voor het vastleggen van het gewenste kwaliteitsniveau van een luchtbehandelingsunit dient de eindgebruiker een aantal zaken kritisch te overwegen om te kunnen beslissen aan welke ontwerp- en constructie-eisen de unit met ingebouwde componenten moet voldoen; e.e.a, afhankelijk van de toepassing. De voor de zorgsector belangrijkste toetsingscriteria hierbij zijn ongetwijfeld energiegebruik, duurzaamheid, betrouwbaarheid en onderhoudskosten. De keuze van de fabrikant/leverancier speelt hierin een belangrijke rol.

  8. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baone, Chaitanya A [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  9. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  10. 基于SINDA/FLUINT平台的R290房间空调器仿真%R290 room air- conditioner simulation based on SINDA/FLUINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁杰荣; 李廷勋

    2011-01-01

    R290 is environment -friendly natural refrigerant, but it is flammable. According to IEC 60335 the charge is limited strictly in room air conditioner (RAC). In this paper, simulating models of R290 room air conditioner were developed based on SINDA/FLUINT, and the models were verified by comparing the simulated temperature distribution and system performance like COP and indoor air humidity with experiment results. With the models, the R290 mass distribution and pressure drop among the RAC components were calculated. It is found that refrigerant concentrates in condenser (62%), while pressure drop is mainly produced in evaporator, liquid line and vapor line.%R290制冷剂是环保自然工质,但具有可燃性,在空调中对充注量要求非常严格.基于SINDA/FLUINT仿真平台对R290系统进行建模,通过与温度和运行性能的实验数据对比,检验了模型的可靠性;计算分析了R290空调器内各部件的制冷剂分布及沿程压损.计算结果表明,冷媒主要集中在冷凝器(62%);沿程压损主要集中在蒸发器,液相管和气相管.

  11. Application of central air conditioner system on modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform%集中空调系统在海洋固定平台模块钻机上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立臣; 许瑞杰; 马冬辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air conditioner selection of Lu Feng7-2 oil ifeld modular drilling rig project, this paper determines two sets of selection of air conditioner by preliminary study, which are central and separation air conditioner systems, respectively. With comparison between the central air conditioner and the split air conditioner in cost, effciency, comfort, space, etc., it concludes that the central air conditioner system has the advantages of lower operation cost, higher energy effciency ratio, better comfort capability, smaller space occupation and so on. It also analyzes its superiority and prospect of application on the modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform, which can provide a certain reference for the room cooling design and the equipment selection.%结合陆丰7-2油田模块钻机项目空调选型,通过前期调查研究制定了两套空调选型方案:集中空调系统方案和分体空调系统方案。通过对比两者在费用、工作效率、舒适性、占用空间等方面的特点,得出集中空调系统具有初始投入及运行成本低、能效比高、舒适性好、占地面积小等方面的优点,并分析了集中空调在海洋固定平台模块钻机上使用的优越性以及应用前景,对海洋固定平台模块钻机的房间制冷设计及设备选型提供了一定的参考。

  12. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  13. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  14. RESULTS OF USING MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER TO CONTROL CORN TEMPERATUER IN SILO IN SOUTH OF CHINA%南方立筒仓应用移动空调控温储存玉米研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄启迪

    2012-01-01

    对立筒仓的玉米应用移动空调进行控温储存试验,试验表明通过空调间歇性控温能确保玉米安全度夏储存安全,降低粮食保管费用.%Mobile air conditioner was used to control corn temperature in silo. The results showed that intermittent ventilation by using air conditioner can ensure corn stored safely in summer, it also can reduce storage costs.

  15. A Brief Discussion on the Development Trend of Auto- mobile Air Conditioner Evaporator from Physical Fac- tors%从物理因素浅谈汽车空调蒸发器的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国艳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the physical factors influencing automobile air conditioner evaporator, summarized the design methods and future development trend of automobile air condi-tioner evaporator, and worked out the most rational design scheme through comparisons.%本文介绍了影响汽车空调系统蒸发器的物理因素,总结了汽车空调系统蒸发器设计方法及未来发展趋势,通过对比得出最合理的设计方案。

  16. 某图书馆暖通空调系统设计分析%On heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner system of some library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀山

    2016-01-01

    According to the design ideas for the library,from heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner system,cold and heat source system,in-terior layout,professional cooperation and other aspects,the paper analyzes a series of problems in the heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner of some library,and illustrates respective treatment measures,so as to create the comfortable reading environment with suitable temperature and humidity.%根据图书馆的设计理念,从暖通空调系统、冷热源系统、室内系统布置、专业配合等方面,分析了某图书馆暖通空调设计中存在的一系列问题,并阐述了相应的处理措施,旨在创造出温湿度适宜、环境清新的阅读环境.

  17. Specific characteristics of the R744 (CO2) air conditioner for compact cars; Besonderheiten der R744 (CO{sub 2}) Klimaanlagen fuer Kleinfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicherer, S.; Huenemoerder, W. [DENSO AUTOMOTIVE Deutschland GmbH, Eching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The European Union intends to ban halogenated fluorochlorocarbons (HCFC). Substitute refrigerants should have a global warming potential (GPW) of less than 150. The current refrigerant R134a has a GWP in the order of 1300 and will be banned. For the future, the German car industry is focusing on CO2 (carbon dioxide, R744). The advantages are a GWP of 1 (reference value for comparisons with H-CFC) and an excellent performance both in air conditioners and in combined air conditioners that can also serve as heat pumps. The cold generation capacity, however, is lower than with R134a in conditions of high ambient temperatures (above 35 ) and with the engine in idle operation, so that higher fuel consumption and slower acceleration may be a problem especially in compact vehicles with low rotary momentum. The specific characteristics of CO2 systems must therefore be taken into acount in car development in order to be able to optimize fuel consumption of the compressor. The contribution focuses on these characteristics and presents possible solutions. (orig.)

  18. On energy-saving of central air-conditioners in green buildings%绿色建筑中央空调节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润娣

    2011-01-01

    阐述了绿色建筑的含义及我国绿色建筑的发展现状,指出建筑节能成为绿色建筑的核心内容,分析了中央空调系统在许多企业中所占的能耗比例越来越大,通过对中央空调实施有效的节能措施,达到节能的效果。%The paper illustrates the concept of the green buildings and the development status for the green buildings in China,points out the architectural energy-saving as the core content for the green buildings,analyzes the increasing consumption percentage of the central air-conditioner system in many enterprises,so as to achieve the energy-saving effect by implementing the effective energy-saving measures for the central air-conditioners.

  19. 浅析可燃性冷媒空调的安全要求%Analysis on New Safety Requirements for Air Conditioner With Flammable Ignition Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建波; 陈信勇; 肖彪; 于丽

    2015-01-01

    The refrigerant of HCFCs will be phase-out and replaced gradually by environmental refrigerant which are flammable and explosible. At the same time, air conditioner are electrical equipment which contains a lot of live parts, it is easy to ignite flammable gases. This paper analyzes the protection of ignition source of the air conditioner with flammable refrigerant according to the standard. It provides the reference for related personnel.%目前空调行业有计划地进行逐步淘汰HCFCs制冷剂,取而代之的是具有可燃可爆特性的环保制冷剂.空调属于用电设备,含有大量的带电部件,容易点燃可燃性气体.本文结合空调安全标准,浅析可燃制冷剂空调点火源的防护要求,供相关人员参考.

  20. 用于可燃制冷剂空调器测试的焓差试验室设计%Enthalpy Test Apparatus Design for Flammable Refrigerants Testing Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴雪伟; 李敏; 吴俊荣; 姜敬德; 金星; 李瑛

    2014-01-01

    根据相关安全性要求对可燃制冷剂空调器焓差试验室的设计进行了研究,同时运用在制冷产品检测和试验装置研制工作中积累的实践经验,对传统空调器焓差试验室在电气、可燃制冷剂浓度监测和强制通风系统、可燃制冷剂空调器试验房间、空气处理机等方面进行技术改造和再设计,使其具有防爆能力,以满足可燃制冷剂空调器的测试要求。%According to the relevant safety requirements, the design of flammable air conditioner refrigerant enthalpy difference lab was studied. Development of work experience in refrigeration products inspection and testing device, the traditional air conditioner enthalpy difference lab was modified and redesigned in the electrical, flammable refrigerant concentration monitoring and forced ventilation system, flammable refrigerant air conditioner test room, air processor and so on, and had the ability to meet the explosive, flammable air conditioner refrigerant testing requirements.

  1. 空调器运行过程能值分析%Emergy Analysis on the Operation of an Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇; 郑立星; 曾钰姣; 潘树林

    2011-01-01

    The emmergy analysis model of the operation of an air conditioner was established and some emergy indicators, such as transformity ( TV) , net emergy yield ratio ( EYR ) , environmental loading ratio ( ELR) and emergy sustainable index (ESI) ,were proposed based on this model. Besides,the formulae of environmental services were put forward. With the increase of outdoor ambient temperature or the decrease of indoor return air temperature, Tt and ELR rise, while EYR and ESI diminish. Those indicate that the air conditioner consumes more resources and the system sustainability decreases. The emergy analysis is more profound and comprehensive than the conventional thermodynamic analysis. The proposed emergy indicators present the total resources (including emergy resource) use efficiency of the system. Furthermore, different types of pollution can be quantitatively compared with according to emergy analysis, which finds out the thermal pollution ( a kind of energetic pollution) from the operation of an air conditioner consumes more than 7000 times as many environmental services as the simultaneous material pollution does.%建立了空调器运行过程能值分析模型,依据该模型构建了能值转换率(Tr)、净能值产出率(EYR)、环境负荷率(ELR)和能值可持续性指数(ESI)等能值指标,并给出了环境服务的计算式.随室外环境温度升高或室内回风温度降低,空调器的Tr增大、EYR减小、ELR增大、ESI减小,表明空调器消耗的资源增多,系统可持续性降低.能值分析比常规热力学分析深刻、全面,能值指标反映了系统包括能源在内的总资源利用效率.此外,能值分析实现了不同类型污染对环境影响的定量比较,发现空调器运行过程产生的热污染(能量型污染)所消耗的环境服务比物质型污染多7000余倍.

  2. 冰蓄冷空调系统的设计及分析和测算%On design and analysis for ice storage air-conditioner system and its measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智军

    2012-01-01

    Taking the ice storage air-conditioner system at A5 Block Office Building along Jinrong Street in Beijing as the example, the paper provides the loading balance strategies for the ice storage air-conditioner system, according to the features of the ice storage technology, the allo- cation main machine and ice storage equipment, undertakes the reasonable measurement for its operation cost, and proves the installation capaci- ty of the ice storage system is 65% of the regular air-conditioner system and its operation cost takes up 53% of the regulation air-conditioner cooling system.%以北京金融街A5地块写字楼的冰蓄冷空调系统工程为例,根据冰蓄冷技术的特点,配置主机和蓄冰设备,给出了冰蓄冷系统的负荷平衡策略,并对其运行费用进行合理测算,表明冰蓄冷系统的装机容量是常规空调系统的65%,运行费用是常规空调制冷系统的53%。

  3. 浅析某血液制品车间的洁净空调设计%Brief Analysis of Design of Cleaning Air-conditioner Used in One Blood Product Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓盼盼

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design of cleaning air-conditioner used in one blood product workshop, and combined with the special condition and design requirements, the principles and methods in designing cleaning air-conditioner were introduced in this article. At the same time, the notices in the design of cleaning air-conditioner and the special features in designing cleaning air-conditioner for blood products were analyzed and discussed.%以某血液制品生产车间的洁净空调设计过程为依据,结合该类药品生产的特殊情况及设计要求,介绍了洁净空调系统设计的原则及方法等问题,分析探讨了洁净空调设计时应该注意的事项以及该类药品的洁净空调设计的特殊性。

  4. On scheme design for central air-conditioner project in some wholesale market of Urumchi%乌鲁木齐某批发市场中央空调工程方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜维; 朱辉

    2012-01-01

    Taking the central air-conditioner system of some clothes wholesale market in Urumchi as the research object,the paper introduces the design scheme,the design ideas of the central air-conditioner in the project,indicates the main design parameter and the air-conditioner loading and the main equipment,and sums up the problems and solutions in the operation of the air-conditioners,so it achieves better operation effect.%以乌鲁木齐某服装批发市场中央空调系统为研究对象,介绍了该工程中央空调设计方案及设计思路,并将主要设计参数及空调负荷、主要设备加以说明,最后总结了空调运行中遇到的问题及解决办法,取得了良好的运行效果。

  5. A Scheme of Complying the Safe Standard for Axis of Motor in Air-Conditioner Outdoor Unit%空调室外电机轴的标准符合性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 马洁丹

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the safety problem of grounding continuity of axis of the air-conditioner outdoor unit motor, this paper performs the analyses for the question, by means of the analysis of relevant safety standards for air conditioner and the judgment of the grounding reliability for ball bearing in CTL decision. Finally, it proposes a scheme that electromotor in air-conditioner uses ball-bearing to comply with its grounding reliability of standard, with the structure of air-conditioner and electromotor.%本文针对本文针对空调室外机轴接地连续性的安全问题展开分析通过剖析空调相关安全标中准针对空调器具对应条款的具体要求以及CTL决议针对电机球型轴承对可靠性接地的判定,结合空调外机结构、电机结构,提出空调电机轴采用球型轴承的方案,解决其接地的标准符合性。

  6. Power-supply control circuit to reduce standby power consumption of air conditioner%一种能够降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建海

    2012-01-01

    A power-supply control circuit was designed to reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioners. The control circuit determines the working status of an air conditioner by a sampling circuit to detect the actual operating current, and cuts off the power at socket automatically when the air conditioner is in standby mode for more than a minute or so. The actual measurement proves that the control circuit can effectively reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioner. The standby power consumption is less than 1 W when the control circuit is working. The optocoupler triac taken as a core element and the infrared receiver are used in the control circuit. The control circuit does not affect the normal use of the air conditioner's remote controller when it is working%为了有效降低空调的待机功耗,设计了一种旨在降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路.该控制电路通过取样电路检测空调实际工作电流的大小,判断空调的工作状态,当检测到空调处于待机状态超过1 min左右,控制电路自动切断空调插座的电源.实测证明该控制电路可以有效降低空调的待机功耗,可以做到待机功耗不大于1W.该控制电路采用光耦可控硅作为核心控制元件,控制电路中使用了红外接收器,其正常工作时不会影响空调遥控器的正常使用.

  7. CO{sub 2} leak detection in motor car air conditioner components; CO{sub 2}-Lecksuche an Teilen fuer Automobilklimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopphoff, A. [Pfeiffer Vacuum, Asslar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A test chamber is presented which can detect leak rates of < 0,5 g/a in a CO{sub 2} air conditioner. Requirements are: 1. a low CO{sub 2} background, which is achieved by evacuation of a vacuum chamber; 2. a sensitive sensor (mass spectrometer) with equally high sensitivity for all gases. [German] Mit Hilfe der vorgestellten Testkammer lassen sich Leckraten von < 0,5 g/a in einer CO{sub 2}-Klimaanlage detektieren. Voraussetzung sind: 1. ein niedriger CO{sub 2} Untergrund, der in diesem Aufbau durch das Evakuieren einer Vakuumkammer erreicht wird, und 2. ein empfindlicher Sensor, der alle Gase mit gleicher hoher Genauigkeit messen kann (Massenspektrometer).

  8. 风冷式与水冷式单元空调机组的对比%Comparison between air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2012-01-01

    从不同方面比较了风冷式和水冷式单元空调机组的优缺点,包括机组能效比、名义工况冷源综合制冷性能系数、机房面积以及对总体建筑环境的影响.指出了对于大型会展建筑中冷热负荷具有临时性的空调区域,分散式风冷单元空调机组有较好的发展前景.%Compares the advantages and disadvantages of air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners from different aspects including the unit EER, the overall nominal working condition refrigerating coefficient of performance, the area of machine room, and the influence on the building environment. Points out that to the areas in convention and exhibition buildings with temporary cooling/ heating loads, there will be a better prospect for the decentralized air-cooled unitary air conditioners.

  9. Modeling and experimental study on performance of inverter air conditioner with variation of capillary tube using R-22 and R-407C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarntichartsak, Pongsakorn [Faculty of Technology and Management, Prince of Songkla University, Suratthani 84100 (Thailand); Monyakul, Veerapol [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Phathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Thepa, Sirichai [School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-02-15

    This paper focuses on an investigation of the proper capillary tube length for an inverter air conditioner. Air to air variable capacity systems with R-22 and R-407C were tested and modeled. First, the optimum refrigerant charge was determined for four capillary tubes at full load condition by varying the mass charge from 1.1 kg to 1.9 kg. The capillary tube lengths were 1.016 m, 0.914 m, 0.813 m and 0.711 m. The two zone model, the distributed model and the combined model were compared to estimate the optimal charge inventory. The combined model analysed a simple path evaporator, a complex path condenser with a two zone model and a distributed model, respectively. It obtained good agreement with experimental results for the system performances and the optimum mass charge. Furthermore, four capillary tubes with specific optimum mass charges were investigated at compressor frequencies in a range of 30-50 Hz. The R-22 capillary tube obtains the best performance with the addition length of 1.016 m at the lowest frequency. Especially, the length of 0.813 m with R-407C is the appropriate size at the operation frequency of 30-35 Hz. The base capillary tube of 0.914 m is optimum at other frequencies. The model prediction agrees with the experimental data in a range of 40-50 Hz. (author)

  10. Experimental study of a R-407C drop-in test on an off-the-shelf air conditioner with a counter-cross-flow evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.; Chen, F.C.

    1998-03-01

    An off-the-shelf 2-ton window air conditioner having an energy efficiency ratio of 10 was used to perform a drop-in test with R-407C. Laboratory tests were performed using a parallel-cross-flow (PCF) evaporator and a counter-cross-flow (CCF) evaporator. The CCF configuration is designed to take advantage of the temperature glide of R-407C so that the warm evaporator inlet air will be in contact with the higher temperature part of the evaporator coils first. The test results indicated that, at the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute-rated indoor and outdoor conditions, the cooling capacity was 8% higher and system coefficient of performance about 3.8% higher for the CCF evaporator than for the PCF evaporator. The test results also showed that the latent load for CCF was 30.6% higher than for PCF. The far better dehumidification effect provided by the CCF evaporator design is desirable for areas where the latent load is high. The experimental findings should be useful for future efforts to design a dehumidifier that uses a zeotropic refrigerant that provides a significant temperature glide. R-22 test data from a previous project are included as a reference.

  11. Semi-empiric model of an air cooled cabinet air conditioner for the dynamic analysis of the building and acclimation systems integrated behaviour; Modelo semi-empirico de condicionador de gabinete resfriado a ar para analise dinamica do comportamento integrado de edificacoes e sistemas de climatizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jecorrea@amazon.com.br; Melo, Claudio. E-mail: melo@nrva.ufsc.br; Negrao, Cezar O. R. E-mail: negrao@energia.damec.cefetpr.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a semi-empirical model for a air cooled case air conditioner. This model is to be inserted in the EPS-r program (Environmental System Performance - research version) allowing the dynamic analysis of the integrated behaviour of buildings and acclimation systems using this equipment. Results obtained from simulations under the operation conditions existing in Brazil are analysed.

  12. On comparison of schemes for air-conditioners in some super-high-rise office buildings%某超高层办公楼空调方案比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 张博

    2012-01-01

    Under the environment of prosperous development of super-high-rise buildings,the paper analyzes some problems in the design of the air-conditioner system in the super-high-rise buildings according to the features of the super-high-rise buildings and combining some practice experience,compares many schemes,and chooses the most economical and applied air-conditioner system.%在超高层建筑蓬勃发展的环境下,针对超高层建筑特点,结合实践经验,分析了超高层空调系统设计中需注意的问题,并对多种方案进行比选,进而选出最经济、最适用的空调系统。

  13. 两种可应用于恶劣环境的空调高防腐粉末%Two types of High-anticorrosive Powder Applied in Air-conditioner in Severe Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林路; 江秀华

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍两种空调用高防腐粉末的设计及在空调钢板上的应用,并通过盐雾实验来评定其防腐性能。结果表明,高防腐粉末可以有效提高空调的防腐性,扩大空调的使用环境。%This paper introduces the design of high-anticorrosive powder and the time the salt spray test in the steel plate of air-conditioner that can be attained. The practical conditions indicates that high-anticorrosive powder effec-tively improves the corrosion resistance of air-conditioner, and expands the operating environment of it.

  14. 移动空调噪声控制技术的研究与实践%The Research and Practice of Portable Air Conditioner Noise Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This text focuses on analyzing the reason and course of the noise generated from portable air conditioner. With test data and analytic technology, it concludes that present noise control technology for air conditioner, which was proved effective in practice.%  本文主要就移动空调器噪声产生的机理进行分析研究,应用试验分析技术和解析分析技术,从而总结出目前移动空调器的噪声控制方法,并且在实践中被证明是有效的。

  15. 管翅式全铝换热器在家用空调上的应用研究%Application Research on Fin Tube Aluminum Exchanger Used for Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this article, fin tube aluminum exchanger used for room air conditioners are studied and ana-lyzed in different aspects, including material option, experiment analysis and welding technology. Moreover, the feasibility which fin tube aluminum exchanger may be used for room air conditioners is raised.%  本文对家用空调器换热器采用管翅式全铝换热器的材料选择、试验分析、焊接工艺等进行了研究和分析,提出了管翅式全铝换热器在家用空调器上的应用可行性。

  16. 浅析美国窗式空调的能效法规和标准%Analysis on Performance Code and Standard of Window Air Conditioner in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 范建波

    2015-01-01

    本文根据美国窗式空调的能效法规和标准,概括了美国对窗式空调的能效要求,介绍了评估方法、限值要求、计算方法、能源之星、能源标签.同时,结合美国最新能效政策,提出一些建议,以供参考.%According to the performance code and standard of window air conditioner in USA, this paper analyzes the performance degree of window air conditioner. It introduces the evaluation method, the limit value, the verification method, the Energy Star, and the energy label. Combined with the new policy of USA, some suggestions are provided to reference.

  17. Hardware Circuit Design of Intelligent Power Module FSBB30CH60DA in the Frequency Conversion Air-conditioner%变频空调智能功率模块FSBB30CH60DA硬件电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群群

    2016-01-01

    With the continued popularity of frequency conversion air-conditioner, the application of intelligent power module is more and more widely. This paper studies the hardware circuit design of fair child power module FSB-B30CH60DA in the frequency conversion air-conditioner. It proves that this power module circuit has the characteris-tics of sable operation, low cost, and high value of utility.%随着变频空调的不断普及,智能功率模块的应用越来越广泛,本文研究变频空调中仙童功率模块FSBB30CH60DA的硬件电路设计,此功率模块电路性能可靠、成本低廉,实用性好。

  18. Analysis on the Method to Start the Compressor of Inverter Air Conditioner%家用变频空调压缩机启动的浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆坚; 温得贤; 黄敬雁

    2014-01-01

    介绍并分析了目前行业内常用的压缩机启动方法,针对家用变频空调系统中压缩机在各负载工况下可能因启动力矩不足,而发生压缩机启动失败这一问题,通过对各品牌变频空调压缩机启动波形的分析以及实际的启动效果,得出一种较典型的压缩机启动方式。%This paper introduces and analyzes the common start methods of compressor in the industry. It is difficult to start the compressor of inverter air conditioner when the compressor is in harsh conditions. In this situation,it may put the compressor fail to start. Through the analysis of various brands of compressors of inverter air conditioners’start waveform, a typical starting mode of compressor is obtained.

  19. 几种隔音棉在空调器降噪中的应用%Application of Several Kinds of Cotton Insulations in the Noise Reduction of Split-system Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2015-01-01

    空调器使用隔音棉吸收因压缩机运行产生的噪音。本文通过对隔音棉所使用的不同的纤维层和橡胶层进行分析,探讨不同材料的纤维层搭配不同材料的橡胶层对空调器压缩机噪音的影响。结论表明,空调器压缩机的噪音会因纤维层的不同、橡胶层的不同,表现出不同的噪音值。%The noise generated from compressor’s running will be reduced by using cotton insulation in a split-system air conditioner. In this paper, through the analysis of different cotton fiber layers and rubber layers, it discusses the influence of the noise of a split-system air conditioner when using different fiber layers and different rubber layers. It concludes that the noise of the compressor of the split-system air conditioner will vary depending on different fiber layers and different rubber layers.

  20. A Design and Optimization of the AIER-SIDE Configuration System for Wall-mounted Air Conditioner%壁挂式空调送风机系统设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      壁挂式空调送风机系统结构紧凑,影响其性能的因素很多,包括蒸发器布置、蜗舌间隙及尺寸以及风道型线等。本文采用送风机相似设计理论和CFD仿真模拟相结合的方法对壁挂式空调送风系统进行优化设计,取得了好的效果,设计精度高,开发周期短,表明该方法是壁挂式空调开发中一种行之有效的方法。%Wall-mounted air conditioner has a complicated configuration. There are a lot of performance factors, including evaporator disposal, tongue and flue. Applying the similar design method and CFD simula-tion, the paper makes a design for wall-mounted air conditioner. Results show the method is very accurate and is very useful for air conditioner design.

  1. On application of intelligent access control system in energy-saving of heating ventilation air-conditioner system%谈智能门禁系统在暖通空调系统节能中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 焦春玲; 罗炜

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic components and functions of the intelligent access control system,illustrates the application of the intelligent access control system in the various energy-saving of heating ventilation air-conditioner systems,including the workhouse heating system,the ventilation system,and the air-conditioner system,so as to direct the practice and to enhance the development of the energy-saving technique of the heating ventilation air-conditioner.%针对智能门禁系统的基本组成及功能进行了具体介绍,分别阐述了智能门禁系统在厂房采暖系统、通风系统、空调系统等不同的暖通空调系统节能中的应用,以期指导实践,促进暖通空调领域节能技术的发展。

  2. Use of nanoparticles to make mineral oil lubricants feasible for use in a residential air conditioner employing hydro-fluorocarbons refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixiang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China); School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, No. 1, Zhanlan Guan Road, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Qingping; Wu, Yezheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2010-11-15

    The application of nano-fluids in refrigerating systems is considered to be a potential way to improve the energy efficiency and reliability of HVAC and R facilities and to make economic the use of environment-friendly refrigerants. In this paper, we report a method that uses nanoparticles to enhance the energy efficiency of retrofitted residential air conditioners (RAC) employing HFCs as alternative refrigerants. The reliability and performance of RAC with nanoparticles in the working fluid have been investigated experimentally. A new mineral-based nano-refrigeration oil (MNRO), formed by blending some nanoparticles (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) into naphthene based oil B32, was employed in the RAC using R410a as refrigerant. A method showing how to disperse the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the mineral oil refrigeration lubricants is presented together with an investigation of their stability. The solubilities of the new MNRO in R134a, R407C, R410a and R425a were measured. The performances of the RAC, such as the cooling/heating capacity, the power input and the energy efficiency ratio, were determined. The results indicate that the mixture of R410a/MNRO works normally in the RAC. The cooling/heating EER of the RAC increased about 6% by replacing the Polyol-Easter oil VG 32 lubricant with MNRO. (author)

  3. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)).

  4. Modular Design of Software for Air-conditioner Test System%空调检测系统软件的模块化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕叶; 蔡燕君

    2013-01-01

    After modular design of the hardware and software for air-conditioner test system, only need to modularize the software, software engineers can easily construct a new system that meets the requirements. In this way, it can shorten software’s developing and manufacturing cycle, improve system software’s quality and stability, quick response for market changes, and increase the project’s throughput.%通过对空调检测系统中的硬件、软件进行模块化设计后,软件工程师只需要对软件进行积木式的模块组合,就可以轻松生成满足要求的新系统。从而缩短软件开发制造周期,提高系统软件的质量与稳定性,快速响应市场的变化,提高项目吞吐量。

  5. 齐鲁塑料厂中央空调节能改造%ENERGY- SAVING REVAMP OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效敏

    2011-01-01

    The central air conditioner in Plastics Complex supplied heat with desalinated water as heat medium which was heated by medium - pressure steam through a exchanger. After revamp, condensed liquid in styrene process is mainly used to preheat desalinated water through heat exchanger, and then heat exchanger for medium - pressure steam is used to adjust the temperature of desalinated water. This method is steam saving by means of waste heat utilization.%齐鲁塑料厂中央空调由原来的中压蒸汽通过换热器加热脱盐水作为热媒供热,改造后主要用苯乙烯工艺凝液通过换热器预热脱盐水,然后用中压蒸汽换热器调整脱盐水到合适的温度后供热。达到利用工艺凝液的余热,节省中压蒸汽的目的。

  6. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  7. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  8. Analysis of the life cycle of a air-conditioner: results of the study; L'analyse du cycle de vie d'un climatiseur: resultats d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe, F. [CETIM, Pole d' Activite QSE, 93 - Saint-Ouen (France)

    2003-11-01

    French manufacturers of thermal, air-conditioning and refrigerating equipments, in association with the French technical center of mechanical industries (CETIM) and with the technical center of aeraulic and thermal industries (CETIAT), have carried out a life cycle analysis of a split cassette-type air-conditioner in order to qualitatively evaluate its impact on the environment. This paper presents the results of this study: more than 90% of the impacts take place during the phase of use and concern the energy consumption and the refrigerant leaks. The impact depends also on the geographic situation and on the energy sources used in the country for power generation. (J.S.)

  9. Accurate Measurement of Air Conditioner Motor Winding in Electrical Safety Testing%电气安全测试中空调器电机绕组的正确测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凯佳

    2014-01-01

    GB 4706.32-2012《家用和类似用途电器的安全--热泵、空调器和除湿机的特殊要求》对家用及类似用途的空调器在安全方面作了强制性规定,其中第11章的发热试验是考察空调产品质量安全非常重要的指标,尤其是涉及电机的温度测量和计算繁琐且复杂,因此如何能够准确地对空调器电机绕组进行测量显得尤为重要。本文通过结合空调器安全标准条款要求,针对空调器电机在实际测试中的绕组测量展开对比分析,并总结提出科学精确的测量方法,以达到对整个空调产品的安全合格性更全面更准确地评估。%GB 4706.32-2012“Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety-Particular requirements for electrical heat pumps, air-conditioners and dehumidifiers”is the mandatory criterion for air conditioners with house-hold and similar purposes in terms of security, which the heating test of 11th chapter is a very important indicator for evaluating the safety of air conditioning products, particularly the measurement and calculation of fan motor tempera-ture is very complicated, so how to measured the windings of fan motor accurately is very important. In this paper, according to the requirement of air conditioners safety standards, we made a comparison and analysis for the windings measurement of air conditioner motor in the actual test, and put forward the scientific and precise measurement method, to achieve more comprehensive for the safety of the air conditioning products eligibility assessment more accurately.

  10. Manufacturers of Copper Tube for Central Air Conditioner Use Face Mounting Pressure in the Final Quarter of the Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year,the investment growth rate of real estate industry continued to slow down,sold area of commercial housing also dropped significantly,which brought huge pressure to the domestic air conditioning manufactures.In the first half of the year,by relying on high growth in national financial expenditure,along with investment in public infrastructure

  11. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  12. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  13. Dynamic Free Cooling. Efficient and energy saving air conditioner for datahotels; Dynamic Free Cooling. Efficient en energeibesparend airconditioningsysteem voor datacenters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, D.

    2009-01-15

    Servers in data centres produce a large amount of heat, which has to be removed by ventilation and air conditioning systems. These systems have a vast energy consumption. Increasing energy costs and limited resources of available electricity are forcing the data centre industry to the use of energy efficient technical equipment. Dynamic Free Cooling is a contrN concept for data centre's air conditioning systems combining Hybrid Indirect Free Cooling Precision Air Conditiening Units, Fan Speed Controlled Dry Coolers and Speed Controlled Central Pumps to highly efficient precision cooling system. All system components are centrally controlled to minimize overall energy consumption depending on the Ambient Temperature and the Room Load Status. [Dutch] Servers in datacenters produceren een grote hoeveelheid warmte die moet worden afgevoerd door middel van ventilatie- en airconditioningsystemen. Deze systemen gebruiken een forse hoeveelheid elektrische energie. Toenemende energiekosten en de beperkte beschikbaarheid van elektriciteit zorgen ervoor dat datacenters steeds meer overgaan op het installeren van energie-efficiente systemen. Dynamic Free Cooling is een regelconcept voor airconditioningsystemen in combinatie met hybride indirecte vrije koeling in precisie-airconditioningunits, ventilatorgeregetde droge koelers en toerengeregetde centrale pompsystemen. AI deze systeemcomponenten worden centraal geregeld om het totale energiegebruik, afhankelijk van de omgevingstemperatuur en de koellast te minimaliseren.

  14. 空调室外机气动与声学特性的研究进展%Advances in Investigation of Acoustic and Aerodynamic Noise in Air Conditioner Outdoor Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启容; 秦静静; 吴荣华; 王硕

    2015-01-01

    Noise in air conditioner outdoor unit includes mechanical noise,electromagnetic noise and aerodynamic noise.The effects of mechanic and electromagnetic noise are minor but aerodynamic noise effect is the key in the duct system of air condi-tioner outdoor unit.The history and u-to-date development of noise in air conditioner outdoor unit were reviewed,The detail analy-sis is carried out from three ways of methods of numerical modeling,experimental studies and modal analysis according to refer-ences.On the basis of the analysis and summary,the further needed work of noise reduction are put forward.%空调室外机噪声包括机械噪声、电磁噪声和气动噪声,其中机械噪声和电磁噪声在常规状态下影响较小,气动噪声是空调室外机风道系统的主要噪声。本文回顾了国内外关于空调室外机气动噪音的研究历史与现状,结合文献着重从数值模拟、试验研究以及模态分析几个方面进行了分析。经过分析总结,提出了进一步降噪需要开展的工作。

  15. Experimental and performance study of the compact solar absorption air-conditioner system with thermosiphon solution elevation pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong Lin; Zheng Hongfei; Tao Tao [Beijing Inst. of Tech., BJ (China); Li Zhengliang [Guangxi Teacher Coll., Nanning, GX (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type LiBr adsorption solar air-condition system with thermosiphon solution elevation pump is designed, whose evaporator and absorption tanks are combined in a circularity, which makes the chill part very compact. On the basis of theoretical arithmetic, the comprehensive heat transfer coefficient on the evaporator side and the theoretical refrigerating capacity are got theoretically. By experimental study, some useful performance curves are got, which is significant for optimal design and improvement. The refrigerating capacity of the system can be got to be 2.14kW. (orig.)

  16. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  17. Design of a steady-state detector for fault detection and diagnosis of a residential air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsung [Geothermal Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Yoon, Seok Ho; Domanski, Piotr A.; Vance Payne, W. [HVAC and R Equipment Performance Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8631, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a general methodology for developing a steady-state detector for a vapor compression system based on a moving window and using standard deviations of seven measurements selected as features. The feature thresholds and optimized moving window size were based upon steady-state no-fault tests and startup transient tests. The study showed that evaporator superheat and condenser subcooling were sufficient for determining the onset of steady-state during the startup transient. However, they misidentified steady-state during indoor temperature change tests where evaporator saturation temperature and air temperature change across the evaporator were needed for proper steady-state identification. Hence, the paper recommends including all fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) features in the steady-state detector to ensure the robustness of the detector because different features may play key roles with different transients. (author)

  18. 房间空调器长效节能评价体系研究现状及发展趋势%Research Status and Development Trend of Evacuation System of Long-term Energy Conservation for Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱京多; 陈争; 刘韧

    2015-01-01

    我国是世界上空调器发展最快的国家之一,伴随着空调器的快速发展,空调器的能效标准和评价方式及评价体系也在不断变化,考核指标及考核方法日新月异。本文通过对空调器能效标准体系以及影响空调长效性能因素的国内外研究现状进行分析,指出考虑多影响因素的长效节能空调器评价体系能够更加全面的对空调节能性能进行考察,有利于提高住宅和商业建筑房间空调器能效,推动中国空调市场向节能转变,真正实现家电行业节能减排。%China is one of the most promising countries in the world today, especially in the field of air conditioner industry. The energy efficiency standards, evaluation method and system, and index for air conditioner are also in constant changing with the rapid development of air conditioner industry of China. Through analyzing the research status of energy efficiency standard system of air conditioners and the factors influencing the long-term performance at home and abroad this paper points out that comprehensively considering the factors that influencing the evaluation system of long-term energy conservation air conditioners is able to comprehensively access the energy-saving performance of air conditioner. It helps to improve the energy efficiency of the residential and commercial building room air conditioner, promote the energy-saving trend of air conditioner market in China, and realize the energy conservation and emission reduction in household appliances industry.

  19. Research and Evaluation for a Bed Air-conditioner by Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect%一种利用半导体热电效应的空调床的性能研究及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    为了降低夜间空调能耗,基于帕尔帖效应设计了一种床体局部空调,简称空调床.空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,在满足床内舒适温度需求的同时,可以实现“头凉脚暖”的局部温度场.测试结果表明:冬季空调床维持床内温度为22℃时,功率为0.1 kW~0.2kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高6℃;夏季当室温低于30℃,床内维持28℃时,功率为0.06kW至0.12kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高1.5℃.此外,通过系统模拟分析可知,一定条件下,空调床的使用可在冬季夜间节约空调耗电约52%,夏季节约42%.%In order to reduce energy consumption of air-conditioner during night, one zoning air-conditioner fixed on the bed, namely bed AC, is developed based on peltier effect. The bed AC is equipped with a heating unit on the foot part and a cooling unit on the head part. It not only meets the thermal comfort of a bed, but also can create a comfortable environment about "warm foot and cool head". In winter, bed AC can maintain bed air temperature at 22℃, and its power is about 0.1kW~0.2kW, and foot air temperature is approximately 6℃ higher than that of head. In summer, if room temperature is lower than 30 ℃, bed AC can keep bed air temperature at 28℃, and its power varies from 0.06kW to 0.12kW, and head air temperature is nearly 1.5℃ lower than that of foot. By system simulation, the energy-saving performance is also studied. It can be found that energy saving rate of bed AC in winter and summer sleeping time is 52% and 42% respectively, compared with traditional split air-conditioner.

  20. 一种空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料的研究%AgNi Contact Material for AC Contactor of Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AgNi contact materials used in AC contactors of air conditioners were introduced. Proper-ties of AgNi contact materials with different Ni contents and different types of additives were com-pared, including the physical properties, material losses, arc energy and welding force. Results show that, because of the requirements of high rated current and long service life, the optimum Ni content in AgNi contact materials for AC contactors of air conditioners is 15%. Meanwhile the addition of trace amounts of brittle substance will improve the electrical properties of AgNi materi-als.%  介绍了空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料,比较了不同Ni含量和不同类型添加物的AgNi触点材料的力学物理性能、烧损量、燃弧能量以及熔焊力等。结果表明,对于额定电流大、电寿命要求高的空调接触器用AgNi触点材料,其最佳Ni含量为15%左右;添加微量脆性物质能改善AgNi触点材料的电性能。

  1. 节能型水源热泵中央空调在居住小区中的应用%On application of energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner in residential complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳军

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic principle for the energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner,has the detailed indication of the "green,environmental-friendly,energy-saving and comfortable" new resource,undertakes the comparative analysis by comparing it with other resources by the list intercomparison from the comfortableness,the initial investment and the running cost,and concludes the energy-saving geothermic air-conditioner can bring newer and more comfortable living environment%介绍了节能型水源热泵中央空调的基本原理,对这种"绿色、环保、节能、舒适"的新能源做了详尽的说明,并通过列表比对等方法与其他能源形式从舒适性、初投资及运行费等方面进行了对比分析,得出节能型地温中央空调将为居住小区带来全新和更为舒适的生活环境的结论。

  2. 基于随机振动时可靠性约束的商用室外机管路优化%Pipes Optimization of Outdoor Unit of Commercial Air Conditioner Based on Reliability Constraint during Random Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      应用ANSYS对随机振动下商用室外机管路的响应进行分析,应用Miner线性疲劳累计损伤理论和材料的S-N曲线,估算室外机的疲劳寿命,结合正交试验表,确定商用室外机管路最佳尺寸组合,提升室外机的疲劳寿命。%In this article, the FEA software ANSYS is used to simulate the stress distribution of the outdoor unit of commercial air conditioner caused by the random vibration. The Miner’s linear fatigue accumulation rule and the S-N curve of the materials are used to estimate the fatigue life of the outdoor unit of the commercial air conditioner. The orthogonal experiment is used to analyze the optimum size of pipe structure, so as to improve the fatigue life of outdoor unit.

  3. 一种应用功能可模块组合的空调操作器%An Operation Device of Air Conditioner Which Application Function Can Be Composite Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文介绍一种易于推广及应用的空调操作器。该操作器通过有线连接的方式与空调产品的主控板连接,实现应用功能的模块组合,满足个性化用户的需求。同时,企业可以把最新的应用技术分阶段开发,以有偿的方式服务客户。%This paper introduces a kind of operation device of air conditioner which is easy to promote and is applicable. This device connects to the control board of air conditioner by cable. The application functions which can be composite module are easy to meet the various needs of personalized customers. At the same time, the enterprise can integrate the latest technology developed in stages to service customer by the means of charge.

  4. On application of heating ventilation air-conditioner energy-saving issue and ground source heat pump%谈暖通空调节能问题与地源热泵的实际应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长晖

    2012-01-01

    针对暖通空调:市能问题进行了研究,结合实际案例介绍了地源热泵在工程项目中的应用,通过与以城市供热为热源的室内散热器取暖方案进行对比分析,得出地源热泵系统能够有效解决空调系统节能问题,值得推广。%The paper researches the energy-saving issue of heating air-conditioner, introduces the application of the ground source heat pump in the engineering program by combining with the factual cases, undertakes the comparative analysis of the heating scheme for the indoor radiator which regards the urban heating supply as the source, and concludes the ground source heat pump system can solve the energy-saving issue of the air-conditioner system, so it can be further applied.

  5. 基于PIC18F45J10的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统%TEC Peltier Industry Air Conditioner Control System based on PIC18F45J10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 芮贤义

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure and advantage of TEC peltier industry air conditioner system at first, and its design by bilolar control based on PICI8F45510, describes its functions and features. Then research its working principle design its input main circuit, output load circuit etc. The experiment results indicate that TEC peltier industry air conditioner control system with low cost, high efficiency is feasible.%本文首先介绍了TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的结构和优点,设计了基于PIC18F45J10的双极性控制器构成的TEC半导体工业空调,阐述了其功能和特点.接着研究TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的工作原理,设计输入主电路,输出负载控制电路等.实验结果表明低成本,高效率的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的可行性.

  6. 双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用%The System With Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we prove that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, especially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.%双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组时比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。

  7. The System with Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner%双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型的空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组,比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。%The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we proved that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, es-pecially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.

  8. Study of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used in Compressor for High-Efficient Inverter Air Conditioner%高效变频空调压缩机用永磁同步电机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少丕; 陈世元; 皮明超

    2014-01-01

    Critical dimension of permanent magnet synchronous motor used in compressor for the home inverter air conditioner was confirmed by magnetic circuit analysis method, and motor performances were calculated accurately by finite element method. Comparing the difference between theoretical designed value and testing value of motor performances, compared the performance of inverter compressor and the corresponding air conditioner, the actual test showed that this method was accurate and feasible.%拟采用磁路解法确认家用变频空调器的压缩机用调速永磁同步电机的关键尺寸,再利用有限元分析方法精确计算电机的各项性能。对比电动机性能的理论设计值与实际测试值的差异,同时对比了变频压缩机和对应空调器的性能,通过实际测试说明该方法的准确性与可行性。

  9. 一种多效应移动式节能环保空调设计%Design of mobile energy-saving air-conditioner with multiple effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢满怀; 汤绮婷; 于晓光

    2012-01-01

    It introduces the design of a kind of energy saving air-conditioner with multi- effects,with normal water as refrigerant, by applying comprehensively triple refrigeration technology of the air-conditioner covering water surface evaporative refrigeration,semiconductor refrigeration and heat lithium bromide absorption refrigerationAt the same time, higher environmental cleanliness and the result of cooling efficiency are realized by increasing air flow and controlling temperature and humidity.The experiment evidences that the new air-conditioner is more creative in energy conservation, emission reduction,human comfort improvement as well as convenience in use,cost and price than the traditional oneAs the air-conditioning design principles is not the same with the traditional, no fixed installation is necessary,which can be applied not only in open environment but also in densely populated areas for improving the quality of air and decreasing the temperature with significant advantages in the cooling rate,health,economy,and environmental protection.%介绍了一种以常态水为冷媒,综合应用水表面蒸发制冷、半导体制冷和溴化锂吸收半导体余热制冷的三重制冷技术的多效应移动式节能环保空调;同时,通过加大风流量和温湿度的控制,实现提高环境洁净度和制冷效率的效果.实验证明,与传统空调相比,研究的环保空调在节能减排、提高人体舒适度、使用便捷性、价格成本等方面有很大的创新.由于空调的设计原理与传统空调不一样,无需固定安装,使用环境可开放式,在人口密集地方既能降温又能提高空气的质量,在降温速度、卫生、经济、环保等方面有显著的优点.

  10. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  11. Modelagem de um condicionador de ar de alta precisão para uso em processamento agrícola Modeling of a high precision air conditioner for use in agricultural processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Fortes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho, estudo detalhado sobre a modelagem de um condicionador de ar com controle acurado de temperatura e umidade relativa. Desenvolveu-se um programa de computador que permite predizer o comportamento do sistema sob diferentes condições psicrométricas e de vazão do ar de entrada. O modelo global físico-matemático inclui equações de balanço de massa e de energia para três diferentes volumes de controle que compõem o condicionador. Modelaram-se os processos de mistura, evaporação (ou condensação simultânea de uma superfície d'água e de uma gota e o aquecimento de corrente de ar, separadamente. Propõem-se expressões semi-empíricas simples para os coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa inerentes ao processo de evaporação sobre uma superfície d'água e um modelo simplificado para o sistema de spray. Construiu-se um condicionador de ar no qual foram feitos testes experimentais para o ajuste das constantes que aparecem nas expressões para os coeficientes de transferência. Os dados obtidos validaram o modelo global, com precisão aceitável para projetos de engenharia.In this work, a detailed procedure for the analysis of an accurately controlled air conditioner is presented. A computer program, that allows predicting the behavior of the system under different psychrometric conditions and different input air mass flow rates, was developed. The global physical-mathematical model includes mass and energy conservation equations for three different control volumes that compose the conditioner. Thus, the processes of mixture of air, simultaneous evaporation (or condensation from a water surface and from a drop, and the air-stream heating are modeled separately. Simple semi-empiric expressions for heat and mass coefficients inherent to the evaporation process on a water surface are proposed as well a simplified model for the spray system. Experimental tests made on an air-conditioner allowed to obtain

  12. Research Status of the Noise in Rotary Air Conditioner Compressor for Automotive%车用旋转式空调压缩机噪声研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杨; 叶禾; 杨诚

    2012-01-01

    旋转式空调压缩机的噪声直接影响空调系统舒适性,回顾了旋转式压缩机噪声的国内外研究现状,对旋转式压缩机的噪声进行分类评述,最后讨论了目前研究存在的问题并对未来的研究做了展望.%The noise of rotary air conditioner compressor directly affects the comfort of air conditioning systems, this paper reviews the recent study at home and abroad which about the rotary compressor noise,classifies comments about those noises,and finally discusses the problems of current research and makes prospects for futher research.

  13. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    空调的匹数,原指输入功率,包括压缩机,风扇电机及电控部分,因不同的品牌其具体的系统及电控设计差异,其输出的制冷量不同,故其制冷量以输出功率计算。一般来说,1匹的制冷量大致为2000大卡,换算成国际单位应乘以1.162,则1.5匹的空调应为2000大卡×1.5×1.162=3486(W),这里的瓦(VV)即表示制冷量。

  14. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    随着五一期间连续几天的高温,感觉今年的夏天来得格外的早。这对于空调市场来说可是个好事,高温提前到来就意味着空调热卖期的提前到来。小编在五一期间也在各大卖场转了转,发现各大空调品牌的新款机型基本都已经上市,品牌间的 竞争也越发激烈起来。空调市场从不缺乏亮点.从价格战到新品战、从服务战到品牌博弈.

  15. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    在炎夏到来之前.空调已经成为各大电器卖场的紧俏商品.在现在人们的消费水平之下.享受空调已经不是什么奢侈的愿望。对于大功率的空调.人们对它的普遍看法是:耗电巨大.价格昂贵。没错.就是这样.这样的空调似乎是针对企业、机关团体用户多些.而对于家用呢?我们走访了北京大中电器马甸店.从销售人员口中得知.在家用领域.购买这些大功率的空调的用户也不少.因为北京的高消费群体是不少的.像几款进口品牌的空调.都是原装进口的,

  16. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    3匹的空调算是空调制冷大户了,一般家用空调产品都在3匹及以下,消费者购买柜机主要是摆放在客厅里,所以目前市场上的柜机空调外形都非常靓丽,以往空调都以白色为主色调,如果你现在再去卖场空调部转上一圈的话,

  17. Algorithm of Air Conditioner Filter Screen Dust Degree Intelligent Detection Technology Based on PNN%基于PNN算法的空调过滤网积尘智能检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 吴志鹏; 朱良红; 霍军亚

    2015-01-01

    空调过滤网具有过滤灰尘,防止空调内部受到污染的作用.但是过滤网积尘之后,容易滋生细菌,同时也会增加风阻,减小空调的出风量,造成能源浪费.因此,用户需要知道过滤网的积尘程度,以便及时清洗.本文提出一种基于PNN神经网络算法的过滤网积尘智能检测技术,无需增加任何硬件成本,自动检测滤网积尘程度,通过手机APP提醒用户.通过实验验证,检测准确度达到100%,满足产品化需求.%Filter screen in air conditioner plays the role of filtering dust and preventing pollution in the interior of air conditioner. However, once the filter screen covered by dust, it is easy to breed bacteria, increase wind resistance, reduce air volume of air conditioning and cause energy waste. Therefore, users need to know the dust extent of filter screen, so that timely cleaning can be done. A new intelligent detection technique based on PNN algorithm is proposed in this paper. It detects dust extent automatically and reminds users through the APP in mobile phone without any other hardware. Through experiments, the accuracy of detection technology is 100%. It meets the demands of product.

  18. Microbiota fúngica dos condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de Teresina, PI Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mobin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com intuito de identificar a microbiota fúngica em condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos e particulares de Teresina-PI, coletou-se material sólido de dez UTIs, isolando 33 espécies pertencentes às Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, sendo primeira referência para o Piauí. Registrou-se elevada freqüência de Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%; Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%; Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%, Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr (40%. A validade da limpeza dos condicionadores de ar ultrapassou em todas as UTIs, a quantidade de unidades formadoras de colônia estava além do permitido pela Portaria 176/00 do Ministério da Saúde. É importante que os profissionais estejam munidos de equipamento de proteção individual, além de adotar medidas de controle de infecção hospitalar, sensibilizar para a existência de infecções fúngicas, melhorar ventilação de ar, possibilitando arejamento do ambiente e limpar periodicamente os condicionadores de ar, conscientizando os profissionais de saúde da importância destes fungos no ambiente hospitalar.With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%, Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50% and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40% were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve

  19. R290空调小管径翅片管换热器的设计方法%Design Method of Fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger with Smaller Diameter Tubes in R290 Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    R290 is a potential alternative refrigerant for R22, however using R290 may result in the risk of firing. Promoting the use of smaller diameter tubes in R290 room air conditioner is an effective way to reduce refrigerant charge to avoid the risk of firing, but may cause reduction of air conditioner system performance, so it is needed to propose a design method of heat exchanger with smaller diameter tubes. The method of designing fin-and-tube heat exchanger with smaller tubes is proposed in this study. The method includes designing of fin configuration and designing of refrigerant circuits. In the design method, the fin configuration is designed by CFD-based method, and the refrigerant circuits are designed by distributed-parameter model based on graph theory. An evaporator of 5 mm diameter tubes was designed, and the performance of an air conditioner with the designed evaporator was tested to verify the rationality of design method.%  R290是R22潜在的优良替代制冷剂,但有高可燃性的缺点。采用小管径换热器可有效降低制冷剂充注量,保证R290空调使用安全,但小管径的采用可能会导致空调换热性能下降,因此,有必要提出小管径换热器的设计方法。本文提出了空调小管径换热器的设计方法,包括翅片结构设计和制冷剂流路设计。在设计方法中,采用基于CFD的方法设计翅片结构,采用基于图论的三维分布参数模型设计制冷剂流路。为验证设计方法的合理性,根据设计方法设计了5mm管蒸发器,并对采用5mm管蒸发器的空调整机进行了测试。

  20. Adoption of the Energy-saving Technology of Central Air Conditioner in Modern Hospital%现代医院中央空调节能技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晶; 彭承琳; 牟帮易

    2012-01-01

      能源是当今世界性的迫切问题,提高空调的制冷效果对于节约能源和减少医院的运营成本,都具有十分重要的意义。鉴于当前节能环保、全球气候异常等问题,本文对医院中央空调系统如何“节能”问题进行了论述。目前利用废热、余热作为能源的溴化锂吸收式冷水机组越来越受到关注。本文对溴化锂吸收式冷水机组的新技术及应用也进行了介绍,并作了中央空调系统关于节能的几个方面的比较。%  Energy is the most urgent problem in the world. To improve the cooling efficiency of air conditioner plays an important role in saving energy and cost control of hospital operations. As the environmental issues and global climate changes have drawn the concern of governments and people worldwide at present time, this article elaborates energy saving of central air conditioner system in hospital. LiBr absorption chil ers which use the waste heat as the power source are get ing more and more popular today. Some new technologies and applications of LiBr absorption Chil er are also discussed in the article. Energy saving of the central air conditioning system are analyzed and compared in some aspects at the same time.

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. 空间矢量SVPWM控制算法在变频空调设计中的应用%Application of SVPWM Control Method Based on Space Vector in Inverter Air-Conditioner Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福成

    2011-01-01

    To further reduce the noise, raises the efficiency of voltage, the voltage space vector SVPWM technology be adopted to design inverter air-conditioner. By the basic standard of motor's ideal magnetic flux with three-phase symmetrical sine wave voltage power supply is considered, use the actual magnetic flux with the inverter different switch pattern to approach the base director circle magnetic flux, compares the results to decide which time the inverter's switches open and pass, forms the PWM waveforms. And regards the inverter and the electrical motor as a whole to process, It has the merit of model to be simple, the torque pulsation be small, the noise be low, voltage use factor higher and so on. The theoretical analysis and the experimental result indicated that this method can definitely satisfy the inverter air-conditioner designing requirements.%为进一步减少噪音,提高电压利用率,采用空间电压矢量SVPWM技术进行变频空调设计.以三相对称正弦波电压供电时交流电动机的理想磁通为基准,用逆变器不同的开关模式所产生的实际磁通去逼近塞准圆磁通,由它们比较的结果决定逆变器的开、关,形成PWM波形.并把逆变器和电机看成一个整体来处理,具有模型简单、转矩脉动小、噪音低、电压利用率高等优点.理论分析及实验结果表明,该方法完全能够满足变频空调的设计要求.

  3. 空调内部管道运输和运行过程中的振动分析及改进%Analysis and Improvements for the Pipes of Air Conditioner for Transporting and Operating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭景华; 吴帅

    2014-01-01

    空调内部的管道既是在运输和运行过程中最容易遭受破坏也是直接影响空调性能的必要组件。针对运输情形,本文首先利用ABAQUSE软件分析了管路的固有频率,进而通过增加管道约束的手段达到避免共振的目的。接着在压缩机出口处通过施加外部激励来模拟运行情形下的受迫振动情况,其位移结果与试验结果相符。通过进一步优化局部管道结构,成功降低了应力集中区的应力约15%。%In air conditioner,the pipes are not only the part that most probably damaged,but also the key part for well running. In this paper,the software Abaquse was used to study the vibrational status of the air conditioner. With modal anal-ysis,the constraints of the pipes were improved to increase the intrinsic frequency that we can avoid resonating in transport. The external loading was applied on the endpoints of the pipes to simulate the effect of the compressor when operating. The results agree well with the experimental results. By optimizing the local pipe structure,the maximum Mises stress can be de-creased by nearly 15%.

  4. 空调器铜管“蚁巢腐蚀”泄漏失效分析%Failure Analysis of"Nest Corrosion”Leakage of Air Conditioner's Copper Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the “nest corrosion” leakage of air conditioner’s copper tube in details. It adopted the quantitative measurement for corrosion surface material through infrared spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative testing for process and user’s envi-ronment corrosion materials. The method is accurate and feasible. The “nest corrosion” sub-stance concentration wave number and material was determined. Moreover, this paper also ful-filled the defend precautions for air conditioner.%  简介:对ACR(空调制冷)铜管“蚁巢腐蚀”泄漏失效实例进行了宏、微观泄漏特征分析确认。通过红外光谱法对腐蚀表面物质进行定量测量,及对加工工艺、用户环境腐蚀倾向物质进行定性定量测试,方法准确可行。确定了本次“蚁巢腐蚀”物质集中波数段及物质,也提供了可靠的高耐腐空调器防护措施。

  5. Measurement Innovation of Arc Chute Rail of Cabinet Air Conditioner Based on Three Coordinate Measuring Machine%基于三坐标测量机的柜式空调弧形滑槽轨道测量创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占庆仲; 黄坚; 乔磊

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the measurement innovation for arc chute rail of air guide mechanism of cabinet air conditioner. It uses the section curve uniform comb sampling fitting method and Germany Zeiss CMM programming automatic measurement mode, so as to realize the precision measurement of injection molding of an arc chute rail axis arc. According to the section curve uniform comb sampling fitting method, the application in similar geometric curve arc chute rail detection is discussed.%本文主要是对柜式空调导风机构的弧形滑槽轨道进行测量创新,采用截面曲线均布采点拟合测量方法,运用德国蔡司三坐标测量机编程自动测量方式,实现对注塑成型的弧形滑槽轨道中轴弧线直径的精密测量。针对截面曲线均布采点拟合测量方法进行梳理,探讨在类似几何曲线的滑槽轨道检测应用。

  6. 高校地源热泵空调及生活热水系统设计浅析——以柳州医学高等专科学校新校区为例%On Design of Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioner and Domestic Hot Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国成; 陈捷

    2012-01-01

    通过工程实例,介绍地源热泵空调及生活热水系统的设计方法及要点,并对其先进性及难点进行了总结,供类似工程设计参考。%Through project case of Liuzhou Medical College, this paper introduces design of geothermal heat pump air conditioner and domestic hot water system for reference.

  7. Study on Variable Volume and Gas Injection DC Inverter Air Conditioner Compressor%变频变容喷气增焓空调压缩机的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向卫民

    2016-01-01

    The lower heating capacity in low ambient temperature is the defect of the air-conditioner. Some schemes have been proposed to solve the problem, but they can't improve the quantity of heat more than 50%in low ambient tem-perature and improve efficiency in general temperature at the same time. This paper proposes a vapor-injection varicap compressor, and studies its heating capacity and efficiency properties. The experimental results show that the APF of the air-conditioner increased by 6%when using the vapor-injection varicap compressor, and the quantity of heat increased by 85%, at the same time.%低温制热能力不足问题一直是空调的诟病,研发人员在前期也提出过几种解决温制热量的方案,但都以难满足APF工况下的能效提升和低温-15℃环境温度下高制热量的两个目标。针对这一难题,提出一种集变频技术、变容技术和喷气增焓技术为一体的压缩机设计方案,通过原理分析进行了样机的结构设计,研究其性能及低温能力特性,经验证,搭载空调系统测试时,喷气能力能效提升效果明显,在喷气情况下,搭载系统APF比基准机型提高了约6%,同时,搭载系统的低温-15℃的制热能力相对基准机提升了约85%,效果显著。

  8. Further development and new development of air conditioners for high-performance longwall mining with great face length; Weiter- und Neuentwicklung von Strebklimatisierungseinrichtungen fuer Hochleistungsbetriebe mit grosser Streblaenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, E. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Gas and Fire Div.

    2003-07-01

    The investigations were carried out between 1999 and 2001 by the Gas and Fire Division, OE Kaelte, Luftqualitaet on behalf of the DKS and with funds from the Germans state of Nordrhein-Westfalen. The following aspects were investigated in particular: 1. The application of driers for precooling of mine air; 2. Test stand measurements of air coolers; 3. Underground performance of air coolers. Prior to the measurements, theoretical calculations were made. In view of the fact that air temperatures at the place of work should not fall below a certain level for ergonomic reasons, the capacity of precooling in the longwall mine is limited. Air drying offers a possibility of ensuring low enthalpy within the ergonomically required minimum temperatures. Moisture is reduced by a drastic reduction of the air temperature which causes condensation of the water vapour, followed by dry heating of the air to the required minimum temperature.

  9. Application Prospects of High Strength Low-alloyed Steels to Sheet Metal of Air-conditioner%低合金高强度钢在空调钣金件中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江; 蒋子琪

    2014-01-01

    本文主要介绍了低合金高强度钢的特点,从实际的加工性、防腐性和成本方面进行分析,并以某款家用空调器电机支架为例使用屈服强度在350MPa级的低合金高强度钢进行试验验证,结果表明低合金高强度钢在空调的钣金件加工中有较高的可行性和较好的应用前景%In the paper, The characteristics of high strength low-alloyed steels are mainly introduced.The actu-al machinability, corrosion resistance and cost are analyzed and the experimental verification have been taken by a certain motor support of high strength low-alloyed steels with yield strength of 350MPa level, it indicated that the high strength low-alloyed steels have higher feasibilities and more application prospects in sheet metal of air-conditioner.

  10. 热泵空调器制热量衰减以及改善措施的研究%Research on Heating Attenuation about Heat Pump Air Conditioners and Improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志胜; 李凤凤; 杜京昌; 程德威

    2012-01-01

    热泵空调器在低温状况下制热能力下降得很快,有时候甚至不能制热。制热运行是一个逆卡诺循环过程,可以分为四个环节,要改善制热衰减问题,可以从这四个环节进行研究。在前人研究的基础上,通过建立数学模型并结合实验验证,总结出改善低温制热效果的几种措施。%Heat pump air conditioners heating ability at low temperature conditions reduced too quickly,and sometimes not even heating.Heating operation is a reverse Carnot cycle,it can be divided into four areas,you can study from the four areas to improve the system of thermal decay problem.The author,based on previous research,a mathematical model by combining with experiments,summarized several measures to improve low-temperature heating effect.

  11. Design and Techno-economic Analysis of Domestic Solar Bubble Pump Driven Absorption Air-conditioner%一种家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调的系统设计与技术经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 周兴法; 舒欢; 刘道平; 刘妮

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the problems of high power consumption and noisy in traditional domestic air conditioner , a new type of domestic solar bubble pump absorption air-conditioner was developed .In this air conditioner , the lithium-bromide ab-sorption chiller was driven by solar and the traditional mechanical pump was replaced by the bubble pump .Under the design re-quirement of cooling capacity of 16.5kW and heating capacity of 18.0kW, bubble pump with inner diameter of 0.05m and im-mersed height of 0.5m, solar collector with area of 20m2 and heat storage tank with volume of 1m3 were selected by theoretical calculation.Finally, techno-economic comparison of this apparatus with traditional air-conditioner shows that the solar bubble pump absorption air conditioner has greater superiority .%为了有效解决传统家用空调的高耗电和噪声问题,开发了一种新型的家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调装置。该装置采用太阳能驱动溴化锂吸收式制冷机组,并以气泡泵代替传统的机械泵。在空调制冷量为16.5kW和制热量为18.0kW的设计要求下,通过理论计算选择内径为0.05m和沉浸高度为0.5m的气泡泵、集热面积为20m2太阳能集热器以及容积为1m3的蓄热水槽。最后,将该装置与普通家用空调进行技术经济比较,得出太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调有很大的优越性。

  12. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    orifices on both the heating and cooling sides were modified to better modulate refrigerant flow into the evaporator at an optimal proportion to the...increased refrigerant side pressure drop through the bigger air coil. Capacity evaluations of the larger micro-channel air heat exchanger were implemented...liquid- side plate heat exchanger, air- side micro channel heat exchanger, fan, two TXV’s, two check valves, and a reversing valve to cycle between

  13. 新型车用空调平行流蒸发器湿工况性能的研究%A Research on the Wet Performance of New Parallel Flow Evaporator for Automotive Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施骏业; 瞿晓华; 祁照岗; 陈江平

    2011-01-01

    对新型车用空调平行流蒸发器湿工况性能进行了试验研究,并与层叠式蒸发器进行了比较.动态浸渍试验结果表明平行流蒸发器凝水排除能力较优;焓差法试验结果表明,在不同的稳定工况下,与层叠式蒸发器相比,平行流蒸发器的制冷能力较强(最高差3.3%),空气侧压降较高,全换热系数大21.3%~29%,除湿率略高.试验结果总体表明,新型平行流蒸发器性能优良,完全可以取代层叠式蒸发器.%An experimental study is carried out on the wet performance of new parallel flow evaporator for automotive air conditioners, which is then compared with baseline laminated evaporator.Dynamic dip test results show that parallel flow evaporator has better condensate drainage performance.The results of enthalpy difference test reveal that, under different working conditions, compared with laminated evaporator, the parallel flow evaporator has slightly higher cooling capacity (up to 3.3% difference), higher air side pressure drop, 21.3% ~29% higher over all heat transfer coefficient and slightly higher dehumidify rate.The results of all tests indicate that the new parallel flow evaporator has excellent performance and can by all means replace laminated evaporator.

  14. 基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术研究%Research on Cooler Air conditioner Based on Thermal Conversion of Solar Radiation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕斌

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technical approach on cooler air conditioner based on thermal conver-sion of solar radiation technology,i.e.transforming solar energy to heat energy,and use the heat energy to achieve refrigeration.We developed a new solar absorption air conditioning system based on the thermal conversion of solar radiation technology.Through verification studies,the operating characteristics of so-lar collector and heat storage system of air conditioning systems,and operating characteristics of the re-frigeration unit are verified.The experiment shows:the air conditioning system can operate continuously and stably for 8 hours.The average cooling capacity is 4 kW,and the maximum cooling capacity is 4.7 kW.The system COP average is 0.3.Therefore,this new solar absorption air conditioning system based on thermal conversion of solar radiation technology provides a feasible method to realize large scale,low cost application of solar energy.%给出了以太阳能辐射技术为基础的热能转换空调制冷技术的技术方法,即将太阳能转变成热能,使用热能进行制冷。以太阳能辐射技术的热能转换为基础,研制了新型的太阳能吸收式空调系统,并且通过实验研究,验证了该系统的集热、蓄热特性以及制冷机组的运行热性。实验表明,该空调系统可连续8 h 稳定地工作,最大制冷量可达到4.7 kW,平均值也可达到4 kW,该空调系统性能参数 COP,平均可达到0.3。因此,基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术为太阳能规模化、低成本应用提供了行之有效的新方法。

  15. 空调铝箔用高耐水性含氟丙烯酸疏水涂料的研制%Preparation of highly water-resistant fluoroacrylic hydrophobic coating for aluminum foils for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建华; 周志盛; 霍泽荣

    2014-01-01

    A fluoroacrylic resin solution was synthesized by radical polymerization based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and stearyl acrylate (SA) as materials with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as hydroxy functional monomer and fluorinated acrylate monomer as organic fluorine modifier, and then blended with curing agent to prepare a hydrophobic coating with high water resistance. The effects of different fluoroacrylate monomers on water contact angle and water dissolution rate of the coating were studied. The influence of the dosages of perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate (PFMA) and HEMA on hydrophobicity and water resistance of the coating was discussed. The optimal reaction formulation was determined as follows: MMA 57%, BA 12%, SA 4%, PFMA 20%, and HEMA 7%. The coating prepared with the optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and tested for comparison of the comprehensive performance with a commercially available product. The results indicated that the coating has a water contact angle 132.7° and a water dissolution rate of 4.1%, being matchable to the comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic coating formed from the Ultra AC series transparent vanish (a product of the Ultratech Ltd., USA, used for aluminum foils of air conditioner). The coating meets the requirement of surface treatment of aluminum foils for air conditioner.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)以及丙烯酸十八酯(SA)为原料,甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)为羟基功能单体,含氟丙烯酸酯单体为有机氟改性剂,通过溶液自由基聚合反应制备了含氟丙烯酸树脂溶液,再与固化剂配合使用制得高耐水性疏水涂膜。研究了不同含氟丙烯酸酯单体对涂膜的水接触角和水溶率的影响,讨论了甲基丙烯酸全氟烷基乙酯(PFMA)与HEMA不同用量对涂膜的疏水性和耐水性的影响,获得了最佳反应配方:MMA 57%,BA 12%,SA 4%

  16. Shampoos, conditioners, and camouflage techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-01-01

    This article examines hair care in persons with hair loss. The use of shampoos, conditioners, and hair styling products to camouflage hair loss is discussed. Because hair is nonliving, medical treatments are limited to only inducing change in the follicles within the scalp skin and do not improve the hair loss actually witnessed by the patient. There is therefore a need to accompany medical treatment of hair loss with cosmetic hair treatment to optimize patient satisfaction.

  17. A comparison of R 407C and R 410A with R 22 in a 10.5 kW central air conditioner for residential buildings; Vergleich von R 407C und R 410A mit R22 in einer Zentralklimaanlage fuer Wohnhaeuser mit 10,5 kW Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, J.W. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Snelson, W.K. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hearty, P.F. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Murphy, F.T. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States); Low, R.E. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States); Gilbert, B.E. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Details are given about comparative performance tests (compressor capacity, evaporator capacity, refrigerant mass flow, refrigerating capacity) of a 10.5 kW central residential air conditioner run on the long-time refrigerant substitutes R 407C and R 410A and on R 22. Efficiency improvement potentials were assessed by adapting the evaporator of the air conditioner to the properties of R 407C through a change in direction of the air flow that was brought about by reversing the evaporator coil. (BWI) [Deutsch] In einer Zentralklimaanlage fuer Wohnhaeuser mit einer Leistung von 10,5 kW wurde eine Leistungsmessung der beiden langfristigen Ersatzstoffe R407C und R410A im Vergleich zu R22 durchgefuehrt. Die gemessenen Leistungsdaten waren Verdichterleistung, Verdampferleistung, Kaeltemittelmassenstrom und Kaelteleistungszahl (COP). Um Bereiche ausfindig zumachen, in denen die Effizienz verbessert werden koennte, wurde der Verdampfer der Klimaanlage zur Anpassung an die Eigenschaften von R407C teiloptimiert (Aenderung der Richtung des Luftstroms durch Umdrehung der Verdampferspule). (BWI)

  18. 转速可控型房间空调器用压缩机能效评价方法研究及应用%Analysis and Application of Evaluation Method on Compressors for Variable Speed Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海锋; 吴建华; 厉彦忠

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency requirement of room air conditioner (RAC) has became stricter and stricter with the development of global environment consciousness. The efficiency evaluation method of RAC has been updated from single working condition to aunnal performance factor (APF) with multiple working condition. Performance evaluation method of compressors must be changed accordingly which account for main energy consumption of RAC. Compressor efficiency of annual performance (COAP) is proposed to evaluate the efficiency level of inverter compressor which is applied in variable speed RAC with multiple working conditions. Actual operation efficiency can be indicated by COAP because inverter compressor performance is considered according to COAP. In order to simplify test procedure of COAP, standard test conditions and its weight are generated .Then the effect of efficiency curve of inverter compressor on COAP is discussed . Finally examples with this method are illustrated for compressor matching and design optimization.%  随着全球环境保护意识的加强,家用空调能耗水平不断增高,房间空调器能效评价方法已从单工况向全年运行效率(APF)转变。压缩机作为空调器中的主要耗能部件,其能效评价方法也要随之变化。这里提出了变速压缩机全年综合能效比指标--COAP来衡量压缩机在全年变工况条件下的运行效率,此指标综合考虑了变速压缩机全年运行的能效情况,能客观反映压缩机在不同气候条件下实际运行效率。为简化测试COAP,给出了COAP基准工况及各工况权重,讨论了压缩机效率曲线对COAP的影响,最后通过举例说明如何利用COAP进行压缩机选型及设计优化。

  19. The Study of the Legionella pneumophila Pollution and Killing Effects on Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water in Huizhou City%惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染状况和杀灭效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠东; 杨建秀; 郑丽萍; 戴昌芳; 辜少红; 严琦瑞; 柯晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the Legionella pneumophila pollution and the effects of killing Legionella pneumophila by electrolyzed water of Centralized Air Ventilation System in Huizhou City.Methods We culture and identify 123 units Legionella pneumophila,which collecting in the Centralized Air-conditioners cooling circulation water of Huizhou.A new type of low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment is applied by Guang Zhou Shui Li Qing Environmental Protection Technology Co.,Ltd.It can use physical way instead of chemicals to deal with Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic microorganisms in cooling circulating water in centralized air-conditioners.Results In the survey of 123 units,448 water samples were collected,313 samples were prove out that contain Legionella pneumophila,the detection rate is 69.86%.At the same time,62 units which contain Legionella pneumophila were collected from Centralized Air-conditioners and deal with low voltage high frequency Electrolyzed Water equipment for 7-73 d.Finally,112 water samples,which from those units,were found out that all the Legionella pneumophila had been killed.The sterilizing rate for the Legionella pneumophila is 100%.Conclusion Part of Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water were Pollution by Legionella pneumophila in Huizhou,Daily inspection should be taken,The low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment can effectively control and sterilize Legionella pneumophila etc in the cooling water and chilled water in centralized air-conditioners.It has a good application prospect for this technology.%目的 了解惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染情况和电解水对其的杀灭效果观察.方法 对惠州市123个单位中央空调冷却循环水进行嗜肺军团菌的培养和鉴定;然后采用源自广州水力清环保科技有限公司的新型低压高频电解水处理器,用物理方式代替化学药剂,处理中央空调冷却循环水

  20. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  1. Application of Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature in air conditioner pipeline design and the method of bend dimensions%Pro/ENGINEER管道特征在空调管路设计中的应用及弯管尺寸标注方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明校; 肖云龙; 宗颖超; 钟光明; 陈伟; 高德锁

    2011-01-01

    According to the vector tube bending principle of the CNC pipe bender,use Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature for 3D modeling of air conditioner pipeline and 2D projection conversion,In combination with the CNC pipe bender program features, propose a reasonable way of bend dimensioning in order to facilitate Programming for the production process and parts inspection,reduce the number of test bends,to achieve productivity gains and production costs of the air-conditioner pipe fittings.%根据数控弯管机矢量弯管原理,利用Pro/ENGINEER管道特征对空调器管路进行3D建模以及2D投影图转换,并结合数控弯管机的弯管程序特性,提出一种合理的弯管尺寸标注方式,以便于生产过程中程序的编制及零件的检验,减少试弯次数,从而实现空调器管件的生产效率提高及生产成本降低.

  2. XP CEN/TS 14825 (June 2004). Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling. Testing and rating at part load conditions; XP CEN/TS 14825 Juin 2004 Climatiseurs, groupes refroidisseurs de liquide et pompes a chaleur avec compresseur entraine par moteur electrique pour le chauffage et la refrigeration. Essais et determination des caracteristiques a charge partielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This technical specification covers the tests of air conditioners, heat pumps and liquid chillers in partial load conditions. It specifies the terms and definitions, the testing methods, the test report and the calculation method when the power reduction is due to the cyclic operation of the apparatus or to a power reduction of the compressor(s). The power reductions linked with the temperatures or with the system are excluded. (J.S.)

  3. 变径毛细管代替毛细管组件在冷暖空调器上的应用研究%Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of Heat pump Air-conditioner with Variable Diameter Capillary Instead of Capillary Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐言生; 何钦波; 黎绵昌; 邹时智; 金波

    2013-01-01

    The refrigerant flow characteristics of variable diameter capillary in forward flow and reverse flow are different. It can be used as a throttle device instead of the capillary module in heat pump air-conditioner. To achieve this goal, the refrigerant flow characteristic of the original capillary module for refrigerating and heating circulation was performed in the refrigerant flow experimental facility. The size of variable diameter capillary was adjusted to make its refrigerant flow performance is accordance with that of capillary module. The capability of air conditioner with variable diameter capillary and capillary module were tested respectively in the standard condition. The experimental results show that the performance of air-conditioner with variable diameter capillary compared to that of air conditioner with capillary module, the refrigerating capacity decreased by 0.5% , the energy efficiency ratio(EER) increased by 0. 3% , the heating capacity reduced by 1. 1% , the coefficient of performance ( COP) increased by 1.4%. Hence, the higher flow performances of variable diameter capillary indicate that it can completely used as a throttle device instead of the capillary module in the heat pump air-conditioner after it matched exactly.%变径毛细管在正向流动和反向流动时其制冷剂流量特性不同,因而可以作为节流元件代替现有冷暖空调器中使用的毛细管组件.为实现这一目的,利用制冷剂流量试验台,先测定原毛细管组件制冷、制热时的制冷剂流量特性,然后通过调整变径毛细管规格尺寸,使变径毛细管制冷、制热时的流量特性与原毛细管组件基本一致,再安装在空调器整机上进行整机性能对比试验.试验表明,在标准工况下,新空调器与原空调器相比,其制冷量减少0.5%,制冷能效比增加0.3%,制热量减少1.1%,制热性能系数增加1.4%.因此可以得出,变径毛细管经过精确匹配,完全可以作为节流

  4. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Elliptical Tube Heat Exchanger in Indoor Unit of Air Conditioner on its Acoustic Field%椭圆管换热器对空调室内机声场影响的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周遊; 张新强; 汪双凤

    2016-01-01

    Elliptical tube heat exchanger has been widely used in heat exchange equipment due to its good flow and heat transfer charac⁃teristics. In this paper we use computational fluid dynamics method to simulate the flow field and sound field generated by the indoor unit of air conditioner with elliptical finned tube heat exchanger , and make comparison with circular tube heat exchanger. The results show that for the inside the cross-flow, the structure of tubes in heat exchangers has no effect on the location and size of the eccentric vortex;compared with the circular tube finned heat exchanger with the same cross-sectional area, the air conditioners using elliptical tubes work better on increasing the air volume, improving cooling effect and reducing noise especially low-frequency noise under the same condi⁃tions. Above all, the conditioner using elliptical tubes in which the ratio of the long axis and short axis is 2. 0 can reduce noise 4 dB.%椭圆管换热器由于良好的流动和换热特性,在换热设备中有广泛的应用。本文利用计算流体力学方法,对椭圆管翅片换热器应用于空调室内机的流场和声场进行数值模拟,并与圆管作对比。计算结果表明,换热管形状对贯流风机内部偏心涡的形成位置和大小没有影响;与采用相同截面积的圆管翅片换热器的室内机相比,相同条件下,采用椭圆管换热器对于室内机增加风量,改善制冷性能,降低噪声尤其是低频噪声方面有良好的效果。其中,长短轴之比为2的椭圆管可以降低室内机噪声4 dB。

  6. Air conditioning and blowers. Special issue; Airconditioning en ventilatoren. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekeman, H.E. [Multi Import, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hol, M. [Aircool Klimaattechniek, Ridderkerk (Netherlands); Bassa, E. [ed.

    1997-06-01

    In four articles several aspects of air conditioners and blowers are discussed: the application of the newly developed electronically commutated direct current engine in high-efficiency boilers, air conditioners and cooling systems, the future for flexible synthetic cooling pipes, a description of a Mitsubishi-developed air conditioner: the Inverter Driven Multi-indoor unit, also known as the KX-system, and the importance of the private sector (houses, small businesses, cars) for the use of air conditioning installations. 8 figs.

  7. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  8. Research on influence law of capillary length on performance of room air conditioner in non-standard working condition%非标工况下毛细管长度对家用空调器性能影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮; 熊军; 陈绍林

    2012-01-01

    通过研究家用空调器的制冷量、能效比、排气温度、吸气温度等随室外温度和毛细管长度的变化规律,得出增加毛细管长度有利于提升高温工况下的制冷量,缩短毛细管长度有利于提升低温工况下的制冷量的结论,对于空调系统匹配有一定的指导意义.%The influence law of capillary length and outdoor temperature on cooling capacity, COP, exhaust temperature, suction temperature of room air conditioner are analyzed. The results show that increasing capillary length is benefit for cooling capacity under high temperature condition and decreasing length brings advantage to cooling capacity under low temperature condition. The study will provide reference for air-conditioning system matching.

  9. 基于运行时间的变频型房间空调器季节能效比和潜力温度分析%Study on Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and Potential Temperature of Variable-Speed Room Air Conditioner Based on Running Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田镇; 谷波

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of three variable-speed air conditioners under three kinds of running time was analyzed, respectively. Running time frequency (RTF) was taken to characterize the distribution of running time on temperature intervals. Bar graph was used to show the distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals. The results show that, the smaller the temperature under maximum RTF, the higher the SEER is. The faster the accumulation speed of RTF on low temperature intervals, the higher the SEER is. The regularity of distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals is decided by running time. The potential temperature can be showed on the bar graph, which has high reference value in performance optimization and selection of variable-speed room air conditioner.%计算了3台变频型房间空调器基于北京、上海、广州3种运行时间的季节能效比(SEER);采用运行时间频数(RTF)表征空调器运行时间在温度区间上的分布规律;绘制了3台空调器基于3种运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图.结果表明:RTF最大值对应的温度越小,SEER越大;RTF在低温段累计速度越快,SEER越大;空调器制冷量和耗电量在温度区间上的分布规律由运行时间决定;基于运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图能够直观反映当地的潜力温度,可为空调器性能的优化和选型提供参考依据.

  10. Study of Controller for the Frequency Conversion Air Conditioner with Micro-controller MC68HC908MR16%基于MC68HC908MR16单片机的变频空调控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 干练

    2012-01-01

    针对变频空调器的特点,应用具有电机控制模块的单片机MC68HC908MR16设计了空调专用变频控制器,给出了变频空调控制器的系统结构原理图,以及空间矢量调制技术的单片机实现原理.该变频控制器采用空间矢量调制技术,提高了电源利用率和压缩机的低频转矩.%According to the characteristics on the use of air conditioners, a specific inverter is designed based on the MC68HC908MR16. The schematic circuit of the inverter and the principle of SVM achieved with MCU are given. The (SVM) is adopted,which is helpful for increasing the power utilization and low speed torque of the compressors.

  11. Development of residential solar air conditioning system for electricity power peak cut 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gwon Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In this research, the converter rectifier unit of the inverter air conditioner is substituted into the bidirectional PWM converter. The DC/DC power converter is established on the DC link between the photovoltaic array and the inverter air conditioner, and the photovoltaic air conditioning system which can be parallel driven which utility is developed. (author). 35 ref., 112 figs.

  12. 企业创新悖论与两栖组织模式——基于海尔空调产品开发团队案例的研究%Innovation paradox and ambidextrous organization: A case study on development teams of air conditioner in Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤彬; 江鸿

    2009-01-01

    新产品开发作为企业自主创新活动的一种重要形式,是知识探索与知识利用有机结合的过程.在对二者悖论关系及其处理方略进行系统文献综述的基础上,将两栖组织的定义从"二元结构"、"二面性结构"伸展到"两栖能力",试图在较低的组织层次上回答如何辩证地解决二者看似矛盾实则可统一的关系.在对海尔空调开发团队的成员构成及异质性知识组合案例分析后,得出的结论是,"两栖"不仅是组织层面的构念,而且可以是团队乃至像"型号经理"这样的个体员工层面的构念.%While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers.

  13. Research and Improvement of Scour Sound of Refrigerant in the Refrigeration Process of Wall-mounted Air Conditioner%分体挂壁空调制冷过程制冷剂冲刷声的研究与改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮

    2016-01-01

    分体挂壁空调制冷过程出现制冷剂冲刷声,这种低频声穿透性强、辐射面广,严重影响了使用的舒适性。经过测试体验以及现象分析,发现该声音产生的主要原因是蒸发温度与U管温度差过大,导致制冷剂状态的急剧变化产生的噪音。针对该声音产生的机理,制定了有效的改善措施,通过增加低频停留点,提高蒸发温度,减少制冷剂状态的变化,提高了使用舒适性。%In the refrigeration process of wall-mounted air conditioner, the refrigerant scour sound would appear, which has the characteristics of strong penetrability of low-frequency sound and wide radiating surface, it serious affect the comfort of use. Through the test experience and phenomenon analysis, we found the main reasons causing the noise, that is, the large temperature difference between evaporation and U pipe. The rapid change of the state of refrigerant results in the noise. According to the mechanism of the noise generation, the effective improving measure is proposed. Through adding low-frequency arrest points, it raises the evaporating temperature, reduces the changes of refrigerant states, and improves the comfort of use.

  14. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernyshova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evaporation cooling and spray (aqueous and air-to-water types of the air-conditioning systems are considered, their merits and demerits are analyzed; the new scheme of a conditioner is offered.

  15. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  16. The air conditioner. Friend or foe in case of an environmental disaster or bio-terrorism. Part 2; De klimaatinstallatie. Vriend of vijand bij milieucatastrofes en bio-terreur? Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Bronsema Consult / Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    The first part of this article was published in issue 4 of this magazine in 2002. Attention was paid to the importance of the quality of air in buildings, the prevention of infiltration of exhaust gases and the site of air intakes. In the first part also general considerations were made regarding the choice of an HVAC system taking into account such hazards as environmental emergencies and bio-terrorism. This second part is principally concerned with the effects of air infiltration into a building and the inherent penetration of hazardous substances. The ratio of the HVAC system is also briefly examined. [Dutch] Het eerste deel van dit artikel werd gepubliceerd in TVVL Magazine nummer 4 in 2002. Hierin werd aandacht besteed aan het belang van een goede luchtkwaliteit in gebouwen, het voorkomen van kortsluiting, de locatie van de luchtaanzuiging en een algernene beschouwing over de keuze van het klirnaatsysteem, rekening houdend rnet calarniteiten als milieurarnpen en bio-terreur. Dit tweede deel gaat hoofdzakelijk in op de effecten van luchtinfiltratie in een gebouw en het inherente binnendringen van schadelijke stoffen. Tevens wordt de rol van de klimaatinstallatie belicht.

  17. 利用帕尔贴效应的冷暖型空调床设计及实验分析%Experimental Study of Bed Zoning Air-Conditioner by Using Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    本文基于帕尔贴效应设计了一种冷暖型床体局部空调,简称空调床。空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,使床内形成“头凉脚暖”的温度分布。冬季开启供暖模式,可使床内温度达到22°C左右,与房间空调相比,节能率约85%,同时使脚部温度比头部温度高约6°C夏季室温低于30°C时,空调床单独运行,使床内温度降低至28°C左右,节能率约80%。当室温大于30°C时,空调床与房间空调联合运行,与房间空调单独运行相比,节能率为约12%。夏季床内脚部温度比头部温度高1.5°C。%A novel bed zoning air-condition, namely bed AC, was developed based on peltier effect. The Bed AC contains two parts, one is a heating unit on the foot part, and another is a cooling unit on the head part, which can realize "warm feet and cool head". In winter, heat unit operated to maintain bed air temperature around 22°C, and its electrical saving rate was 85%, compared with room AC, and foot air temperature was approximately 6°C higher than that of head. In summer, when room temperature was lower than 30°C, cool unit worked to keep bed air temperature around 28°C, and its energy saving rate was about 80%, and head air temperature was nearly 1.5°C lower than that of foot.. When room temperature was higher than 30°C, bed AC needed to cooperate with room AC, and their total energy saving rate was about 12%, compared with only room AC.

  18. Power conditioner without isolation transformer; Toransuresu power conditioner no shohin kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okado, C.; Itami, T.; Kimoto, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light-weight downsized and high efficiency transformer-less type 4 kW power conditioner (inverter) has been developed. This power conditioner insures the system interconnection protection by monitoring the voltage of two single-phase three-line circuits. The power conditioner has weight of 17.5 kg and efficiency of 94%. Potential fluctuation of photovoltaic cells due to the switching of power devices at the inverter was reduced. Output capacity was reduced in the low input voltage range. Outflow of DC component was prevented in high accuracy by usually correcting the zero point drift of detector, and by using the current detector with excellent linearity. To detect the DC ground fault, and to trip the output side breaker locating at the ground fault current pass, a zero phase converter detection circuit has been developed, by which the DC component can be detected at the DC input side. As a result of performance verification, the efficiency, power factor, EMI level, protection of outflow of DC component, protection of ground fault, protection of single operation detection, and noise level were satisfied. This system is prospective for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the future. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  20. Research on the Effect of Well Completion Technology of Ground Temperature Air-Conditioner Project on Groundwater System%地温空调成井工艺参数对地下水系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米庆彬; 付博; 窦明; 韩涛; 张彦; 张坤; 张华云

    2014-01-01

    在对成井环节分析的基础上,识别了对地下水系统影响较为显著的成井工艺参数(即井径和滤水管孔隙率),基于地下水水热运移基本原理,建立了地下水流动和热量输运耦合模型。选取典型地温空调项目,通过设计不同成井工艺参数,模拟地温空调运行对地下水流场和温度场的影响。结果显示:不同井径和孔隙率在地温空调运行中,对地下水系统影响程度差别较大,井径对抽水井、回水井的影响比较明显,孔隙率对抽水井的影响大于对回水井的影响,适合安阳市地温空调的井径为30 cm、滤水管孔隙率为30%。%According to the analysis of well completion process,this paper distinguished that the well completion tech-parameters (well diameter and filter porosity)could largely affect the groundwater system. Based on the fundamental principle of water and heat transfer,the coupling model of the flow of groundwater and the transport of heat was established. It selected several typical ground temperature air-conditioning projects in order to simulate the effect of ground temperature air-conditioning to the underground flow field and temperature field by design well completion technolo-gies with different parameters. From the results of simulation,it finds out that the different well diameter and filter porosity can make a great differ-ence on the effect of groundwater system. The well diameter can affect the pumping wells and recharge wells obviously,on another hand,the filter porosity parameter’s effect on the pumping wells is bigger than on recharge wells. It finds out that 30cm of well diameter and 30% of the porosity of filter are more suitable for the ground temperature air-conditioning project in Anyang City.

  1. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    OpenAIRE

    P.Annapandi; Dr.M.Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs) to a common DC link voltage, which compe...

  2. In vitro examination of oral tissue conditioners potential toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral tissue conditioners are applied temporarily to the gingival surface of a denture for the purpose of reconditioning the abused denture supporting tissues, allowing them to return to a normal, healthy state. According to chemical composition they can be classified into methacrylic and silicon conditioners. The objective of this research was to examine the potential toxicity of one, seven and thirty day extracts of different concentrations. Different effective concentrations (5, 12.5, 25 and 50% of two silicone and four methacrylic conditioners extracts were used after extraction period of one, seven and thirty days. Amount of toxic substances and dynamics of their release were monitored by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC analysis could not be applied to the silicone conditioners because they consist of polymeric and inorganic 19 substances. Evaluation of cell proliferation, as cytotoxic parameters, was done by Mosmann’s MTT assay based on reduction of yellow tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide - MTT to purple formazan by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase of metabolic active cells. With increasing of extraction period, the amount of released potential toxic substances increased. The cytotoxicity of tested materials significantly increased with extract concentration increase and duration of extraction period. To improve the biological characteristics of mobile dentures relined by soft materials, soaking in water the day before insertion into patient’s mouth was recommended. Silicone conditioners showed less cytotoxicity compared to the methacrylic conditioners, so they are more appropriate for daily dental practice.

  3. Research on the Transient Performance of the Double-Evaporator VRV Air Conditioner%双联变频空调系统的动态特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴禧; 陈武; 夏清; 王懿

    2001-01-01

    With an void fraction model equation adopted and conservation priciple applied, an unsteady distributed-parameter mathematical model based on two-phased theory, which can predict the transient performance of the system, is established. The dynamic response to the step change of inverter-aided compressor speed, opening of the EEV and air fan speed is studied.%通过引入空泡系数模型方程,应用守恒原理,建立起以蒸发器、电子膨胀阀、压缩机为一体的双联空调系统的动态分布参数数学模型;通过仿真计算对一拖二系统随变频压缩机转速、电子膨胀阀开度以及回风风机转速改变的动态特性进行研究分析;为系统的实时控制打下基础。

  4. Design of remote real-time monitoring and control system of central air conditioner%中央空调远程实时监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊湘

    2014-01-01

    The situation of remote control system of central air condition is summarized, and an Ethernet transmit scheme based on ATmega128 and Enc28j60 is designed. It transplants the TCP/IP protocol into ATmega128 to implement remote real-time monitoring and control by communicating with remote computer. The structure and functions of the whole system are introduced and the circuit diagrams of each part are given. The program design, the reliability and anti-interference are also described. The application shows that this system runs stably and accurately. The design system has certain practicability and popularization value, with the characteristics of low cost and good expansibility.%概述了现阶段楼宇中央空调远程控制的情况,基于ATmega128与Enc28j60设计了以太网传输方案,通过在ATmega128上移值TCP/IP协议,系统能够与远程电脑通讯,实现了中央空调的远程实时监控。介绍了整个系统的结构及其功能,给出了各个部分的电路框图,并就程序设计、可靠性与抗干扰性做了说明。系统完成后应用于实践工程,运行稳定可靠。该设计系统具有实现方法简单、成本较低、扩展性好等特点,具有一定的实用性和推广价值。

  5. 基于局部终端温度调节的中央空调需求响应控制策略%Demand Response Control Strategy for Central Air-conditioner Based on Temperature Adjustment of Partial Terminal Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚野白; 王丹; 贾宏杰; 黄仁乐; 张逸; 杨占勇

    2015-01-01

    Unlike small amounts of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs),the central air-conditioner(CAC) has huge potential ability of demand response by virtue of its large capacity.Focusing on the features of CAC demand response,an integrated model is proposed to describe CAC”s thermodynamic aspects,including the main devices,circulating water system and terminal devices.This paper presents a new CAC control strategy based on temperature adjustment of partial terminal devices which differs from previous methods in concentrating on all the CAC”s terminal devices.The effects of different precision controlling conditions can be reflected by using this model and strategy.Modeling results show that the proposed approach has better performance and efficiency by rational adjustment.%不同于传统单体温控设备,中央空调因其较大的制冷/制热容量而具有更好的需求响应可调潜力。结合中央空调需求响应特点,对其进行了热力学建模,涉及中央空调主机、循环水泵系统、终端组件等动态,形成了多终端中央空调需求响应模型。针对以往中央空调控制策略中对终端整体调节的方法,提出了一种基于局部终端温度调节的控制策略,可实现不同的控制精度。研究结果表明,基于“自下而上”的控制方法,通过合理调节关键的中央空调终端温度设定值,受控群体能够在维持较高用户舒适度的同时,精准响应外界功率信号。

  6. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  7. Control Method for Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Fuzzy Based Nine-Switch Power Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Gowthami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A nine-switch power converter having two sets of out-put terminals was recently proposed in place of the traditional back-to-back power converter that uses 12 switches in total. The nine-switch converter has already been proven to have certain advantages, in addition to its component saving topological feature. Despite these advantages, the nine-switch converter has so far found limited applications due to its many perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring an oversized dc-link capacitor, limited amplitude sharing, and constrained phase shift between its two sets of output terminals. Instead of accepting these tradeoffs as limitations, a nineswitch power conditioner is proposed here that virtually “converts” most of these topological short comings into interesting performance advantages. Aiming further to reduce its switching losses, an appropriate discontinuous modulation scheme is proposed and studied here in detail to doubly ensure that maxi-mal reduction of commutations is achieved. With an appropriately designed control scheme then incorporated, the nine-switch converter is shown to favorably raise the overall power quality in experiment, hence justifying its role as a power conditioner at a reduced semiconductor cost.

  8. A Novel Control Method for Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Nine-Switch Power Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Narendra,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A nine-switch power converter having two sets of out-put terminals was recently proposed in place of the traditional back-to-back power converter that uses 12 switches in total. The nine-switch converter has already been proven to have certain advantages, in addition to its component saving topological feature. Despite these advantages, the nine-switch converter has so far found limited applications due to its many perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring an oversized dc-link capacitor, limited amplitude sharing, and constrained phase shift between its two sets of output terminals. Instead of accepting these tradeoffs as limitations, a nineswitch power conditioner is proposed here that virtually “converts” most of these topological short comings into interesting performance advantages. Aiming further to reduce its switching losses, an appropriate discontinuous modulation scheme is proposed and studied here in detail to doubly ensure that maxi-mal reduction of commutations is achieved. With an appropriately designed control scheme then incorporated, the nine-switch converter is shown to favorably raise the overall power quality in experiment, hence justifying its role as a power conditioner at a reduced semiconductor cost.

  9. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  11. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  12. New air conditioner by RMF prevents water in lubricating oils; Neu: Air-Conditioner vom RMF kontra Wasser im Schmieroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    During standstill, water condensation in wind power systems will affect the lubricating properties of the lubricating oil due to oxidation effects. This will result in early failure and irrepairable damage in mechanical components like toothing and rolling bearings. RMF Deutschland, based in Nordorf and Wiesbaden, offer a solution to prevent this. [German] Bei Stillstaenden der Windkraftanlage bildet sich Kondenswasser in nicht unerheblichen Umfang. Bekannterweise beeinflussen schon geringe Wasseranteile die Schmierfaehigkeit und Eigenschaften des Schmieroels (Oxidation im Oel). Ergebnisse sind vorzeitige Ausfaelle und irreparable Schaeden an den mechanischen Bauteilen wie Verzahnung und Waelzlager. RMF Deutschland aus Nordorf und Wiesbaden bietet die Loesung, hier vorbeugend einzugreifen. (orig.)

  13. R744 air conditioner with stop/start air conditioning, parking air conditioning and heat pump function in the ''COMET'' test car; R744-Klimaanlage mit Stopp/Start- und Standklimatisierung sowie Waermepumpenfunktion im Versuchstraeger ''COMET''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H.; Horstmann, P.; Kneifel, M.; Hohl, R. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within a several years development project Robert Bosch GmbH has setup a test vehicle to investigate an integral energy management concept (COMET - Control of Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Power). Key feature of the COMET vehicle concept is the hybrid drive train comprising the standard combustion engine and two electrical motors - each with 8 kW - being integrated in the power splitting Dual-E gearbox. Directly via the gearbox the compressor of the CO{sub 2} A/C system is driven so that an electrically parking and start-stop air condition and heating function using a CO{sub 2} heat pump can be realized. System setup, Cool down and heating up tests are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  14. Static aerobic composting of municipal sewage sludge with forced ventilation:Using matured compost as bulking conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建新; 施周; 钟华; 刘卫; 柴琦; 袁兴中

    2014-01-01

    Static aerobic composting of municipal sewage sludge with forced ventilation or air ventilation using matured compost as bulking conditioner was investigated. Physical and chemical parameters, e.g., temperature, moisture content, VSS, CODcr, pH, and germination index (GI), were analyzed to characterize the composting process. Fermentation starts quickly in both forced and air ventilation compost heaps and reaches high-temperature stage after 2 d, owing to the bulking function of matured compost. Compared to air ventilation, however, forced ventilation enables the high-temperature stage to last longer for approximately 7 d. The moisture content of both compost bodies decreases from 62%to about 50%as a result of evaporation, and it decreases slightly faster in forced ventilation compost heap after 13 d due to the higher temperature and better ventilation condition. Although no obvious differences of VSS and pH are observed between both compost heaps, the soluble CODCr and GI show differences during the second half period of fermentation. In forced ventilation compost, the soluble CODCr has a small rebound after 13 d, and GI decreases from 46%to 35%but then increases. These results show that in general, the matured compost is a good conditioner and force ventilation with a proper air supply strategy can be more efficient than air ventilation.

  15. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  16. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  17. Evaluation of ERINA Plus as a coat conditioner in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava

    Full Text Available Coat conditioning, deodorant and cleansing properties of ERINA Plus were evaluated in fifty-one dogs of different breeds. More than 80% of dogs showed good to excellent conditioning, deodorant and cleansing effects supported ERINA Plus as safe conditioner shampoo. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 361-362

  18. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  19. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  20. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  1. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Annapandi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs to a common DC link voltage, which compensates voltage and current based distortions, independently.Using instantaneous active and reactive Power theory ,harmonic detection, reactive power compensation, voltage sag and swell have been simulated and the results are analyzed. The operation and capability of the proposed system was analyzed through simulations with MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  2. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  3. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  4. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  5. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  6. Conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy and autonomic nervous system conditionability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, M; Hursti, T; Salmi, P; Börjeson, S; Fürst, C J; Peterson, C; Steineck, G

    1993-12-01

    There are marked individual differences in conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy. To examine if part of this variation is associated with individual differences in autonomic nervous system conditionability, the present study addressed whether patients with conditioned nausea acquired conditioned heart rate and electrodermal responses at a different rate than patients without conditioned nausea. Of 28 relapse-free patients who had completed cisplatinum treatment for testicular cancer between 1981 and 1986, 10 reported persistent conditioned nausea, 8 extinguished conditioned nausea and 10 no conditioned nausea. These three groups were subjected to a differential conditioning paradigm with 8 sec pictorial stimuli (circles and triangles) serving as conditioned stimuli for an unconditioned electric shock while heart rate and electrodermal activity was monitored. There were 4 habituation, 8 acquisition and 8 extinction trials with each of the two cues. Analyses of variance using nausea status as the independent variable and physiological responses as the dependent lended some support to the notion that conditioned heart rate deceleration developed in response to the reinforced compared to the nonreinforced cue during acquisition in the two groups with persistent or extinguished conditioned nausea but not in the group with no conditioned nausea. In addition, patients that displayed good, as compared to poor heart rate conditionability during acquisition, were more likely to have persistent conditioned nausea, whereas those who showed poor heart rate conditioning mostly were those without conditioned nausea. Electrodermal variables revealed no systematic differences between groups. This tentatively supports that individual differences in parasympathetic but not sympathetic nervous system conditionability may be associated with individual differences in conditioned nausea resulting from cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from carvone in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quertermous, James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    Carvone has occasionally been reported as an allergen, usually in flavorings. Isomers of carvone have been either a mint or a rye flavor and aroma. We report a woman with positive patch-test reactions to carvone (newly added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series) and dermatitis on the head. She had used a hair conditioner with a "mint" scent, and the dermatitis resolved when she discontinued using this product. While the manufacturer would not confirm carvone as an ingredient, the clinical course, patch-test results, and ingredient list strongly suggest that this was a relevant allergen in this case of allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acqui...

  10. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

    1998-11-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  11. Shampoo and conditioners: What a dermatologist should know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  12. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  13. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Artificial Intelligence Based Three-Phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleykutty George

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is an important measure of the performance of an electrical power system. This paper discusses the topology, control strategies using artificial intelligent (AI based controllers and the performance of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC for power quality improvement. UPQC is an integration of shunt and series compensation to limit the harmonic contamination within 5 %, the limit imposed by IEEE-519 standard. The novelty of this paper lies in the application of neural network control (NNC algorithms such as model reference control (MRC, and nonlinear autoregressive-moving average (NARMA–L2 control to generate switching signals for the series compensator of the UPQC system. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 7.0 toolbox. Simulation results demonstrate the applicability of MRC and NARMA-L2 controllers for the control of UPQC.

  15. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  16. Effects of conditioners on surface hardness of hair fibers: an investigation using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Kintrup, L; Schwark, H-J

    2003-01-01

    Conditioners are known to have a prophylactic effect on hair damage caused by cosmetic chemical treatments or mechanical grooming procedures. They are known to impart softness and smoothness to hair by moisturizing the fiber. Since the amount of conditioners deposited on the fiber is very small in quantity, it is conceivable that mainly the surface is moisturized. This is especially true of polymeric conditioners, which deposit preferentially on the surface of the fiber, rather than penetrate into the cortex. Therefore, this study strictly investigates whether cationic polymeric conditioners impart softness to the surface cuticle cell as a result of their hydrophilicity, with no regard to its applicability to cosmetic effects. Such softening can be detected by indentation of the surface and can be quantified by measuring the depth of the indent in real time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), equipped with nano-indentation capability, is ideally suited for this purpose. In this work it was used to determine changes in the microhardness (micromechanical properties) of the hair fiber surface as a result of fiber/conditioner/moisture interactions. In a preliminary study, we observed that the scale faces of hair treated with Polyquaternium 10 (PQ-10) conditioner gave deeper indents, while scale edges yielded shallower ones in comparison to cuticle cells of untreated hair. This suggests that the conditioner softens the scale face and hardens the scale edges. However, because of significant amounts of conditioner residues left on the scale face, this conclusion was rather ambiguous. Therefore, the study was repeated in which multiple indentations were made on the surface cuticle cells of a larger number of the same hair fibers before and after multiple applications of the conditioner. This reduces errors due to fiber-to-fiber variation in pre-existing microhardness differences in surface cuticle cells. Also, the larger number of fibers investigated in the current work

  17. Effect of addition of ethyl alcohol on gelation and viscoelasticity of tissue conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Hiroshi; Hamada, Taizo; Harshini,; Toki, Kazuhito; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of tissue conditioners is influenced by their gelation characteristics and viscoelastic properties after gelation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) on these properties, and to compare the effect of EtOH with that of the powder/liquid (P/L) ratio. Three tissue conditioners were used in this study. The gelation times were obtained with an oscillating rheometer. The viscoelastic properties after gelation were also...

  18. Influences of Oyster Shell Soil Conditioner on Soil and Plant Rhizospheric Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guoliang; LIU Yun; DING Mingyu; KONG Xiuqin

    2003-01-01

    Oyster shell soil conditioner had significant influence on soil and rhizospheric microorganisms in their biomass,respiratory intensity and nutritional requirement. It could stimulate growth of soil and rhizospheric microorganisms, especially nitrogen-fixers, and intensify soil respiration in proportion to the dose and fertilizing time of the conditioner, leading to the increase in the number of nitrogen fixing bacteria and the decrease in the number of bacteria with special nutrition demands.

  19. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  20. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  1. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  2. Implementing method of optimum front-end conditioner based on Butterworth filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The front-end conditioner is an essential part of digital systems of nuclear spectrometer, which functions in two ways: (1) prevents saturation of the subsequent ADC; (2) limits the bandwidth of frequency to realize anti-aliasing. To realize the above-mentioned functions, an optimum front-end conditioner for a resistive feedback charge-sensitive preamplifier is designed. In the conditioner, the pole-zero compensation (P/Z compensation) technique was used to effectively filter signals from the preamplifier. The Butterworth filter was improved after the pole-zero position was optimally set up to shape the wave of output, which tallied with the whole system. The front-end conditioner can resolve the aberration of waveform of nuclear signals in a regular Butterworth filter. Compared with the traditional triple-pole filtering circuitry, the circuitry of this conditioner is more compact and flexible.Moreover, its output waveform is more symmetrical and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is higher. The improvement in the resolution of spectrometer is also significant.

  3. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  4. High efficiency and long life of a three-phase power conditioner via interleave control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Amei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the high efficiency and long life of three-phase power conditioners of a photovoltaic (PV system. The current PV system, which is widely spread, has two problems. The first problem is the lifetime of a power conditioner, whereas the other problem is the drop in the efficiency of the conversion because of the characteristics of the solar cell. For those problems, the solar panel and boost chopper circuit were divided into a plurality to configure a power conditioner, and an electrolytic capacitor-less driver with interleave control was realized. The drop in the current generated by the solar cell was suppressed, and an improvement in power generation efficiency was expected. The configuration and principle of a proposed circuit were explained, and results of simulation and experiment were reported.

  5. Active power line conditioners design, simulation and implementation for improving power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, Patricio Salmeron; Litrán, Salvador Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Active Power Line Conditioners: Design, Simulation and Implementation for Improving Power Quality presents a rigorous theoretical and practical approach to active power line conditioners, one of the subjects of most interest in the field of power quality. Its broad approach offers a journey that will allow power engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students to learn more about the latest landmarks on the different APLC configurations for load active compensation. By introducing the issues and equipment needs that arise when correcting the lack of power quality in power grids

  6. 2-in-1 shampoo technology: state-of-the-art shampoo and conditioner in one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, H; Gummer, C L; Flasch, H

    1994-01-01

    Consumers have expressed a need for cleaning and conditioning in one step. Conventional shampoo technology using anionic surfactants and cationic conditioners results in charge interaction and complexing of the ingredients. Neither shampoo nor conditioners achieves the desired result. The successful solution was to incorporate charge neutral dimethicone conditioning ingredients, suspended as microfine droplets within complex crystal lattices, into anionic surfactant shampoo technology. The same solution has also been applied to amphoteric surfactant systems. This provides complete cleaning, and hair conditioning fully equal to separate conditioners without the problems of sebum interactions and conditioner build-up. This was achieved by keeping the dimethicone in suspension throughout the shampoo process. During rinsing, excess water breaks the crystalline lattice and allows deposition of the dimethicone droplets onto the hair. Full cleaning and conditioning are, therefore, achieved in one application. Dimethicone build-up is not encountered as subsequent washes first remove soil and previously deposited dimethicone. Neither do neutral dimethicones show any reactions with sebum. The development of effective 2-in-1 technology has had a major impact on shampoo technology and consumer habits and practices. This has significantly changed the way consumers care for their hair.

  7. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Su

    Full Text Available Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm. In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  8. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  9. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Alexandre Henrique; Alves, Luana Severo; Melo, Gliciana Piovesan de; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond) and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  10. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  11. Keeping cool: use of air conditioning by australians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Simmons, Rex D; Verikios, George

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households.

  12. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal El-Berry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. To maintain the system forecasting for system failure rates are very important. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the air conditioning systems. The most common applied statistical distributions in reliability settings are the standard (2 parameter Weibull and Gamma distributions. Reliability estimations and predictions are used to evaluate, when the estimation of distributionsparameters is done. To estimate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several companies’ departments is checked. This air conditioning system is divided into two systems, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40 - 45oF (4 - 7oC. The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, with the application of the Weibull and Gamma distributions it is indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively . A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families is studied. It is found that Weibull method has performed well for decision making .

  13. Air conditioning. Special issue; Luchtbehandeling. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, M.; Liew, R.; Daruwalla, H.; Wenzek, J. [AAF International, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Lede, F. [Klimaatinstallaties Kats en Waalwijk, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Pelt, J. [Skiw, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Arts, J. [Imtech Utiliteit West, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Vollebregt, R.; Hoeffnagel, R.; Smorenburg, P.; Bijman, J.

    2007-02-15

    In eight articles attention is paid to several aspects of air conditioning and related systems: the perfect filter case for gas filtration, innovative cooling for computer rooms, thermal comfort in offices, standardization of legionella prevention in climate installations and cooling towers, air quality and energy consumption of integrated units, new air conditioners in the Dutch market. [Dutch] In acht artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten van luchtbehandeling en verwante systemen: de perfecte filtercassette vor gasfasefiltratie, innovatieve koeling in computerruimte, hoog comfort in bestaande kantoren, de in ontwikkeling zijn ISSO-publicatie 55.3 voor legionellapreventie in klimaatinstallaties, legionellapreventie bij comfortkoeling, luchtbehandeling met geintegreerde units, en nieuwe luchtbehandelingskasten voor de Nederlandse markt.

  14. Exergy Analysis and Optimization about Heat Pump Conditioner%热泵空调器火用分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱培根; 虞维平; 张小松

    2001-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the heat pump air-conditioner is carried out and the exer gy losses of the parts of the system are calculated. The parts and the measures of the energy conservation are proposed, in results the exergy loss of the whole heat pump system reaches the minimum one, the exergy efficiency of the system i s at the maximum one, the optimization and the energy conservation of the system is realized.%通过对热泵空调器的火 用分析,计算出各部件的火 用 损失情况,提出了系统的节能部位和应采取的措施,使整个系统的火 用损失为最小,火 用 效率最大,实现热泵节能优化。

  15. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  16. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  17. A new low cost single phase ac-ac power line conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Sonar 1, Tanmoy Maity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of three topologies of recently developed voltage-fed z-source inverter (ZSI such as simple ZSI, quasi-ZSI and trans-ZSI. Different control techniques, proposed earlier for simple ZSI such as simple boost control, maximum boost control and constant boost control, have been applied here for all type of ZSI topologies. The detailed comparative evaluation of all topologies under different PWM techniques is done as power line conditioner. For the common boost factor and modulation index, the output voltage, line harmonics profile of all ZSIs powered by same source and load are evaluated. The operating principles are analysed and the boost factor, voltage gain, duty ratio and voltage stress across the switches are derived. Also the relationships among them are compared even under variable circuit parameters and switch frequency. The results would help to select suitable topology and PWM switching method for power line conditioner application.

  18. Technical development of electric power storage system. Development of load conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1988-07-01

    The load conditioner heightens the utilization ratio of facilities by the stardardization of load for the suppliers and has the consumers advantageously utilize cheap electric power. The domestic facilities are basically composed of charging rectifier, discharging self-exciting inverter and secondary battery. As there presently exists lead battery as a secondary battery, the Electric Power Research Center developed a load conditioner system by using lead battery and is making its operational study. As a secondary lithium battery satisfying the compactness of further particular importance, there are high molecule battery using high molecule compounds such as polyaniline and polyacene, intercaration type battery using vanadium oxide or molybdenum disulfide, etc. Then, in order to materialize the enlargement and life lengthening of those batteries, the steady study of all of negative electrode, positive electrode, electrolyte, battery structure. (3 figs, 2 tabs)

  19. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  20. The plaster plate becomes a air-conditioner; La plaque de platre se fait climatiseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucat, Th.

    2005-09-01

    BASF company, in association with Knauf, has developed a plaster plate capable to regulate the indoor temperature of a room during summer time. A paraffin-based (wax) phase change material, named Micronal, is included in the plater to store energy during the day and to release it during the night. The lifetime of the phase change material is at least 30 years without loss of efficiency. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Solar Powered Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    plates that had been modified so that cooling water made six passes within each plate. A woven cotton fabric sleeve was slipped over each plate to...of operation in non -ideal weather conditions and taking proper measures to avoid damage from freezing. Altogether, the site provides the necessary

  2. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  3. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    energy penalty in fan power and requires frequent maintenance to remain effective. Alternatively, the low-flow liquid desiccant uses minimal mist ...65 8.3.4 LDAC Fans and Pumps...27 Table 9. LDAC System Pump and Fan Motor Schedule

  4. Value Engineering Study of Standard Family of Military Horizontal and Vertical Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-29

    Jeff Nebel Graham Company Box 23880 8800 West Bradley Road Milkwaukee, Wisconsin 53223(414) 355-8800 Terry Gulbrandsen REP: for Emerson Electric Harmon...Mitzubishi Of Washington, Inc. 300 Swann Avenue Alexandria, VA. 22301 Attention: Carl Godwin (703) 548-2045 Central Power Company 27495 Diaz Road...41042 Attention: Rolf Tonseth * *AI~ilREFERENCEYEPLY 081-87 Carl E. 3) 960-4600, Ext. 579 -"IJVE NUMBER MUST APPEAR ON ALL QUOTATIONS PLEASE QUOl THIS

  5. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  6. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The effectiveness of magnesium oxide combined with tissue conditioners in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Kanathila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : The presence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of the denture is a major causative factor in denture stomatits. A treatment method is by combining tissue conditioner and antifungal agents. Aims : The main objective of this study is to test the efficacy of magnesium oxide combined with two tissue conditioners (Viscogel and GC Soft, in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans. Settings and Design : Microbiological study was done in the Department of Microbiology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore. Materials and Methods : A total of 154 plates were prepared using Muller Hilton with Glucose and Methylene Blue dye medium and inoculated with 24-hr old standard Candida culture. Plates were divided into control and combination. Test discs with different concentrations of MgO were equidistantly placed in MgO Control, while sterile discs embedded with respective tissue conditioner were equidistantly placed in Viscogel and GC Soft controls. For combination groups, the tissue conditioners were mixed and the discs with MgO (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7% were embedded in the mix. After 24 h of incubation, inhibition diameters were noted. Statistical Analysis Used : The data was analysed using Mann Whitney U Test, ANOVA, Tukey HSD test. Results : The inhibition effect of magnesium oxide 1% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC is not significant in both the groups. The inhibition effect of MgO 5% and 7% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC is very highly significant ( P < 0.001. Conclusions : Magnesium oxide in combination with tissue conditioners are effective against Candida albicans; GC soft with magnesium oxide showed a better result than Viscogel with magnesium oxide; Increasing the concentration of magnesium oxide increases the zone of inhibition of Candida albicans.

  8. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  9. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  10. Efficacy of tissue conditioner acting as effective fungicidal drug delivery sysytem - An Invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George Baby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of disorders like infections, inflammatory diseases, trauma, allergicmanifestations,neoplasia etc. may affect the tissues and structures of the mouth, jaw bones andteeth. Treatment of candidal infection in denture wearers has always been a challenging task tothe Prosthodontist. There are various treatment procedures for candidal infections. Threedifferent drug delivery systems for the treatment of denture stomatitis were observed. The studyproved that the tissue conditioner (Viscogel can be used as a delivery system for the antifungaldrugs like Nystatin, Clotrimazol and Ketoconazole.

  11. RESOLVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS BY UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER (UPQC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rohini. R. Dabhade*, Prof. C. Veeresh

    2016-01-01

    In this project presents a Design of a Unified Power Quality conditioner (UPQC) connected to three phase four wire system (3P4W). The neutral of series transformer used in the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. The series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. In this simulation we observe the power...

  12. Reduction of energy consumption in air conditioning; Reducao do consumo de energia em aparelhos de ar condicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso, MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ochiuto, Milton de Souza [Rede Cemat, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    An energy efficiency project implemented in public buildings, with the replacement and automation of the air conditioning system, is reported in this article. After measurements of the electrical quantities and consumption, the window conditioners was changed with more efficient models and set up motion detectors to control devices like split. The results confirmed the technical feasibility and economic measures.

  13. Development of 100-W High-Efficiency MPPT Power Conditioner and Evaluation of TEG System with Battery Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Tatsuya; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for thermoelectric generators and the operation results for a battery load system. This power conditioner comprises a high-frequency step-up/step-down switching converter and a microcontroller; a synchronized switching circuit is introduced to achieve high conversion efficiency. Furthermore, it is equipped with a battery charge control program and has a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. An impedance matching method developed for MPPT control showed excellent response against a change in the TEG output, making it suitable for solar TEGs as well as general applications.

  14. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  15. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.

    2012-10-01

    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  16. Engineering study - alternatives for SHMS high temperature/moisture gas sample conditioners for the aging waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMPSON, J.F.

    1999-06-02

    The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems have been experiencing high temperature/moisture problems with gas samples from the Aging Waste Tanks. These moist hot gas samples have stopped the operation of the SHMS units on tanks AZ-101, AZ-102, and AY-102. This study looks at alternatives for gas sample conditioners for the Aging Waste Facility.

  17. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Moore, Larry G [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  18. Turfgrass Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Using technology developed under contract to NASA for the Space Agricultural Program, a scientist at the Plant-Wise Biostimulant Company invented a product for turfgrass called the 3-D Concentrated Plant Growth Supplement. The supplement is a blend of fortified seaweed extracts, humic acid and plant nutrients that supplies grass with extra insurance to handle adverse conditions. The "3-D" refers to its three dimensions: foliar enhancement, physiological integrity, and foundation fortification. The stimulant is used on lawns and on golf courses.

  19. Solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols and their use in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, K; Hoshino, N; Hirota, H

    1991-10-01

    Summary The solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants, synthesized by using long-chain Guerbet alcohols, in water was investigated by a polarizing microscopic technique, differential scanning calorimetry, and electric conductivity measurements. These surfactants show the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition to be lower than 0 degrees C and form lamellar liquid crystals even in cold water and at low concentrations of surfactants. The sorption of cationic surfactants from aqueous solutions onto hair was determined as a function of temperature. The effect of adsorbed cationic surfactants on the critical surface tension and kinetic frictional coefficients of hair surface have been investigated. These surface characteristics of hair treated with quaternary ammonium compounds derived from Guerbet alcohols were found to be significantly improved. These results can be explained by the high ability of sorption onto hair. Hair rinses and conditioners having excellent ease of combing or brushing for wet and dry hair can be formulated by the application of these cationic surfactants.

  20. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced...... for railway power conditioner (RPC). This paper presents a simplified quantitative comparison of five previous modular RPC topologies for negative sequence compensation in V/V and SCOTT traction systems, aiming for an optimal selection of the compensators. Performance criteria such as transformer requirement......, voltage stress and current stress of power switch, numbers of the power switches and capacitor are derived by analytical methods. Moreover, the numerical comparison of operating controllers is completed for modular RPCs. In addition, power losses of five modular RPCs are obtained by theoretical analysis...

  1. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0033: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes - Transition Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results were not conclusive...from PlasmaTreat -North America was used to clean and activate the surface of the aluminum alloy. This process blasts the surface of an object on the...conditioner with or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results

  2. Improving air handler efficiency in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2004-05-01

    Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. Substantial increases in performance could be obtained through improved air handler design and construction. A prototype residential air handler intended to address these issues has recently been developed. The prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler (averaged over a wide range of operating conditions) and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the clearance between the air handler and cabinet it was placed in. These test results showed that in addition to the large scope for performance improvement, air handler fans need to be tested in the cabinets they operate in.

  3. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0, which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future.

  4. Simple and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of cetrimonium chloride and alkyl alcohols in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, A; Gómez-Mingot, M; Maestre, S E; Prats, S; Luis Todolí, J; Paredes, E

    2010-02-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of a cationic surfactant (cetrimonium chloride) and four non-ionic surfactants (1-tetradecanol, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octadecanol and 1-eicosanol) has been developed. Direct extraction of the analytes from the sample with methanol and a subsequent separation using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection are the steps followed in the procedure. The column used was a Luna C18 and the mobile phase consisted of a 0.1 M KClO(4) solution prepared on a 95:5 mixture of methanol and water. This solution was adjusted to pH 2.8 with phosphoric acid. Recoveries close to 100% were obtained in spiked commercial hair conditioner samples for the surfactants assayed using this method. Limits of detection were 10.4, 16.7 and 22.9 mg kg(-1) of cetrimonium chloride, 1-hexadecanol, 1-hexadecanol and 1-1-octadecanol respectively. The methodology was successfully applied to nine commercial hair conditioners of several types and different brands. All hair conditioners but one contained at least two of the surfactants included in this study.

  5. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  6. Design Analysis on VRV Home Use Central Air Conditioning%浅谈VRV家用中央空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓芬; 张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    家用中央空调主要有三种系统,风管系统、冷热水系统和制冷剂系统。其中制冷剂系统适合用作住宅空调。以大金VRV家用中央空调为例,介绍了家用中央空调的系统设计方法。系统设计内容主要包括负荷计算、系统选择和设计、管路布置。%The three basic types of household central air conditioners are water-tube type, air-line type and varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner. The varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner is suitable for the family home. The system design method of household central air-conditioning is introduced in this paper, taking the DAIKIN VRV system for example. The content of system design includes load calculation, systemic selection and design, and pipeline layout.

  7. Comparison of the Surface Roughness of Gypsum (Dental Stone with three Types of Tissue Conditioner Impression Materials over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Although the primary use of tissue conditioners is for healing the damaged mucosa but they can also be used as functional impression; it seems that its effeicasy depends on its viscoelastic features such as compatibility with gypsum and surface roughness.Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the surface roughness of gypsum with several tissue conditioner impression materials avaliable in the market.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, three tissue conditioners (Acrosoft, viscogel & GC were used. Pars dental gypsum moldano Type III and a polyvinyl siloxane impression were used for the controls. The tissue conditioners powder liquid ratio was mixed according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and immediately poured in a mold with an internal diameter of 18 mm and depth of 2mm. The mold was completely filled. Then, a glass block with the mean roughness of 0.8 µm was placed on its surface for two hours. Then, the 5 samples were immediately placed in 37oC water for 0-24 hrs, 3, 7, and 14 days. After that, the specimens were beaded, boxed and poured with pars dental gypsum type III. The gypsum sample’s surface roughness was measured with profilometer with the length of 2.5 mm and cut-off of 0.8 mm. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: The results showed that surface roughness of Acrosoft in different storage times did not change significantly and there was no significant difference between Acrosoft and the control group. Viscogels surface roughness was significantly different with all other groups at zero time; with the increase of storage time the surface roughness decreases. The control group showed a significant difference with viscogel at zero time and with GC at 24 hrs and 3 days but it revealed no difference with the other groups. The least surface roughness belonged to GC at zero and 14 days and the highests surface roughness belonged to viscogel at zero time

  8. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  9. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  10. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  11. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  12. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Valsala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate the voltage sag/swell problems, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating voltage and current related power quality problems. Thus, the proposed topology can mitigate the voltage fluctuations and current harmonics without energy storage elements and the total harmonic distortion produced by the system also very low. It also reduced volume and cost, reduced capacitor power losses, together with higher reliability. The Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is used to control the matrix converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation results are presented to validate the approach.

  13. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  14. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  15. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  16. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  17. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Awad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  18. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Awad, Mohamed M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, the University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min) air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  19. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of the application of a cationic conditioner to "clean" hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A; Carr, C M; Pereira, A

    2004-01-01

    In this study the applicability of the surface-sensitive ToF-SIMS technique to hair analysis and associated aqueous processing is evaluated. ToF-SIMS analysis of "as received" human hair indicates the presence of silicones, anionic surfactants, and cationic conditioners, from previous treatments, on the fiber surface. Cleaning of the hair with SLS or SLES results in adsorption of the surfactants onto the fiber surface. In particular, the more non-polar surfactant components have greater substantivity for the fiber surface, as indicated by the relative increase in their ToF-SIMS intensity. Application of the Incroquat Behenyl 18-MEA conditioner to both "virgin" and bleached hair results in the adsorption of the cationic C18, C20, C22, and C21 surfactant components onto the hair surface. The ToF-SIMS data indicate higher levels of conditioner on the bleached hair relative to the undamaged hair.

  20. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Sun,; Len Borucki,; Yun Zhuang,; Yasa Sampurno,; Fransisca Sudargho,; Xiaomin Wei,; Sriram Anjur,; Ara Philipossian,

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  1. Experimental and numerical study on aerodynamic noise of outdoor unit of room air conditioner with different grilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie; Ouyang, Hua; Wu, Yadong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Shanghai Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of outdoor unit with two different types of grille have been investigated in present study. Experimental results indicate that the grille sharp will affect the flow rate and increase broadband noise level of outdoor unit. Based on noise generation mechanism and CFD simulation, vortex shedding noise model and inlet turbulence noise model are adopted to predict the broadband noise level of outdoor unit. When vortex shedding noise is concerned, the wake parameters should be calculated at 3 mm downstream of grille to achieve good accuracy. Inlet turbulence noise is generated from the interaction between blade wake and the grille, and plays less important role in present outdoor unit configuration. In comparison with experimental results, it is shown that the broadband noise prediction method could provide reasonable accuracy and the error between prediction and experiment is less than 1 dBA. (author)

  2. Seasonal performance of air conditioners - an analysis of the DOE test procedures: the thermostat and measurement errors. Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, G.D.; Tree, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of the DOE test procedures are analyzed. First, the role of the thermostat in controlling the cycling of conditioning equipment is investigated. The test procedures call for a cycling scheme of 6 minutes on, 24 minutes off for Test D. To justify this cycling scheme as being representative of cycling in the field, it is assumed that the thermostat is the major factor in controlling the cycle rate. This assumption is examined by studying a closed-loop feedback model consisting of a thermostat, a heating/cooling plant and a conditioned space. Important parameters of this model are individually studied to determine their influence on the system. It is found that the switch differential and the anticipator gain are the major parameters in controlling the cycle rate. This confirms the thermostat's dominant role in the cycling of a system. The second aspect of the test procedures concerns transient errors or differences in the measurement of cyclic capacity. In particular, errors due to thermocouple response, thermocouple grid placement, dampers and nonuniform velocity and temperature distributions are considered. Problems in these four areas are mathematically modeled and the basic assumptions are stated. Results from these models help to clarify the problem areas and give an indication of the magnitude of the errors involved. It is found that major disagreement in measured capacity can arise in these four areas and can be mainly attributed to test set-up differences even though such differences are allowable in the test procedures. An understanding of such differences will aid in minimizing many problems in the measurement of cyclic capacity.

  3. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  4. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSTED BIO-TOILET RESIDUE AND ITS POTENTIAL USE AS A SOIL CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Triastuti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-toilet is a dry toilet where human excreta is trapped in a lignocelluloses soil matrix such as wood sawdust, then it is decomposed by aerobic  bacteria to organic compost rich in minerals such as N, P, and K. The study aimed to characterize the bio-toilet residue and its potential use as a soil conditioner for Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in a private school of Daarut Tauhid in Bandung West Java. A bio-toilet S-50 type of Japan was constructed consisting of a composting chamber, mixer, heater, exhaust fan, and closet. The composting chamber was filled with 63 kg of Albizzia sawdust. Feces and urine was loaded daily by 54 students for 122-day observation. At the end of observation, the decomposed bio-toilet residue was evaluated for its physical properties such as bulk density (rb, porosity (%, and water retention (WR. Chemical properties such as pH, C/N ratio, N, P, and K, as well as microbiological properties such as numbers of bacteria, fungi, and worm eggs were evaluated at 14 and 122 days of decomposition process. Effect of the composted bio-toilet residue as plant growth media was evaluated using J. curcass as a plant indicator. Before it was used as a growth media, the composted bio-toilet residue was dried in a room temperature for 30 days. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with three replications. The first factor was the rate of composted biotoilet residue, i.e., 0, 20, 40, and 60% based on weight of the growth media mixture (1500 g pot-1, and the second was NPK fertilizer addition at 0 and 2 g pot-1. Each pot was planted with 2-month old of J. curcas seedlings. Parameters evaluated were leaf number, leaf area, stem height, and stem diameter measured at 12 weeks after planting. The results showed that the biotoilet residue was suitable as soil conditioner because it had high porosity (76%, low bulk density (0.19 g cm-3, high water retention (2.6 ml g-1 DM, neutral pH (6.9, C

  6. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  7. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  8. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Santhosh Kumar; K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W) distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer ne...

  9. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  10. A comparison of the efficacy of nystatin and fluconazole incorporated into tissue conditioner on the in vitro attachment and colonization of Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah-Tafti

    2010-01-01

    Results: The 1% to 10% mixture of nystatin and tissue conditioner completely inhibited the attach-ment and colonization of Candida albicans, although for fluconazole only a 10% concentration caused complete inhibition. Nystatin showed a potentially higher effect in inhibition of candida at-tachment and colonization (P = 0.0001 compared to that of fluconazole and a statistically significant difference was seen between 5% and 1% fluconazole (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Tissue conditioner with 1% to 10% nystatin or 10% fluconazole can completely inhi-bit the adhesion and colonization of Candida albicans.

  11. Study on air conditioer SCOP experiments in Europe%欧洲空调SCOP实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张罡

    2012-01-01

    在大力提倡节能降耗的新形势下,欧洲空调能效判别也由COP转向SGOP.文中分析了标准EN14825中房间空调器季节能效比( SCOP)的概念以及计算方法.通过变频空调在不同温度下的实验数据,计算出变频空调的SCOP.还研究了室外风扇转速、压缩机频率与制热量、COP的关系,这为2013年欧洲新产品的开发提供了参考依据.%In the new situation of energy - saving and consumption reduction advocated strongly, the air conditioner energy efficiency of discrimination is changed from COP to SCOP in Europe. This paper analyzed the concept and calculation method of the room air conditioner SCOP with the standard EN14825. SCOP of inverter air conditioners was calculated with experimental data at difference temperature. This paper also studied the outdoor fan speed, the frequency of the compressor relationship with heat capacity and COP, which can provide a reference for the 2013 European development of new products.

  12. CFD Analysis of Manipulator Cabin by Selecting Proper Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S. Ghorpade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulator is a machine which is used to transfer heavy objects, to reduce human efforts in many industrial applications. Some of them are fully automated while some are manually operated. It is difficult to work in cabin of manipulator for the operator under hot conditions. So it is essential to provide comfort to operator using air-conditioning system. For such applications standard air conditioners are not compatible, so we have to develop assembled system. In this paper we will be dealing with design, selection and fabrication of components like compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator. In order to do so, we have calculated heat load.

  13. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  14. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems......., the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  15. Wide multi air-conditioning system using new cooling medium HFC407C; Shinreibai HFC407C saiyo no wide multi eakon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A multi air conditioner for a building was commercialized which used, as a substitute for the cooling medium HCFC(hydro chloro fluoro carbon)22, a new cooling medium HFC(hydro fluoro carbon)407C containing no chlorine atom that destroys the ozone layer. Since the new cooling medium HFC407C was a mixture of three kinds of cooling mediums having different boiling points, there were problems such as lowered performance through composition change in a heat exchanger and lowered lubricity due to no chlorine content. In order to solve these problems, high efficiency of the heat exchanger by the use of a new heat exchanger tube was contrived, as were improvement of the compressor, employment of a new lubricating oil, security of performance and enhancement of reliability through the optimum super heat control. As a result, the new cooling medium series was completed succeeding the advantage of the wide multi air-conditioners. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  17. Analysis of plant function as bio-thermal-conditioner using Pothos (Epipremnum aureum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Tadashi, E-mail: nack-art@y7.dion.ne.jp [Nakadai Junior High School, 1-56-23 Nakadai Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174-0064 (Japan); Inagaki, Terumi, E-mail: hotaru@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4 Chome, Nakanarusawa 12-1, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Plants absorb carbon dioxide by photosynthesis using solar energy and use thermal energy in the atmosphere by transpiration. Paying attention to the excellent functions that plants perform, we have measured the daily variation of the temperature and humidity on plant circumference of an individual level using Pothos (Epipremnum aureum), and have investigated the thermal conditioning effect of the plant irradiated white LED in a closed space covered with thermal insulation at the incubator adjusted temperature. The air-cooling effect of Pothos in a closed space at the incubator adjusted 23 Degree-Sign C was about 1 Degree-Sign C. High correlation between air temperature and that of soil was shown in the air-cooling effect, and long-time white light irradiation increased the air-cooling effect.

  18. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this

  19. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. Thus, the series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. The simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-based 3P4W distribution system.

  20. Cocomposting with and without Eisenia fetida for conversion of toxic paper mill sludge to a soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arvinder; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Dhaliwal, S S; Rup, Pushpinder J

    2010-11-01

    Present study was envisaged for fast bioremediation of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil ameliorating agent. Although a rich source of organic carbon this sludge cannot be directly applied in fields and is recycled very slowly in landfills as it is deficient in other nutrients. Therefore it was mixed with cattle dung in various proportions and subjected to aerobic cocomposting (without worms) and vermicocomposting (with Eisenia fetida). It was observed that mixing cattle dung with the sludge improved physico-chemical characteristics (with transition metals in the permissible range for manures) of the products of both the processes and enhanced its acceptability for worms. Higher decline in organic carbon and higher content of nitrogen and phosphorous along with lower electrical conductivity and higher pH of the products of vermicomposting indicated that E. fetida helped in fast conversion of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil conditioner in 100days.

  1. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...... solving the coupling problem introduced by the common switching leg. The modulation method is similar to the well-known space vector modulation widely used with three-phase voltage source converters, which thus brings extra flexibility to the TL-UPQC system. Two optimized modulation modes with either...... reduced switching loss or harmonic distortion are derived, evaluated, and discussed, in order to demonstrate the flexibility brought by the space vector modulated TL-UPQC. Simulations and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed space vector modulation...

  2. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Shona E-mail: shona.webster@stir.ac.uk; Salt, Carol A.; Howard, Brenda J

    2003-07-01

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of {sup 99}Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that {sup 99}Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the {sup 99}Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO{sub 2} monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial {sup 99}Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining {sup 99}Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  3. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel control design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC. This design is enabled by a control framework that employs Genetic Algorithm which determines optimum points and angle for filtering and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique (SVPWM to offer significant flexibility to optimize waveform. In addition the same framework integrates the major functions of the UPQC with ease to unify the treatments of several power quality problems including system harmonics in the supply voltage and load current, sags/swells in the supply voltage, variations in the load demands and poor power factor at the supply side. Simulation studies on a three phase power distribution system are used to verify the performance and implementation of this control design with the UPQC.

  5. Power Quality Improvement by Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on CSC Topology Using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Dharmalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  6. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. BGA土壤调理剂在缺水土壤上的施用效果%Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Water Shortage Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 王峰; 许强; 刘廷俊; 尚红莺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了缓解宁夏中部干旱带土壤缺水问题,提高水分生产效率和土地生产力.[方法]通过田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂对缺水土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响.[结果]与不施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了缺水土壤物理性质,促进了马铃薯、压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜和不覆膜条件下马铃薯产量,改善了红枣品质;与配方施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂促进了压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜产量,改善了红枣品质.[结论]如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,那么BGA土壤调理剂改良缺水土壤是可行的.%[Objective] The research aimed to relieve soil water shortage problem in the middle arid belt of Ningxia, and increase water use efficiency and land productivity. [Method] Through field plot experiment, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on physical and chemical properties of water shortage soil and the growth of crops was studied. [ Result ] Compared with no fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved the physical properties of water shortage soil, promoted the growth of potato, watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of potato without plastic film mulch and watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner promoted the growth of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. [ Conclusion ] It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve water shortage soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner was reduced or BGA soil conditioner was applied with chemical fertilizers together.

  9. 土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展%Advance in research and application of soil conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟锋; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress in research and application of soil conditioner. There was no uniform definition of soil conditioner at present, but there were several different classification methods. The main functions of soil conditioner included improving soil texture and structure, improving water retention and water supply ability of soil, regulating soil pH value, treatment of alkali-saline soil, improving soil nutrient supply, remediation of heavy metals pollution soil, etc. In soil improvement process, the appropriate conditioner would be chosen according to the different soil obstacle problem to the good improvement effect. However, soil conditioner application also exposed a series of problems, including the potential environmental risk problem, product function orientation and awareness problem, product quality problem, packaging and marking the problem such as the disorder, finally pointed out that a scientific evaluation system of soil conditioner should be established urgently.%综述了土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展.土壤调理剂目前尚无统一定义,且存在不同的分类方法,其主要功能包括改良土壤质地与结构、提高土壤保水供水能力、调节土壤酸碱度、改良盐碱土、改善土壤的养分供应状况、修复重金属污染土壤等.在土壤改良过程中,针对不同土壤障碍问题有针对性地选择土壤调理剂将达到较好的改良效果.然而,土壤调理剂在推广应用中也暴露出一系列问题,包括潜在的环境风险、功能定位和认识问题、产品质量良莠不齐、包装标识混乱等,因此亟待建立一套完善的土壤调理剂科学评价体系.

  10. The Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Saline Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐土上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽琴; 杨建国; 纪立东; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve soil salinization problem of Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline soil quality, and increase land productivity, the author studied the effect of BCA soil conditioner on oil sunflower growth and saline soil property, and evaluated the application effect of BGA soil conditioner through field plot experiment. The results showed that BCA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of saline soil. The soil bulk density decreased while the total porosity increased, and the contents of available nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil were increased compared with CK1. The content of soil available phosphorus was also increased compared with CK2. BCA soil conditioner also promoted growth of oil sunflower. Plant height, leaf SPAD value, and photosynthetic rate of oil sunflower were improved. The yield of oil sunflower was higher 176.7% than that in CK1 and 18.0% than that in CK2. It was feasible to use BGA soil conditioner to improve saline soil if its production cost reduced or it combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐土土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间小区试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐土油葵生长发育和土壤理化性质的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐土理化性质,较对照1降低了土壤容重,增加了土壤总孔隙度、碱解氮和有效磷含量,较对照2提高了土壤有效磷含量;BGA土壤调理剂促进了油葵生长发育,油葵株高、叶片SPAD值、光合速率提高,油葵产量较对照1提高176.7%,较对照2提高18.0%.如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良盐土是可行的,值得进一步研究应用.

  11. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  12. 具有数据转换和处理功能的信号调理器%Signal Conditioner With Data Converter and Processor Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宗南

    2002-01-01

    详细介绍了信号调理器MAX1462的特点,主要电气参数,内部功能模块电路.最后给出该器件的典型应用电路.%This paper introduces the features, main electrical parameters, internal function of signal conditioner MA 1462 in detail, its typical application circuit is also provided.

  13. Effect of Soil Conditioner on Growth for Oriental Hybrid Lily (Sorbonne) Cut Flowers%土壤调理剂对百合生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺; 解占军

    2013-01-01

    In the study,the greenhouse planting methods were employed to reveal effect of soil conditioner and application methods on growth for lily (oriental hybrids) cut flowers in the Lingyuan city of western Liaoning province.The results were as follows:The soil conditioner promoted the growth of the lily.The Promoting effect followed as:conditioner Ⅰ treatment > Compound microelement fertilizer treatment > brenstone treatment > vinegar residue treatment.banding applications of conditioner Ⅰ was better than its broadcast applications.The reasonable application method of chemical fertilizers was that the basal fertilizers lay particular stress on P and K,and that the top-dressing fertilizer applied largely of N,which under the principle of fractional fertilization.%采用温室栽培方法,通过施用各种土壤酸性改良剂,探讨土壤改良剂和不同施用模式对辽西凌源市的百合生长发育的影响.结果表明,土壤改良剂明显促进了百合的生长,其中以调制剂1号处理为最好,其次为复合微肥处理,再次为硫磺处理,最次为醋渣处理,其中,调制剂1号沟施效果明显好于全层施用效果.施用化肥采用基施偏重P、K肥,轻施N肥;追施化肥要以氮肥为主,P、K肥为辅进行分量多次的施肥原则.

  14. Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-20

    The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide-ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid-liquid extraction. The iodide-ATMA+ pairs were then demethylated to their corresponding nonionic alkyldimethylamines (ADMAs) by thermal decomposition in a GC injection-port. A high abundance of ADMAs was detected at the temperature above 300 degrees C in the GC injection-port. The enhanced selectivity of quasi-molecular ion chromatograms of C12-C18-ADMA, obtained using methanol PICI-MS enables ADMAs to be identified. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine contents of ATMAC in commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners. The contents of total measured ATMAC ranged from 0.4 to 6.9% for hair conditioners, and from 3.3 to 4.6% for fabric softeners.

  15. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  16. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  17. Thermal properties in phase change wallboard room based on air conditioning cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其针; 刘鑫; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room with a phase change wall (PCW) room,the effect of phase change wallboard on the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in summer was studied. And PCW room and an ordinary wall room,which are cooled by air-conditioner,were built up. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested,it is found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1-2 ℃,and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6 W/m2. Combining phase change material to building envelope can lower the indoor temperature,make the room thermal comfortable,and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of air-conditioner,the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates urgent need of the electric power. Building envelope which contains phase change wallboard can improve the indoor thermal environment,and decrease energy consumption in buildings. Phase change wallboard can make impressive effect on energy efficiency of buildings.

  18. Hardness Changes of Tissue Conditioners in Various Storage Media: An in Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Kamposiora, Phophi; Papavasiliou, George; Divaris, Kimon; Zinelis, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of storage media on the longitudinal hardness changes of tissue conditioning materials. Four tissue-conditioning materials were used for fabrication of 80 disc-shaped specimens and divided in four groups, stored in four storage media. The specimens underwent artificial ageing corresponding to 30 nights of extra-oral storage. Hardness measurements were obtained at nine intervals between 8 and 240 hours after specimen fabrication. To test the effects of storage media on hardness we employed multivariate modelling (Bonferroni correction; α = 0.05). The materials exhibited varying hardness changes, most pronounced when stored in ambient air.

  19. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  20. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Smith, Travis [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  1. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  2. Effect of Polymeric Soil Conditioners on Seeds Germination%高分子土壤改良剂对种籽萌芽之影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 周良勋; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 李茂田

    2005-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the adhesive for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Previous studies showed that the polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. However the inhibition of seeds germination by the polymers was seldom discussed. In this study the effects of polymers on the germination of Bahia grass seeds are experimental observed. Polyvinyl alcohol and acrylic polymer are used in the experiments. Experimental results showed acrylic polymer, the most often used soil conditioner, would evidently inhibit the plant germination. However with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to acrylic polymer will increase the germination of the seeds. The percentage germination and germination energy are discussed in this study.%以高分子材料为土壤改良剂可使土壤团粒化, 增加水份入渗效率, 减少土壤冲蚀, 为研究环境问题之重要课题.但此类土壤改良剂可能抑制植物种籽萌芽, 为使用此种材料的一大问题.以压克力与聚乙烯醇对 Bahia种籽做一系列萌芽实验探讨.实验结果发现, 压克力对种籽萌芽率与萌芽势能有严重之抑制作用.但适量之聚乙烯醇添加可克服此问题.

  3. Effects of Applying BGA Soil Conditioner and Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium Together on Yield of Spring Maize%BGA土壤调理剂与氮磷钾肥配施对春玉米产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩全辉; 黄洁; 许瑞丽; 罗春芳

    2013-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂与氮、磷、钾肥配施对玉米产量及其主要产量构成因素的影响。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施比CK(不施肥)增产54.9%,纯施BGA土壤调理剂比CK增产7.5%,而BGA土壤调理剂与氮肥、钾肥、氮磷钾复合肥配施分别比CK减产22.5%、9.4%、13.8%。因此,推荐在玉米生产上采用BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施,并建议加强BGA土壤调理剂与化肥配施对其他作物产量影响的研究。%Under the field experiment,the effects of applying BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium together on the yield of spring maize were studied. The results showed that comparing with the CK (no fertilizer),BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application increased the kernal yield by 54.9%,BGA soil conditioner single application increased the kernal yield by 7.5% ,while BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen fertilizer,potassium fertilizer,compound fertilizer combined application decreased the kernal yield by 22.5%,9.4%,13.8%, respectively.We suggested BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application on maize plantation,and the study of the yield of BGA soil conditioner combined application with fertilizer on other crops should be focused on.

  4. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  5. 变频调速在空调系统中的应用%The application of the frequency control of motor speed in air con ditionin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈文斌; 赵政

    2013-01-01

    For the people's living environment and promoting energy - saving technology,I describes the adv antage of inverter air conditioner,compares fixed-frequency airconditioning. based on the basic principle of frequency control of motor speed,compressor stator voltage and frequency relation,this paper in detail in troduces inverter air conditioning system's working principle,the results show that the frequency conversi on air conditioning has entered a rapid development period,the frequency conversion air conditioning in our country will become the inevitable trend of air conditioner development.%针对人们对生活环境的要求和节能技术的推进,介绍变频空调相对于定频空调节能舒适的优势,通过对变频调速的基本原理、压缩机的定子电压与频率关系的论述,详细分析将变频器引入空调系统的工作原理,结果表明变频空调已进入快速发展期,在我国变频空调将成为空调发展的必然趋势。

  6. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    European countries (Ignasi Gurruchaga); (21) Optimisation potential of a large solar adsorption cooling plant (Antoine Dalibard); (22) Planning, commissioning and practical experience with first summer of operation of a cost effective solar air conditioning system for a Canteen at Munich Airport (Carsten Hindenburg); (23) Energy and economic performance of solar cooling systems (Ursula Eicker); (24) Solar-driven adsorption chiller controlled by hot and cooling water temperature (Jan Albers); (25) Comparative results of monitored solar assisted heating and cooling installations (Wolfram Sparber); (26) Heating and cooling with a small scale solar driven adsorption chiller combined with a borehole system - recent results (Tomas Nunez); (27) Solar heating and cooling - Town hall Gleisdorf (Alexander Thuer); (28) Solar dessicant cooling system operating in Palermo (Italy): Results and Validation of simulation models (Marco Beccali); (29) The application of a liquid-dessicant air conditioner to solar cooling (Andrew Lowenstein); (30) A compact solid adsorption chiller for solar air conditioning (Robert Critoph); (31) Development of a two-stage absorption chiller for solar-assisted cooling and heating (Manuel Riepl); (32) Ionic liquids - a promising solution for solar absorption chillers? (Annett Kuehn);(33) Parabolic trough design optimization for high temperature lift solar cooling applications (Marcello Aprile); (34) Tentative R and D program forgetting adsorbents effective for solar air conditioning (Yury Aristov); (35) An energy efficient solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system: Experiment and case study (Yanjun Dai); (36) Performance of a flat plate collector-regenerator that uses earth-to-air heat exchangers for regeneration of water-lithium chloride solution in a solar coolant plant (Roberto Bruno); (37) 350 KW of dual solar cooling for optimal flexibility and economic performance (Roel de Coninck); (38) Global performance of a solar absorption cooling

  7. 复合(混)肥专用调理剂(营养胶水)的研究%Study of Special Conditioner (Nutritional Glue) for Compound (Mixed) Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焕银; 彭华平

    2013-01-01

    针对黏土矿物在复合(混)肥造粒工艺中存在的问题,开发了复合(混)肥专用调理剂.试验结果表明:在复合(混)肥中加入该调理剂,可使肥料成粒率由50%提高至70%,返料比下降;可以提高土壤对NH4+,NO3-,K+和PO43-的吸附量,其效果优于传统的保水剂聚丙烯酰胺及聚丙烯酸钠;可以起到养分缓释和防止肥料结块的作用.%As problems exist in the use of clay minerals in the granulation of compound (mixed) fertilizers,a conditioner is developed specially for use in compound (mixed) fertilizers.The experimental results show that with the addition of the conditioner into the compound (mixed) fertilizers,the granulation rate rises from 50% to 70%,and the recycle rate decreases; the soil adsorbs more NH4+,NO3-,K + and P043-,and its result is better than that of the conventional water-retaining agents polyacrylamide and sodium polyacrylate; and it plays the role of slow release of nutrients and prevention of fertilizer caking.

  8. 水稻施用禾康土壤调理剂效果试验%Experiment on the Application of Hekang Soil Conditioner in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展广军; 徐久升; 李成坤; 于艳青; 黄河

    2012-01-01

    对禾康土壤调理剂不同施入量进行试验研究,结果表明:禾康土壤调理剂为生物制剂,无毒无污染,能够杀灭土壤病菌、提高水稻抗病能力,促早熟,增加千粒重、水稻单位面积有效穗数、叶面积指数、高效叶面积率、干物质产量、齐穗后干物质积累量占籽粒产量百分比、水稻抗性,增产效果显著。%The test on different quantity of Hekang soil conditioner were made and the results indicated that the soil conditioner was biologicals, non-toxic, non-polluting, safe to use. It can kill germs in soil, increase the disease-resistant capacity of rice, promote precocity, increase the 1000-grain weight, effective panicles per unit area, leaf area index, effective leaf area rate, yield of dry matter, the rate that dry matter accumulation in the grains yield after heading, and the yield effects reached the significant level.

  9. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of allergic disorders in this area.

  10. Design of and experiment on composite vacuum pre-conditioner%复合式真空回潮机的设计及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴志明; 徐娟; 范晓宝; 高文; 张小东

    2016-01-01

    In order to effectively condition and loosen tobacco bales and decrease steam consumption, a composite vacuum pre-conditioner was designed by incorporating rotary vacuum conditioning and loosening technologies. The pre-conditioner was mainly composed of a driving device for vacuum conditioning, a rotary sealing device, a conditioning device and a cylinder body with tobacco buildup prevention structure. Five testing batches of tobacco bales were processed by the designed pre-conditioner under different technical conditions, the results showed that: 1) The ordering efficiency of tobacco strips reached 100%, their loosening rate was up to 98% with a uniform moisture content. 2) The technical parameters of the new pre-conditioner were adjustable over a wide range, allowed it to process tobacco bales at different intensities; the temperature of the processed tobacco was 50 ℃ or 65 ℃. 3) No tobacco built up on the inside wall of cylinder basically, it was convenient in maintenance. 4) The steam consumption reduced by 35% comparing with a traditional vacuum pre-conditioner. Rotary vacuum conditioning system provides an alternative for the vacuum conditioning of tobacco.%为解决传统箱式真空回潮机存在的烟包松散效果不理想、回透率低、蒸汽损耗大等问题,采用旋转式动态真空回潮技术设计了复合式真空回潮机,主要包括动态真空回潮驱动装置、旋转密封装置、加潮装置、筒体防粘料结构等部件,实现了对烟包进行动态真空回潮的功能。在不同工艺条件下对复合式真空回潮机进行了5次过料试验,结果表明:①片烟回透率达100%,松散率达98%,含水率均匀。②设备工艺参数调整范围宽,可针对不同物料采用不同的加工强度,出料温度在50℃和65℃时,各项技术参数均能达到工艺要求。③过料后筒体内壁基本上无物料粘附,设备维护方便。④蒸汽耗量约为传统真空回潮机的65%,

  11. 酸化土壤调理剂在油菜上的应用效果%Application effects of acid soil conditioner on winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚涛; 鲁剑巍; 任涛; 李小坤; 丛日环

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the application effects of acid soil conditioner on the growth,seed yield of winter oilseed rape and soil pH.The results showed that acid soil condi-tioner could enhance the growth and improve seed yield of winter oilseed rape by increasing pod numbers per plant,ratio of effective seed setting and seed numbers per pod.Compared with the control,the av-erage height of plant treated with acid soil conditioner at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage increased 1 9.6%,12.5%,12.2% and 1 1.6%,respectively.The SPAD values of leaf were increased with the average of 0.5%,6.3%,9.3% and 10.2% at those four stages. At mature stage,the primary branches numbers,pod number per plant,ratio of effective seed setting, seed number per pod were increased with the average of 41.7%,42.7%,10.5% and 20.9%,respec-tively.The average increase rate of yield was 25.4%.The soil conditioner could enhance soil pH.Com-pared with the control,the soil pH values were increased on average with 0.13,0.03,0.1 1 and 0.38 u-nit at seedling stage,stem-elongation stage,early-flowering stage and pod stage,respectively.It is indi-cated that the acid soil conditioner can be applied to improve the growth of oilseed rape and soil pH un-der acid soils.%采用土壤盆栽试验,研究酸化土壤施用调理剂对油菜生长发育、产量构成及土壤 pH 值的影响。结果表明,施用调理剂能明显改善油菜生长发育,增加油菜单株角果数、成角率和每角粒数,进而提高油菜籽粒产量。与对照相比,施用调理剂后油菜苗期、蕾薹期、初花期、角果期株高与叶片 SPAD 值分别增加19.6%、12.5%、12.2%、11.6%和0.5%、6.3%、9.3%、10.2%;油菜一级分枝数、单株角果数、成角率、每角粒数和籽粒产量分别提高41.7%、42.7%、10.5%、20.9%和25.4%。酸性土壤施用调理剂能明显提高土壤 pH 值,与对照相比,苗期、花期

  12. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Shariatmadar Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1 and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2 or CPF alone (control. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD, clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG. SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups. Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained.

  13. Effects of Two Mineral Conditioners on Soil Physico-chemical Property of Garlic Fields%两种矿物源土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅; 王春兰; 杨淑娟; 范建芝; 李艳霞

    2013-01-01

    研究了两种不同类型的土壤调理剂对大蒜田土壤理化性质和大蒜产量的影响.结果表明:两种调理剂均能降低土壤容重,提高土壤孔隙度.两种调理剂对速效养分的影响则有所不同:蒙脱石提高了土壤速效氮和钾含量,降低了土壤速效磷含量,麦饭石对土壤速效氮和磷影响不大,对土壤速效钾影响表现为先升高后降低.蒙脱石、麦饭石均能提高土壤有机质,对大蒜产量亦有所提高.综合比较两种土壤调理剂,应用蒙脱石效果较好.%The effects of two kinds of representative soil conditioners on soil physico - chemical properties and yield of garlic were studied in this paper. The results showed that the two conditioners could reduce the soil bulk density but improve the soil porosity. There were some differences between the two soil conditioners on soil available nutrients. The montmorillonite conditioner increased the content of available N and K, but reduced the content of available P. The medical stone had no obvious impact on available N and P, but made the soil available K increased firstly and then decreased. Both of them could increase the soil organic matter and garlic yield. Comprehensively considering the effect, the montmorillonite conditioner was better.

  14. Desing on the olng-range control circuit of air-conditioner%空调远程遥控电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明富; 田泽正

    2005-01-01

    空调远程遥控电路主要由模拟摘机与挂机电路、解码电路、密码锁电路、输出控制电路及直流稳压电源组成.为此,介绍一种通过手机对空调器进行远程遥控的新方法.该方法具有操作方便、实用性强、功能灵活等特点,尤其适合城乡家庭使用.

  15. 空调深幅降价玩不转市场"魔方"%The Big Depreciation Strategy of Air Conditioners Failed in Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广明

    2005-01-01

    @@ 时至9月底,暑去凉至,秋季姗姗而来.不少饱受胀库之苦的空调厂商,面对市场走淡和资金窘迫现状,不得不再次"放血"--大幅度降价.然而,这近乎疯狂的"最后一搏"能否达到其预期的目的?恐怕此时所有"采取非常措施"的厂商也难料凶吉.

  16. A new-type window air conditioner based on adsorption refrigeration%吸附制冷窗式空调器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽溥

    1992-01-01

    本文介绍了以吸附式制冷原理为基础的新型窗式空调器,并详细阐述了其制冷过程、结构和功能以及与机械压缩制冷窗式空调器的比较,说明了可以以热代电满足空调要求.

  17. 变频空调功率器件散热器设计%Design of Power Semiconductor Sink of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔; 李发顺

    2015-01-01

    很多空调功率散热器的设计基本按照厂家做样后实验测试,根据器件的温升来判定设计是否合理,具有设计冗余,盲目性等缺点。本文目的在于给出散热器的基本设计思路,以格力某一款新型变频空调散热器实际设计过程为例,根据热力学基本理论以及散热器所在的特定环境、功率器件可以耐受的最高温升,通过理论计算及仿真,设计出能够满足使用要求的散热器。%Many designs of AC power radiator generally follow the sample test result from the factory to judge rea-sonableness according to the temperature rise of the device. It has the disadvantage of redundancy, purposelessness for design. This paper aims to propose the basic design concept for radiator through the actual radiator design process of one new type of invert AC from GREE. It’s on the basis of basic theory of thermodynamics, the special environments of radiator, the withstanding highest temperature rise of power device, through the theoretical calculations and simula-tions to design the radiator which can meet the use requirements.

  18. 燃气空调的应用与发展%Development and application of gas-fired air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋

    2005-01-01

    从我国能源结构和环境状况出发,分析了燃气空调的特点和形式,介绍了国内外研究和发展的状况,阐述了燃气空调发展的优势和前景,指出燃气空调在我国将有广阔的发展空间.

  19. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  20. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  1. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    efficiency are provided either as parameters or by characteristic map or by polynomials  Mechanical connector for interaction with motor /engine model ...miniature rotary compressor operates with a rolling piston mechanism. It uses a brushless electric motor that runs on 24 V DC power supply. Figure 6...rolling piston) Compressor displacement 1.4 cc Compressor speed Variable Speed range 2000 – 6500 RPM Motor Brushless DC Voltage 24 V DC

  2. 盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Influence of Saline-alkali Land Conditioners on Alfalfa Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑普山; 冯悦晨; 郝保平; 李屹峰; 薛志强

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Desulfurized gypsum, Guochan 1, Cuochan 2 conditioners on yield of alfalfa in the waste saline—alkali soil with heavy soda under field conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control, soil pH reduced 0.15 ~ 1.26, the emergence rale of alfalfa increased from 17.8% to 30.5% after application of three soil conditioners. The order of increasing emergence rate was Desulfurized gypsum > Cuochan 2> Cuochan 1. The total fresh biomass of alfalfa were increased by 3 107.5 ~ 6 971.3 kg/hm2, and the order of enhancing fresh biomass was Cuochan 2 > Guochan 1 > Desulfurized gypsum.%通过田间试验,研究了重度苏打盐碱荒地施用脱硫石膏、国产1号和国产2号3种盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿出苗率和鲜草产量的影响.结果表明,与不施土壤改良剂(对照)相比,施用3种盐碱地改良剂的土壤(0~20 cm )pH值降低0.15~1.26,紫花苜蓿出苗率提高17.8% ~ 30.5%,提高出苗率由大到小的顺序为脱硫石膏>国产2号>国产1号;鲜草总产量增加3107.5 ~6971.3 kg/hm2,促进鲜草产量增加由大到小的顺序为国产2号>国产1号>脱硫石膏.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  4. Measurement and analysis of air-conditioning-usage behavior in apartments%住宅空调行为状况的实测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简毅文; 李清瑞; 刘建

    2013-01-01

    以北京市区6户住宅为研究对象,基于对夏季室内温湿度参数的连续测试及相关问卷调查,从空调开启、关闭及运行时间三个方面对住宅空调行为进行了分析,并比较了不同作息状态下的空调行为.研究表明,由于室内环境及人的生理和心理因素的共同作用,住宅空调的开启、关闭行为与室内环境尤其室温之间或许并不存在严格的单一控制关系,并不是室温超过29℃就一定开启空调,或一定要将室温降低到26℃才关闭空调;住宅空调的开启或关闭行为及上述行为持续的时间取决于人体的热感觉及其对室内热湿环境的期望状况.%Taking six apartments in Beijing as examples, based on the continuous measurement of indoor air temperature and humidity and the relevant questionnaires investigation, discusses air-conditioning-usage behavior from the three aspects of open, close and running time, and compares air-conditioning-usage behavior in different activity and rest conditions. The results show that there may not exist a strict single control relation between the open or close behavior of air conditioners and the indoor environment conditions especially indoor temperature, and that occupants may not necessarily turn on air conditioners even when indoor air temperature rises over 29 ℃ and turn off air conditioners when room temperatures drops under 26 ℃ due to the coaction of indoor environment and physical and psychological components,- air-conditioning-usage behavior will depend on occupants' thermal sensation and the expectation for the indoor thermal and humid environment.

  5. 钙基调理剂对酸化农田土壤的调控效果研究①%Regulatory Effect of Calcium-based Conditioner on the Acidulated Soil of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宪文; 张梁; 邹雨坤; 李光义

    2015-01-01

    农田土壤酸化已成为制约农业发展的全球性问题,在强降雨淋溶地区尤为严重。本研究利用硝酸磷肥生产过程中所产生的中间产物制造的低pH值土壤调理剂来改良酸化土壤。结果表明:该调理剂按用量1 g/kg (折合亩施150 kg)即可显著地提高土壤pH值,且其在不同pH值土壤上的施用效果有所差异;施用后短期内存在返酸现象;该调理剂与约一半用量的生石灰的调控效果相当;调理剂对土壤有效磷含量的影响因土壤性质不同而异;施用调理剂对土壤有效钾的影响不显著。%Farmland soil acidification has become a global problem which has been restricted the development of agriculture. And it is particularly serious in heavy rainfall and eluvial area. This experiment uses a kind of low pH value soil conditioner which is made by intermediate product from producing the nitrophosphate fertilizer. The results show that the soil conditioner can improve soil pH value significantly with the dosage of 1 g/kg (that is the dosage 150 kg/mu), but the effects of application were different when the soil pH value were different. The soil became sour again after applying the soil conditioner within a period. Regulatory effect of the soil conditioner was the same when we halve the amount of quick lime. The effect of soil conditioner on available phosphorus content differed with soil property. The soil conditioner did not impact on content of available potassium significantly.

  6. The Experimental Study on Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Aeolian Sandy Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在风沙土上的施用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 谢华; 孙权; 李明; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of land desertification in Ningxia, improve aeolian sandy soil quality and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on aeolian sandy soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that, compared with no fertilizer, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape, cherry tomato and liquorice, increased significantly the yield of wine grape and cherry tomato, improved the quality of wine grape and liquorice. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape and cherry tomato, decreased significantly the yield of liquorice, improved the quality of wine grape. The application of BGA soil conditioner greatly increased the investment cost of production. It was proposed to reduce production cost of BGA soil conditioner and combine application of BGA soil conditioner with chemical fertilizers.%为了解决宁夏土地沙化问题,提高风沙土土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对风沙土土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.研究结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄、樱桃番茄和甘草的生长发育,显著提高了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的产量,改善了酿酒葡萄和甘草品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的生长发育,显著降低了甘草产量,改善了酿酒葡萄品质.施用BGA土壤调理剂大幅度增加了生产投入成本,建议进一步降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用.

  7. Recovery and Utilization of Air-conditioning Condensing Water%空调冷凝水的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华勇

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了空调冷凝水的回收应用,空调冷凝水降低冷凝温度对制冷系数的影响,并对其进行了经济计算,对冷凝水其他回收利用方式的可行性讨论进行了研究。%This paper discussed the recycling application of air-conditioning condensing water and the influence of air conditioner condensing water on refrigeration coefficient by reducing condensing temperature. The author also carried out an economic calculation and analyzed the feasibility of the other recycling modes of the condensed water.

  8. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the {sup 222}Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of {sup 222}Rn levels. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m{sup -3}. There are no significant correlations between the {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO{sub 2} concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure.

  9. Effects of Different Conditioners on Improvement of Leek Acid Soil%不同土壤调理剂对韭菜酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德西; 何忠全; 郭云建; 刘富平; 谢安详

    2012-01-01

    Due to long-term use of large number of chemical fertilizer and serious shortage of inputs of organic fertilizer, a lot of leek soils showed acidification trends. In order to solve the soil acidity problem of vegetable bases and restore the productivity of the soils, effects of different conditioners such as BCA, tianshifu and lime soil conditioner on improvement of acid soil properties and growth of leek were researched by topdressing conditioner pot experiments,so that we can evaluate the application effects of different soil conditioners. The results showed that the effect of improving pH of soil conditioner was lime > tianshifu > BCA. BGA improved the soil available phosphorus, potassium and organic matter content in acid soil, made up the calcium, magnesium and boron deficiency; Tianshifu conditioner can loose soil, make the soil dark, increase the soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; lime can improve the effective nitrogen and phosphorus, but decrease potassium content. The three conditioners had significant control effects on leek dry tip, and improved leek plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, obviosly increase the yield of leek,but had little effect on photosynthetic indexes and quality. The three conditioners can be applied in improment of leek acid soils.%为解决蔬菜基地土壤酸性化问题,恢复土壤的生产力,通过在韭菜酸性土壤上追施不同调理剂的小区试验,研究了BGA土壤调理剂、“田师傅”土壤调理剂和生石灰对土壤理化性质和韭菜生长发育的影响,评价不同土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,调理剂对土壤pH的提高效果为生石灰>田师傅>BGA.BGA提高了土壤有效磷、有效钾和有机质含量,弥补了酸性土壤中钙、镁和硼的缺乏;田师傅调理剂能疏松土壤,使土质黝黑,提高有效氮、磷和钾含量;生石灰处理能提高有效氮和磷含量,降低有效钾含量.3种调理剂对防治韭菜干尖效

  10. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Soil Improvement in Greenhouse in Ningxia%土壤调理剂对日光温室土壤改良效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王生明; 刘登彪

    2012-01-01

    土壤调理剂改良土壤结果析表明:土壤调理剂可改善宁夏灌淤土日光温室土壤结构,增加土壤有效养分,降低pH0.08;促进番茄生长发育,提高外观品质,增加产量7.9%。%The results of soil improvement using soil conditioner showed that soil conditioner could optimize the structure of the irrigation silting soil in greenhouse in Ningxia, increase available nutrients in soil and reduce 0.08 pH and meanwhile it could promote the growth of tomato and improve its appearance quality, and it also could improve tomato yield by 7.9%.

  11. Completion of the 200kW power conditioner for Miyakojima battery energy storage system of Okinawa Electric Power Co; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) Miyakojima 200kW denchi denryoku chozoyo denryoku henkan sochi no kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Toshiba delivered the 200kW power conditioner for a Na-S (NAS) battery energy storage system (BESS) to Miyako PV generation demonstration research laboratory of Okinawa Electric Power Co. This power conditioner performs charge/discharge of the NAS battery and additional static var control (SVC) and governor-free control under a condition where both PV cell and NAS battery are connected with a DC circuit. Operation control of the whole BESS and data collection can be carried out by commands from Okinawa island through PHS telephone line. The demonstration study of this system on load leveling by BESS and output fluctuation control for new energy generation is in joint promotion by Toshiba and Okinawa Electric Power Co. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. Effects of Soil Conditioners on Acid Soil Improvement%不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎庆芬; 程健超

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To explore the effects of soil conditioners on acid soil improvement.[Method] The test varieties were Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998.There were in all four treatments.Effects of some soil conditioners on acid soil improvement were researched , such as calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer.[Result] calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon and calcium fertilizer could be used as soil conditioners in acid rice field, which enhanced the pH, soil organic matter, rapidly available phos-phorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium.The effects were the optimal when applying calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer.The organic matter content of total nitrogen content in Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 1.50, 0.17 g/kg and 1.70, 0.10 g/kg, respectively, compared with those of the control.The contents of rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 enhanced by 0.20, 4.00, 16.60, 1.60 mg/kg and 0.19, 5.00, 18.50, 1.70 mg/kg, respectively compared with those of the control.At the same time, soil conditioner ( combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer ) enhanced the rice yields.The yields of Yanliangyou 888 and Jindaoyou 998 increased by 499.5 and 598.5 kg/hm2 , respectively, compared with those of the control.The amplification reached 7.38%and 12.20%, showing extremely significant level by variance analysis.[Conclusion] Applying soil conditioner is helpful to the growth of rice;and combination of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and silicon and calcium fertilizer shows the optimal effects on soil improvement.%[目的]模索施用不同土壤调理剂对酸性土壤的改良效果。[方法]供试品种早造为盐两优888,晚造为金稻优998,共设4个处理,研究钙

  14. Efecto de acondicionadores naturales y sintéticos sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un Aridisol Effect of natural and synthetic conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration in an Aridisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Henríquez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diversos acondicionadores sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un suelo Vertic Haplocambid, arcilloso muy fino, de la depresión de Quibor, Venezuela. Fueron aplicadas soluciones de acondicionadores naturales de cardón dato (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose y de cardón lefaria (Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, a concentraciones de2.000, 1.000 y 500 mg L-1, solución de un acondicionador sintético, la poliacrilamida, en concentración de 10 mg L-1 y agua del acueducto local. Las soluciones de cada uno de esos tratamientos fueron vertidas sobre mini canales rellenos del suelo, para simular el flujo del agua en surcos. Los acondicionadores naturales incrementaron la infiltración y produjeron una relación Ca-Mg-Na en el suelo, mas adecuada que la producida con la aplicación de la poliacrilamida o el agua sin aditivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of several conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration on a fine clay Vertic Haplocambid soil collected on the Quibor depression, Venezuela. Solutions of two natural conditioners from dato cactus (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose and lefaria cactus(Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, on concentrations of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg L-1, a synthetic polyacrilamide conditioner solution of 10 mg L-1 and local tap water were applied to the soil. All solutions and the tap water were poured in a mini flume to simulate the irrigation process on furrows. The natural conditioners increased the infiltration and produced a better Ca-Mg-Na relationship as compared with that produced by the polyacrilamide and the tap water without additives.

  15. Application Effect of Soil Conditioner on Acidified Soil Improvement of Tobacco Filed%土壤调理剂在烟田酸化改良中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒照鹤; 冯成恩; 孔伟; 尹虎成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为寻求烟区烟田土壤酸化治理的改良方法.[方法] 2010~2012年,湖北省鹤峰县在烟叶生产上共累计推广施用土壤调理剂767 hmm2.在烟田酸化地块烟田起垄时,垄沟施750、1125 kg/hm2土壤调理剂.[结果]在烟田酸化土壤地块施土壤调理剂750~1125 kg/hm2,能有效推迟烟叶土传病害的发病时间10~15 d,小区试验有效率达95%,大面积示范施用土壤调理剂平均有效率为68.2%.[结论]该研究为烟叶可持续发展提供了参考.%[Objective] The research aimed to find the methods to control the soil acidification. [Method] Soil conditioners were used wildly in tobacco production about 767 hm2 in Hefeng county of Hubei province. 750 - 1 125 kg/hm2 soil conditioner was applied in the filed. [Result] Soil conditioners could delayed efficiently soil-borne diseases by 10 - 15 days. The effective rate of plot experiments was 95% and the trial and demonstration of soil conditioner reached 68.2% . [Conclusion] The research provided a reference for the sustainable production of tobacco.

  16. Technology advancement of double shaft paddle feed conditioners at home and abroad%双轴桨叶式饲料调质器国内外概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫国; 刘凡; 周小泉; 谢石力

    2012-01-01

    文章论述了国内外双轴桨叶式饲料调质器产品的技术发展概况.美国Wenger公司生产的双轴异径差速桨叶式调质器质量处于国际领先水平.新型调质器采用两个转子轴独立驱动和变速技术,各检修门配有安全连锁机构.调质器桨叶与机壳间隙可调节至4~5 mm.国内大型饲料机械企业的双轴异径差速调质器的质量优良,部分小型饲料机械企业生产的同类调质器的整体制造质量不高,桨叶末端与机壳间隙较大,检修门尺寸小,维修不便,无安全连锁机构等.需要对该类产品制定相关国家、行业标准.%The technical development of double shaft paddle feed conditioner at home and abroad is introduced. The product quality of DDC conditioners made by Wenger company are in the top grade. The independent driving systems, the rotating speed variation technology and the safe interlock units for the repairing doors are used on the new type of products. The clearance between the tip of paddle and the inner surface of the trough can be adjusted to 4-5 mm. The quality of DDC conditioners made by Chinese large scale manufacturers are good, but the quality of DDC conditioners made by the small producers are inferior. The national quality standard for the products is necessary.

  17. Ecologic air-conditioning. A pilot plant for the geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning in the HafenCity Hamburg; Oekologische Klimatisierung. Pilotanlage zur geothermisch- und sorptionsgestuetzten Klimatisierung in der HafenCity Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Grabe, Juergen [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Baubetrieb

    2011-10-24

    The relatively constant temperatures of the underground at a depth of 100 meters provide the opportunity to air-condition buildings with geothermal energy and economically. Currently, building air conditioning systems in Central Europe exhibit high growth rates. In summer, the task of an air conditioner is to cool and dehumidify air. Especially the dehumidification usually causes a high cooling demand, as the air is cooled below the dew point temperature of 12 C in order to condense out the water. The dew point is well below the demand for a comfortable room temperature of about 19 C. With this in mind, the authors of this contribution report on a principle of alternative dehumidification by means of a so-called sorption wheel. Sorption wheels use the hygroscopic properties of certain substances such as lithium chloride or silica gel in order to dehumidify the air. Thereby, the cooling demand significantly is reduced by the previous dehumidification. The regeneration of the sorption wheel requires heat. This heat can be provided by solar thermal plants and district heating. Since the air can no longer be dehumidified, rich supply temperatures between 16 and 19 C from. These temperatures can be achieved by means of near-surface temperature. Ground registers, geothermal energy probes or geothermal structures such as power poles are used as ground heat exchanger. The authors present the concept and the measurement results of the pilot plant in Hamburg's HafenCity.

  18. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Rae Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient. All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set. ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.

  19. Preliminary Study on Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner on Yield of Cassava%BGA土壤调理剂对木薯产量的影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁根; 林洪鑫; 袁展汽; 肖运萍; 汪瑞清

    2012-01-01

    以木薯品种华南205为试验材料,研究了施用BGA土壤调理剂对红壤旱地木薯产量的影响.结果表明:在不同处理中,以一次性施用2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量最高.施用1200~2400 kg/hm2 BGA土壤调理剂处理的产量高于施用300 kg/hm2复合肥处理的产量.%Using cassava variety South China 205 as experimental material, the effect of applying BGA soil conditioner on the yield of cassava in upland red soil was studied. The results indicated that: among different treatments, the treatment of applying 2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner once got the highest yield. The cassava yield in the treatments of applying 1200 -2400 kg/hm2 BGA soil conditioner was higher than that in the treatment of applying 300 kg/hm1 compound fertilizer.

  20. Study on the application of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield%“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李智强; 刘军; 李越; 姚虞; 高娃; 孙国良

    2015-01-01

    In order to ex plore whether farmland nutrient utilization of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner was improved, a field experiment was carried out in the application of “Shi Di Jia”on planting potato arable land. To clear out the effect of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner on potato yield, the results showed that the use of “Shi Di Jia”-soil conditioner increased potato yield effect significantly.%为了探明“施地佳”土壤调理剂对耕地的养分利用是否具有改善作用,在施用“施地佳”的耕地进行种植马铃薯的田间试验,明确“施地佳”土壤调理剂对马铃薯产量的影响,结果表明施用“施地佳”土壤调理剂后马铃薯增产效果显著。