Sample records for air combat simulation

  1. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.


    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  2. Architecture for an integrated real-time air combat and sensor network simulation (United States)

    Criswell, Evans A.; Rushing, John; Lin, Hong; Graves, Sara


    An architecture for an integrated air combat and sensor network simulation is presented. The architecture integrates two components: a parallel real-time sensor fusion and target tracking simulation, and an air combat simulation. By integrating these two simulations, it becomes possible to experiment with scenarios in which one or both sides in a battle have very large numbers of primitive passive sensors, and to assess the likely effects of those sensors on the outcome of the battle. Modern Air Power is a real-time theater-level air combat simulation that is currently being used as a part of the USAF Air and Space Basic Course (ASBC). The simulation includes a variety of scenarios from the Vietnam war to the present day, and also includes several hypothetical future scenarios. Modern Air Power includes a scenario editor, an order of battle editor, and full AI customization features that make it possible to quickly construct scenarios for any conflict of interest. The scenario editor makes it possible to place a wide variety of sensors including both high fidelity sensors such as radars, and primitive passive sensors that provide only very limited information. The parallel real-time sensor network simulation is capable of handling very large numbers of sensors on a computing cluster of modest size. It can fuse information provided by disparate sensors to detect and track targets, and produce target tracks.

  3. Developing Realistic Behaviors in Adversarial Agents for Air Combat Simulation (United States)


    34Building Symbolic Primitives with Continuous Control Rou- tines." Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Aritificial Intelligence Planning...shortcoming is the minimal Air Force participation in this field. 1-1 Some of the artificial intelligence (AI) personnel at the Air Force Institute of... intelligent system that operates in a moderately complex or unpredictable environment must be reactive. In being reactive the intelligent system must

  4. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description (United States)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.


    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  5. Intelligently interactive combat simulation (United States)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.


    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  6. Simulation and Effectiveness Analysis on One versus One Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Liu


    Full Text Available A kind of one versus one beyond visual range (BVR air combat model has been established, which includes functional models of radar, missile and fighter and the process of several combat stages. Air combat effectiveness ratio (ACER is defined to analyse the result. The 2k factor design method is used to design combat test case and analyses the influence of three factors (fighter stealth character, missile range and flight height on ACER. Simulation result reveals that when RCS of one fighter is reduced from 0dBm2 to -10dBm2 which cannot remarkably affect the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance and missile launch distance, the RCS factor has small influence and the missile range factor has great influence. When RCS of one fighter is reduced from -10dBm2 to -20dBm2, the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance will be reduced and lead the result of its missile launch distance be less than its missile range. Compared with the former case, the effect of RCS factor increases and the effect of missile range factor decreases. However, the effect of height is not significant.

  7. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.


    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  8. The Warfighting Capacity of Air Combat Command's Numbered Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanser, Lawrence


    ...) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), General Richard E. Hawley, the ACC Commander, asked if RAND could offer an analysis of the number of NAFs that were needed by ACC to meet warfighting requirements...

  9. Analysis of Error Propagation Within Hierarchical Air Combat Models (United States)


    values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air...values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air engagement... PROPAGATION WITHIN HIERARCHICAL AIR COMBAT MODELS by Salih Ilaslan June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas Second Reader: Jeffrey

  10. Architecture oriented modeling and simulation method for combat mission profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xia


    Full Text Available In order to effectively analyze the system behavior and system performance of combat mission profile, an architecture-oriented modeling and simulation method is proposed. Starting from the architecture modeling,this paper describes the mission profile based on the definition from National Military Standard of China and the US Department of Defense Architecture Framework(DoDAFmodel, and constructs the architecture model of the mission profile. Then the transformation relationship between the architecture model and the agent simulation model is proposed to form the mission profile executable model. At last,taking the air-defense mission profile as an example,the agent simulation model is established based on the architecture model,and the input and output relations of the simulation model are analyzed. It provides method guidance for the combat mission profile design.

  11. A model management system for combat simulation


    Dolk, Daniel R.


    The design and implementation of a model management system to support combat modeling is discussed. Structured modeling is introduced as a formalism for representing mathematical models. A relational information resource dictionary system is developed which can accommodate structured models. An implementation is described. Structured modeling is then compared to Jackson System Development (JSD) as a methodology for facilitating discrete event simulation. JSD is currently better at representin...

  12. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project

  13. Object-Oriented Modular Architecture for Ground Combat Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luqi; Berzins, V; Shing, M; Saluto, M; Williams, J


    .... It describes the effective use of computer-aided prototyping techniques for re-engineering the legacy software to develop an object-oriented modular architecture for the Janus combat simulation system. Janus...

  14. The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat (United States)


    Outcomes of this kind have been common in land war, but so far only a few exam - ples exist of the same thing in air war. TWO EXAMPLES OF AIR DEFENSE...the com- poser decides how best to reach that objective. Should it be a piano concerto, a violin concerto, or a flute con- certo? Only one will get...him to the objective he has chosen; clearly, a piano cannot say what a violin can say, and vice versa. That he has chosen an instrument to be his kev

  15. Strategic Implications of U.S. Fighter Force Reductions: Air-to-Air Combat Modeling Using Lanchester Equations (United States)



  16. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.


    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  17. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft (United States)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.


    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  18. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment (United States)


    coordinate, and control joint and multinational aircraft during CAS situations in combat and training. The current system which the CAS mission falls...current system , experiences from Vietnam, Operation Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq help to identify future challenges to the operating environment ...multinational partners. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Ground Integration, Theater Air Ground System , Theater Air Control System , Army Air Ground System , Joint

  19. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation (United States)

    Hawley, L. R.


    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  20. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation (United States)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene


    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  1. A New Approach to Weapon-Target Assignment in Cooperative Air Combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhe Chang


    Full Text Available A new approach to solving weapon-target assignment (WTA problem is proposed in this paper. Firstly, relative superiority that lays the foundation for assignment is calculated based on the combat power energy of the fighters. Based on the relative superiority, WTA problem is formulated. Afterwards, a hybrid algorithm consisting of improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and improved harmony search (HS is introduced and furthermore applied to solve the assignment formulation. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by eight representative benchmark functions and two concrete cooperative air combat examples. The results show that the approach proposed in this paper achieves good performances in solving WTA problem in cooperative air combat.



    training to ensure ABMs develop basic airmanship similar to graduates from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) or Undergraduate Combat Systems Officer... System (AWACS), the E-8C Joint Surveillance Targeting Attack Reconnaissance System (JSTARS), and the Control and Reporting Center (CRC). This study will...complexity of future air warfare, continues to grow ABMs will be required to integrate effects across Air, Space, and Cyberspace. The opportunity to train

  3. Air Ground Integration and the Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    Theater Air Control System TADIL-J Tactical Digital Information Link-J TAGS Theater Air Ground System TAIS Tactical Air Integration System TBMCS Theater...during planning and execution. This system interacts with the Theater Battle Management Core System ( TBMCS ) used by the JAOC to build and disseminate...control nodes within the AAGS, in conjunction with the interoperability with the TBMCS and Army mission command systems facilitates information flow during

  4. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon


    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  5. Simulation is in the air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.


    Reports the development of the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR and Dutch Space of embedded training for Royal Netherlands Air Force. Advantages and limitations of embedded training over the use of simulators; Calculation of chances of simulated bombs and missiles hitting the targets; Lack

  6. A Case Study on Air Combat Decision Using Approximated Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaofei Ma


    Full Text Available As a continuous state space problem, air combat is difficult to be resolved by traditional dynamic programming (DP with discretized state space. The approximated dynamic programming (ADP approach is studied in this paper to build a high performance decision model for air combat in 1 versus 1 scenario, in which the iterative process for policy improvement is replaced by mass sampling from history trajectories and utility function approximating, leading to high efficiency on policy improvement eventually. A continuous reward function is also constructed to better guide the plane to find its way to “winner” state from any initial situation. According to our experiments, the plane is more offensive when following policy derived from ADP approach other than the baseline Min-Max policy, in which the “time to win” is reduced greatly but the cumulated probability of being killed by enemy is higher. The reason is analyzed in this paper.

  7. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II, (United States)


    circularly pierced with ragged edges, exposing a white globe in base market with light gray land areas and dark gray lines of latitude and longitude...34 SQUADRONS 459 EMBLEM. Over and through an Jun 1943 (operated from Guadalcanal, ultramarine blue disc. a white unicorn , 25 Aug-14 Oct 1943; 24 Nov-31... unicorn in flight, horn Air Force yellow, shaded golden brown; outlines and details black throughout. LINEAGE. Constituted 817 th Bombard- Motto: On

  8. The Virtual Combat Air Staff. The Promise of Information Technologies, (United States)


    and telecommuting . Companies that use these principles are demonstrating greater "agility" resulting in sig- nificant bottom-line success. This... telecommute . That is, they work at home or on the road, using a personal computer, interacting with the home office via telephone, modem, or fax machine. In...missions, such as airlift and in-flight refueling. The ATO essentially provided oversight to air operations involving on the order of 2,500 daily

  9. Air Force Intelligence Role in Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (Maxwell Paper, Number 39) (United States)


    Zielinski , National Counterproliferation Center chief of staff, interview by the author, 3 February 2006. 42...Col Joe Pridotkas, NASIC/CC, interview by the author, 28 Febru- ary 2006. 29 78. Report to the President, 6. 79. Sandi Zielinski , National...Force C-CBRNE Master Plan, 30 June 2004, 5. 84. Dave Coffey, Air Combat Command IS/FPI, interview by the author, 2 February 2006. 85. Col

  10. The American experience of negotiable permits to combat air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Ch.


    Negotiable permits have been used in various fields, but the system in which they have seen greatest use is undoubtedly the American system of negotiable permits to fight acid rain. Since the 1970's, the United States have introduced elements of flexibility into their policy for fighting atmospheric pollution. These elements have included the family of negotiable permits. However, it was only in 1990 during the vote to amend the law on air cleanliness that a genuine market for the rights to emit SO 2 was set up (taking effect on january 1. 1995). This article analyses this context in order to understand why and how such an instrument has been introduced, and goes on to present the results. (author)

  11. Staging Options for the Air Force’s Electronic Combat Test Capability: a Cost Analysis (United States)


    strategic in nature and completely different than daily operating decisions (20:6). Horngren , in his book Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis...AFIT/GCA/LSY/90S-3 DTTC S E-191 J) C, STAGING OPTIONS FOR THE AIR FORCE’S ELECTRONIC COMBAT TEST CAPABILITY: A COST ANALYSIS THESIS Joseph J. Landino...Alternative Costs ......... 56 v AFIT/GCA/LSY/90S-3 Abstract This study’s purpose was to identify the lowest cost aircraft staging base( s ) for the Air

  12. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases glycolytic contribution and improves performance during simulated taekwondo combat. (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Loturco, Irineu; Abbiss, Chris; Franchini, Emerson


    To investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat. Nine taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 h. Athletes consumed 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO 3 or placebo (CaCO 3 ) 90 min before the combat simulation (three rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after each round, whereas heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (W OXI ), ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-phosphocreatine (PCr) (W PCR ), and glycolytic (W [ La - ] ) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. [La - ] increased significantly after NaHCO 3 ingestion, when compared with the placebo condition (+14%, P = 0.04, d = 3.70). NaHCO 3 ingestion resulted in greater estimated glycolytic energy contribution in the first round when compared with the placebo condition (+31%, P = 0.01, d = 3.48). Total attack time was significantly greater after NaHCO 3 when compared with placebo (+13%, P = 0.05, d = 1.15). W OXI , W PCR , VO 2 , HR and RPE were not different between conditions (P > 0.05). NaHCO 3 ingestion was able to increase the contribution of glycolytic metabolism and, therefore, improve performance during simulated taekwondo combat.

  13. Mini Combat Trauma Patient Simulation System Defense Acquisition Challenge Program (DACP): Mini Combat Trauma Patient Simulation (Mini CTPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... It consists of networked realistic casualty generators, patient simulators and computer-based casualty simulations, virtual patients and equipment, data and sensor recorders, and an After- Action Review System...

  14. Visual air quality simulation techniques (United States)

    Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.

    Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both

  15. Aircraft Simulator: Multiple-Cockpit Combat Mission Trainer Network. (United States)


    Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering...New York: IEEE Press. Rapumno, R. A. , A Shimsaki, N. (1974). Synchronization of earth stations to satellite-switched sequences. Comunications ...Satellite Technology, 33 (Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics) , 411-429. Tobagi, F. A. (1980). Multiaccess protocols in packet comunication systems. IEEE TMS. C". , 4 (vol. CO-28), 468-488. 27 ORR .0--000

  16. Detailed Comparisons of COMBAT Data to Wave-Optics Simulations (United States)


    is currently available. On the other hand, detailed simulation of the transmitter, atmosphere, and receiver can improve agreement and predictive...over 144 km in a Canary Islands experiment,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7374–7383, 2012. 8. R. J. Hill and S. F. Clifford. “Modified spectrum of atmospheric

  17. A Description of the Ship Combat System Simulation (United States)


    developed by NWC, NOSC, NSWC, and CACI, Inc. SCSS is supported by naval and industrial laboratories throughout the country. The users of the...34’. 1lhutlon/ *A i ~n o 1. * Ruido i/iI NSWC TR 84-182 CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION................................ .. . . .. . .. .. .. ... 1 SIMULATION...Isuch as a contract), Navy or private industry , can obtain the mulation by becoming a member of this Users’ Group. Additional information garding the

  18. Aircraft Performance for Open Air Traffic Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Ellerbroek, J.; Kugler, D.


    The BlueSky Open Air Tra_c Simulator developed by the Control & Simulation section of TU Delft aims at supporting research for analysing Air Tra_c Management concepts by providing an open source simulation platform. The goal of this study was to complement BlueSky with aircraft performance

  19. Network-Centric Operations Case Study: Air-to-Air Combat With and Without Link 16

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Daniel; Hollywood, John; Kingston, Gina; Signori, David


    ...) Operational Special Project. In this exercise, the capabilities of F-15 air superiority aircraft equipped with voice-only communications were compared with F-15s equipped with voice and JTIDS Link 16 data link communications...

  20. Improving Air-to-Air Combat Behavior through Transparent Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toubman, A.; Roessingh, Jan Joris; Spronck, P.H.M.; Plaat, A.; van den Herik, H.J.


    Training simulations, especially those for tactical training, require properly behaving computer generated forces (CGFs) in the opponent role for an effective training experience. Traditionally, the behavior of such CGFs is controlled through scripts. There are two main problems with the use of

  1. Computational Simulation of High-Speed Projectiles in Air, Water, and Sand (United States)


    Supercavitating projectiles can be used for underwater mine neutralization, beach and surf zone mine clearance, littoral ASW, and neutralizing combat...swimmer systems. The water entry phase of flight is interesting and challenging due to projectile transitioning from flight in air to supercavitating formed. Neaves and Edwards [1] simulated this case using a supercavitation code developed at NSWC-PC. The results presented are in good agreement

  2. Dying on the Vine: Air Combat Command’s Struggle to Provide Combat-Ready Aircrews with Limited Resources (United States)


    me both a better thinker and a better writer. I would also like to thank my thesis reader, Dr. Stephen “ Chef ” Chiabotti. His tremendous experience...mission in simulators or companion trainers. The key takeaway is that in an environment of specialization, squadron commanders will have to attain

  3. Diabetes in Combat: Effect of Military Deployment on Diabetes Mellitus in Air Force Personnel (United States)


    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 16 MAR 201 7 1. Your paper, entitled Diabetes in Combat: Effect of Military Deployment...your presentation was given. At that time, we will need the date (month, day and year) along with the location of your presentation. It is...important to update this information so that we can provide quality support for you, your department, and the Medical Center commander. This information is

  4. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers. (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A


    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  5. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lopes-Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation.Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1 or placebo (cellulose one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery, in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER, ATP-PCr (WPCR, and glycolytic (W[La-] systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1 taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s, 2 taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ, or by 3 analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30.Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04. However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48 or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58. Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62, HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12, oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61 and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72 during the combat simulation were unaffected. Furthermore

  6. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation. (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da; Branco, Braulio Henrique Magnani; Abad, César Cavinato Cal; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Loturco, Irineu; Franchini, Emerson


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1) or placebo (cellulose) one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER), ATP-PCr (WPCR), and glycolytic (W[La-]) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1) taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s), 2) taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ), or by 3) analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30). Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04). However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48) or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58). Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62), HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12), oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61) and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72) during the combat simulation were unaffected

  7. Ignoring the Innocent: Non-combatants in Urban Operations and in Military Models and Simulations (United States)


    SECURITY TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKFORCE AND WORKPLACE The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit research organization providing objective...Defence Weekly, May 19, 2004. Lauren, M.K. Characterising the Difference Between Complex Adaptive and Conventional Combat Models. Auckland , New...Survivability in a Generic Peacekeeping Setting Using ISAAC. Auckland , New Zealand: Defence Operational Technology Support Establishment, 2000

  8. CFD simulation of air to air enthalpy heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waked, Rafat; Nasif, Mohammad Shakir; Morrison, Graham; Behnia, Masud


    Highlights: • A CFD model capable of modelling conjugate heat and mass transfer processes. • A mesh independence studies and a CFD model validation have been conducted. • Effects of flow direction on the effectiveness have been examined. • Performance parameters were sensible and latent effectiveness and pressure drop. - Abstract: A CFD model which supports conjugate heat and mass transfer problem representation across the membrane of air-to-air energy recovery heat exchangers has been developed. The model consists of one flow passage for the hot stream and another for the adjacent cold stream. Only half of each flow passage volume has been modelled on each side of the membrane surface. Three dimensional, steady state and laminar flow studies have been conducted using a commercial CFD package. The volumetric species transport model has been adopted to describe the H 2 O and air gas mixtures. Mesh dependency has been examined and followed by validation of the CFD model against published data. Furthermore, effects of flow direction at the inlet of the heat exchanger on its thermal effectiveness have been investigated. Simulation results are presented and analysed in terms of sensible effectiveness, latent effectiveness and pressure drop across the membrane heat exchanger. Results have shown that counter-flow configuration has greater sensitivity to the mesh centre perpendicular distance from the membrane when compared to the other two flow configurations (cross-/parallel-flow). However, the lateral mesh element length has shown minimal effect on the thermal effectiveness of the enthalpy heat exchanger. For the quasi-flow heat exchanger, a perpendicular flow direction to the inlets has been found to produce a higher performance in contrast to the non-perpendicular flow

  9. Combat Pair: The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambeth, Benjamin


    This report documents the exceptional cross-service harmony that the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have steadily developed in their conduct of integrated strike operations since the first Persian Gulf War in 1991...

  10. Missing in Action: Where Are the Air Force’s Geographic Combatant Commanders (United States)


    would usher in a more Kantian world order.19 In 1993, Charles Kegley implied that the fall of the iron curtain was a “potent catalyst” pushing the...the values point to unchanging characteristics of the profession of arms.7 The values also help Air Force leadership determine the ethical climate...follow ethical practices in the acquisitions field. During the same period, Air Force General Gregory Martin was nominated to become the first non

  11. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability (United States)


    Capability. References Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power...UNCLASSIFIED 20 Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power doctrine and...maturity model? A framework of general design principles for maturity model and its demonstration in business process management. Proceedings of the

  12. Simulation of air velocity in a vertical perforated air distributor (United States)

    Ngu, T. N. W.; Chu, C. M.; Janaun, J. A.


    Perforated pipes are utilized to divide a fluid flow into several smaller streams. Uniform flow distribution requirement is of great concern in engineering applications because it has significant influence on the performance of fluidic devices. For industrial applications, it is crucial to provide a uniform velocity distribution through orifices. In this research, flow distribution patterns of a closed-end multiple outlet pipe standing vertically for air delivery in the horizontal direction was simulated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a tool of research for enhancing and understanding design was used as the simulator and the drawing software SolidWorks was used for geometry setup. The main purpose of this work is to establish the influence of size of orifices, intervals between outlets, and the length of tube in order to attain uniformity of exit flows through a multi outlet perforated tube. However, due to the gravitational effect, the compactness of paddy increases gradually from top to bottom of dryer, uniform flow pattern was aimed for top orifices and larger flow for bottom orifices.

  13. Developing close combat behaviors for simulated soldiers using genetic programming techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Richard J.; Schaller, Mark J.


    Genetic programming is a powerful methodology for automatically producing solutions to problems in a variety of domains. It has been used successfully to develop behaviors for RoboCup soccer players and simple combat agents. We will attempt to use genetic programming to solve a problem in the domain of strategic combat, keeping in mind the end goal of developing sophisticated behaviors for compound defense and infiltration. The simplified problem at hand is that of two armed agents in a small room, containing obstacles, fighting against each other for survival. The base case and three changes are considered: a memory of positions using stacks, context-dependent genetic programming, and strongly typed genetic programming. Our work demonstrates slight improvements from the first two techniques, and no significant improvement from the last.


    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  15. Command in Air War: Centralized vs. Decentralized Control of Combat Airpower (United States)


    Satan � that its enemies claimed. Groups like Ansar Al-Islam incorporated the pictures into their recruiting literature, and Abu Musab Zarqawi�s...November 2002, 304, available to download at pdf /Smith_EBO.PDF. - 59 - external power sources for the next...Proverbs 16:9, New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993� Army helicopters

  16. Command in Air War. Centralized Versus Decentralized Control of Combat Airpower (United States)


    fears that Americans were the “Great Satan ” that its enemies claimed. Groups such as Ansar al-Islam incorporated these pictures into their recruit- ing...his steps. —Proverbs 16:9 —New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia...Command and Control Research Pro- gram, Nov. 2002. pdf / Smith_EBO.PDF. Snook, Scott A. Friendly Fire: The Accidental

  17. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  18. Project AIR FORCE Modeling Capabilities for Support of Combat Operations in Denied Environments (United States)


    within the Air Force and OSD.7 First, we thank Generals Herbert Carlisle, PACAF/CC, and Janet Wolfenbarger, AFMC/CC, for sponsoring this work. Gen...A5X, Brig Gen (s) John Cherrey, AF/A5XS, Col Jordan Thomas, AFA5XS, Lt Col Nathan Mead , AF/A5XS, Col Rich Gannon, AF/A9F, Ray Miller, AF/A9FC...linear programming (LP), which was developed in the 1940s by George Danzig to solve problems relevant to military logistics. Setting up MIP is

  19. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support (United States)


    1 Efforts are underway to revitalize parts of the process, with primary emphasis on a wartime workforce planning model, Strategic Manpower...workforces of the Air Force’s manpower requirements squadrons. xiv • Refine the policies and practices for sizing wartime requirements. A revitalized app /answers/detail/a_id/7759/kw/afocd and app /answers/detail/a_id/7504/kw/afecd, respectively. Access to myPers is

  20. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of hot air flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of air flow distribution, air velocity and pressure field pattern as it will affect moisture transient in a cabinet tray dryer is performed using SolidWorks Flow Simulation (SWFS) 2014 SP 4.0 program. The model used for the drying process in this experiment was designed with Solid ...

  1. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de......In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants....... In this study laboratory measurements in a ventilated test room with "pig simulators" are compared with CFD-simulations....

  2. Combating indoor air pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    me to do a research project. At that ... verting sugarcane trash into charcoal, and submitted a project pro- posal to ... ass-based Fuels and Cooking Systems through ARTI. ... of learning during post graduate and doctoral research period had.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Sumardi


    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi automotive air conditioning dan aplikasinya sangat cepat, salah satunya dengan menerapkan green technology. Penerapan green technology pada teknologi air conditioning, karena masih menggunakan refrigeran yang mengandung unsur kimia yang merusak lapisan ozon dan pemanasan global. Alih teknologi bidang air conditioning yang ramah lingkungan, belum dibarengi dengan ketersediaan tenaga kerja pada tingkat SMK dan perguruan tinggi yang memadai, baik kuantitas maupun kompetensinya. Pada level SMK dan perguruan tinggi, kompetensi akademik dan vokasional bidang automotive air conditioning harus terus ditingkatkan dan diperbaharui sesuai dengan perkembangan teknologinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran tata udara pada otomotif berwawasan teknologi ramah lingkungan. Penelitian menggunakan metode research and development dengan langkah-langkah: studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, pengembangan melalui uji coba simulator, validasi, dan produk akhir. Simulator dibuat sesuai dengan kondisi di dunia kerja agar tidak terjadi miskonsepsi dan mala-praktek automotive air conditioning. Simulator ini dibuat secara kompak dan mobile atau dapat dipindah dan dibawa. Model pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan bantuan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran yang tepat mahasiswa mampu menyerap konsep dan praktek lebih cepat 85%. Hasil belajar pada ranah afektif, kognitif, psikomotor dan kompetensi meningkat secara signifikan.

  4. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for Fort Irwin, Naval Air Station, North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Michael


    .... Louis District, conducted an investigation of all archaeological materials and associated records in the care of NAS North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Fort Irwin, and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms...

  5. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software (United States)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin


    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  6. Severe Trauma Stress Inoculation Training for Combat Medics using High Fidelity Simulation (United States)


    expressions; and improved sensors and communication systems for current medical training simulators. He has prior experience in software development for DoD...the "look and feel" of such injuries by providing the highly realistic visual, auditory, and haptic (touch) stimuli necessary to elicit stress...addressed during development included the following: • Microcontroller-based control system for monitoring sensors and automating the actions of the

  7. A Study of Simulation Effectiveness in Modeling Heavy Combined Arms Combat in Urban Environments (United States)


    Information Center, 2002), 63. 5 CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL EXAMPLES OF URBAN WARFARE Given that the simulations in use today by the U.S. Army do not...Although these calculations can be extracted using AAR tools, failure to do so diligently may mask important information . Furthermore, soldiers...Steel Beasts 2™, the use of Armed Assault™ for training, Virtual Battlefield System 2™, and Coalescent Technolgies ’™ new DIS*MOUNT™, their replacement



    El Gharbi , N.; Benzaoui , A ,


    International audience; A hospital is a place where we find simultaneously people whose health state is weakened, or vulnerable, and pathogenic microorganisms able to worsen their health. The quality of the air in a hospital must be in conformity with precise criteria in such buildings in everyday usage, and in particular in the areas of the buildings where some risks of specific pollution exist such as in operating rooms. In this paper, we present a modelisation and three dimensional numeric...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay O. Sidorov


    Full Text Available  There are the technical complexes consisting of components, parts of which are actively used, but the rest has lost working capacity owing to moral and physical deterioration. An example of such a complex is the aviation-flight complex "plane-simulator". High cost of components which continue to be used (plane do the actual task of restoring and supporting the out-of-order components (simulator. The considerable part of such complexes is the software, which owing to replacement of the obsolete and physically worn out hardware requires the rework. The rework method is reengineering.

  10. Workload and cortisol levels in helicopter combat pilots during simulated flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Mas


    Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.

  11. The Integration of the Naval Unmanned Combat Aerial System (N-UCAS) into the Future Naval Air Wing (United States)


    5 Table 1. Aircraft Combat Radius from World War II (WWII) Through 1990s6 Period  Airframe  Distance  WW2   F6F  400nm     TBF  400nm     SB2C...override the computers, take control, and guide his two bombs to target by infrared video imagery. Otherwise, our auto piloted computer was programmed

  12. Simulation technology - A key to effective man-machine integration for future combat rotorcraft systems (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew W.


    The utilization of advanced simulation technology in the development of the non-real-time MANPRINT design tools in the Army/NASA Aircrew-Aircraft Integration (A3I) program is described. A description is then given of the Crew Station Research and Development Facilities, the primary tool for the application of MANPRINT principles. The purpose of the A3I program is to develop a rational, predictive methodology for helicopter cockpit system design that integrates human factors engineering with other principles at an early stage in the development process, avoiding the high cost of previous system design methods. Enabling technologies such as the MIDAS work station are examined, and the potential of low-cost parallel-processing systems is indicated.

  13. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie


    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Air Support Control Officer Individual Position Training Simulation (United States)


    example, simulation-aided performance improvement was shown during the Royal Australian Air Forces live training event, Pitch Black (Francis, Best...behind Black Skies was to prepare trainees for the more expensive live training of the Pitch Black exercise. Results demonstrated a twenty percent...evaluation of the system by subject matter experts suggests that a training simulation such as the prototype developed in the course of this work could

  15. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare (United States)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.


    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  16. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.


    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  17. Building Software Tools for Combat Modeling and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuanxin, Chen


    ... (Meta-Language for Combat Simulations) and its associated parser and C++ code generator were designed to reduce the amount of time and developmental efforts needed to build sophisticated real world combat simulations. A C++...

  18. Modelling and simulation of a compliant tilting pad air bearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, F.; Nijmeijer, H.

    The compliant tilting pad air bearing concept, a tilting pad bearing with the pivot of the pads placed on radial springs, is a promising aerodynamic bearing solution. Nevertheless, its non-linear dynamics make a time domain dynamic simulation model an essential tool for the design of rotor systems

  19. Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis of Twin Screw Air Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lee


    Full Text Available A theoretical model is proposed in this paper in order to study the performance of oil-less and oil-injected twin screw air compressors. Based on this model, a computer simulation program is developed and the effects of different design parameters including rotor profile, geometric clearance, oil-injected angle, oil temperature, oil flow rate, built-in volume ratio and other operation conditions on the performance of twin screw air compressors are investigated. The simulation program gives us output variables such as specific power, compression ratio, compression efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and discharge temperature. Some of the above results are then compared with experimentally measured data and good agreement is found between the simulation results and the measured data.

  20. Simulating the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) with AIRS data (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Braun, Scott A.; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun


    Using the AIRS retrieved temperature and humidity profiles, the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) influence on the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) is simulated numerically with the MM5 model. The warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is assimilated by use of the nudging technique, which enables the model thermodynamic state to be relaxed to the profiles of the AIRS retrieved data for the regions without cloud contamination. By incorporating the AIRS data, MM5 better simulates the large-scale flow patterns and the timing and location of the formation of Hurricane Isabel and its subsequent track. By comparing with an experiment without nudging of the AIRS data, it is shown that the SAL may have delayed the formation of Hurricane Isabel and inhibited the development of another tropical disturbance to the east. This case study confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  1. CFD simulation of air discharge tests in the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanskanen, V.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))


    This report summarizes the CFD simulation results of two air discharge tests of the characterizing test program in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility. Air was blown to the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe into the condensation pool (wet well). The selected tests were modeled with Fluent CFD code. Test CHAR-09-1 was simulated to 28.92 seconds of real time and test CHAR-09-3 to 17.01 seconds. The VOF model was used as a multiphase model and the standard k epsilon-model as a turbulence model. Occasional convergence problems, usually at the beginning of bubble formation, required the use of relatively short time stepping. The simulation time costs threatened to become unbearable since weeks or months of wall-clock time with 1-2 processors were needed. Therefore, the simulated time periods were limited from the real duration of the experiments. The results obtained from the CFD simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Simulated pressures correspond well to the measured ones and, in addition, fluctuations due to bubble formations and breakups are also captured. Most of the differences in temperature values and in their behavior seem to depend on the locations of the measurements. In the vicinity of regions occupied by water in the experiments, thermocouples getting wet and drying slowly may have had an effect on the measured temperature values. Generally speaking, most temperatures were simulated satisfyingly and the largest discrepancies could be explained by wetted thermocouples. However, differences in the dry well and blowdown pipe top measurements could not be explained by thermocouples getting wet. Heat losses and dry well / wet well heat transfer due to conduction have neither been estimated in the experiments nor modeled in the simulations. Estimation of heat conduction and heat losses should be carried out in future experiments and they should be modeled in future simulations, too. (au)

  2. CFD simulation of air discharge tests in the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, V.; Puustinen, M.


    This report summarizes the CFD simulation results of two air discharge tests of the characterizing test program in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX facility. Air was blown to the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe into the condensation pool (wet well). The selected tests were modeled with Fluent CFD code. Test CHAR-09-1 was simulated to 28.92 seconds of real time and test CHAR-09-3 to 17.01 seconds. The VOF model was used as a multiphase model and the standard k ε-model as a turbulence model. Occasional convergence problems, usually at the beginning of bubble formation, required the use of relatively short time stepping. The simulation time costs threatened to become unbearable since weeks or months of wall-clock time with 1-2 processors were needed. Therefore, the simulated time periods were limited from the real duration of the experiments. The results obtained from the CFD simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Simulated pressures correspond well to the measured ones and, in addition, fluctuations due to bubble formations and breakups are also captured. Most of the differences in temperature values and in their behavior seem to depend on the locations of the measurements. In the vicinity of regions occupied by water in the experiments, thermocouples getting wet and drying slowly may have had an effect on the measured temperature values. Generally speaking, most temperatures were simulated satisfyingly and the largest discrepancies could be explained by wetted thermocouples. However, differences in the dry well and blowdown pipe top measurements could not be explained by thermocouples getting wet. Heat losses and dry well / wet well heat transfer due to conduction have neither been estimated in the experiments nor modeled in the simulations. Estimation of heat conduction and heat losses should be carried out in future experiments and they should be modeled in future simulations, too. (au)

  3. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)


    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  4. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik


    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  5. Simulation of Artificial Intelligence for Automotive Air-conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-mei; CHEN You-hua; CHEN Zhi-jiu


    The artificial intelligence is applied to the simulation of the automotive air-conditioning system ( AACS )According to the system's characteristics a model of AACS, based on neural network, is developed. Different control methods of AACS are discussed through simulation based on this model. The result shows that the neural- fuzzy control is the best one compared with the on-off control and conventional fuzzy control method.It can make the compartment's temperature descend rapidly to the designed temperature and the fluctuation is small.

  6. A Women-Only Comparison of the U.S. Air Force Fitness Test and the Marine Combat Fitness Test (United States)


    Air Force established the Fitness Assessment Cell to conduct fitness assessments for all Air Force members and to encourage standardization in...objective. “The MCFT was specifically designed to evaluate strength, stamina , agility and coordination as well as overall anaerobic capacity” (Department...1308.1, “Service members must possess stamina and strength to perform, successfully, any mission,” and that “…each service develops a quality 78

  7. Inverse Flush Air Data System (FADS) for Real Time Simulations (United States)

    Madhavanpillai, Jayakumar; Dhoaya, Jayanta; Balakrishnan, Vidya Saraswathi; Narayanan, Remesh; Chacko, Finitha Kallely; Narayanan, Shyam Mohan


    Flush Air Data Sensing System (FADS) forms a mission critical sub system in future reentry vehicles. FADS makes use of surface pressure measurements from the nose cap of the vehicle for deriving the air data parameters of the vehicle such as angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, etc. These parameters find use in the flight control and guidance systems, and also assist in the overall mission management. The FADS under consideration in this paper makes use of nine pressure ports located in the nose cap of a technology demonstrator vehicle. In flight, the air data parameters are obtained from the FADS estimation algorithm using the pressure data at the nine pressure ports. But, these pressure data will not be available, for testing the FADS package during ground simulation. So, an inverse software to FADS which estimates the pressure data at the pressure ports for a given flight condition is developed. These pressure data at the nine ports will go as input to the FADS package during ground simulation. The software is run to generate the pressure data for the descent phase trajectory of the technology demonstrator. This data is used again to generate the air data parameters from FADS algorithm. The computed results from FADS algorithm match well with the trajectory data.

  8. Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A


    A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.

  9. Numerical simulation of ventilation air movement in partitioned offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, E.G.; Soultogiannis, A.A.; Jouini, D.B. (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))


    Good air quality can only be assured throughout an office complex if each workspace receives an adequate supply of ventilation air. The likelihood of achieving this situation would be increased if the building engineer had a means of easily predicting the air movement in each office configuration. A simple computer-based solution to this need is proposed. To this end, the development and validation testing of a numerical solution technique to simulate the ventilation air movement in a room or office is described. The predictions of the two-dimensional, isothermal, inviscid formulation are seen to be in good agreement with experimentally measured airflows in configurations of interest. The computer code is then used to illustrate the airflow in offices served by a single row of supply air diffusers, when partitions are used to divide the space into smaller workspaces. It is observed that the partitions distort the airflow patterns to the extent that it would be difficult to provide desirable ventilation airflows to all the workspaces formed by the partitions. (au) (26 refs.)

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Campus at Kirtland Air Force Base (United States)


    beginning of 2005 within the ROI was 5.2 percent (New Mexico Department of Labor 2005). Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland AFB had...International Sunport, New Mexico. Accessed 5/2005 from http://www. CLIMA TEDA T A.html. AETC P J/CRO Campus at Kirtland AFB Preliminary

  11. The incidence of fever in US Critical Care Air Transport Team combat trauma patients evacuated from the theater between March 2009 and March 2010. (United States)

    Minnick, Joanne M; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Stanton, Marietta; Lairet, Julio R; King, James; Torres, Pedro; Aden, James; Ramirez, Rosemarie


    Most critically ill injured patients are transported out of the theater by Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs). Fever after trauma is correlated with surgical complications and infection. The purposes of this study are to identify the incidence of elevated temperature in patients managed in the CCATT environment and to describe the complications reported and the treatments used in these patients. We performed a retrospective review of available records of trauma patients from the combat theater between March 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, who were transported by the US Air Force CCATT and had an incidence of hyperthermia. We then divided the cohort into 2 groups, patients transported with an elevation in temperature greater than 100.4°F and patients with no documented elevation in temperature. We used a standardized, secure electronic data collection form to abstract the outcomes. Descriptive data collected included injury type, temperature, use of a mechanical ventilator, cooling treatment modalities, antipyretics, intravenous fluid administration, and use of blood products. We also evaluated the incidence of complications during the transport in patients who had a recorded elevation in temperature greater than 100.4°F. A total of 248 trauma patients met the inclusion criteria, and 101 trauma patients (40%) had fever. The mean age was 28 years, and 98% of patients were men. The mechanism of injury was an explosion in 156 patients (63%), blunt injury in 11 (4%), and penetrating injury in 45 (18%), whereas other trauma-related injuries accounted for 36 patients (15%). Of the patients, 209 (84%) had battle-related injuries and 39 (16%) had non-battle-related injuries. Traumatic brain injury was found in 24 patients (24%) with an incidence of elevated temperature. The mean temperature was 101.6°F (range, 100.5°F-103.9°F). After evaluation of therapies and treatments, 80 trauma patients (51%) were intubated on a mechanical ventilator (P cooling interventions

  12. Environmental Assessment: Recapitalization of the 49th WG Combat Capabilities and Capacities, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico (United States)


    anti-aircraft artillery, or another aircraft. A bundle of chaff consists of approximately 5 to 5.6 million fibers (each thinner than a human governed by detailed operating procedures to ensure safety. Chaff, which is ejected from an aircraft to reflect radar signals, is small fibers of...calcium carbonate rich soils; and erosional debris surrounding bedrock outcrops of limestone, sandstone, shale, gypsum, and basalt (Air Force 1998

  13. Solar air heating system: design and dynamic simulation (United States)

    Bououd, M.; Hachchadi, O.; Janusevicius, K.; Martinaitis, V.; Mechaqrane, A.


    The building sector is one of the big energy consumers in Morocco, accounting for about 23% of the country’s total energy consumption. Regarding the population growth, the modern lifestyle requiring more comfort and the increase of the use rate of electronic devices, the energy consumption will continue to increase in the future. In this context, the introduction of renewable energy systems, along with energy efficiency, is becoming a key factor in reducing the energy bill of buildings. This study focuses on the design and dynamic simulation of an air heating system for the mean categories of the tertiary sector where the area exceeds 750 m3. Heating system has been designed via a dynamic simulation environment (TRNSYS) to estimate the produced temperature and airflow rate by one system consisting of three essential components: vacuum tube solar collector, storage tank and water-to-air finned heat exchanger. The performances estimation of this system allows us to evaluate its capacity to meet the heating requirements in Ifrane city based on the prescriptive approach according to the Moroccan Thermal Regulation. The simulation results show that in order to maintain a comfort temperature of 20°C in a building of 750m3, the places requires a thermal powers of approximately 21 kW, 29 kW and 32 kW, respectively, for hotels, hospitals, administrative and public-school. The heat generation is ensured by a solar collector areas of 5 m², 7 m² and 10 m², respectively, for hotels, hospitals, administrative and public-school spaces, a storage tank of 2 m3 and a finned heat exchanger with 24 tubes. The finned tube bundles have been modelled and integrated into the system design via a Matlab code. The heating temperature is adjusted via two controllers to ensure a constant air temperature of 20°C during the heating periods.

  14. Numerical simulation of air hypersonic flows with equilibrium chemical reactions (United States)

    Emelyanov, Vladislav; Karpenko, Anton; Volkov, Konstantin


    The finite volume method is applied to solve unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. High-temperature gas effects altering the aerodynamics of vehicles are taken into account. Possibilities of the use of graphics processor units (GPUs) for the simulation of hypersonic flows are demonstrated. Solutions of some test cases on GPUs are reported, and a comparison between computational results of equilibrium chemically reacting and perfect air flowfields is performed. Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to the solution on central processor units (CPUs) is compared. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for practical applications.

  15. Combat aircraft noise (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.


    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  16. Flow and air conditioning simulations of computer turbinectomized nose models. (United States)

    Pérez-Mota, J; Solorio-Ordaz, F; Cervantes-de Gortari, J


    Air conditioning for the human respiratory system is the most important function of the nose. When obstruction occurs in the nasal airway, turbinectomy is used to correct such pathology. However, mucosal atrophy may occur sometime after this surgery when it is overdone. There is not enough information about long-term recovery of nasal air conditioning performance after partial or total surgery. The purpose of this research was to assess if, based on the flow and temperature/humidity characteristics of the air intake to the choana, partial resection of turbinates is better than total resection. A normal nasal cavity geometry was digitized from tomographic scans and a model was printed in 3D. Dynamic (sinusoidal) laboratory tests and computer simulations of airflow were conducted with full agreement between numerical and experimental results. Computational adaptations were subsequently performed to represent six turbinectomy variations and a swollen nasal cavity case. Streamlines along the nasal cavity and temperature and humidity distributions at the choana indicated that the middle turbinate partial resection is the best alternative. These findings may facilitate the diagnosis of nasal obstruction and can be useful both to plan a turbinectomy and to reduce postoperative discomfort. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Simulation of Random Events for Air Traffic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Puechmorel


    Full Text Available Resilience to uncertainties must be ensured in air traffic management. Unexpected events can either be disruptive, like thunderstorms or the famous volcano ash cloud resulting from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, or simply due to imprecise measurements or incomplete knowledge of the environment. While human operators are able to cope with such situations, it is generally not the case for automated decision support tools. Important examples originate from the numerous attempts made to design algorithms able to solve conflicts between aircraft occurring during flights. The STARGATE (STochastic AppRoach for naviGATion functions in uncertain Environment project was initiated in order to study the feasibility of inherently robust automated planning algorithms that will not fail when submitted to random perturbations. A mandatory first step is the ability to simulate the usual stochastic phenomenons impairing the system: delays due to airport platforms or air traffic control (ATC and uncertainties on the wind velocity. The work presented here will detail algorithms suitable for the simulation task.

  18. Parametric simulation and experimental analysis of earth air heat exchanger with solar air heating duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Jakhar


    Full Text Available Earth air heat exchanger (EAHE systems are insufficient to meet the thermal comfort requirements in winter conditions. The low heating potential of such systems can be improved by integrating the system with solar air heating duct (SAHD. The aim of this paper is to present a model to estimate the heating potential for EAHE system with and without SAHD. The model is generated using TRNSYS 17 simulation tool and validated against experimental investigation on an experimental set-up in Ajmer, India. The experiment was done during the winter season, where the system was evaluated for different inlet flow velocities, length and depth of buried pipe. From the experimentation, it was observed that the depth of 3.7 m is sufficient for pipe burial and the 34 m length of pipe is sufficient to get optimum EAHE outlet temperature. It is also observed that increase in flow velocity results in drop in EAHE outlet temperature, while room temperature is found to increase for higher velocities (5 m/s. The COP of the system also increased up to 6.304 when assisted with solar air heating duct. The results obtained from the experiment data are in good agreement with simulated results within the variation of up to 7.9%.

  19. Aviators and Air Combat: A Study of the U.S. Eighth Air Force and R.A.F. Bomber Command (United States)


    moved to the top of the popular music charts in 1942. See Bruce D. Callander, "They Wanted Wings," Air Force Magazine (January 1991) p. 82. 19 Even in the...infantry of the Somme in 1916. According to some accounts, airmen faced German flak, searchlights, and "Schrdge Musik " in the same way their fathers had

  20. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D


    .... In this study, basic combat skills training was evaluated using a number of training factors that potentially affect trainees' perception of training transfer, or their ability to apply the skills...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev


    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper supposes creation of a CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in the premises and in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by the ionizer installation indoors with considering the most important physical factors that influence the formation of ions concentration field. Methodology. The proposed CFD model for calculation of the air ion regime in work areas at artificial ionization of the air by installing ionizer indoors is based on the application of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer equations. The mass transfer equation takes into account the interaction of different polarities of ions with each other and with the dust particles. The calculation of air flow rate in the room is realized on the basis of the potential flow model by using the Laplace equation for the stream function. Poisson equation for the electric potential is used for calculation of the charged particles drift in an electric field. At the simulation to take into account: 1 influence of the working area geometric characteristics; 2 location of the ventilation holes; 3 placement of furniture and equipment; 4 ventilation regime in the room; 5 presence of obstacles on the ions dispersion process; 6 specific location of dust particles emission and ions of different polarity, and their interaction in the room and in the working zones. Findings. The developed CFD model allows determining the concentration of negative ions in the room and in the area of the human respiratory organs. The distribution of the negative ions concentration is presented in the form of concentration field isolines. Originality. The 2D CFD model for calculating the air ion regime in working areas, providing the ability to determine the ions concentration in a given place in the room was created. The proposed model is developed taking into account: placement of furniture and equipment in the room; geometric characteristics of the room; location of dust emissions

  2. Co-simulation of building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics for whole-building heat, air and moisture engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirsadeghi, M.


    Building performance simulation (BPS) is widely applied to analyse heat, air and moisture (HAM) related issues in the indoor environment such as energy consumption, thermal comfort, condensation and mould growth. The uncertainty associated with such simulations can be high, and incorrect simulation

  3. Report on intercomparison air-3/1 of the determination of trace elements in simulated air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Veglia, A.; Suschny, O.


    The report is a sum up of an intercomparison experiment organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA, for simulated air filters (Air-3/1) spiked with 17 trace elements. The purpose was twofold: to assist participating laboratories in controlling their own performance, and to characterize exactly the prepared batch of air filters in order to be able to use them as reference filters for elemental trace analysis. The results submitted by 29 laboratories from 20 countries are presented and statistically processed. The analytical methods used are also specified. Conclusions concerning the use of filters Air-3/1 as certified reference filters are presented

  4. Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance (United States)


    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0008 Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance Dina...July 2014 – November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance 5a...During Critical Care Air Transport Team Advanced Course validation, three-member teams consisting of a physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist

  5. Development of simulation technology on full auto air conditioning system; Auto eakon no simulation gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, N; Otsubo, Y; Matsumura, K; Sako, H [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    Mazda has developed simulation technology on control of full auto air conditioning system. We have developed the development tool based on the technology, aiming at higher controllability of full auto air conditioning system and shorter development period. The tool performs simulation on control, on-vehicle evaluation of actual load operation, collecting data and analyzing them by personal computer. This paper reports our verification results on effectiveness of the technology/ and the tool. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology (United States)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.


    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  7. Pilot Study on the Applicability of Variance Reduction Techniques to the Simulation of a Stochastic Combat Model (United States)


    inverse transform method to obtain unit-mean exponential random variables, where Vi is the jth random number in the sequence of a stream of uniform random...numbers. The inverse transform method is discussed in the simulation textbooks listed in the reference section of this thesis. X(b,c,d) = - P(b,c,d...Defender ,C * P(b,c,d) We again use the inverse transform method to obtain the conditions for an interim event to occur and to induce the change in

  8. Simulation of the air flows in many industrial pleated filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, L.; Brun, P.; Laborde, J.C.; Lacan, J.; Ricciardi, L.; Renoux, A.


    The study presents results concerning the characterization of the charge loss and the air flow in nuclear and automobile type pleated filters. The experimental studies in correlation with the numerical models showed an homogenous distribution of the air flows in a THE nuclear type filter, whereas the distribution is heterogenous in the case of an automobile filter. (A.L.B.)

  9. Validity of meteorologic emission and imission parameters when simulating an air pollution episode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana; Mirchevski, Metodija


    The paper gives light to the current situation with air-quality monitoring in the region of the city of Skopje, compared to the WHO, EEA, US EPA guidelines in order to obtain relevant results when simulating an air pollution episode. The results of the comparative analysis of the regular measurements of SO 2 ground concentration in the city of Skopje, R. Macedonia and the ground concentrations obtained with the CALPUFF simulation show discrepancy up to 86,1%. The main origin of such discrepancy is due to the lack of needed quality and quantity of the input parameters for a regular air quality simulation in the concerned region. (Original)

  10. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density (United States)


    Lanchester equations, Weapon Effectiveness Index (WEI), Weighted Unit Value (WUV), Armored Division Equivalents (ADE), and Unit Frontages. The research...6 Lanchester Equations... Lanchester Equations ............................................................................................... 53 Appendix C: Relative Combat Power

  11. Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...

  12. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.; Arias, Paul G.; Roy, Somesh P.; Luo, Zhaoyu; Haworth, Daniel C.; Im, Hong G.; Lu, Tianfeng; Trouvé , Arnaud C.


    difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration

  13. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The effect of the cleanliness of environmental air on the microbial contamination of a simulated i.v.-admixture during its preparation by aseptic transfer was studied under three conditions: (i) in a laminar air flow (LAF) bench situated in a class 1000 clean room, (ii) in an LAF bench in a

  15. The Air Warrior's Value of National Security Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loftis, J


    ...) approach was used to elicit values from air combat experts with operational experience. An initial Gold Standard value model was constructed and validated by air combat experts with recent experience in joint air operations...

  16. An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in mine air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, T.; Chruscielewski, W.; Orzechowski, W.


    An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in uranium mine air is described. The apparatus is useful for testing track detectors, air samplers, masks and filters and for determining occupational exposures. Increasing the humidity of the chamber air and increasing the amounts of aerosol injected both increase the values of the equilibrium factor, F. The equilibrium in the chamber air decreases after the aerosol injection but by using controlled pulse injections it was shown that the stability of F could be maintained inside the chamber for 4 hours. Results are also given for the structure of the equilibrium between radon and its daughters Qsub(i)/Q 0 in the chamber air as a function of the chamber air factor F and also for the potential α-energy of unattached products in relation to the total α-potential energy of radon daughter products in the chamber air as a function of factor F. (U.K.)

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang


    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  18. Analysis and simulation of mobile air conditioning system coupled with engine cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhao-gang; Chen, Jiang-ping; Chen, Zhi-jiu


    Many components of the mobile air conditioning system and engine cooling system are closely interrelated and make up the vehicle climate control system. In the present paper, a vehicle climate control system model including air conditioning system and engine cooling system has been proposed under different operational conditions. All the components have been modeled on the basis of experimental data. Based on the commercial software, a computer simulation procedure of the vehicle climate control system has been developed. The performance of the vehicle climate control system is simulated, and the calculational data have good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the vehicle climate control simulation results have been compared with an individual air conditioning system and engine cooling system. The influences between the mobile air conditioning system and the engine cooling system are discussed

  19. Simulation of intersection of complicated information signals in air traffic control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Коба


    Full Text Available Considered is the problem of complicated system simulation with customers incoming flows. Developed is an algorithm accelerated of finding probability of the superposition of complicated customers. Derived are the top and bottom estimates of damage-factor which are connected with complical customers superposition. Noticed is connection with simulation problem of air traffic control system

  20. Sequential Monte Carlo simulation of collision risk in free flight air traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Bakker, G.; Krystul, J.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Klein Obbink, B.; Klompstra, M.B.


    Within HYBRIDGE a novel approach in speeding up Monte Carlo simulation of rare events has been developed. In the current report this method is extended for application to simulating collisions with a stochastic dynamical model of an air traffic operational concept. Subsequently this extended Monte

  1. Air permeability for a concrete shear wall after a damaging seismic load simulation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.


    A study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This paper describes an experiment performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient-pressure decay. Air permeability measurements made on the shear wall before loading fell within the range of values for concrete permeability published in the literature. As long as the structure exhibited linear load-displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked)

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces at High Air Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence; Walther, Jens Honore


    e.g., nanobubbles. In the present work we study the role of air on the wetting of hydrophilic systems. We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a water nanodroplet on an amorphous silica surface at different air pressures. The interaction potentials describing the silica, water, and air......Silicon dioxides-water systems are abundant in nature and play fundamental roles in a diversity of novel science and engineering applications. Although extensive research has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water a complete understanding of the system has...... perform extensive simulations of the water- air equilibrium and calibrate the water-air interaction to match the experimental solubility of N2 and O2 in water. For the silica-water system we calibrate the water-silica interaction to match the experimental contact angle of 27º. We subsequently study...

  3. Simulations of the potential revenue from investment in improved indoor air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Djukanovic, Rade


    of improved worker performance; benefits from reduced health costs and sickness absence were not included. The building was simulated in a cold, a moderate and a hot climate. It was ventilated by a constant air volume (CAV) system with heat recovery and by a variable air volume (VAV) system with an economizer....... The air quality was improved by increasing the outdoor air supply rate and by reducing the pollution loads. These upgrades involved increased energy and HVAC maintenance costs, first costs of a HVAC system and building construction costs. But the additional investments were highly cost......-effective. The annual benefit due to improved air quality was up to 115 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. LCC analysis showed that productivity benefits resulting from a better indoor air quality were up to 60 times higher than the increased costs; the simple and discounted pay...

  4. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  5. Simulation with GOTHIC of experiments Oxidation of fuel in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Murillo Mendez, J. C.


    In the present work has been addressed for the first time la simulation with the GOTHIC code, experiments oxidation and ignition of SFP in phase 1. This work represents a solid starting point for analysis of specific degradation of fuel in the pools of our facilities.

  6. Molecular Simulations of Halomethanes at the Air/Ice Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habartová, Alena; Hormain, L.; Pluhařová, Eva; Briquez, S.; Monnerville, M.; Toubin, C.; Roeselová, Martina


    Roč. 119, č. 39 (2015), s. 10052-10059 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics simulations * water models * ice Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.883, year: 2015

  7. Design and Simulation of an Air Conditioning Project in a Hospital Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding X. R.


    Full Text Available This study aims to design a novel air cleaning facility which conforms to the current situation in China, and moreover can satisfy our demand on air purification under the condition of poor air quality, as well as discuss the development means of a prototype product. Air conditions in the operating room of a hospital were measured as the research subject of this study. First, a suitable turbulence model and boundary conditions were selected and computational fluid dynamics (CFD software was used to simulate indoor air distribution. The analysis and comparison of the simulation results suggested that increasing the area of air supply outlets and the number of return air inlets would not only increase the area of unidirectional flow region in main flow region, but also avoid an indoor vortex and turbulivity of the operating area. Based on the summary of heat and humidity management methods, the system operation mode and relevant parameter technologies as well as the characteristics of the thermal-humidity load of the operating room were analyzed and compiled. According to the load value and parameters of indoor design obtained after our calculations, the airflow distribution of purifying the air-conditioning system in a clean operating room was designed and checked. The research results suggested that the application of a secondary return air system in the summer could reduce energy consumption and be consistent with the concept of primaiy humidity control. This study analyzed the feasibility and energy conservation properties of cleaning air-conditioning technology in operating rooms, proposed some solutions to the problem, and performed a feasible simulation, which provides a reference for practical engineering.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  9. Performance analysis of air conditioning system and airflow simulation in an operating theater (United States)

    Alhamid, Muhammad Idrus; Budihardjo, Rahmat


    The importance of maintaining performance of a hospital operating theater is to establish an adequate circulation of clean air within the room. The parameter of air distribution in a space should be based on Air Changes per Hour (ACH) to maintain a positive room pressure. The dispersion of airborne particles in the operating theater was governed by regulating the air distribution so that the operating theater meets clean room standards ie ISO 14664 and ASHRAE 170. Here, we introduced several input parameters in a simulation environment to observe the pressure distribution in the room. Input parameters were air temperature, air velocity and volumetric flow rate entering and leaving room for existing and designed condition. In the existing operating theatre, several observations were found. It was found that the outlet air velocity at the HEPA filter above the operating table was too high thus causing a turbulent airflow pattern. Moreover, the setting temperature at 19°C was found to be too low. The supply of air into the room was observed at lower than 20 ACH which is under the standard requirement. Our simulation using FloVent 8.2™ program showed that not only airflow turbulence could be reduced but also the amount of particle contamination could also be minimized.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Air Supersonic Coaxial Jet (United States)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, Pulinbehari; Chakraborty, Debasis


    In the present study, the turbulent structure of coaxial supersonic H2-air jet is explored numerically by solving three dimensional RANS equations along with two equation k-ɛ turbulence model. Grid independence of the solution is demonstrated by estimating the error distribution using Grid Convergence Index. Distributions of flow parameters in different planes are analyzed to explain the mixing and combustion characteristics of high speed coaxial jets. The flow field is seen mostly diffusive in nature and hydrogen diffusion is confined to core region of the jet. Both single step laminar finite rate chemistry and turbulent reacting calculation employing EDM combustion model are performed to find the effect of turbulence-chemistry interaction in the flow field. Laminar reaction predicts higher H2 mol fraction compared to turbulent reaction because of lower reaction rate caused by turbulence chemistry interaction. Profiles of major species and temperature match well with experimental data at different axial locations; although, the computed profiles show a narrower shape in the far field region. These results demonstrate that standard two equation class turbulence model with single step kinetics based turbulence chemistry interaction can describe H2-air reaction adequately in high speed flows.

  11. MARS Simulation of Air Cooling Heat Exchanger Connected with PAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Current working time of PAFS cannot meet the required 72 hours cooling capability for the long term Station Black-Out (SBO) situation. Therefore, it is required to improve the design of PAFS for the long term cooling. In order to ensure the long term cooling of PAFS, the heat exchanger tube should be submerged in the water of the PAFS pool. It can be achieved by condensing the steam vented from the PAFS pool. The Air Cooling Heat Exchanger (ACHX) is installed above the PAFS pool. It is expected that the ACHX condenses the steam vented from the PAFS pool and delays the depletion time of the water in the PCCT. Therefore, this paper introduces the MARS-KS1.4 modeling of the ACHX and the performance analysis results on the PAFS connected with the ACHX. For the long term cooling with PAFS, KAERI proposed a new passive air-water combined cooling system. In this study, the modeling of the ACHX and the performance analysis on the PAFS connected with the ACHX were carried out with MARS. MARS predicted the behavior of main thermal-hydraulic variables of ACHX reasonably. Then, it was found that the long term cooling of PAFS could be achieved by the installation of the ACHX in which the tube length is 6 m and the number of tubes is 8000.

  12. Toward Unity of Command for Multinational Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asjes, David


    To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...

  13. A Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Evaluating Air Force Reusable Military Launch Vehicle Post-Landing Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martindale, Michael


    The purpose of this research was to develop a discrete-event computer simulation model of the post-landing vehicle recoveoperations to allow the Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate...

  14. Chemical composition of waterfall-induced air ions: Spectrometry vs. simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parts, T.-E.; Luts, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental Physics; Laakso, L.; Hirsikko, A.; Groenholm, T.; Kulmala, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Sciences


    Our measurements of ion size distributions near a waterfall provided new evidence for a waterfall-induced modification of air ion sizes. The ion size spectrum near a waterfall permanently differs from that in ordinary tropospheric air. In this paper we investigated the near-waterfall air ions chemical nature in detail. We carried out a simulation series of air small negative ion evolution, proposing that falling water, as a new environmental component, increases the concentration of OH{sup -} cluster ions. The produced OH{sup -} ions were employed as an extra input for our ion evolution model. The presence of additional OH{sup -} ions resulted in a decrease of typically model-provided NO{sub 3}{sup -} and/or HSO{sub 4}{sup -} cluster ion concentrations and an increase of the abundance of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cluster ions. Near the waterfall the latter ions became dominant in our simulations. (orig.)

  15. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang


    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  16. Air traffic simulation in chemistry-climate model EMAC 2.41: AirTraf 1.0 (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick; Linke, Florian; Schaefer, Martin; Sasaki, Daisuke


    Mobility is becoming more and more important to society and hence air transportation is expected to grow further over the next decades. Reducing anthropogenic climate impact from aviation emissions and building a climate-friendly air transportation system are required for a sustainable development of commercial aviation. A climate optimized routing, which avoids climate-sensitive regions by re-routing horizontally and vertically, is an important measure for climate impact reduction. The idea includes a number of different routing strategies (routing options) and shows a great potential for the reduction. To evaluate this, the impact of not only CO2 but also non-CO2 emissions must be considered. CO2 is a long-lived gas, while non-CO2 emissions are short-lived and are inhomogeneously distributed. This study introduces AirTraf (version 1.0) that performs global air traffic simulations, including effects of local weather conditions on the emissions. AirTraf was developed as a new submodel of the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Air traffic information comprises Eurocontrol's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA Revision 3.9) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engine performance data. Fuel use and emissions are calculated by the total energy model based on the BADA methodology and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) fuel flow method. The flight trajectory optimization is performed by a genetic algorithm (GA) with respect to a selected routing option. In the model development phase, benchmark tests were performed for the great circle and flight time routing options. The first test showed that the great circle calculations were accurate to -0.004 %, compared to those calculated by the Movable Type script. The second test showed that the optimal solution found by the algorithm sufficiently converged to the theoretical true-optimal solution. The difference in flight time between the two solutions is less than 0.01 %. The dependence of

  17. Large eddy simulation of air pollution produced by aircraft engine emissions inside the airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synylo, Kateryna [National Aviation University (Ukraine)], email:


    With the increase of air traffic movement, air pollution from airport emissions has become an important concern. In the past, various research has been undertaken on the impact of aircraft engines on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, however the impact that emissions have on airports themselves is not taken into account by the most frequently used monitoring software programs. The aim of this paper is to present the use of a CFD simulation to determine the dynamic and fluid mechanics characteristics of aircraft emissions near the ground. The CFD simulation was carried out using Fluent 6.3 software and the effects of counter-rotating vortices and wind conditions on fulfilled gases jet. It was found that numerical simulation is able to resolve difficult equations and provide realistic results. This study demonstrated that the use of CFD computation could be used to improve local air quality modeling and assessment of the impact of aircraft emissions at airports.

  18. ATC-lab(Advanced): an air traffic control simulator with realism and control. (United States)

    Fothergill, Selina; Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew


    ATC-lab(Advanced) is a new, publicly available air traffic control (ATC) simulation package that provides both realism and experimental control. ATC-lab(Advanced) simulations are realistic to the extent that the display features (including aircraft performance) and the manner in which participants interact with the system are similar to those used in an operational environment. Experimental control allows researchers to standardize air traffic scenarios, control levels of realism, and isolate specific ATC tasks. Importantly, ATC-lab(Advanced) also provides the programming control required to cost effectively adapt simulations to serve different research purposes without the need for technical support. In addition, ATC-lab(Advanced) includes a package for training participants and mathematical spreadsheets for designing air traffic events. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that ATC-lab(Advanced) is a flexible tool for applied and basic research.

  19. The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Nolan, David S.


    This study examines the potential negative influences of dry midlevel air on the development of tropical cyclones (specifically, its role in enhancing cold downdraft activity and suppressing storm development). The Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to construct two sets of idealized simulations of hurricane development in environments with different configurations of dry air. The first set of simulations begins with dry air located north of the vortex center by distances ranging from 0 to 270 km, whereas the second set of simulations begins with dry air completely surrounding the vortex, but with moist envelopes in the vortex core ranging in size from 0 to 150 km in radius. No impact of the dry air is seen for dry layers located more than 270 km north of the initial vortex center (approximately 3 times the initial radius of maximum wind). When the dry air is initially closer to the vortex center, it suppresses convective development where it entrains into the storm circulation, leading to increasingly asymmetric convection and slower storm development. The presence of dry air throughout the domain, including the vortex center, substantially slows storm development. However, the presence of a moist envelope around the vortex center eliminates the deleterious impact on storm intensity. Instead, storm size is significantly reduced. The simulations suggest that dry air slows intensification only when it is located very close to the vortex core at early times. When it does slow storm development, it does so primarily by inducing outward- moving convective asymmetries that temporarily shift latent heating radially outward away from the high-vorticity inner core.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products. (United States)

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria


    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the 222 Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the 222 Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghodbane


    Full Text Available The use of solar energy in sunny countries, is an effective outil for compensate the lack in the energy, their benefits are not related only to its economic benefits but especially for the environmental protection, so we must find solutions to the problems of pollution. This work is a theoretical study of a solar flat plate collector ; air is used as the heat transfer fluid. In this study, we established in first step the calculation of solar radiation in various sites in Algeria (Adrar, El Oued, Bechar, Biskra and Tamanrasset. The second step is the parameters influence study of the sites and climate on the performance of our collector. The results obtained are encouraging for the use of this type in the heating in the winter, also it can be used in different kinds of drying.

  2. Design and simulation of a hybrid ventilation system with earth-air heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, A.K.; Zhao, M. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Roy, M. [Martin Roy and Associes Group Conseil Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    A simulation study was conducted during the design phase of a new circus building in Montreal which includes a hybrid ventilation system through which fresh air is supplied from an earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE). The EAHE has the potential to satisfy the cooling needs of the building and can also be used to preheat fresh air, thereby satisfying one-third or more of the building's heating needs. Another feature of the building is that it uses displacement ventilation by which the air is supplied at low velocities through large diffusers behind the top level seats or under the seats. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to help size the supply and return units of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, as well as the exhaust chimney. The primary objective of the CFD simulation was to determine the maximum velocity and temperature in the seated area to ensure thermal comfort. CFD simulation predictions were found to be in good agreement with preliminary measurements taken in the building. In order to monitor the operation of the system over the next year, the underground ducts were equipped with temperature sensors at several depths into the soil. The energy efficiency of the hybrid HVAC system will be assessed and the velocity and temperature distribution in the theatre will be examined under various operating and energy load conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Experimental and simulation studies on a single pass, double duct solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi (Ghana); Rajakaruna, H. [De Montfort Univ., School of Engineering and Technology, Leicester (United Kingdom)


    A mathematical model of a single pass, double duct solar air heater (SPDDSAH) is described. The model provides a design tool capable of predicting: incident solar radiation, heat transfer coefficients, mean air flow rates, mean air temperature and relative humidity at the exit. Results from the simulation are presented and compared with experimental ones obtained on a full scale air heater and a small scale laboratory one. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured values is demonstrated. Predicted results from a parametric study are also presented. It is shown that significant improvement in the SPDDSAH performance can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the collector parameters and the top to bottom channel depth ratio of the two ducts. The air mass flow rate is shown to be the dominant factor in determining the overall efficiency of the heater. (Author)

  4. Support to the Air Force Installation and Mission Support Center: Enabling AFIMSC’s Role in Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control (United States)


    development, test, and evaluation; and supply chain management —and also quality-of-life support to military members, their families, retirees, and so on...AFIMSC and Air Education and Training Command Director of Logistics (AETC/A4) at a time when AFIMSC was being established to focus on managing the...operations of new ACS global management organizations.3 1 Program Action Directive (PAD) 14-04, Implementation of the Air Force Installation and

  5. Numerical simulation of the impact of water-air fronts on radionuclides plumes in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J.; Francisco, A.S.; Pereira, F.; Amaral Souto, H.P.


    The goal of this paper is to investigate the interaction of water-air fronts with radionuclide plumes in unsaturated heterogeneous porous media. This problem is modeled by a system of equations that describes both the water-air flow and the radionuclide transport. The water-air problem is solved numerically by a mixed finite element combined with a non-oscillatory central difference scheme. For the radionuclide transport equation we use the Modified Method of Characteristics (MMOC). We present the results of numerical simulations for heterogeneous permeability fields taking into account sorption effects. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Rankine cycle air conditioning system hardware by computer simulation (United States)

    Healey, H. M.; Clark, D.


    A computer program for simulating the performance of a variety of solar powered Rankine cycle air conditioning system components (RCACS) has been developed. The computer program models actual equipment by developing performance maps from manufacturers data and is capable of simulating off-design operation of the RCACS components. The program designed to be a subroutine of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Energy System Analysis Computer Program 'SOLRAD', is a complete package suitable for use by an occasional computer user in developing performance maps of heating, ventilation and air conditioning components.

  7. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  8. Simulation of air admission in a propeller hydroturbine during transient events (United States)

    Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J.-F.


    In this study, multiphysic simulations are carried out in order to model fluid loading and structural stresses on propeller blades during startup and runaway. It is found that air admission plays an important role during these transient events and that biphasic simulations are therefore required. At the speed no load regime, a large air pocket with vertical free surface forms in the centre of the runner displacing the water flow near the shroud. This significantly affects the torque developed on the blades and thus structural loading. The resulting pressures are applied to a quasi-static structural model and good agreement is obtained with experimental strain gauge data.

  9. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area. (United States)

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee


    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  10. Combat desertification, arret deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Latt; Soe-Win-Hlaing


    This article presents the major progress on the actions of the Forest Department and Dry Zone Greening Department to arrest forestation and to combat desertification in the dry zone of central Myanmar

  11. Analysis of air-to-water heat pump in cold climate: comparison between experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Januševičius


    Full Text Available Heat pump systems are promising technologies for current and future buildings and this research presents the performance of air source heat pump (ASHP system. The system was monitored, analysed and simulated using TRNSYS software. The experimental data were used to calibrate the simulation model of ASHP. The specific climate conditions are evaluated in the model. It was noticed for the heating mode that the coefficient of performance (COP varied from 1.98 to 3.05 as the outdoor temperature changed from –7.0 ºC to +5.0 ºC, respectively. TRNSYS simulations were also performed to predict seasonal performance factor of the ASHP for Vilnius city. It was identified that seasonal performance prediction could be approximately 15% lower if frost formation effects are not included to air-water heat pump simulation model.

  12. Simulation of air pollution due to marine engines (United States)

    Stan, L. C.


    This paperwork tried to simulate the combustion inside the marine engines using the newest computer methods and technologies with the result of a diverse and rich palette of solutions, extremely useful for the study and prediction of complex phenomena of the fuel combustion. The paperwork is contributing to the theoretical systematization of the area of interest bringing into attention a thoroughly inventory of the thermodynamic description of the phenomena which take place in the combustion process into the marine diesel engines; to the in depth multidimensional combustion models description along with the interdisciplinary phenomenology taking place in the combustion models; to the FEA (Finite Elements Method) modelling for the combustion chemistry in the nonpremixed mixtures approach considered too; the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model was issued for the combustion area and a rich palette of results interesting for any researcher of the process.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of miniphantom on in-air output ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of miniphantoms on in-air output ratio measurements, i.e., to determine correction factors for in-air output ratio. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate in-air output ratio measurements by using miniphantoms made of various materials (PMMA, graphite, copper, brass, and lead) and with different longitudinal thicknesses or depths (2-30 g/cm 2 ) in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV, respectively, and with collimator settings ranging from 3x3 to 40x40 cm 2 . EGSnrc and BEAMnrc (2007) software packages were used. Photon energy spectra corresponding to the collimator settings were obtained from BEAMnrc code simulations on a linear accelerator and were used to quantify the components of in-air output ratio correction factors, i.e., attenuation, mass energy absorption, and phantom scatter correction factors. In-air output ratio correction factors as functions of miniphantom material, miniphantom longitudinal thickness, and collimator setting were calculated and compared to a previous experimental study. Results: The in-air output ratio correction factors increase with collimator opening and miniphantom longitudinal thickness for all the materials and for both energies. At small longitudinal thicknesses, the in-air output ratio correction factors for PMMA and graphite are close to 1. The maximum magnitudes of the in-air output ratio correction factors occur at the largest collimator setting (40x40 cm 2 ) and the largest miniphantom longitudinal thickness (30 g/cm 2 ): 1.008±0.001 for 6 MV and 1.012±0.001 for 15 MV, respectively. The MC simulations of the in-air output ratio correction factor confirm the previous experimental study. Conclusions: The study has verified that a correction factor for in-air output ratio can be obtained as a product of attenuation correction factor, mass energy absorption correction factor, and phantom scatter correction factor. The correction factors obtained in the

  14. A simulation Model of the Reactor Hall Ventilation and air Conditioning Systems of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, M.F.


    Although the conceptual design for any system differs from one designer to another. each of them aims to achieve the function of the system required. the ventilation and air conditioning system of reactors hall is one of those systems that really differs but always dose its function for which it is designed. thus, ventilation and air conditioning in some reactor hall constitute only one system whereas in some other ones, they are separate systems. the Egypt Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2)represents the second type. most studies conducted on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models either in traditional building or for research rectors show that those models were not designed similarly to the model of the hall of ETRR-2 in which ventilation and air conditioning constitute two separate systems.besides, those studies experimented on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models of reactor building predict the temperature and humidity inside these buildings at certain outside condition and it is difficult to predict when the outside conditions are changed . also those studies do not discuss the influences of reactor power changes. therefore, the present work deals with a computational study backed by infield experimental measurements of the performance of the ventilation and air conditioning systems of reactor hall during normal operation at different outside conditions as well as at different levels of reactor power

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of water on a hydrophilic silica surface at high air pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, H.A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, R.L.


    Wepresent a force field forMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations ofwater and air in contactwith an amorphous silica surface. We calibrate the interactions of each species present in the systemusing dedicated criteria such as the contact angle of a water droplet on a silica surface, and the solubility...

  16. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters (United States)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol


    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  17. A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air-fuel combustion processes. The WSGGM coefficients evaluated by Smith et al. (1982) for several partial pressures of CO2 and H2O vapor are often used for gas temperatures up to 2400K, which is supplemented by the coefficient values presented by Coppalle...

  18. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang


    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  19. Work Domain Analysis of Australia’s Air Power System: Purpose-related Functions of Combat; Transport; and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Subsystems (United States)


    HFESA) and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of New Zealand (HFESNZ). Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling ...New Zealand (HFESNZ). Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air...resources’ is described as “the human component of an organisation, institution, business , country” (Macquarie Dictionary Online, 2013). For Asset

  20. Virtual Individual Combatant Trainer for Embedded Rehearsal (VICTER)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barham, Paul


    Report developed under SBIR contract. Reality by Design, Inc. (RBD) presents its Phase 2 Plus results of developing a modular, man-in-the-loop, embedded simulation system for Individual Combatant (IC...

  1. 3-dimensional Simulation of an Air-lift Pump from Bubbly to Slug Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hongrae; Jo, Daeseong [Kyungpook National Univ, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The air-lift pump has been used in various applications with its merit that it can pump up without any moving parts. E.g. coffee percolator, petroleum industry, suction dredge, OTEC i.e. ocean thermal energy conversion and so on. By the merit, it has high durability for high temperature water or vapor, and fluid-solid mixture like waste water, muddy water and crude, which cause problems when it's pumped up with general pumps. In this regard, the air-lift pump has been one of the most desirable technology. A typical air-lift pump configuration is illustrated in Figure 01. The principle of this pump is very simple. When air is injected from the injector at bottom of a submerged tube, i.e., air bubbles are suspended in the liquid, the average density of the mixture in the tube is less than that of the surrounding fluid in the reservoir. Then hydrostatic pressure over the length of the tube is decreased. This buoyancy force causes a pumping action. The comparison of the simulated results, experimental result, and theoretical result is been able by data shown as Figure 04. They have similar trends but they also have a little differences because there are some limits of simulating the flow regimes. At the different flow condition, different coefficients for friction factor or pressure drop should be used, but this simulation uses a laminar condition and the theoretical equations are valid only for slug regime where the air flow rate is lower than the other regimes. From these causes, the differences has arisen, and difference comes bigger as the air flow rate increases, i.e., becoming annular flow regime or churn flow regime.

  2. Risk for intracranial pressure increase related to enclosed air in post-craniotomy patients during air ambulance transport: a retrospective cohort study with simulation. (United States)

    Brändström, Helge; Sundelin, Anna; Hoseason, Daniela; Sundström, Nina; Birgander, Richard; Johansson, Göran; Winsö, Ola; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Haney, Michael


    Post-craniotomy intracranial air can be present in patients scheduled for air ambulance transport to their home hospital. We aimed to assess risk for in-flight intracranial pressure (ICP) increases related to observed intracranial air volumes, hypothetical sea level pre-transport ICP, and different potential flight levels and cabin pressures. A cohort of consecutive subdural hematoma evacuation patients from one University Medical Centre was assessed with post-operative intracranial air volume measurements by computed tomography. Intracranial pressure changes related to estimated intracranial air volume effects of changing atmospheric pressure (simulating flight and cabin pressure changes up to 8000 ft) were simulated using an established model for intracranial pressure and volume relations. Approximately one third of the cohort had post-operative intracranial air. Of these, approximately one third had intracranial air volumes less than 11 ml. The simulation estimated that the expected changes in intracranial pressure during 'flight' would not result in intracranial hypertension. For intracranial air volumes above 11 ml, the simulation suggested that it was possible that intracranial hypertension could develop 'inflight' related to cabin pressure drop. Depending on the pre-flight intracranial pressure and air volume, this could occur quite early during the assent phase in the flight profile. DISCUSSION: These findings support the idea that there should be radiographic verification of the presence or absence of intracranial air after craniotomy for patients planned for long distance air transport. Very small amounts of air are clinically inconsequential. Otherwise, air transport with maintained ground-level cabin pressure should be a priority for these patients.

  3. Simulation of the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers using CORSIKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone [University of Siegen (Germany); Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya); Hashim, Nadir; Okumu, John [Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)


    The interaction of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere produces, among other particles, pions and kaons. They decay to muons, which form an important component of extensive air showers. The ratio of positively to negatively charged muons, called the muon charge ratio, provides important information about the cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the theoretical hadronic interaction models in the cosmic ray simulation code CORSIKA have been used to study the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons simulated in extensive air showers. An East - West effect on the charge ratio of simulated cosmic ray muons is observed. It is more pronounced for inclined and low-energy muons (momentum less than 100 GeV/c and zenith angle greater than 80 ). Experimental data from ''MINOS Near'' experiment gives similar results.

  4. A PIC-MCC code for simulation of streamer propagation in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Neubert, Torsten


    A particle code has been developed to study the distribution and acceleration of electrons in electric discharges in air. The code can follow the evolution of a discharge from the initial stage of a single free electron in a background electric field to the formation of an electron avalanche...... and its transition into a streamer. The code is in 2D axi-symmetric coordinates, allowing quasi 3D simulations during the initial stages of streamer formation. This is important for realistic simulations of problems where space charge fields are essential such as in streamer formation. The charged...... particles are followed in a Cartesian mesh and the electric field is updated with Poisson's equation from the charged particle densities. Collisional processes between electrons and air molecules are simulated with a Monte Carlo technique, according to cross section probabilities. The code also includes...

  5. Simulation evaluation of NIST air-kerma rate calibration standard for electronic brachytherapy. (United States)

    Hiatt, Jessica R; Rivard, Mark J; Hughes, H Grady


    Dosimetry for the model S700 50 kV electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source (Xoft, Inc., a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) was simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods by Rivard et al. ["Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent x-ray source: An electronic brachytherapy source," Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)] and recently by Hiatt et al. ["A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model," Med. Phys. 42, 2764-2776 (2015)] with improved geometric characterization. While these studies examined the dose distribution in water, there have not previously been reports of the eBT source calibration methods beyond that recently reported by Seltzer et al. ["New national air-kerma standard for low-energy electronic brachytherapy sources," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 119, 554-574 (2014)]. Therefore, the motivation for the current study was to provide an independent determination of air-kerma rate at 50 cm in airair(d=50 cm) using MC methods for the model S700 eBT source. Using CAD information provided by the vendor and disassembled sources, an MC model was created for the S700 eBT source. Simulations were run using the mcnp6 radiation transport code for the NIST Lamperti air ionization chamber according to specifications by Boutillon et al. ["Comparison of exposure standards in the 10-50 kV x-ray region," Metrologia 5, 1-11 (1969)], in air without the Lamperti chamber, and in vacuum without the Lamperti chamber. K̇air(d=50 cm) was determined using the *F4 tally with NIST values for the mass energy-absorption coefficients for air. Photon spectra were evaluated over 2 π azimuthal sampling for polar angles of 0° ≤ θ ≤ 180° every 1°. Volume averaging was averted through tight radial binning. Photon energy spectra were determined over all polar angles in both air and vacuum using

  6. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.


    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  7. Experimental assessment of air permeability in a concrete shear wall subjected to simulated seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.


    A safety concern for the proposed Special Nuclear Materials Laboratory (SNML) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was air leakage from the facility if it were to experience a design basis earthquake event. To address this concern, a study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This report describes a prototype experiment developed and performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. A shear wall test structure was fabricated with standard 4000-psi concrete mix. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient pressure decay. As long as the structure exhibited linear load displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked). 17 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Development and Validation in Air Traffic Control by Means of Real-Time Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Herr


    Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations

  9. Research on Cooperative Combat for Integrated Reconnaissance-Attack-BDA of Group LAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing


    Full Text Available LAVs (loitering air vehicles are advanced weapon systems that can loiter autonomously over a target area, detect and acquire the targets, and then attack them. In this paper, by the theory of Itô stochastic differential, a group system was analyzed. The uniqueness and continuity of the solution of the system was discussed. Afterwards the model of the system based on the state transition was established with the finite state machine automatically. At last, a search algorithm was proposed for obtaining good feasible solutions for problems. And simulation results show that model and method are effective for dealing with cooperative combat of group LAVs.

  10. Simulation of Evacuated Tube Collector and Storage of Hybrid Air-conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmed Abdulhussain


    Full Text Available The CFD transient simulation of superheating the refrigerant R410 through the heat exchange with the evacuated tube water heating system of the hybrid split air conditioner that is subjected to solar radiation of constant intensity with the contribution of fan accelerated air is performed by the ANSYS-CFX code. The comparison with experimental work showed a minimum percentage error 8% of the predicted refrigerant evaporative heat transfer with storage tank horizontal tubing. In addition, the results denoted high absorption rate for the evacuated tubes, reducing highly reversed heat transmission for the circulated water. 

  11. Integration of Linear Dynamic Emission and Climate Models with Air Traffic Simulations (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.


    Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the physical climate system, carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and aviation activity. This paper integrates a national-level air traffic simulation and optimization capability with simple climate models and carbon cycle models, and climate metrics to assess the impact of aviation on climate. The capability can be used to make trade-offs between extra fuel cost and reduction in global surface temperature change. The parameters in the simulation can be used to evaluate the effect of various uncertainties in emission models and contrails and the impact of different decision horizons. Alternatively, the optimization results from the simulation can be used as inputs to other tools that monetize global climate impacts like the FAA s Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool for Impacts.

  12. Performance curves of room air conditioners for building energy simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, José W.; Abadie, Marc O.; Moura, Luís M.; Mendonça, Kátia C.; Mendes, Nathan


    Highlights: • Experimental characteristic curves for two room air conditioners are presented. • These results can be implemented in building simulation codes. • The energy consumption under different conditions can numerically determine. • The labeled higher energy efficiency product not always provides the best result. - Abstract: In order to improve the modeling of air conditioners in building simulation tools, the characteristic curves for total cooling capacity, sensible cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio of two room units were determined. They were obtained by means of standard capacity tests on climatic chambers in a set of environmental conditions described by external dry- and internal wet bulb temperatures. Afterward, the performance of these two units and that of four other units, with and without taking into to account the thermodynamic variations of the surrounding environments on it, were compared using a whole building simulation program for simulating a conditioned space. The comparative analysis showed that the air conditioner with the higher energy efficiency rating not always provides the lowest power consumption in real conditions of use

  13. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia


    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  14. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Air Temperature and Velocity in a Naturally Ventilated Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shodiya


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of air velocity and air temperature distribution in an office room of Computer Engineering Department of University of Maiduguri which is naturally ventilated. The office room under investigation with the dimension 5 m × 5 m × 4 m has a door in the East direction, and two windows, one in the East direction and the other in the South direction. For cost effectiveness, numerical solutions of steady-state airflow and heat transfer were done using a complete two-dimensional model. The results showed that the windows and the door could not undertake indoor heat load that can make the occupants to be thermally comfortable. In activity area where people sit and stand, the air velocity is moderate, this is about 0.98 m/s on the average. In addition, the temperature in this area is relatively high of about 302 K (29 °C on the average. Based on the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE standard for comfort environment in summer (air temperature: 293 – 299 K (20 – 26 °C; air velocity: 0.5 – 0.8 m/s, the natural ventilation for the office room cannot give a thermal comfort for the inhabitant of the room. However, a window, if installed opposite the door could improve the ventilation of the office.

  16. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.


    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Air Entrainment for Flat-Sloped Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentalha Chakib


    Full Text Available Stepped spillway is a good hydraulic structure for energy dissipation because of the large value of the surface roughness. The performance of the stepped spillway is enhanced with the presence of air that can prevent or reduce the cavitation damage. Chanson developed a method to determine the position of the start of air entrainment called inception point. Within this work the inception point is determined by using fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD where the volume of fluid (VOF model is used as a tool to simulate air-water interaction on the free surface thereby the turbulence closure is derived in the k –ε turbulence standard model, at the same time one-sixth power law distribution of the velocity profile is verified. Also the pressure contours and velocity vectors at the bed surface are determined. The found numerical results agree well with experimental results.

  18. Computational fluid dynamic on the temperature simulation of air preheat effect combustion in propane turbulent flame (United States)

    Elwina; Yunardi; Bindar, Yazid


    this paper presents results obtained from the application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3 to modelling of temperature in propane flames with and without air preheat. The study focuses to investigate the effect of air preheat temperature on the temperature of the flame. A standard k-ε model and Eddy Dissipation model are utilized to represent the flow field and combustion of the flame being investigated, respectively. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data of propane flame taken from literature. The results of the study show that a combination of the standard k-ε turbulence model and eddy dissipation model is capable of producing reasonable predictions of temperature, particularly in axial profile of all three flames. Both experimental works and numerical simulation showed that increasing the temperature of the combustion air significantly increases the flame temperature.

  19. Numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation from land-excited large volume air-gun source (United States)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, W.


    The land-excited large volume air-gun source can be used to study regional underground structures and to detect temporal velocity changes. The air-gun source is characterized by rich low frequency energy (from bubble oscillation, 2-8Hz) and high repeatability. It can be excited in rivers, reservoirs or man-made pool. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation from the air-gun source helps to understand the energy partitioning and characteristics of the waveform records at stations. However, the effective energy recorded at a distance station is from the process of bubble oscillation, which can not be approximated by a single point source. We propose a method to simulate the seismic wave propagation from the land-excited large volume air-gun source by finite difference method. The process can be divided into three parts: bubble oscillation and source coupling, solid-fluid coupling and the propagation in the solid medium. For the first part, the wavelet of the bubble oscillation can be simulated by bubble model. We use wave injection method combining the bubble wavelet with elastic wave equation to achieve the source coupling. Then, the solid-fluid boundary condition is implemented along the water bottom. And the last part is the seismic wave propagation in the solid medium, which can be readily implemented by the finite difference method. Our method can get accuracy waveform of land-excited large volume air-gun source. Based on the above forward modeling technology, we analysis the effect of the excited P wave and the energy of converted S wave due to different water shapes. We study two land-excited large volume air-gun fields, one is Binchuan in Yunnan, and the other is Hutubi in Xinjiang. The station in Binchuan, Yunnan is located in a large irregular reservoir, the waveform records have a clear S wave. Nevertheless, the station in Hutubi, Xinjiang is located in a small man-made pool, the waveform records have very weak S wave. Better understanding of

  20. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  1. Effect of air on speed of insulating material deterioration under simulated LOCA environment. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Yasuo; Yagi, Toshiaki; Ito, Masayuki; Okada, Sohei; Yoshikawa, Masato (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)


    To examine the quality approval testing method for the electric cables used for nuclear reactors, various covering insulating materials employed for the cables have been investigated from all angles. The factors which are considered to affect the deterioration of cable materials in a simulated LOCA (loss of coolant accident) environmental test are numerous. This paper reports on the result of investigation on the effect of air on the rate of deterioration of various organic materials usually used as the insulating and covering materials for the cables. Five kinds of polymer sheets (1 mm thick) used for reactor cables were employed as samples. The samples of both standard compounding ratio and the compounding ratio for practical reactor use were tested. As the deterioration prior to LOCA simulation, the thermal deterioration corresponding to 40 years aging (at 121 deg C for 7 days) was given, and subsequently, 50 Mrad gamma -irradiation at 1 Mrad/h was performed in the air. After that, the samples were subject to LOCA simulated environment. Since the results were different according to the kinds of samples, those are described separately for Hypalon, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, chloroprene and silicone rubber. The existence of air under LOCA environment accelerated the deterioration of insulation materials except silicone rubber, though its influence differed to the polymers. These materials swelled in the presence of air, and the degree of swelling increased with the temperature, having the close relation to oxidation deterioration. Polyethylene was more susceptible to the effect of air, and silicone rubber was rather stable. The samples of fire-retardant compounding ratio more swelled by water absorption than those of standard compounding ratio.

  2. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference (United States)


    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  3. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations (United States)


    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  5. Simulated photoelectron intensities at the aqueous solution–air interface for flat and cylindrical (microjet) geometries (United States)

    Olivieri, Giorgia; Parry, Krista M.; Powell, Cedric J.; Tobias, Douglas J.


    Ion spatial distributions at the aqueous-air/vacuum interface are accessible by energy-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Here we quantify the difference between a flat surface and a cylindrical shaped microjet on the energy-dependent information depth of the XPS experiment and on the simulated photoelectron intensities using solutions of pure water and of 1 mol/L NaI as examples. PMID:28203664

  6. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin


    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  7. Improvement of Meteorological Inputs for TexAQS-II Air Quality Simulations (United States)

    Ngan, F.; Byun, D.; Kim, H.; Cheng, F.; Kim, S.; Lee, D.


    An air quality forecasting system (UH-AQF) for Eastern Texas, which is in operation by the Institute for Multidimensional Air Quality Studies (IMAQS) at the University of Houston, uses the Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model MM5 model as the meteorological driver for modeling air quality with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. While the forecasting system was successfully used for the planning and implementation of various measurement activities, evaluations of the forecasting results revealed a few systematic problems in the numerical simulations. From comparison with observations, we observe some times over-prediction of northerly winds caused by inaccurate synoptic inputs and other times too strong southerly winds caused by local sea breeze development. Discrepancies in maximum and minimum temperature are also seen for certain days. Precipitation events, as well as clouds, are simulated at the incorrect locations and times occasionally. Model simulatednrealistic thunderstorms are simulated, causing sometimes cause unrealistically strong outflows. To understand physical and chemical processes influencing air quality measures, a proper description of real world meteorological conditions is essential. The objective of this study is to generate better meteorological inputs than the AQF results to support the chemistry modeling. We utilized existing objective analysis and nudging tools in the MM5 system to develop the MUltiscale Nest-down Data Assimilation System (MUNDAS), which incorporates extensive meteorological observations available in the simulated domain for the retrospective simulation of the TexAQS-II period. With the re-simulated meteorological input, we are able to better predict ozone events during TexAQS-II period. In addition, base datasets in MM5 such as land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, soil type and sea surface temperature are updated by satellite data to represent the surface features more accurately. They are key

  8. Numerical simulation of fuel mixing with air in laminar buoyant vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M. Jogendra; Sundararajan, T.


    Highlights: • At large Reynolds number, small vortex ring is formed due to thin boundary layer. • At higher stroke to diameter ratio, larger vortex is formed which travels farther. • After formation, trailing stem transfers circulation and fuel to the ring by buoyancy. • Formation number of buoyant vortex ring is higher than that of non-buoyant ring. • Buoyant fuel puffs entrain more air than non-buoyant air-premixed fuel puffs. - Abstract: The formation and evolution of vortex rings consisting of methane-air mixtures have been numerically simulated for different stroke to diameter (L/D) ratios (1.5, 3.5 and 6), Reynolds numbers (1000 and 2000) and initial mixture compositions (fuel with 0%, 15% and 30% of stoichiometric air). The numerical simulations are first validated by comparing with the results of earlier computational studies and also with in-house data from smoke visualization studies. In pure methane case, buoyancy significantly aids the upward rise of the vortex ring. The increase of vortex core height with time is faster for larger L/D ratio, contributed mainly by the larger initial puff volume. The radial size of the vortex also increases rapidly with time during the formation stage; this is followed by a slight shrinkage when piston comes to a stop. Later, a slow radial growth of the ring occurs due to the entrainment of ambient air, except during vortex pinch-off. The boundary layer thickness δ_e at orifice exit decreases as Re"−"0"."5 at a fixed L/D ratio; this in turn, results in a vortex of smaller size and circulation level, at a relatively higher Reynolds number. For L/D values greater than the critical value, a trailing stem is formed behind the ring vortex which feeds circulation and fuel into the vortex ring in the later stages of vortex evolution. Mass fraction contours indicate that fuel-air mixing is more effective within the vortex than in the stem. Ambient air entrainment is larger at higher L/D ratio and lower Re, for the

  9. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, C. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Compton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shingleton, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, J. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtmeier, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loey, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mirkarimi, P. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guyton, R. L. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States); Huffman, E. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  10. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-481, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E. [National Securities Technologies, Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)


    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  11. How realistic are air quality hindcasts driven by forcings from climate model simulations? (United States)

    Lacressonnière, G.; Peuch, V.-H.; Arteta, J.; Josse, B.; Joly, M.; Marécal, V.; Saint Martin, D.; Déqué, M.; Watson, L.


    Predicting how European air quality could evolve over the next decades in the context of changing climate requires the use of climate models to produce results that can be averaged in a climatologically and statistically sound manner. This is a very different approach from the one that is generally used for air quality hindcasts for the present period; analysed meteorological fields are used to represent specifically each date and hour. Differences arise both from the fact that a climate model run results in a pure model output, with no influence from observations (which are useful to correct for a range of errors), and that in a "climate" set-up, simulations on a given day, month or even season cannot be related to any specific period of time (but can just be interpreted in a climatological sense). Hence, although an air quality model can be thoroughly validated in a "realistic" set-up using analysed meteorological fields, the question remains of how far its outputs can be interpreted in a "climate" set-up. For this purpose, we focus on Europe and on the current decade using three 5-yr simulations performed with the multiscale chemistry-transport model MOCAGE and use meteorological forcings either from operational meteorological analyses or from climate simulations. We investigate how statistical skill indicators compare in the different simulations, discriminating also the effects of meteorology on atmospheric fields (winds, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.) and on the dependent emissions and deposition processes (volatile organic compound emissions, deposition velocities, etc.). Our results show in particular how differing boundary layer heights and deposition velocities affect horizontal and vertical distributions of species. When the model is driven by operational analyses, the simulation accurately reproduces the observed values of O3, NOx, SO2 and, with some bias that can be explained by the set-up, PM10. We study how the simulations driven by climate

  12. Mathematical model and simulation of the hydrodynamic of air-pulsed sieve plate columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannappel, J.; Pfeifer, W.; Rathjen, E.


    In this work the dynamic flow events in an air pulsed sieve plate column are described by a simulation model. The model consists of a system of differential equations. The pressure built up by the pulsed air is brought to equilibrium with the pressure losses of the oscillating liquid column in the pulsation tube and in the column. In case of definition of the a) column geometry, b) integral holdup of the column, c) density of the participating phases, d) control times of the pulsed air valves, e) pulse repetition frequency and pulsed air reservoir pressure the height of oscillation and hence the intensity of pulsation are calculated. It is shown by a concrete example that 1) the oscillation of the liquid column in the pulsation tube and in the column is sinusoidal in all cases; 2) generation of a defined pulsation is restricted to the range between 0.3 and 3 Hz; 3) the amount of air needed for pulsation depends on the geometry of the column and in the intensity of pulsation. It can be optimized by appropriate selection of the diameter of the pulsation tube. (orig.) [de

  13. Air quality high resolution simulations of Italian urban areas with WRF-CHIMERE (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele


    The new European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC) encourages the use of modeling techniques to support the observations in the assessment and forecasting of air quality. The modelling system based on the combination of the WRF meteorological model and the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to perform simulations at high resolution over the main Italian cities (e.g. Milan, Rome). Three domains covering Europe, Italy and the urban areas are nested with a decreasing grid size up to 1 km. Numerical results are produced for a winter month and a summer month of the year 2010 and are validated using ground-based observations (e.g. from the European air quality database AirBase). A sensitivity study is performed using different physics options, domain resolution and grid ratio; different urban parameterization schemes are tested using also characteristic morphology parameters for the cities considered. A spatial reallocation of anthropogenic emissions derived from international (e.g. EMEP, TNO, HTAP) and national (e.g. CTN-ACE) emissions inventories and based on the land cover datasets (Global Land Cover Facility and GlobCover) and the OpenStreetMap tool is also included. Preliminary results indicate that the introduction of the spatial redistribution at high-resolution allows a more realistic reproduction of the distribution of the emission flows and thus the concentrations of the pollutants, with significant advantages especially for the urban environments.

  14. CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, Y.M.; Chi, C.W.


    Highlights: ► A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ► A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ► Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ► O 2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ► No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

  15. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports. (United States)

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J


    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P  0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effective teamwork and communication mitigate task saturation in simulated critical care air transport team missions. (United States)

    Davis, Bradley; Welch, Katherine; Walsh-Hart, Sharon; Hanseman, Dennis; Petro, Michael; Gerlach, Travis; Dorlac, Warren; Collins, Jocelyn; Pritts, Timothy


    Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) are a critical component of the United States Air Force evacuation paradigm. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of task saturation in simulated CCATT missions and to determine if there are predictable performance domains. Sixteen CCATTs were studied over a 6-month period. Performance was scored using a tool assessing eight domains of performance. Teams were also assessed during critical events to determine the presence or absence of task saturation and its impact on patient care. Sixteen simulated missions were reviewed and 45 crisis events identified. Task saturation was present in 22/45 (49%) of crisis events. Scoring demonstrated that task saturation was associated with poor performance in teamwork (odds ratio [OR] = 1.96), communication (OR = 2.08), and mutual performance monitoring (OR = 1.9), but not maintenance of guidelines, task management, procedural skill, and equipment management. We analyzed the effect of task saturation on adverse patient outcomes during crisis events. Adverse outcomes occurred more often when teams were task saturated as compared to non-task-saturated teams (91% vs. 23%; RR 4.1, p < 0.0001). Task saturation is observed in simulated CCATT missions. Nontechnical skills correlate with task saturation. Task saturation is associated with worsening physiologic derangements in simulated patients. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system. (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa


    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  18. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City]. (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping


    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  19. Air Land Sea Bulletin (United States)


    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  20. The inception of pulsed discharges in air: simulations in background fields above and below breakdown (United States)

    Sun, Anbang; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute


    We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and \\text{O}2- ions. In background fields below breakdown, we use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions to enhance the field locally. In the region of enhanced field, we observe the growth of positive streamers, as in previous simulations with 2D plasma fluid models. The inclusion of background ionization has little effect in this case. When the background field is above the breakdown threshold, the situation is very different. Electrons can then detach from \\text{O}2- and start ionization avalanches in the whole volume. These avalanches together create one extended discharge, in contrast to the ‘double-headed’ streamers found in many fluid simulations.

  1. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.


    The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Designing Scenarios for Controller-in-the-Loop Air Traffic Simulations (United States)

    Kupfer, Michael; Mercer, Joey; Cabrall, Chris; Homola, Jeff; Callantine, Todd


    Within the Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) is developing advanced automation concepts that help to transform the National Airspace System into NextGen, the Next Generation Air Transportation System. High-fidelity human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations are used as a means to investigate and develop roles, responsibilities, support tools, and requirements for human operators and automation. This paper describes the traffic scenario design process and strategies as used by AOL researchers. Details are presented on building scenarios for specific simulation objectives using various design strategies. A focus is set on creating scenarios based on recorded real world traffic for terminal-area simulations.

  3. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System (United States)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.


    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  5. Simulation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Loop for Core Cather Cooling Using Air Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S. T.; Huang, S. F.; Song, K. W.; Rhee, B. W.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.


    A closed loop natural circulation system employs thermally induced density gradients in single phase or two-phase liquid form to induce circulation of the working fluid thereby obviating the need for any mechanical moving parts such as pumps and pump controls. This increases the reliability and safety of the cooling system and reduces installation, operation and maintenance costs. That is the reason natural circulation cooling has been considered in advanced reactor core cooling and in engineered safety systems. Natural circulation cooling has been proposed to remove reactor decay heat by external vessel cooling for in-vessel core retention during sever accident scenario. Recently in APR1400 reactor core catcher design natural circulation cooling is proposed to stabilize and cool the corium ejected from the reactor vessel following core melt and breach of reactor vessel. The natural circulation flow is similar to external vessel cooling where water flows through an inclined narrow gap below hot surface and is heated to produce boiling. The two-phase natural circulation enables cooling of the corium pool collected on core catcher. Due to importance of this problem this paper focuses simulation of the two-phase natural circulation through inclined gap using air-water system. Scaling criteria for air-water loop are derived that enable simulation of the flow regimes and natural circulation flow rates in such systems using air-water system

  6. Anew applied approach for dynamic air quality simulation in industrial and nuclear polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.


    Air pollution transport and diffusion and diffusion models are the only tools for inferring a quantitative deterministic relation between pollutant emissions and ambient air quality. This study deals with the simulation of pollutants transport and diffusion at shobra El-Khemia, where this site is considered the most public and polluted area in greater cairo city. The results of such a model matches to a great extent with the measured ones because it takes into consideration dry and wet deposition and first-order reaction chemistry. Specified time period was chosen to simulate the pollutant of sulphur dioxide over the studied area. The meteorological parameters were measured to calculate the hourly stability classes and height of mixing layer. Also, the concentration of sulphur dioxide was continuously measured at the faculty of agriculture to compare between its values and the estimated results. Yen's factory was taken to be the source of pollutant, thus, the emission rate and concentration of sulphur dioxide were measured at the top of their stacks. The analysis of estimated results provided that, at neutral condition, there was only one maximum concentration while at unstable conditions, there were more than one maximum concentration. The maximum estimated average hourly concentration and the average daily measuring concentration at shoubra Elkheima were within the air quality limit of egyptian law no. 4 (1994). The measured values are greater than the estimated ones by 15 to 30 % . This could be attributed to the effect of transportation, which was neglected during the application of model

  7. Women in Combat Compendium (United States)


    support area • Location of unit TOC or HQ • Location of actual combat operations • No basis to answer this question 4. Given the U.S. Army’s current...welfare issue. I recall that part of General Order #1 was no sexual relations when deployed. Obviously, soldiers discovering pregnancy in the middle of...and had discussion about sexual relations and the 60 effect on unit cohesion, pregnancy testing, and affairs of the heart; whether appropriate or

  8. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action. (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier


    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  9. Combat Wound Initiative program. (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M


    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  10. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli


    Full Text Available We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland, and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61 than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51, and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54. Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.

  11. Relevance of the EU Structural Funds’ Allocation to the Needs of Combating Air Pollution in Poland. Analysis of the Operational Programmes of Regions Threatened With Critical Air Pollution from Distributed Energy Sources (United States)

    Włodarski, Marcin; Martyniuk-Pęczek, Justyna


    Recent years, the European Environmental Agency, has been reporting air quality parameters in Poland, as the poorest among all the EU countries. Despite of adoption of the EU legislation on energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings, existing legal solutions occur insufficient in reducing air pollution in Polish regions. Lack of an effective schemes supporting complex thermal renovation of buildings, exchange of inefficient boilers, developing district heating based on clean and renewable fuels results in severe health problems and 40 000 of premature deaths related to air pollution. Availability of the EU structural funds may become a tremendous opportunity, especially for the residential sector, to conduct a massive scale modernization. Nevertheless, lack of a coordinated action involving all levels of governance may put the opportunity at risk. The article aims to answer the question on the readiness of the regional governments to effectively implement energy efficiency measures mitigating the problem of air pollution. Second objective is to analyse whether the Regional Operational Programmes allocating the ERDF funds to support specific development needs of the regions, have been constructed in a way that properly addresses the problems related to energy performance of residential buildings.

  12. Advection-diffusion model for the simulation of air pollution distribution from a point source emission (United States)

    Ulfah, S.; Awalludin, S. A.; Wahidin


    Advection-diffusion model is one of the mathematical models, which can be used to understand the distribution of air pollutant in the atmosphere. It uses the 2D advection-diffusion model with time-dependent to simulate air pollution distribution in order to find out whether the pollutants are more concentrated at ground level or near the source of emission under particular atmospheric conditions such as stable, unstable, and neutral conditions. Wind profile, eddy diffusivity, and temperature are considered in the model as parameters. The model is solved by using explicit finite difference method, which is then visualized by a computer program developed using Lazarus programming software. The results show that the atmospheric conditions alone influencing the level of concentration of pollutants is not conclusive as the parameters in the model have their own effect on each atmospheric condition.

  13. A numerical simulation study on active species production in dense methane-air plasma discharge (United States)

    Gui, LI; Muyang, QIAN; Sanqiu, LIU; Huaying, CHEN; Chunsheng, REN; Dezhen, WANG


    Recently, low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been proposed as a potential type of ‘reaction carrier’ for the conversion of methane into value-added chemicals. In this paper, the multi-physics field coupling software of COMSOL is used to simulate the detailed discharge characteristics of atmospheric pressure methane-air plasma. A two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model is constructed, in which 77 plasma chemical reactions and 32 different species are taken into account. The spatial density distributions of dominant charged ions and reactive radical species, such as {{{CH}}}4+, {{{CH}}}3+, {{{N}}}2+, {{{O}}}2+, H, O, CH3, and CH2, are presented, which is due to plasma chemical reactions of methane/air dissociation (or ionization) and reforming of small fragment radical species. The physicochemical mechanisms of methane dissociation and radical species recombination are also discussed and analyzed.

  14. Information Presentation and Control in a Modern Air Traffic Control Tower Simulator (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.; Doubek, Sharon; Rabin, Boris; Harke, Stanton


    The proper presentation and management of information in America's largest and busiest (Level V) air traffic control towers calls for an in-depth understanding of many different human-computer considerations: user interface design for graphical, radar, and text; manual and automated data input hardware; information/display output technology; reconfigurable workstations; workload assessment; and many other related subjects. This paper discusses these subjects in the context of the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) currently under construction at NASA's Ames Research Center, a full scale, multi-manned, air traffic control simulator which will provide the "look and feel" of an actual airport tower cab. Special emphasis will be given to the human-computer interfaces required for the different kinds of information displayed at the various controller and supervisory positions and to the computer-aided design (CAD) and other analytic, computer-based tools used to develop the facility.

  15. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.


    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  16. An Eulerian-Eulerian CFD Simulation of Air-Water Flow in a Pipe Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Afolabi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD of air-water flow using Eulerian –Eulerian multiphase model and RSM mixture turbulence model to investigate its hydrodynamic flow behaviour in a 30 mm pipe separator. The simulated results are then compared with the stereoscopic PIV measurements at different axial positions. The comparison shows that the velocity distribution can be predicted with high accuracy using CFD. The numerical velocity profiles are also found to be in good qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. However, there were some discrepancies between the CFD results and the SPIV measurements at some axial positions away from the inlet section. Therefore, the CFD model could provide good physical understanding on the hydrodynamics flow behaviour for air-water in a pipe separator.

  17. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America (United States)


    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  18. A survey on the measure of combat readiness (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai


    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  19. Physiological responses and air consumption during simulated firefighting tasks in a subway system. (United States)

    Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L


    Professional firefighters (33 men, 3 women), ranging in age from 30 to 53 years, participated in a simulation of a subway system search and rescue while breathing from their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). We tested the hypothesis that during this task, established by expert firefighters to be of moderate intensity, the rate of air consumption would exceed the capacity of a nominal 30-min cylinder. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and air consumption were measured with a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis system, which was fully integrated with the expired port of the SCBA. The task involved descending a flight of stairs, walking, performing a search and rescue, retreat walking, then ascending a single flight of stairs to a safe exit. This scenario required between 9:56 and 13:24 min:s (mean, 12:10 ± 1:10 min:s) to complete, with an average oxygen uptake of 24.3 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 10 % peak oxygen uptake) and heart rate of 76% ± 7% of maximum. The highest energy requirement was during the final single-flight stair climb (30.4 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The average respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide output/oxygen uptake) throughout the scenario was 0.95 ± 0.08, indicating a high carbon dioxide output for a relatively moderate average energy requirement. Air consumption from the nominal "30-min" cylinder averaged 51% (range, 26%-68%); however, extrapolation of these rates of consumption suggested that the low-air alarm, signalling that only 25% of the air remains, would have occurred as early as 11 min for an individual with the highest rate of air consumption, and at 16 min for the group average. These data suggest that even the moderate physical demands of walking combined with search and rescue while wearing full protective gear and breathing through the SCBA impose considerable physiological strain on professional firefighters. As well, the rate of air consumption in these tasks classed as moderate, compared

  20. The value of radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities: experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paelinck, L; Reynaert, N; Thierens, H; Wagter, C de; Neve, W de


    In this study we investigate radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities with particular focus on the perturbation of the dose distribution by the film when the film is parallel to the beam axis. We considered a layered polystyrene phantom containing an air cavity as a model for the air-soft tissue geometry that may occur after surgical resection of a paranasal sinus tumour. A radiochromic film type MD-55 was positioned within the phantom so that it intersected the cavity. Two phantom set-ups were examined. In the first case, the air cavity is at the centre of the phantom, thus the film is lying along the central beam axis. In the second case, the cavity and film are located 2 cm offset from the phantom centre and the central beam axis. In order to examine the influence of the film on the dose distribution and to interpret the film-measured results, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The film was modelled rigorously to incorporate the composition and structure of the film. Two field configurations, a 1 x 10 cm 2 field and a 10 x 10 cm 2 field, were examined. The dose behind the air cavity is reduced by 6 to 7% for both field configurations when a film that intersects the cavity contains the central beam axis. This is due to the attenuation exerted by the film when photons cross the cavity. Offsetting the beam to the cavity and the film by 2 cm removes the dose reduction behind the air cavity completely. Another result was that the rebuild-up behind the cavity for the 10 x 10 cm 2 field, albeit less significant than for the 1 x 10 cm 2 field, could only be measured by the film that was placed offset with respect to the central beam axis. Although radiochromic film is approximately soft-tissue equivalent and energy independent as compared to radiographic films, care should be taken in the case of inhomogeneous phantoms when the film intersects air cavities and contains the beam central axis. Errors in dose measurement can be expected distal to the air cavity

  1. [The balance of harmful trace contaminants between the air humidity condensate and air in a simulator of the Mir orbit station moisture condensation unit]. (United States)

    Zlotopol'skiĭ, V M; Smolenskaia, T S


    Subject of the investigation was the balance of harmful trace contaminants (HTC) between the air moisture condensate and air in a simulator of the MIR moisture condensation unit. Experiments involved various classes of water-solvent compounds including alcohols (C1-C4), ketons (C1-C2), aldehydes (C1-C2), fatty acids (C2-C4), esters (acetates C4-C6), and ammonium. For most of the compounds, removal efficiency correlates with air humidity and virtually does not depend on the HTC concentration within the range of 0.25 to 59.1 mg/m3.

  2. The simulation of air recirculation and fire/explosion phenomena within a semiconductor factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I, Yet-Pole; Chiu, Y.-L.; Wu, S.-J.


    The semiconductor industry is the collection of capital-intensive firms that employ a variety of hazardous chemicals and engage in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Owing to its processing characteristics, the fully confined structure of the fabrication area (fab) and the vertical airflow ventilation design restrict the applications of traditional consequence analysis techniques that are commonly used in other industries. The adverse situation also limits the advancement of a fire/explosion prevention design for the industry. In this research, a realistic model of a semiconductor factory with a fab, sub-fabrication area, supply air plenum, and return air plenum structures was constructed and the computational fluid dynamics algorithm was employed to simulate the possible fire/explosion range and its severity. The semiconductor factory has fan module units with high efficiency particulate air filters that can keep the airflow uniform within the cleanroom. This condition was modeled by 25 fans, three layers of porous ceiling, and one layer of porous floor. The obtained results predicted very well the real airflow pattern in the semiconductor factory. Different released gases, leak locations, and leak rates were applied to investigate their influence on the hazard range and severity. Common mitigation measures such as a water spray system and a pressure relief panel were also provided to study their potential effectiveness to relieve thermal radiation and overpressure hazards within a fab. The semiconductor industry can use this simulation procedure as a reference on how to implement a consequence analysis for a flammable gas release accident within an air recirculation cleanroom

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Performance of Solar-Assisted Air Conditioning System under Iraq Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najim Abid Jassim


    Full Text Available In Iraq most of the small buildings deployed a conventional air conditioning technology which typically uses electrically driven compressor systems which exhibits several clear disadvantages such as high energy consumption, high electricity at peak loads. In this work a thermal performance of air conditioning system combined with a solar collector is investigated theoretically. The hybrid air conditioner consists of a semi hermetic compressor, water cooled shell and tube condenser, thermal expansion valve and coil with tank evaporator. The theoretical analysis included a simulation for the solar assisted air-conditioning system using EES software to analyze the effect of different parameters on the power consumption of compressor and the performance of system. The results show that refrigeration capacity is increased from 2.7 kW to 4.4kW, as the evaporating temperature increased from 3 to 18 ºC. Also the power consumption is increased from 0.89 kW to 1.08 kW. So the COP of the system is increased from 3.068 to 4.117. The power consumption is increased from 0.897 kW to 1.031 kW as the condensing temperature increased from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. While the COP is decreased from 3.89 to 3.1. The power consumption is decreased from 1.05 kW to 0.7kW as the solar radiation intensity increased from 300 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, while the COP is increased from 3.15 to 4.8. A comparison between the simulation and available experimental data showed acceptable agreement.

  4. Numerical simulations of the industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler under air- and oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, Wojciech P.; Kozołub, Paweł; Klimanek, Adam; Białecki, Ryszard A.; Andrzejczyk, Marek; Klajny, Marcin


    Measured and numerical results of air-fuel combustion process within large scale industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is presented in this paper. For numerical simulations the industrial compact CFB boiler was selected. Numerical simulations were carried out using three-dimensional model where the dense particulate transport phenomenon was simultaneously modelled with combustion process. The fluidization process was modelled using the hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach. The impact of the geometrical model simplification on predicted mass distribution and temperature profiles over CFB boiler combustion chamber two kinds of geometrical models were used, namely the complete model which consist of combustion chamber, solid separators, external solid super-heaters and simplified boiler geometry which was reduced to the combustion chamber. The evaluated temperature and pressure profiles during numerical simulations were compared against measured data collected during boiler air-fuel operation. Collected data was also used for validating numerical model of the oxy-fuel combustion model. Stability of the model and its sensitivity on changes of several input parameters were studied. The comparison of the pressure and temperature profiles for all considered cases gave comparable trends in contrary to measured data. Moreover, some additional test was carried out the check the influence of radiative heat transfer on predicted temperature profile within the CFB boiler. - Highlights: • Hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach was used for modelling particle transport, air- and oxy-fuel combustion process. • Numerical results were validated against measured data. • The influence of different boiler operating conditions on calculated temperature profile was investigated. • New strategy for resolving particle transport in circulating fluidized bed was shown

  5. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.


    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  6. Experimental validation of large-eddy simulation for swirling methane-air non-premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.Y.; Luo, Y.H.; Xu, C.S. [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, L.X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics


    Large-eddy simulation of swirling methane-air non-premixed combustion was carried out using a Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid scale stress model and a presumed-PDF fast-chemistry combustion model. The LES statistical results are validated by PIV, temperature and species concentration measurements made by the present authors. The results indicate that in the present case the presumed-PDF fast-chemistry combustion model is a fairish one. The instantaneous vorticity and temperature maps show clearly the development and the interaction between coherent structures and combustion.

  7. Trends in aircraft emissions. Simulation of two air traffic scenarios in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, L G; Palsson, A [The Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden). The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration


    The developing trends of emissions from aviation in Sweden have been studied by means of flight and emissions simulation. The objective was to investigate whether technical improvements will allow Swedish air traffic to increase, without exceeding national regulations for pollution in the future. It was found that, due to development of aircraft engines and, to some extent, improvement of aerodynamic designs, the fuel consumption and thus the emissions of carbon dioxide will decrease in the future. The decrease of nitrous oxides is predicted to be significant due to advances in engine technology. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Trends in aircraft emissions. Simulation of two air traffic scenarios in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, L.G.; Palsson, A. [The Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden). The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration


    The developing trends of emissions from aviation in Sweden have been studied by means of flight and emissions simulation. The objective was to investigate whether technical improvements will allow Swedish air traffic to increase, without exceeding national regulations for pollution in the future. It was found that, due to development of aircraft engines and, to some extent, improvement of aerodynamic designs, the fuel consumption and thus the emissions of carbon dioxide will decrease in the future. The decrease of nitrous oxides is predicted to be significant due to advances in engine technology. (author) 4 refs.

  9. Application of CPML to two-dimension numerical simulation of nuclear electromagnetic pulse from air explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunxia; Wang Lianghou


    The characteristics of different types of PML were analyzed and the convolutional PML was chosen to truncate the open boundaries in numerical simulation of nuclear electromagnetic pulse from air explosions. On the basis of the split-field PML and the plane-wave solution of electromagnetic field in free space, the unsplit-field PML was constructed. By applying the convolutional theorem of Fourier transform, the discrete iterative equations of electromagnetic field components were presented in the CPML media under the two-dimension prolate-spheroidal coordinate system. The numerical results indicate that the method of CPML can largely decrease calculation errors of boundary fields. (authors)

  10. A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.


    In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)

  11. Blended Training for Combat Medics (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd


    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  12. Using spatial context to support prospective memory in simulated air traffic control. (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Finnerty, Dannielle; Remington, Roger W


    The aim was to examine whether prospective memory error and response costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation could be reduced by providing spatial context. Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action at an appropriate point in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. For this study, three conditions of participants performed an air traffic control task that required them to accept and hand off aircraft and to prevent conflicts. The prospective memory task required participants to remember to press an alternative key rather than the routine key when accepting target aircraft. A red line separated the display into upper and lower regions. Participants in the context condition were told that the prospective memory instruction would apply only to aircraft approaching from one region (upper or lower). Those in the standard condition were not provided this information. In the control condition, participants did not have to perform the prospective memory task. In the context condition, participants made fewer prospective memory errors than did those in the standard condition and made faster acceptance decisions for aircraft approaching from irrelevant compared with relevant regions. Costs to hand-off decision time were also reduced in the context condition. Spatial context provided no benefit to conflict detection. Participants could partially localize their allocation of attentional resources to the prospective memory task to relevant display regions. The findings are potentially applicable to air traffic control, whereby regularities in airspace structure and standard traffic flows allow controllers to anticipate the location of specific air traffic events.

  13. Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control. (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W


    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach


    Sebastian Rauber


    Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  15. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.


    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  16. Adaptive unstructured simulations of diaphragm rupture and perforation opening to start hypersonic air inlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, E.V.; Tahir, R.B.; Voinovich, P.A.; Moelder, S.


    The concept of 'twin' grid nodes is discussed in the context of unstructured, adaptive meshes that are suitable for highly unsteady flows. The concept is applicable to internal boundary contours (within the computational domain) where the boundary conditions may need to be changed dynamically; for instance, an impermeable solid wall segment can be redefined as a fully permeable invisible boundary segment during the course of the simulation. This can be used to simulate unsteady gas flows with internal boundaries where the flow conditions may change rapidly and drastically. As a demonstration, the idea is applied to study the starting process in hypersonic air inlets by rupturing a diaphragm or by opening wall-perforations. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional simulation of positive and negative streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, N.Yu.; Naidis, G.V.


    The paper deals with 2D numerical simulation of positive and negative streamers in air at atmospheric pressure. The dynamics of an axially symmetric streamer based on a charged sphere is described by a coupled system of equations for the electric field and the density of charged particles. The results of simulation show that the production rate of radicals in short sphere-plane gaps depends only weakly on the discharge conditions, that the streamer velocity in uniform field depends linearly on the streamer length, and the field corresponding to the negative streamer propagation with a constant velocity is 2-3 times greater than that obtained with a positive streamer. (J.U.)

  18. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné


    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  19. Air mass exchange across the polar vortex edge during a simulated major stratospheric warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Günther

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar vortex in winter and spring play an important role in explaining observed low ozone values. A quantification of physical and chemical processes is necessary to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic causes of fluctuations of ozone. This paper aims to contribute to answering the question of how permeable the polar vortex is. The transport into and out of the vortex ("degree of isolation" remains the subject of considerable debate. Based on the results of a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere, the possibility of exchange of air masses across the polar vortex edge is investigated. Additionally the horizontal and vertical structure of the polar vortex is examined. The model simulation used for this study is related to the major stratospheric warming observed in February 1989. The model results show fair agreement with observed features of the major warming of 1989. Complex structures of the simulated polar vortex are illustrated by horizontal and vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and inert tracer. A three-dimensional view of the polar vortex enables a description of the vortex as a whole. During the simulation two vortices and an anticyclone, grouped together in a very stable tripolar structure, and a weaker, more amorphous anticyclone are formed. This leads to the generation of small-scale features. The results also indicate that the permeability of the vortex edges is low because the interior of the vortices remain isolated during the simulation.

  20. Air mass exchange across the polar vortex edge during a simulated major stratospheric warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Günther


    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar vortex in winter and spring play an important role in explaining observed low ozone values. A quantification of physical and chemical processes is necessary to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic causes of fluctuations of ozone. This paper aims to contribute to answering the question of how permeable the polar vortex is. The transport into and out of the vortex ("degree of isolation" remains the subject of considerable debate. Based on the results of a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere, the possibility of exchange of air masses across the polar vortex edge is investigated. Additionally the horizontal and vertical structure of the polar vortex is examined. The model simulation used for this study is related to the major stratospheric warming observed in February 1989. The model results show fair agreement with observed features of the major warming of 1989. Complex structures of the simulated polar vortex are illustrated by horizontal and vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and inert tracer. A three-dimensional view of the polar vortex enables a description of the vortex as a whole. During the simulation two vortices and an anticyclone, grouped together in a very stable tripolar structure, and a weaker, more amorphous anticyclone are formed. This leads to the generation of small-scale features. The results also indicate that the permeability of the vortex edges is low because the interior of the vortices remain isolated during the simulation.

  1. Comprehensive Validation of Skeletal Mechanism for Turbulent Premixed Methane–Air Flame Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Luca, Stefano


    A new skeletal mechanism, consisting of 16 species and 72 reactions, has been developed for lean methane–air premixed combustion from the GRI-Mech 3.0. The skeletal mechanism is validated for elevated unburnt temperatures (800 K) and pressures up to 4 atm, thereby addressing realistic gas turbine conditions. The skeletal mechanism is obtained by applying the directed relation graph method and performing sensitivity analysis on the detailed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated for flame speed and flame structure in a wide range of conditions and configurations. A good agreement between the skeletal mechanism and GRI-3.0 was obtained. The configurations considered include one-dimension laminar premixed flames, laminar non-premixed counterflow burners, and two- and three-dimensional unsteady configurations with variations of temperature, pressure, and composition. The skeletal mechanism allows for the inclusion of accurate finite rate chemistry in large-scale direct numerical simulations of lean turbulent premixed flames. In a large-scale direct numerical simulation, the use of the skeletal mechanism reduces the memory requirements by more than a factor of 3 and accelerates the simulation by a factor of 7 compared with the detailed mechanism. The skeletal mechanism is suitable for unsteady three-dimensional simulations of methane turbulent premixed, non-premixed, and globally lean partially premixed flames and is available as supplementary material.

  2. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Kataoka, R.; Yasuda, H.; Yashiro, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Shiota, D.; Kubo, Y.


    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect air crews from additional SEP exposure. When galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) or solar energetic particles (SEPs) are incident on the atmosphere, they can induce air showers by producing various secondary particles. These secondary particles can reach conventional flight altitudes (∼12 km); hence, air crews are exposed to enhanced levels of radiation. The most important difference between GCR and SEP exposure arises from their temporal variations and dose rates; GCRs induce continuous exposure with low dose rates, usually up to several μSv h -1 , whereas SEPs produce pulsed exposure with high dose rates, occasionally >1 mSv h -1 , though such severe events rarely occur. Thus, subsequent evaluation is sufficient for estimating the aircrew dose due to GCR exposure, whereas forecasting is desirable for SEP exposure. Several calculation codes, e.g. CARI-6(3), EPCARD(4), JISCARD-EX(5), and PCAIRE(6), have been developed for post-exposure evaluation of GCR doses. On the other hand, empirical and phenomenological models have been developed for real-time or

  3. U.S. Air Force Combat Psychiatry. (United States)


    of rest as a palliative and restorative, and (2) their own influence in sympathetic yet authoritative roles which offer understanding while expecting...came to the clearing station remained there for 48 hours. These men were given sufficient sedation to insure a good 12-24 hours of sleep, only...In spite of stated doctrine, flexibility in assigning mental health nurses and occupational therapists to this facility may also prove useful. In the

  4. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta


    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  5. Thermo-dynamic analysis and simulation of a combined air and hydro energy storage (CAHES) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng


    Large-scale energy storage is essential for the stability of a grid, especially for those with large proportion of intermittent renewable energy sources. The efficiency of a conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology is limited by compression heat loss and changing working conditions. In this manuscript, a combined air and hydro energy storage (CAHES) system is proposed, which realizes a higher exergy efficiency compared with conventional CAES systems by reducing compression heat losses and addressing issues of changing working conditions through thermal compensation from solar radiation. The configuration and two operating modes of the proposed CAHES system are firstly introduced, followed by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation under different operating modes to analyze system performances. Impacts of external and internal factors on the system performances are analyzed. The practical feasibility of the system is also investigated. Results show that the exergy efficiency of the system reaches approximately 50%, whilst the charging electricity ratio reaches over 80%. - Highlights: • A combined air and hydro energy storage system is proposed. • High exergy efficiency is achieved and consumption of fossil fuel is eliminated. • The system performance is affected by compression ratio and solar radiation.

  6. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimov V. E.


    Full Text Available One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal contact with the microprocessor housing designed for cooler installation. On the hot surface of the module a radiator is mounted. The radiator dissipates the cumulative heat flow from both the microprocessor and the module. High density PCB layout, the requirement of free access to the jumpers and interfaces, and the presence of numerous sensors limit the space for radiator mounting and require the use of an extremely compact radiator, especially in air cooling conditions. One of the possible solutions for this problem may reduce the area of the radiator heat-transfer surfaces due to a sharp growth of the heat transfer coefficient without increasing the air flow rate. To ensure a sharp growth of heat transfer coefficient on the heat-transfer surface one should make in the surface one or more dead-end cavities into which the impact air jets would flow. CFD simulation of this type of radiator has been conducted. The heat-aerodynamic characteristics and design recommendations for removing heat from microprocessors in a limited space have been determined.

  7. Numerical simulation of air flow through turbocharger compressors with dual volute design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo; Wu, Hao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Sun, Harold; Schram, Tim [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48126 (United States); Krivitzky, Eric; Larosiliere, Louis M. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VT 05001 (United States)


    In this paper, turbocharger centrifugal compressors with dual volute design were investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The numerical simulation focused on the air flow from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, and the overall performance level and range are predicted. The numerical investigation revealed that the dual volute design could separate the compressor into two operating regions: ''high efficiency'' and ''low efficiency'' regions with different air flow characteristics, and treating these two regions separately with dual diffuser design showed extended stable operating range and improved efficiency by comparing with conventional single volute design. The ''dual sequential volute'' concept also showed the potential to further extend the stable operating range by closing one of the volutes at low air flow rates. Furthermore, by comparing with other alternate designs such as variable diffuser vanes and variable inlet guide vanes, the operation of the dual sequential volute also features relatively simple control and calibration. (author)

  8. Large Eddy simulation of turbulent hydrogen-fuelled supersonic combustion in an air cross-flow (United States)

    Ingenito, A.; Cecere, D.; Giacomazzi, E.


    The main aim of this article is to provide a theoretical understanding of the physics of supersonic mixing and combustion. Research in advanced air-breathing propulsion systems able to push vehicles well beyond is of interest around the world. In a scramjet, the air stream flow captured by the inlet is decelerated but still maintains supersonic conditions. As the residence time is very short , the study of an efficient mixing and combustion is a key issue in the ongoing research on compressible flows. Due to experimental difficulties in measuring complex high-speed unsteady flowfields, the most convenient way to understand unsteady features of supersonic mixing and combustion is to use computational fluid dynamics. This work investigates supersonic combustion physics in the Hyshot II combustion chamber within the Large Eddy simulation framework. The resolution of this turbulent compressible reacting flow requires: (1) highly accurate non-dissipative numerical schemes to properly simulate strong gradients near shock waves and turbulent structures away from these discontinuities; (2) proper modelling of the small subgrid scales for supersonic combustion, including effects from compressibility on mixing and combustion; (3) highly detailed kinetic mechanisms (the Warnatz scheme including 9 species and 38 reactions is adopted) accounting for the formation and recombination of radicals to properly predict flame anchoring. Numerical results reveal the complex topology of the flow under investigation. The importance of baroclinic and dilatational effects on mixing and flame anchoring is evidenced. Moreover, their effects on turbulence-scale generation and the scaling law are analysed.

  9. Simulation of air pollution with nested models in North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Ch.; Bruecher, W.; Memmesheimer, M.; Kerschgens, M.; Ebel, A.


    High resolution modeling of air pollution events requires nested models. CARLOS is a combination of two comprehensive air quality simulation models that calculate chemistry and transport on regional and local scales. Both models apply nesting techniques to describe the influx of tracers into the inner highly resolved modeling domain. High resolution emission inventories are available for the innermost nest on the large scale, which allow the separate treatment of traffic and point sources. Results of a simulation for North Rhine-Westphalia in August 1997 are presented for two nesting levels, increasing the resolution from 27km in Central Europe to 3km in the domain of the second nest. One result is also presented for the local scale employing two nesting levels with a resolution of 1km and 333m, respectively. Statistical indices are used to indicate the quality of the predictions of ozone. Comparison of observations at the stations Koeln-Chorweiler and Wuppertal with modeled concentrations shows good agreement of ozone and reasonable reproduction of NO 2 concentrations. (Author)

  10. A multi-transputer system for parallel Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.; Heck, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.


    A multiprocessor computer system has been brought into operation at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The architecture consists of two independently working VMEbus systems each with a 68020 microprocessor as host computer and twelve T800 transputers for parallel processing. The two systems are linked via Ethernet for data exchange. The T800 transputers are equipped with 4 Mbyte RAM each, sufficient to run rather large codes. The host computers are operated under UNIX 5.3. On the transputers compilers for PARALLEL FORTRAN, C, and PASCAL are available. The simple modular architecture of this parallel computer reflects the single purpose for which it is intended. The hardware of the multiprocessor computer is described as well as the way how the user software is handled and distributed to the 24 working processors. The performance of the parallel computer is demonstrated by well-known benchmarks and by realistic Monte Carlo simulations of air showers. Comparisons with other types of microprocessors and with large universal computers are made. It is demonstrated that a cost reduction by more than a factor of 20 is achieved by this system as compared to universal computer. (orig.)

  11. Integrated Guidance and Control Based Air-to-Air Autonomous Attack Occupation of UCAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Luo


    Full Text Available An approach of air-to-air autonomous attack occupation for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs is proposed to improve attack precision and combat effectiveness. According to the shortage of UCAV in the task of attack occupation, kinematic and dynamic models of UCAV and missile loaded on it are formed. Then, attack zone and no-escape zone are calculated by pattern search algorithm, and the optimum attack position is indicated. To arrive at the optimum attack position accurately with restriction of gesture, a novel adaptive sliding mode control method is suggested to design the integrated guidance and control system of UCAV in the process of autonomous attack occupation. Key parameters of the control system are adaptively regulated, which further economize control energy at the same time. The simulation results show that compared with traditional methods our approach can guide the UCAV to the optimum attack position with stable gesture and economize nearly 25% control energy.

  12. Experimental study on air ingress during a primary pipe rupture accident with a graphite reactor core simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki; Hishida, Makoto; Baba, Shinichi


    When a primary coolant pipe of a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) ruptures, helium gas in the reactor core blows out into the container, and the primary cooling system reduces the pressure. After the pressures are balanced between the reactor and the container, air is expected to enter into the reactor core from the breach. It seems to be probable that the graphite structures is oxidized by air. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the air ingress process and the behavior of the generating gases by the oxidation reactions. The previous experimental study is performed on the molecular diffusion and natural convection of the two component gas mixtures using a test model simulating simply the reactor. Objective of the study was to investigate the air ingress process during the early stage of the primary pipe rupture accident. However, since the model did not have any kind of graphite components, the reaction between graphite and oxygen was not simulated. The present model includes the reactor core and the high temperature plenum simulators made of graphite. The major results obtained in the present study are summarized in the followings: (1) The air ingress process with graphite oxidation reaction is similar to that without the reaction qualitatively. (2) When the reactor core simulator is maintained at low temperatures (lower than 450degC), the initiation time of the natural circulation of air is almost equal to that of the natural circulation of nitrogen. On the other hand, when the temperature of the reactor core simulator is high (more than 500degC), the initiation time of the natural circulation of air is earlier than that of nitrogen. (3) When the temperature of the reactor core simulator is higher than 600degC, oxygen is almost dissipated by the graphite structures. When the temperature of the reactor core simulator is below 700degC, carbon dioxide mainly is generated by the oxidation reactions. (author)

  13. Simulation of effects of direction and air flow speed on temperature distribution in the room covered by various roof materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukanto, H., E-mail:; Budiana, E. P., E-mail:; Putra, B. H. H., E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)


    The objective of this research is to get a comparison of the distribution of the room temperature by using three materials, namely plastic-rubber composite, clay, and asbestos. The simulation used Ansys Fluent to get the temperature distribution. There were two conditions in this simulations, first the air passing beside the room and second the air passing in front of the room. Each condition will be varied with the air speed of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s, 5 m/s for each material used. There are three heat transfers in this simulation, namely radiation, convection, and conduction. Based on the ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, the results of the simulation showed that the best temperature distribution was the roof of plastic-rubber composites.

  14. Numerical simulation of the gas-solid flow in a square circulating fluidized bed with secondary air injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengyang [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Post-doctor Station of Civil Engineering; Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.; Sun, Shaozeng; Zhao, Ningbo; Wu, Shaohua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.; Tan, Yufei [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering


    The dynamic behavior of gas-solid flow in an experimental square circulating fluidized bed setup (0.25 m x 0.25 m x 6.07 m) is predicted with numerical simulation based on the theory of Euler-Euler gas-solid two-phase flow and the kinetic theory of granular flows. The simulation includes the operation cases with secondary injection and without air-staging. The pressure drop profile, local solids concentration and particle velocity was compared with experimental results. Both simulation and experimental results show that solids concentration increases significantly below the secondary air injection ports when air-staging is adopted. Furthermore, the flow asymmetry in the solid entrance region of the bed was investigated based on the particle concentration/velocity profile. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results qualitatively.

  15. Regimes of seasonal air-sea interaction and implications for performance of forced simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Kirtman, Ben P. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, School of Computational Sciences, Fairfax, VA (United States)


    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can induce anomalous convection through surface evaporation and low-level moisture convergence. This SST forcing of the atmosphere is indicated in a positive local rainfall-SST correlation. Anomalous convection can feedback on SST through cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation effects and wind-induced oceanic mixing and upwelling. These atmospheric feedbacks are reflected in a negative local rainfall-SST tendency correlation. As such, the simultaneous rainfall-SST and rainfall-SST tendency correlations can indicate the nature of local air-sea interactions. Based on the magnitude of simultaneous rainfall-SST and rainfall-SST tendency correlations, the present study identifies three distinct regimes of local air-sea interactions. The relative importance of SST forcing and atmospheric forcing differs in these regimes. In the equatorial central-eastern Pacific and, to a smaller degree, in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, SST forcing dominates throughout the year and the surface heat flux acts mainly as a damping term. In the tropical Indo-western Pacific Ocean regions, SST forcing and atmospheric forcing dominate alternatively in different seasons. Atmospheric forcing dominates in the local warm/rainy season. SST forcing dominates with a positive wind-evaporation feedback during the transition to the cold/dry season. SST forcing also dominates during the transition to the warm/rainy season but with a negative cloud-radiation feedback. The performance of atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed SST is closely linked to the regime of air-sea interaction. The forced simulations have good performance when SST forcing dominates. The performance is low or poor when atmospheric forcing dominates. (orig.)

  16. Energy Harvesting Combat Boot for Satellite Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Akay


    Full Text Available Most portable electronic devices are power-limited by battery capacity, and recharging these batteries often interrupts the user’s experience with the device. The product presented in this paper provides an alternative to powering portables by converting regular human walking motion to electricity. The device harvests electric power using air bulbs, distributed in the sole of a shoe to drive a series of micro-turbines connected to small DC motors. The number and position of air bulbs is optimized to harvest the maximum airflow from each foot-strike. The system is designed to continuously drive the micro-turbines by utilizing both outflow and inflow from the air bulbs. A prototype combat boot was fitted on the right foot of a 75 kg test subject, and produced an average continuous power on the order of 10 s of mW over a 22 Ω load during walking at 3.0 mph. This combat boot provides enough electric power to a passive GPS tracker that periodically relays geographical coordinates to a smartphone via satellite without battery replacement.

  17. Simulating Bubble Plumes from Breaking Waves with a Forced-Air Venturi (United States)

    Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Maben, J. R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Duplessis, P.; Kieber, D. J.; Beaupre, S. R.; Frossard, A. A.; Kinsey, J. D.; Zhu, Y.; Lu, X.; Bisgrove, J.


    It has been hypothesized that the size distribution of bubbles in subsurface seawater is a major factor that modulates the corresponding size distribution of primary marine aerosol (PMA) generated when those bubbles burst at the air-water interface. A primary physical control of the bubble size distribution produced by wave breaking is the associated turbulence that disintegrates larger bubbles into smaller ones. This leads to two characteristic features of bubble size distributions: (1) the Hinze scale which reflects a bubble size above which disintegration is possible based on turbulence intensity and (2) the slopes of log-linear regressions of the size distribution on either side of the Hinze scale that indicate the state of plume evolution or age. A Venturi with tunable seawater and forced air flow rates was designed and deployed in an artificial PMA generator to produce bubble plumes representative of breaking waves. This approach provides direct control of turbulence intensity and, thus, the resulting bubble size distribution characterizable by observations of the Hinze scale and the simulated plume age over a range of known air detrainment rates. Evaluation of performance in different seawater types over the western North Atlantic demonstrated that the Venturi produced bubble plumes with parameter values that bracket the range of those observed in laboratory and field experiments. Specifically, the seawater flow rate modulated the value of the Hinze scale while the forced-air flow rate modulated the plume age parameters. Results indicate that the size distribution of sub-surface bubbles within the generator did not significantly modulate the corresponding number size distribution of PMA produced via bubble bursting.



    clinical simulation (VCS) technology is another resource educators are experimenting with. “Also known as three-dimensional virtual worlds, serious...have a variety of diseases and injuries. Many combat related injuries are severe and complex. Nurses are often the mostly highly educated medical...made this vision a reality . Using aircraft to transport patients became an airlift capability that is now an Air Force responsibility. The current

  19. Adsorption of naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces coated with surfactants: a molecular simulation study. (United States)

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R


    The adsorption of gas-phase naphthalene and ozone molecules onto air/ice interfaces coated with different surfactant species (1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octanal) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Naphthalene and ozone exhibit a strong preference to be adsorbed at the surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces, as opposed to either being dissolved into the bulk of the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or being incorporated into the ice crystals. The QLL becomes thinner when the air/ice interface is coated with surfactant molecules. The adsorption of both naphthalene and ozone onto surfactant-coated air/ice interfaces is enhanced when compared to bare air/ice interface. Both naphthalene and ozone tend to stay dissolved in the surfactant layer and close to the QLL, rather than adsorbing on top of the surfactant molecules and close to the air region of our systems. Surfactants prefer to orient at a tilted angle with respect to the air/ice interface; the angular distribution and the most preferred angle vary depending on the hydrophilic end group, the length of the hydrophobic tail, and the surfactant concentration at the air/ice interface. Naphthalene prefers to have a flat orientation on the surfactant coated air/ice interface, except at high concentrations of 1-hexadecanol at the air/ice interface; the angular distribution of naphthalene depends on the specific surfactant and its concentration at the air/ice interface. The dynamics of naphthalene molecules at the surfactant-coated air/ice interface slow down as compared to those observed at bare air/ice interfaces. The presence of surfactants does not seem to affect the self-association of naphthalene molecules at the air/ice interface, at least for the specific surfactants and the range of concentrations considered in this study.

  20. Regional air-sea coupled model simulation for two types of extreme heat in North China (United States)

    Li, Donghuan; Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun


    Extreme heat (EH) over North China (NC) is affected by both large scale circulations and local topography, and could be categorized into foehn favorable and no-foehn types. In this study, the performance of a regional coupled model in simulating EH over NC was examined. The effects of regional air-sea coupling were also investigated by comparing the results with the corresponding atmosphere-alone regional model. On foehn favorable (no-foehn) EH days, a barotropic cyclonic (anticyclonic) anomaly is located to the northeast (northwest) of NC, while anomalous northwesterlies (southeasterlies) prevail over NC in the lower troposphere. In the uncoupled simulation, barotropic anticyclonic bias occurs over China on both foehn favorable and no-foehn EH days, and the northwesterlies in the lower troposphere on foehn favorable EH days are not obvious. These biases are significantly reduced in the regional coupled simulation, especially on foehn favorable EH days with wind anomalies skill scores improving from 0.38 to 0.47, 0.47 to 0.61 and 0.38 to 0.56 for horizontal winds at 250, 500 and 850 hPa, respectively. Compared with the uncoupled simulation, the reproduction of the longitudinal position of Northwest Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) and the spatial pattern of the low-level monsoon flow over East Asia are improved in the coupled simulation. Therefore, the anticyclonic bias over China is obviously reduced, and the proportion of EH days characterized by anticyclonic anomaly is more appropriate. The improvements in the regional coupled model indicate that it is a promising choice for the future projection of EH over NC.

  1. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive


    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  2. The Way of the Gun: Applying Lessons of Ground Combat to Pilot Training (United States)


    i AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE WAY OF THE GUN : APPLYING LESSONS OF GROUND COMBAT...teaching officers, for example, that the guns go quiet in combat inoculates them from suspecting a bad lot of ammunition or firearm malfunction when...their guns go “pop” instead of “bang.”41 This 17 first piece of the puzzle is called Survival Stress Management, and it is the most basic level

  3. Air traffic simulation in chemistry-climate model EMAC 2.41 : AirTraf 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamashita, H.; Grewe, V.; Jockel, P.; Linke, F.; Schaefer, M.; Sasaki, D.


    Mobility is becoming more and more important to society and hence air transportation is expected to grow further over the next decades. Reducing anthropogenic climate impact from aviation emissions and building a climate-friendly air transportation system are required for a sustainable development

  4. Control of the Air Supply Subsystem in a PEMFC with Balance of Plant Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cruz Rojas


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a control scheme for improving the air supply subsystem of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC with maximum power of 65 kW. The control scheme is evaluated in a plant simulator which incorporates the balance of plant (BOP components and is built in the aspenONE® platform. The aspenONE® libraries and tools allows introducing the compressor map and sizing the heat exchangers used to conduct the reactants temperature to the operating value. The PEMFC model and an adaptive controller were programmed to create customized libraries used in the simulator. The structure of the plant control is as follows: the stoichiometric oxygen excess ratio is regulated by manipulating the compressor power, the equilibrium of the anode-cathode pressures is achieved by tracking the anode pressure with hydrogen flow manipulation; the oxygen and hydrogen temperatures are regulated in the heat exchangers, and the gas humidity control is obtained with a simplified model of the humidifier. The control scheme performance is evaluated for load changes, perturbations and parametric variations, introducing a growing current profile covering a large span of power, and a current profile derived from a standard driving speed cycle. The impact of the control scheme is advantageous, since the control objectives are accomplished and the PEMFC tolerates reasonably membrane damage that can produce active surface reduction. The simulation analysis aids to identify the safe Voltage-Current region, where the compressor works with mechanical stability.

  5. Hot air impingement on a flat plate using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique (United States)

    Plengsa-ard, C.; Kaewbumrung, M.


    Impinging hot gas jets to a flat plate generate very high heat transfer coefficients in the impingement zone. The magnitude of heat transfer prediction near the stagnation point is important and accurate heat flux distribution are needed. This research studies on heat transfer and flow field resulting from a single hot air impinging wall. The simulation is carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial code FLUENT. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach with a subgrid-scale Smagorinsky-Lilly model is present. The classical Werner-Wengle wall model is used to compute the predicted results of velocity and temperature near walls. The Smagorinsky constant in the turbulence model is set to 0.1 and is kept constant throughout the investigation. The hot gas jet impingement on the flat plate with a constant surface temperature is chosen to validate the predicted heat flux results with experimental data. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 20,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. Nusselt number on the impingement surface is calculated. As predicted by the wall model, the instantaneous computed Nusselt number agree fairly well with experimental data. The largest values of calculated Nusselt number are near the stagnation point and decrease monotonically in the wall jet region. Also, the contour plots of instantaneous values of wall heat flux on a flat plate are captured by LES simulation.

  6. MM5 simulations for air quality modeling: An application to a coastal area with complex terrain (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Princevac, Marko; Mitsutomi, Satoru; Cassmassi, Joe

    A series of modifications were implemented in MM5 simulation in order to account for wind along the Santa Clarita valley, a north-south running valley located in the north of Los Angeles. Due to high range mountains in the north and the east of the Los Angeles Air Basin, sea breeze entering Los Angeles exits into two directions. One branch moves toward the eastern part of the basin and the other to the north toward the Santa Clarita valley. However, the northward flow has not been examined thoroughly nor simulated successfully in the previous studies. In the present study, we proposed four modifications to trigger the flow separation. They were (1) increasing drag over the ocean, (2) increasing soil moisture content, (3) selective observational nudging, and (4) one-way nesting for the innermost domain. The Control run overpredicted near-surface wind speed over the ocean and sensible heat flux, in an urbanized area, which justifies the above 1st and 2nd modification. The Modified run provided an improvement in near-surface temperature, sensible heat flux and wind fields including southeasterly flow along the Santa Clarita valley. The improved MM5 wind field triggered a transport to the Santa Clarita valley generating a plume elongated from an urban center to the north, which did not exist in MM5 Control run. In all, the modified MM5 fields yielded better agreement in both CO and O3 simulations especially in the Santa Clarita area.

  7. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.


    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  8. Modelling joint air defence doctrinal issues with a LinkZA-based integration of two C2 simulators – a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JJ


    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration between two command and control simulators in order to clarify doctrinal issues surrounding Joint Air Defence using as example the uncertainty of roles and responsibilities between the Air Defence Cell...

  9. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects......, divided into four groups of 17 subjects took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without the GPA purification unit installed in the recirculated air system. During each...... flight the subjects completed questionnaires five times to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms, and thermal comfort. Additionally, the subjects’ visual acuity, finger temperature, skin dryness and nasal peak flow were measured three times during each...

  10. Influences of the Saharan Air Layer on the Formation and Intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003): Analysis of AIRS data and Numerical Simulation (United States)

    Wu, L.; Braun, S. A.


    Over the past two decades, little advance has been made in prediction of tropical cyclone intensity while substantial improvements have been made in forecasting hurricane tracks. One reason is that we don't well understand the physical processes that govern tropical cyclone intensity. Recent studies have suggested that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) may be yet another piece of the puzzle in advancing our understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change in the Atlantic basin. The SAL is an elevated mixed layer, forming as air moves across the vast Sahara Desert, in particular during boreal summer months. The SAL contains warm, dry air as well as a substantial amount of mineral dust, which can affect radiative heating and modify cloud processes. Using the retrieved temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS suite on the NASA Aqua satellite, the SAL and its influences on the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003) are analyzed and simulated with MM5. When the warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is considered by relaxing the model thermodynamic state to the AIRS profiles, MM5 can well simulate the large-scale flow patterns and the activity of Hurricane Isabel in terms of the timing and location of formation and the subsequent track. Compared with the experiment without nudging the AIRS data, it is suggested that the simulated SAL effect may delay the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel. This case study generally confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  11. Research on air and missile defense task allocation based on extended contract net protocol (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang


    Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.

  12. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.


    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  13. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.M.


    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions

  14. Numerical simulation of air distribution in a room with a sidewall jet under benchmark test conditions (United States)

    Zasimova, Marina; Ivanov, Nikolay


    The goal of the study is to validate Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data on mixing ventilation in an isothermal room at conditions of benchmark experiments by Hurnik et al. (2015). The focus is on the accuracy of the mean and rms velocity fields prediction in the quasi-free jet zone of the room with 3D jet supplied from a sidewall rectangular diffuser. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 16.2 software with an algebraic wall-modeled LES subgrid-scale model. CFD results on the mean velocity vector are compared with the Laser Doppler Anemometry data. The difference between the mean velocity vector and the mean air speed in the jet zone, both LES-computed, is presented and discussed.

  15. Air gun seismic effects on larvae and fry offshore; modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, S.


    This report presents results from modeling and simulation of air gun seismic effects on fish and fry. A model has been developed to describe the behavior of fishes when a seismic ship is approaching and passes by the volume of residence of the fishes. The swimming capacity, the reaction to acoustic stimuli, the hearing threshold and the vertical distribution of the fishes have been included in the model. The model has been applied on cod fishes of length 25 and 350 mm. For realistic vertical distributions the big cod fishes will get away from the region near the boat where the probability for a mortal damage is greatest. 121 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu


    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  17. Dynamic Simulation pro-environmental behavior in reducing air pollution in el Valle de Aburra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera P, Juan D


    This paper proposes to expose some of the theoretical, methodological and conceptual aspects of the study of the pro-environmental behaviour on which the Master in Environmental and Development thesis named Dynamic simulation of stake holders under a structure based in beliefs, desires and intentions. Study in case: Pact for Air Quality Improvement of the AMVA, which justifies a reorientation of the intervention programs of the metropolitan authorities. Likewise, it is tried to provide to the reader with an ample point of view, with rigorous criteria, that do possible to analyze the multiple identities, the diversity of aims and the heterogeneity of intentions, to make visible what are behind the citizen's of environmental policies. By means of the analysis of the theoretical models: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It's presented the aspects that influence the pro environmental behaviour of the individuals, and their dynamics in a systemic environment. An approach from methodological individualism of the TRA was applied to the reduction 01 air pollution in the valley of Aburra, and the proposed model is validated in abstract. Finally, so me considerations are presented about their application in the metropolitan environmental management. The analysis of the intention of behaviour of the actors and stake holders who participate in the execution of the programs tend to the diminution of the contamination establishes by the authorities, serves to understand how strong they will try, or how much effort they will exert to realise the promoted pro environmental behaviour.

  18. A numerical simulation of metallic cylindrical sandwich shells subjected to air blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jing

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of cylindrical sandwich shells with aluminum foam cores subjected to air blast loading was investigated numerically in this paper. According to KNR theory, the nonlinear compressibility of the air and finite shock conditions were taken into account in the finite element model. Numerical simulation results show that the compression strain, which plays a key role on energy absorption, increases approximately linearly with normalized impulse, and reduces with increasing relative density or the ratio of face-sheet thickness and core thickness. An increase of the impulse will delay the equalization of top and bottom face-sheet velocities of sandwich shell, but there is a maximum value in the studied bound. A limited study of weight optimization was carried out for sandwich shells with respect to the respective geometric parameters, including face-sheet thickness, core thickness and core relative density. These numerical results are of worth to theoretical prediction and engineering application of cellular metal sandwich structures.

  19. Swirling Combustor Energy Converter: H2/Air Simulations of Separated Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti


    Full Text Available This work reports results related to the “EU-FP7-HRC-Power” project aiming at developing micro-meso hybrid sources of power. One of the goals of the project is to achieve surface temperatures up to more than 1000 K, with a ∆T ≤ 100 K, in order to be compatible with a thermal/electrical conversion by thermo-photovoltaic cells. The authors investigate how to reach that goal adopting swirling chambers integrated in a thermally-conductive and emitting element. The converter consists of a small parallelepiped brick inside two separated swirling meso-combustion chambers, which heat up the parallelepiped, emitting material by the combustion of H2 and air at ambient pressure. The overall dimension is of the order of cm. Nine combustion simulations have been carried out assuming detailed chemistry, several length/diameter ratios (Z/D = 3, 5 and 11 and equivalence ratios (0.4, 0.7 and 1; all are at 400 W of injected chemical power. Among the most important results are the converter surfaces temperatures, the heat loads, provided to the environment, and the chemical efficiency. The high chemical efficiency, h > 99.9%, is due to the relatively long average gas residence time coupled with the fairly good mixing due to the swirl motion and the impinging air/fuel jets that provide heat and radicals to the flame.

  20. Experimental simulation of air quality in street canyon under changes of building orientation and aspect ratio. (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Ohba, Masaake


    To assist validation of numerical simulations of urban pollution, air quality in a street canyon was investigated using a wind tunnel as a research tool under neutral atmospheric conditions. We used tracer gas techniques from a line source without buoyancy. Ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was used as the tracer gas. The street canyon model was formed of six parallel building rows of the same length. The flow and dispersion field was analyzed and measured using a hot-wire anemometer with split fiber probe and fast flame ionization detector. The diffusion flow field in the boundary layer within the street canyon was examined at different locations, with varying building orientations (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135° and 157.5°) and street canyon aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4 and 1) downwind of the leeward side of the street canyon model. Results show that velocity increases with aspect ratio, and with θ>90°. Pollutant concentration increases as aspect ratio decreases. This concentration decreases exponentially in the vertical direction, and decreases as θ increases from 90°. Measured pollutant concentration distributions indicate that variability of building orientation and aspect ratio in the street canyon are important for estimating air quality in the canyon. The data presented here can be used as a comprehensive database for validation of numerical models.

  1. Air source integrated heat pump simulation model for EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo; New, Joshua; Baxter, Van


    An Air Source Integrated Heat Pump (AS-IHP) is an air source, multi-functional spacing conditioning unit with water heating function (WH), which can lead to great energy savings by recovering the condensing waste heat for domestic water heating. This paper summarizes development of the EnergyPlus AS-IHP model, introducing the physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. Based on the model, building energy simulations were conducted to demonstrate greater than 50% annual energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, using the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We assessed water heating energy saving potentials using AS-IHP versus both gas and electric baseline systems, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising. In addition, a grid integration strategy was investigated to reveal further energy saving and electricity cost reduction potentials, via increasing the water heating set point temperature during off-peak hours and using larger water tanks.

  2. Discrete Event Simulation of a Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Candir, Ahmet A


    ...) operations have been a crucial element of military air power for 50 years. Several developments and evolution in both air defense and attack systems suggest that SEAD missions will continue to have growing importance to air forces...

  3. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Distribution System with Air Conditioners under Model Predictive Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Wesley B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, Hongyu [Kansas State University; Mittal, Saurabh [Mitre Corporation; Marks, Jesse [University of Missouri


    Many have proposed that responsive load provided by distributed energy resources (DERs) and demand response (DR) are an option to provide flexibility to the grid and especially to distribution feeders. However, because responsive load involves a complex interplay between tariffs and DER and DR technologies, it is challenging to test and evaluate options without negatively impacting customers. This paper describes a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation system that has been developed to reduce the cost of evaluating the impact of advanced controllers (e.g., model predictive controllers) and technologies (e.g., responsive appliances). The HIL simulation system combines large-scale software simulation with a small set of representative building equipment hardware. It is used to perform HIL simulation of a distribution feeder and the loads on it under various tariff structures. In the reported HIL simulation, loads include many simulated air conditioners and one physical air conditioner. Independent model predictive controllers manage operations of all air conditioners under a time-of-use tariff. Results from this HIL simulation and a discussion of future development work of the system are presented.

  4. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.......4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  5. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.


    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  6. Development of a High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Shadow-Mode Assessments of Air Traffic Concepts (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Lee, Alan; Lai, Chok Fung


    This paper describes the Shadow-Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Test Bed. The SMART-NAS Test Bed is an air traffic simulation platform being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SMART-NAS Test Bed's core purpose is to conduct high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop and automation-in-the-loop simulations of current and proposed future air traffic concepts for the United States' Next Generation Air Transportation System called NextGen. The setup, configuration, coordination, and execution of realtime, human-in-the-loop air traffic management simulations are complex, tedious, time intensive, and expensive. The SMART-NAS Test Bed framework is an alternative to the current approach and will provide services throughout the simulation workflow pipeline to help alleviate these shortcomings. The principle concepts to be simulated include advanced gate-to-gate, trajectory-based operations, widespread integration of novel aircraft such as unmanned vehicles, and real-time safety assurance technologies to enable autonomous operations. To make this possible, SNTB will utilize Web-based technologies, cloud resources, and real-time, scalable, communication middleware. This paper describes the SMART-NAS Test Bed's vision, purpose, its concept of use, and the potential benefits, key capabilities, high-level requirements, architecture, software design, and usage.

  7. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana


    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project ( using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  8. Summer U.S. Surface Air Temperature Variability: Controlling Factors and AMIP Simulation Biases (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Xie, S. P.


    This study documents and investigates biases in simulating summer surface air temperature (SAT) variability over the continental U.S. in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and multivariate regression analyses are used to assess the relative importance of circulation and the land surface feedback at setting summer SAT over a 30-year period (1979-2008). In observations, regions of high SAT variability are closely associated with midtropospheric highs and subsidence, consistent with adiabatic theory (Meehl and Tebaldi 2004, Lau and Nath 2012). Preliminary analysis shows the majority of the AMIP models feature high SAT variability over the central U.S., displaced south and/or west of observed centers of action (COAs). SAT COAs in models tend to be concomitant with regions of high sensible heat flux variability, suggesting an excessive land surface feedback in these models modulate U.S. summer SAT. Additionally, tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a role in forcing the leading EOF mode for summer SAT, in concert with internal atmospheric variability. There is evidence that models respond to different SST patterns than observed. Addressing issues with the bulk land surface feedback and the SST-forced component of atmospheric variability may be key to improving model skill in simulating summer SAT variability over the U.S.

  9. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management (United States)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan


    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  10. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.


    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (η) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10 19.5 eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis

  11. Studies of simulations of two-phase water-air flows using ANSYS CFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Filho, Anizio M.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, José L.H., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Normally in all simulations of flows in computational fluid dynamics, CFD, it is common to use characteristic planes to visualize the profiles of the parameters of interest, mainly in 3D simulations. The present work proposes a standard form of visualization that shows, mainly in two-phase flows, in a more realistic way, the dynamics of the development of the phase flow. This visualization is present within the CFX program in the post-processing module, in the option of representing volumes using sub option, isovolumes. Through this representation, the program highlights the volumes of the finite element mesh corresponding to the selected values of the parameter to be analyzed such as pressure, velocity, volumetric fraction, etc. By means of the volume-isovolume representation, a well representative effect of the current flow pattern is obtained, especially when the volumetric fraction of the air or the gas phase of the flow is emphasized. This form of visualization is being applied to the study of inclined two-phase flows, which will be tested in a new experiment currently under construction at the Laboratory of Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics - LTE of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN in Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  12. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Vankov, H.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgaria Academy, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution ({eta}) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10{sup 19.5}eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  13. Detection, simulation, assessing environmental influences. Climate/shock/irradiation/vibrations/electromagnetism/air contamination/biological influences. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Investigations using environmental simulation are designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Issues of artificial ageing and timelapsing play an important role. The 29 contributions to the 21st Annual Conference deal in particular with the topics: strategies in environmental simulation, irradiation and exposure testing of polymers, atmospheric influences and air ingredients, and mechanical environmental influences. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  15. Combatant Commanders Informational Series, USEUCOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Steven


    ...) and the diverse challenges it faces require it to maintain one of the highest operational and personnel tempos of the combatant command, are limited in the opportunity of personnel new to the command...

  16. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rauber


    Full Text Available Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  17. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.


    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  18. A Piloted Simulation Investigating Handling Qualities and Performance Requirements of a Single-Pilot Helicopter in Air Combat Employing a Helmet-Driven Turreted Gun. (United States)


    21 CoperIllrpe Ratng cal andHanlin Quaitis Lvel primary sections. Section III defines the nature of the problem and describes the developmental goals...theoretical mathematic model, a frequency-sweep flight-testing technique and data analysis was conducted for one configuration at hover for the yaw axis

  19. From the combat medic to the forward surgical team: the Madigan model for improving trauma readiness of brigade combat teams fighting the Global War on Terror. (United States)

    Sohn, Vance Y; Miller, Joseph P; Koeller, Craig A; Gibson, Steven O; Azarow, Kenneth S; Myers, Jerome B; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James A; Christensen, Jon B; Rush, Robert M


    Medics assigned to combat units have a notable paucity of trauma experience. Our goal was to provide intense trauma refresher training for the conventional combat medic to better prepare them for combat casualty care in the War on Terror. Our Tactical Combat Casualty Care Course (TC3) consisted of the following five phases: (1) One and one-half-day didactic session; (2) Half-day simulation portion with interactive human surgical simulators for anatomical correlation of procedures and team building; (3) Half-day of case presentations and triage scenarios from Iraq/Afghanistan and associated skills stations; (4) Half-day live tissue lab where procedures were performed on live anesthetized animals in a controlled environment; and (5) One-day field phase where live anesthetized animals and surgical simulators were combined in a real-time, field-training event to simulate realistic combat injuries, evacuation problems, and mass casualty scenarios. Data collection consisted of surveys, pre- and posttests, and after-action comments. A total of 1317 personnel participated in TC3 from October 2003 through May 2005. Over the overlapping study period from December 2004 to April 2005, 327 soldiers participated in the formal five-phase course. Three hundred four (94%) students were combat medics who were preparing for combat operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Of those completing the training, 97% indicated their confidence and ability to treat combat casualties were markedly improved. Moreover, of those 140 medics who took the course and deployed to Iraq for 1 year, 99% indicated that the principles taught in the TC3 course helped with battlefield management of injured casualties during their deployment. The hybrid training model is an effective method for training medical personnel to deal with modern battle injuries. This course increases the knowledge and confidence of combat medics deploying and fighting the Global War on Terrorism.

  20. A sheet metal forming simulation of automotive outer panels considering the behavior of air in die cavity (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yun Chang; Choi, Hee Kwan; Kang, Chul Ho; Kim, Heon Young


    During a sheet metal forming process of automotive outer panels, the air trapped between a blank sheet and a die tool can become highly compressed, ultimately influencing the blank deformation and the press force. To prevent this problem, vent holes are drilled into die tools and needs several tens to hundreds according to the model size. The design and the drilling of vent holes are based on expert's experience and try-out result and thus the process can be one of reasons increasing development cycle. Therefore the study on the size, the number, and the position of vent holes is demanded for reducing development cycle, but there is no simulation technology for analyzing forming defects, making numerical sheet metal forming process simulations that incorporate the fluid dynamics of air. This study presents a sheet metal forming simulation of automotive outer panels (a roof and a body side outer) that simultaneously simulates the behavior of air in a die cavity. Through CAE results, the effect of air behavior and vent holes to blank deformation was analyzed. For this study, the commercial software PAM-STAMP{trade mark, serif} and PAM-SAFE{trade mark, serif} was used.

  1. Polymers for Combating Biocorrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo


    Full Text Available Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing of great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anticorrosion and antimicrobial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to prevent biocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbial corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: (i traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, (ii antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and (iii conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting antibacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization, and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  2. Year-long simulation of gaseous and particulate air pollutants in India (United States)

    Kota, Sri Harsha; Guo, Hao; Myllyvirta, Lauri; Hu, Jianlin; Sahu, Shovan Kumar; Garaga, Rajyalakshmi; Ying, Qi; Gao, Aifang; Dahiya, Sunil; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Hongliang


    Severe pollution events occur frequently in India but few studies have investigated the characteristics, sources, and control strategies for the whole country. A year-long simulation was carried out in India to provide detailed information of spatial and temporal distribution of gas species and particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of O3, NO2, SO2, CO, as well as PM2.5 and its components in 2015 were predicted using Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Model performance was validated against available observations from ground based national ambient air quality monitoring stations in major cities. Model performance of O3 does not always meet the criteria suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) but that of PM2.5 meets suggested criteria by previous studies. The performance of model was better on days with high O3 and PM2.5 levels. Concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, CO and SO2 were highest in the Indo-Gangetic region, including northern and eastern India. PM2.5 concentrations were higher during winter and lower during monsoon season. Winter nitrate concentrations were 160-230% higher than yearly average. In contrast, the fraction of sulfate in total PM2.5 was maximum in monsoon and least in winter, due to decrease in temperature and solar radiation intensity in winter. Except in southern India, where sulfate was the major component of PM2.5, primary organic aerosol (POA) fraction in PM2.5 was highest in all regions of the country. Fractions of secondary components were higher on bad days than on good days in these cities, indicating the importance of control of precursors for secondary pollutants in India.

  3. Investigation of the quality of stored red blood cells after simulated air drop in the maritime environment. (United States)

    Meli, Athinoula; Hancock, Vicky; Doughty, Heidi; Smedley, Steve; Cardigan, Rebecca; Wiltshire, Michael


    Maritime medical capability may be compromised by blood resupply. Air-dropped red blood cells (RBCs) is a possible mitigation factor. This study set out to evaluate RBC storage variables after a simulated parachute air drop into the sea, as limited data exist. The air load construction for the air drop of blood was subject to static drop assessment to simulate a worst-case parachute drop scenario. One control and two test Golden Hour shipping containers were each packaged with 10 RBC units. The control box was not dropped; Test Boxes 1 and 2 were further reinforced with waterproof boxes and underwent a simulated air drop on Day 7 or Day 8 postdonation, respectively. One day after the drop and once a week thereafter until Day 43 of storage, RBCs from each box were sampled and tested for full blood counts, hemolysis, adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, pH, extracellular potassium, glucose, lactate, deformability, and RBC microvesicles. The packaging configuration completed the air drop with no water ingress or physical damage. All units met UK specifications for volume, hemoglobin, and hemolysis. There were no significant differences for any of the variables studied between RBCs in the control box compared to RBCs in Test Boxes 1 and 2 combined over storage. The test proved that the packaging solution and the impact of a maritime air drop as performed in this study, on Day 7 or Day 8 postdonation, did not affect the in vitro quality of RBCs in SAGM over storage for 35 days. © 2017 AABB.

  4. Simulating Air-Entrapment in Low Permeability Mudrocks using a Macroscopic Invasion Percolation Model (United States)

    Singh, A.; Holt, R. M.; Ramarao, B.; Clemo, T.


    invadable blocks, selects the block connected to the growing cluster with the lowest invasion pressure, and invades it. Our new MIP model incorporates several new features, including an efficient three-dimensional clustering algorithm; simultaneous invasion/reinvasion of water and air phases; hysteresis in water and air drainage curves; capability for distributed porosities and drainage parameters; and gas-phase compression and trapping. We apply this model in simulations representing the WCS site and illustrate the origin of the trapped and compressed gas phase in Dockum mudrocks.

  5. CFD simulations of compressed air two stage rotary Wankel expander – Parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Ghada A.; Tozer, Gavin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad


    Highlights: • CFD ANSYS-Fluent 3D simulation of Wankel expander is developed. • Single and two-stage expander’s performance is compared. • Inlet and outlet ports shape and configurations are investigated. • Isentropic efficiency of two stage Wankel expander of 91% is achieved. - Abstract: A small scale volumetric Wankel expander is a powerful device for small-scale power generation in compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems and Organic Rankine cycles powered by different heat sources such as, biomass, low temperature geothermal, solar and waste heat leading to significant reduction in CO_2 emissions. Wankel expanders outperform other types of expander due to their ability to produce two power pulses per revolution per chamber additional to higher compactness, lower noise and vibration and lower cost. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using ANSYS 16.2 to simulate the flow dynamics for a single and two stage Wankel expanders and to investigate the effect of port configurations, including size and spacing, on the expander’s power output and isentropic efficiency. Also, single-stage and two-stage expanders were analysed with different operating conditions. Single-stage 3D CFD results were compared to published work showing close agreement. The CFD modelling was used to investigate the performance of the rotary device using air as an ideal gas with various port diameters ranging from 15 mm to 50 mm; port spacing varying from 28 mm to 66 mm; different Wankel expander sizes (r = 48, e = 6.6, b = 32) mm and (r = 58, e = 8, b = 40) mm both as single-stage and as two-stage expanders with different configurations and various operating conditions. Results showed that the best Wankel expander design for a single-stage was (r = 48, e = 6.6, b = 32) mm, with the port diameters 20 mm and port spacing equal to 50 mm. Moreover, combining two Wankel expanders horizontally, with a larger one at front, produced 8.52 kW compared

  6. Numerical Simulation of Inter-Flat Air Cross-Contamination under the Condition of Single-Sided Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Niu, Jianlei; Perino, Marco


    ventilated room, the renormalization group based k-ε model, together with carbon dioxide used as a tracer, is chosen to reveal this air cross-contamination. The simulation results are in agreement with our prior on-site tracer-gas measurements, revealing that the windows flush with a flat fa ade can...... be a major route of the air cross-contamination in high-rise residential buildings. Finally, an assessment index is proposed to evaluate the potential infection risks associated with this inter-flat air flow occurring in high-rise residential buildings....... the two sides, each of which has a flat fa ade with openable windows. When the wind speed is extremely low, with doors closed and windows opened, the flats become single-sided naturally ventilated driven by buoyancy effects. The air pollutants can travel from a lower flat to a vertically adjacent upper...

  7. Particle-in-cell simulations of multi-MeV pulsed X-ray induced air plasmas at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribière, M.; D'Almeida, T.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Maulois, M.; Delbos, C.; Garrigues, A.; Cessenat, O.; Azaïs, B.


    A full kinetic modelling of the charge particles dynamics generated upon the irradiation of an air-filled cavity by a multi-MeV pulsed x-ray is performed. From the calculated radiative source generated by the ASTERIX generator, we calculated the electromagnetic fields generated by x-ray induced air plasmas in a metallic cavity at different pressures. Simulations are carried out based on a Particle-In-Cell interpolation method which uses 3D Maxwell-Vlasov calculations of the constitutive charged species densities of air plasmas at different pressures at equilibrium. The resulting electromagnetic fields within the cavity are calculated for different electron densities up to 4 × 10"1"0" cm"−"3. For each air pressure, we show electronic plasma waves formation followed by Landau damping. As electron density increases, the calculations exhibit space-charged neutralization and return current formation.

  8. A simulation study on the operating performance of a solar-air source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoying; Zhang Xiaosong; Deng Shiming


    A simulation study on the operating performance of a new type of solar-air source heat pump water heater (SAS-HPWH) has been presented. The SAS-HPWH used a specially designed flat-plate heat collector/evaporator with spiral-finned tubes to obtain energy from both solar irradiation and ambient air for hot water heating. Using the meteorological data in Nanjing, China, the simulation results based on 150 L water heating capacity showed that such a SAS-HPWH can heat water up to 55 deg. C efficiently under various weather conditions all year around. In this simulation study, the influences of solar radiation, ambient temperature and compressor capacity on the performance of the SAS-HPWH were analyzed. In order to improve the overall operating performance, the use of a variable-capacity compressor has been proposed

  9. Tip-to-tail numerical simulation of a hypersonic air-breathing engine with ethylene fuel (United States)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis


    End to end CFD simulations of external and internal flow paths of an ethylene fueled hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with including forebody, horizontal fins, vertical fins, intake, combustor, single expansion ramp nozzle are carried out. The performance of the scramjet combustor and vehicle net thrust-drag is calculated for hypersonic cruise condition. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with SST-k-ω turbulence model using the commercial CFD software CFX-14. Single step chemical reaction based on fast chemistry assumption is used for combustion of gaseous ethylene fuel. Simulations captured complex shock structures including the shocks generated from the vehicle nose and compression ramps, impingement of cowl-shock on vehicle undersurface and its reflection in the intake and combustor etc. Various thermochemical parameters are analyzed and performance parameters are evaluated for nonreacting and reacting cases. Very good mixing ( 98%) of fuel with incoming air stream is observed. Positive thrust-drag margins are obtained for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.6 and computed combustion efficiency is observed to be 94 %. Effect of equivalence ratio on the vehicle performance is studied parametrically. Though the combustion efficiency has come down by 8% for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8, net vehicle thrust is increased by 44%. Heat flux distribution on the various walls of the whole vehicle including combustor is estimated for the isothermal wall condition of 1000 K in reacting flow. Higher local heat flux values are observed at all the leading edges of the vehicle (i.e., nose, wing, fin and cowl leading edges) and strut regions of the combustor.

  10. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey


    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  11. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer 3: Final Prototype Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Michael


    ...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...

  12. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per


    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7...

  13. Preliminary three-dimensional potential flow simulation of a five-liter flask air injection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.E.


    The preliminary results of an unsteady three-dimensional potential flow analysis of a five-liter flask air injection experiment (small-scale model simulation of a nuclear reactor steam condensation system) are presented. The location and velocity of the free water surface in the flask as a function of time are determined during pipe venting and bubble expansion processes. The analyses were performed using an extended version of the NASA-Ames Three-Dimensional Potential Flow Analysis System (POTFAN), which uses the vortex lattice singularity method of potential flow analysis. The pressure boundary condition at the free water surface and the boundary condition along the free jet boundary near the pipe exit were ignored for the purposes of the present study. The results of the analysis indicate that large time steps can be taken without significantly reducing the accuracy of the solutions and that the assumption of inviscid flow should not have an appreciable effect on the geometry and velocity of the free water surface. In addition, the computation time required for the solutions was well within acceptable limits

  14. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  15. Modeling and simulation of a solar powered two bed adsorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sumathy, K.


    A simple lumped parameter model is established to investigate the performance of a solar powered adsorption air conditioning system driven by flat-type solar collectors with three different configurations of glazes: (i) single glazed cover; (ii) double glazed cover and (iii) transparent insulation material (TIM) cover. The dynamic performance of a continuous adsorption cycle using a double adsorber along with heat recovery is measured in terms of the temperature histories, gross solar coefficient of performance and specific cooling power. Also, the influences of some important design and operational parameters on the performance of the system are studied. It is found that the chosen three types of collector configurations make no big difference on the performance, but the adsorbent mass and lumped capacitance have significant effects on the system performance as well as on the system size. Simulation results indicate that the effect of overall heat transfer coefficient is not predominant if the cycle duration is longer. Also, there exists an optimum time to initiate the heating of the adsorbent bed in a day's operation

  16. Simulation of Electron and Ion Transport in Methane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames (United States)

    Choi, Sangkyu; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Chung, Suk Ho


    The spatial distribution of charged species in a methane-air counterflow diffusion flame is simulated with a detailed ion chemistry. The electric field induced by the distribution of charged species is calculated and compared to that obtained invoking the ambipolar diffusion assumption. The two calculations showed identical profiles for charged species and electric field. The profiles of ion mole fractions show two peaks: one near the maximum temperature and a second peak on the oxidizer side. The major ions near the maximum temperature are electron, C2H3O+ and H3O+. CHO3- and H3O+ contribute to the second peak. These profiles are quite different from those adopting a simplified three-step mechanism based solely on E-, CHO+ and H3O+, which shows only a single peak. Reaction pathway analyses showed that near the flame region, the proton is transferred by the path of CHO+ -> H3O+ -> C2H3O+ -> CHO+ in a circulating manner. In the second peak, CHO3- is produced though the pathway of E- -> O- -> OH- -> CHO3-. The sensitivity of the charged species profiles to transport properties is investigated, and it is found that the variation of charged species profiles near peak temperature is relatively small, while on the oxidizer side, it is quite sensitive to transport properties.

  17. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay


    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  18. Simulation of large scale air detritiation operations by computer modeling and bench-scale experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Mintz, J.M.


    Although some experience has been gained in the design and construction of 0.5 to 5 m 3 /s air-detritiation systems, little information is available on the performance of these systems under realistic conditions. Recently completed studies at ANL have attempted to provide some perspective on this subject. A time-dependent computer model was developed to study the effects of various reaction and soaking mechanisms that could occur in a typically-sized fusion reactor building (approximately 10 5 m 3 ) following a range of tritium releases (2 to 200 g). In parallel with the computer study, a small (approximately 50 liter) test chamber was set up to investigate cleanup characteristics under conditions which could also be simulated with the computer code. Whereas results of computer analyses indicated that only approximately 10 -3 percent of the tritium released to an ambient enclosure should be converted to tritiated water, the bench-scale experiments gave evidence of conversions to water greater than 1%. Furthermore, although the amounts (both calculated and observed) of soaked-in tritium are usually only a very small fraction of the total tritium release, the soaked tritium is significant, in that its continuous return to the enclosure extends the cleanup time beyond the predicted value in the absence of any soaking mechanisms

  19. Numerical Simulation to Air Pollution Emission Control near an Industrial Zone


    Oyjinda, Pravitra; Pochai, Nopparat


    A rapid industrial development causes several environment pollution problems. One of the main problems is air pollution, which affects human health and the environment. The consideration of an air pollutant has to focus on a polluted source. An industrial factory is an important reason that releases the air pollutant into the atmosphere. Thus a mathematical model, an atmospheric diffusion model, is used to estimate air quality that can be used to describe the sulfur dioxide dispersion. In thi...

  20. Design and Simulation of an Air Conditioning Project in a Hospital Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics


    Ding X. R.; Guo Y. Y.; Chen Y. Y.


    This study aims to design a novel air cleaning facility which conforms to the current situation in China, and moreover can satisfy our demand on air purification under the condition of poor air quality, as well as discuss the development means of a prototype product. Air conditions in the operating room of a hospital were measured as the research subject of this study. First, a suitable turbulence model and boundary conditions were selected and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was ...

  1. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat (United States)


    Graham, Jim McGrew, Dr. Lawrence A. M. Bush , Capt Asa Judd, and Capt Brett Cullen. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or implied in the...the leveraging of aircraft to produce military effects. Maj Houston Cantwell, “Be- yond Butterflies : Predator and the Evolution of Unmanned /pdf/issues/2013/ASPJ-Jul-Aug-2013.pdf. 66. Ibid., 22, 23. 67. Ibid., 29. 68. Cantwell, “Beyond Butterflies ,” 115. 69. Ibid., 86

  2. The sound of oscillating air jets: Physics, modeling and simulation in flute-like instruments (United States)

    de La Cuadra, Patricio

    Flute-like instruments share a common mechanism that consists of blowing across one open end of a resonator to produce an air jet that is directed towards a sharp edge. Analysis of its operation involves various research fields including fluid dynamics, aero-acoustics, and physics. An effort has been made in this study to extend this description from instruments with fixed geometry like recorders and organ pipes to flutes played by the lips. An analysis of the jet's response to a periodic excitation is the focus of this study, as are the parameters under the player's control in forming the jet. The jet is excited with a controlled excitation consisting of two loudspeakers in opposite phase. A Schlieren system is used to visualize the jet, and image detection algorithms are developed to extract quantitative information from the images. In order to study the behavior of jets observed in different flute-like instruments, several geometries of the excitation and jet shapes are studied. The obtained data is used to propose analytical models that correctly fit the observed measurements and can be used for simulations. The control exerted by the performer on the instrument is of crucial importance in the quality of the sound produced for a number of flute-like instruments. The case of the transverse flute is experimentally studied. An ensemble of control parameters are measured and visualized in order to describe some aspects of the subtle control attained by an experienced flautist. Contrasting data from a novice flautist are compared. As a result, typical values for several non-dimensional parameters that characterize the normal operation of the instrument have been measured, and data to feed simulations has been collected. The information obtained through experimentation is combined with research developed over the last decades to put together a time-domain simulation. The model proposed is one-dimensional and driven by a single physical input. All the variables in the

  3. Prediction of cold start hydrocarbon emissions of air cooled two wheeler spark ignition engines by simple fuzzy logic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Raja Ayyanan


    Full Text Available The cold start hydrocarbon emission from the increasing population of two wheelers in countries like India is one of the research issues to be addressed. This work describes the prediction of cold start hydrocarbon emissions from air cooled spark ignition engines through fuzzy logic technique. Hydrocarbon emissions were experimentally measured from test engines of different cubic capacity, at different lubricating oil temperature and at different idling speeds with and without secondary air supply in exhaust. The experimental data were used as input for modeling average hydrocarbon emissions for 180 seconds counted from cold start and warm start of gasoline bike engines. In fuzzy logic simulation, member functions were assigned for input variables (cubic capacity and idling rpm and output variables (average hydrocarbon emission for first 180 seconds at cold start and warm start. The knowledge based rules were adopted from the analyzed experimental data and separate simulations were carried out for predicting hydrocarbon emissions from engines equipped with and without secondary air supply. The simulation yielded the average hydrocarbon emissions of air cooled gasoline engine for a set of given input data with accuracy over 90%.

  4. Evaluation of Cathode Air Flow Transients in a SOFC/GT Hybrid System Using Hardware in the Loop Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Yang, Chen; Tucker, David


    Thermal management in the fuel cell component of a direct fired solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid power system can be improved by effective management and control of the cathode airflow. The disturbances of the cathode airflow were accomplished by diverting air around the fuel cell system through the manipulation of a hot-air bypass valve in open loop experiments, using a hardware-based simulation facility designed and built by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The dynamic responses of the fuel cell component and hardware component of the hybrid system were studied in this paper.

  5. [Effect of air-electric fields on driving and reaction patterns. Test subjects in the car driving simulator (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W


    In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.

  6. Simulation analysis on dynamic performance of a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Weishi; Yu, Jianlin


    Highlights: • A modified direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater is investigated. • An additional air source evaporator is used in parallel way in the M-DX-SHPWH system. • The M-DX-SHPWH system displays a higher performance at the low solar radiation. • Effects of solar radiation and air temperature on the performance are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigated a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater system for domestic water heating application. In the dual source system, an additional air source evaporator is introduced in parallel way based on a conventional direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heaters (DX-SHPWH) system, which can improve the performance of the DX-SHPWH system at a low solar radiation. In the present study, a dynamic mathematical model based on zoned lump parameter approach is developed to simulate the performance of the system (i.e. a modified DX-SHPWH (M-DX-SHPWH) system). Using the model, the performance of M-DX-SHPWH system is evaluated and then compared with that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. The simulation results show the M-DX-SHPWH system has a better performance than that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. At a low solar radiation of 100 W/m"2, the heating time of the M-DX-SHPWH decreases by 19.8% compared to the DX-SHPWH when water temperature reaches 55 °C. Meanwhile, the COP on average increases by 14.1%. In addition, the refrigerant mass flow rate distribution in the air source evaporator and the solar collector of the system, the allocation between the air source evaporator and the solar collector areas and effects of solar radiation and ambient air temperature on the system performance are discussed.

  7. Simulation of a hot air engine for a generation of electricity using biogas for Tanzania rural application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkiramweni, L.L.N.; Msaki, P.; Mshoro, I.B.


    At the moment, about 80% of the rural population in Tanzania lacks grid electricity. As a result, up to 90% of energy requirements in rural areas are met by firewood and hence causing deforestation. In the present paper, the authors are advocating the application of biogas to generate electricity in rural areas to minimise deforestation. Preliminary study conducted has shown that the power required in rural areas is about 10kW for household and small economic activities. As such, the authors have investigated the possibility of applying a hot air engine using biogas as a source of energy to generate electricity. The study involved simulation of hot air engine using a Stirling Numerical Analysis Program (SNAP) with use modifiable code. In the exercise, the performance of the simulated engine was assessed with helium, hydrogen and air as working media. Reheat loss and pressure losses were also assessed for varies range of engine power and efficiency. It has been observed that with helium and hydrogen as working gas, the power output could easily reach 10kW, which is sufficient for rural household application. However, with air the engine could realise only 4kW under similar conditions. It has further been observed that air has bigger and more viscous molecular with lower thermal conductivity and heat capacity, which results in higher losses. This implies that a relatively bigger engine need be employed for running with air. However, high initial cost will be offset by the reduction in operating cost, since air is freely available. For proper operation of the engine heater temperature should be maintained above 630(deg)C, which is realizable with biogas having a flame temperature of about 870(deg)C. (author)

  8. A novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater system: Dynamic simulation and performance characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jingyong; Ji, Jie; Wang, Yunyun; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Bendong


    Highlights: • The PV/T evaporator and air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously. • A dynamic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the system. • The thermal and electrical characteristics of the PV/T evaporator are evaluated. • The contribution of the air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator has been discussed. - Abstract: To enable the heat pump water heater maintain efficient operation under diverse circumstances, a novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater (PV/T-AHPWH) has been proposed in this study. In the PV/T-AHPWH system, a PV/T evaporator and an air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously to recover energy from both solar energy and environment. A dynamic model is presented to simulate the behavior of the PV/T-AHPWH system. On this basis, the influences of solar irradiation, ambient temperature and packing factor have been discussed, and the contributions of air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator are evaluated. The results reveal that the system can obtain efficient operation with the average COP above 2.0 under the ambient temperature of 10 °C and solar irradiation of 100 W/m 2 . The PV/T evaporator can compensate for the performance degradation of the air source evaporator caused by the increasing condensing temperature. As the evaporating capacity in PV/T evaporator remains at relatively low level under low irradiation, the air source evaporator can play the main role of recovering heat. Comparing the performance of dual source heat pump system employing PV/T collector with that utilizing normal solar thermal collector, the system utilizing PV/T evaporator is more efficient in energy saving and performance improvement.

  9. Simulation of Air Entrapment and Resin Curing During Manufacturing of Composite Cab Front by Resin Transfer Moulding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Raghu Raja Pandiyan


    Full Text Available Mould filling and subsequent curing are the significant processing stages involved in the production of a composite component through Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM fabrication technique. Dry spot formation and air entrapment during filling stage caused by improper design of filling conditions and locations that lead to undesired filling patterns resulting in defective RTM parts. Proper placement of inlet ports and exit vents as well as by adjustment of filling conditions can alleviate the problems during the mould filling stage. The temperature profile used to polymerize the resin must be carefully chosen to reduce the cure time. Instead of trial and error methods that are expensive, time consuming, and non-optimal, we propose a simulation-based optimization strategy for a composite cab front component to reduce the air entrapment and cure stage optimization. In order to be effective, the optimization strategy requires an accurate simulation of the process utilizing submodels to describe the raw material characteristics. Cure reaction kinetics and chemo-rheology were the submodels developed empirically for an unsaturated polyester resin using experimental data. The simulations were performed using commercial software PAM RTM 2008, developed by ESI Technologies. Simulation results show that the use of increase in injection pressure at the inlet filling conditions greatly reduce the air entrapped. For the cab front, the alteration of injection pressure with proper timing of vent opening reduced the air entrapped during mould filling stage. Similarly, the curing simulation results show that the use of higher mould temperatures effectively decreases the cure time as expected.

  10. Determining If the United States Military is Ready to Eliminate Its Pilots: Use of Combat Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fingal, Tod


    .... Increased costs associated with operating a viable Air Force combined with a growing aversion to human, combat losses have prompted military leaders to look for alternate means of conducting warfare...

  11. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System (United States)


    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  12. Surface combatant readiness to confront a sea control navy


    Wissel, Nicholas E.


    This thesis proposes to correct the shortfalls in the US Surface Combatants ability to counter a Sea-Control Navy. The concept counters this threat using unmanned aerial systems, decoys, and a layered defense. We analyze the performance with a Filtering Model of Salvo Warfare that is an extension of the Hughes Salvo Equations. The model incorporates the diluting effect of decoys upon enemy salvos and accounts for the historical reality of leakers. We conclude that in the absence of air suppor...

  13. Evaluation of air-soil temperature relationships simulated by land surface models during winter across the permafrost region (United States)

    Wang, Wenli; Rinke, Annette; Moore, John C.; Ji, Duoying; Cui, Xuefeng; Peng, Shushi; Lawrence, David M.; McGuire, A. David; Burke, Eleanor J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Koven, Charles; MacDougall, Andrew; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Miller, Paul A.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo


     A realistic simulation of snow cover and its thermal properties are important for accurate modelling of permafrost. We analyze simulated relationships between air and near-surface (20 cm) soil temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region during winter, with a particular focus on snow insulation effects in nine land surface models and compare them with observations from 268 Russian stations. There are large across-model differences as expressed by simulated differences between near-surface soil and air temperatures, (ΔT), of 3 to 14 K, in the gradients between soil and air temperatures (0.13 to 0.96°C/°C), and in the relationship between ΔT and snow depth. The observed relationship between ΔT and snow depth can be used as a metric to evaluate the effects of each model's representation of snow insulation, and hence guide improvements to the model’s conceptual structure and process parameterizations. Models with better performance apply multi-layer snow schemes and consider complex snow processes. Some models show poor performance in representing snow insulation due to underestimation of snow depth and/or overestimation of snow conductivity. Generally, models identified as most acceptable with respect to snow insulation simulate reasonable areas of near-surface permafrost (12–16 million km2). However, there is not a simple relationship between the quality of the snow insulation in the acceptable models and the simulated area of Northern Hemisphere near-surface permafrost, likely because several other factors such as differences in the treatment of soil organic matter, soil hydrology, surface energy calculations, and vegetation also provide important controls on simulated permafrost distribution.

  14. Battlemind Training: Transitioning Home from Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W; Milliken, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Adler, Amy B; Cox, Anthony; Bliese, Paul D


    .... Destruction, injury, and death were ever present in the combat zone. Transitioning from combat to home can be difficult, and many Soldiers encounter readjustment problems ranging from elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  15. Analysis of Auto ignition of Hydrogen-Air Mixture using Direct Numerical Simulation; Analisis de la Autoignicion de Mezclas Hidrogeno-Aire mediante Simulacion Numerica directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Vera, I.; Paola, G. de; Jimenez Sanchez, C.


    This document reproduces the final project of Ignacio Hernandez Vera, presented on September 25, 2008, for the obtention of the engineer degree of the Carlos III University of Madrid. A study on the auto ignition process of different hydrogen-air mixtures for different simple geometries is carried out by means of direct numerical simulation. Auto ignition time is compared for different configurations and it is discussed the influence that different parameters have on it, such as temperature or transport phenomena. Afterwards a new reduced chemical mechanism for the simulation of this phenomenon is tested and assessed. Finally the mixing and ignition process is tackled using different mixture fractions and its implications on the construction of combustion models briefly discussed. (Author) 15 refs.

  16. Simulation studies of an air Cherenkov telescope, IceACT, for future IceCube surface extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Bengt; Auffenberg, Jan; Bekman, Ilja; Kemp, Julian; Roegen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration


    IceACT is a compact air Cherenkov telescope using silicon photomultipliers. The Fresnel lens based design has been adopted from the fluorescence telescope FAMOUS. The goal of IceACT is the efficient detection of cosmic ray induced air showers above the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. This allows to distinguish cosmic ray induced muons and neutrinos in the southern sky from astrophysical neutrinos in the deep ice detector. This leads to an increase in low-background astrophysical neutrinos of several dozen events per year for a detection threshold of several 100 TeV cosmic ray primary energy. To determine the actual telescope performance, dedicated CORSIKA air shower simulations incorporating the full Cherenkov light information are performed.

  17. Optimum selection of solar collectors for a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system by experimental and simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Ma Xiaoli; Omer, S.A.; Riffat, S.B.


    Highlights: ► Three solar collectors have been compared to drive ejector air conditioning system. ► A simulation program was constructed to study the effect parameters. ► The outdoor test were conducted to validate the solar collector modeling. ► Simulation program was found to predict solar collector performance accurately. ► The optimal design of solar collector system was carried out. - Abstract: In this paper, three different solar collectors are selected to drive the solar ejector air conditioning system for Mediterranean climate. The performance of the three selected solar collector are evaluated by computer simulation and lab test. Computer model is incorporated with a set of heat balance equations being able to analyze heat transfer process occurring in separate regions of the collector. It is found simulation and test has a good agreement. By the analysis of the computer simulation and test result, the solar ejector cooling system using the evacuated tube collector with selective surface and high performance heat pipe can be most economical when operated at the optimum generating temperature of the ejector cooling machine.

  18. Simulated and experimental performance of split packaged air conditioner using refrigerant HC-290 as a substitute for HCFC-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalkar, Atul S.; Mali, Kundlik V.; Devotta, Sukumar


    This paper discusses the use of propane (HC-290) as a safe and energy efficient alternative to HCFC-22 in a typical split air conditioner with nominal cooling capacities up to 5.1 kW. Initially split air conditioner performance is simulated for cooling capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and refrigerant charge. Tests were conducted for different test cases in a psychrometric test chamber with HCFC-22 and HC-290. The test conditions considered are as per Indian Standards, IS 1391 (1992) Part I. The various parameters considered were based on simulated performance with the objective to achieve maximum EER for the desired cooling capacity. As the flammability is an issue for HC-290, the reduction of HC-290 charge was another objective. Two different types of condensers, first with smaller size tubing and another parallel flow condenser (PFC) or minichannel condenser were used in order to reduce HC-290 charge. For HC-290, the highest EER achieved was 3.7 for cooling capacity 4.90 kW for a refrigerant charge of 360 g. The important safety aspects of using HC-290 in air conditioner are discussed. The refrigerant charge as per EN 378 for different cooling capacities and room sizes is also considered. -- Highlights: • Simulation for performance of split air conditioner has been done using HC-290 as a replacement to HCFC-22. • The safety aspects of HC-290 are discussed when used in split air conditioner. • HC-290 was tested in psychrometric test chamber as per IS 1391 part 1. • With PFC, HC-290 gave highest EER of 3.7 which was 37% higher than that of HCFC-22. • The lowest HC-290 charge used in test was 340 g which is well below LFL

  19. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.


    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  20. Downscaling a Global Climate Model to Simulate Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional and Urban Air Quality (United States)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Russell, A. G.


    Climate change can exacerbate future regional air pollution events by making conditions more favorable to form high levels of ozone. In this study, we use spectral nudging with WRF to downscale NASA earth system GISS modelE2 results during the years 2006 to 2010 and 2048 to 2052 over the continental United States in order to compare the resulting meteorological fields from the air quality perspective during the four seasons of five-year historic and future climatological periods. GISS results are used as initial and boundary conditions by the WRF RCM to produce hourly meteorological fields. The downscaling technique and choice of physics parameterizations used are evaluated by comparing them with in situ observations. This study investigates changes of similar regional climate conditions down to a 12km by 12km resolution, as well as the effect of evolving climate conditions on the air quality at major U.S. cities. The high resolution simulations produce somewhat different results than the coarse resolution simulations in some regions. Also, through the analysis of the meteorological variables that most strongly influence air quality, we find consistent changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels in four regions of the U.S. during fall (Western U.S., Texas, Northeastern, and Southeastern U.S), one region during summer (Texas), and one region where changes potentially would lead to better air quality during spring (Northeast). We also find that daily peak temperatures tend to increase in most major cities in the U.S. which would increase the risk of health problems associated with heat stress. Future work will address a more comprehensive assessment of emissions and chemistry involved in the formation and removal of air pollutants.

  1. Simulation and performance enhancement of the air cooling system in a DC/AC power converter station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozowy, R.; El-Shaboury, A.; Soliman, H.; Ormiston, S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


    This study analyzed the flow structure and heat transfer in a large 3-dimensional domain with turbulence, mixed convection, an impinging jet, and flow over heated blocks. The objective was to better understand turbulent mixed-convection cooling of heat-generating bodies in 3-dimensional enclosures, which is important to industry. The cooling of 2 thyristor valve halls was simulated. Each valve hall housed 3 towers that contained electronics used in DC/AC power conversion. The simulation results included the magnitudes of the net air flows for all the inter-block gaps and the maximum temperature in each gap. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the effects of the air inlet location, size and aspect ratio. The effects of the air injection angle on cooling effectiveness was also examined. The study showed that for fixed inlet mass flow rate, significant improvement in the cooling effectiveness can be obtained by changing the injection angle of the inlet air jet, the location of the inlet grill, or the size of the inlet grill. It was concluded that these study results may be relevant to other applications, such as the design of power transformers, the design of cooling systems for spent nuclear fuel and computer server cooling racks. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  2. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei


    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefil-ter; and a two-stage sorptionbased air filter...... (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h...... flights with 17 occupants. Protontransfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was effi-ciently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units...

  3. Application of computational fluid dynamics and pedestrian-behavior simulations to the design of task-ambient air-conditioning systems of a subway station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyo, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Innovation and Technology Management, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)


    The effects of task-ambient (TA) air-conditioning systems on the air-conditioning loads in a subway station and the thermal comfort of passengers were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and pedestrian-behavior simulations. The pedestrian-behavior model was applied to a standard subway station. Task areas were set up to match with crowdedness as predicted by the pedestrian-behavior simulations. Subsequently, a variety of TA air-conditioning systems were designed to selectively control the microclimate of the task areas. Their effects on the thermal environment in the station in winter were predicted by CFD. The results were compared with those of a conventional air-conditioning system and evaluated in relation to the thermal comfort of subway users and the air-conditioning loads. The comparison showed that TA air-conditioning systems improved thermal comfort and decreased air-conditioning loads. (author)

  4. Simulation and parameter analysis of a two-stage desiccant cooing/heating system driven by solar air collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Dai, Y.J.; Köhler, M.; Wang, R.Z.


    Highlights: ► A solar desiccant cooling/heating system is simulation studied. ► The mean deviation is about 10.5% for temperature and 9.6% for humidity ratio. ► The 51.7% of humidity load and 76% of the total cooling can be handled. ► About 49.0% of heating load can be handled by solar energy. ► An optimization of solar air collector has been investigated. - Abstract: To increase the fraction of solar energy might be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building, a solar desiccant cooling and heating system was modeled in Simulink. First, base case performance models were programmed according to the configuration of the installed solar desiccant system and verified by the experimental data. Then, the year-round performance about the system was simulated. Last, design parameters of solar air collectors were optimized that include collector area, air leakage and thermal insulation. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good agreement. During the simulation, the humidity load for 63 days (51.7%) can be totally handled by the two-stage desiccant cooling unit. For seasonal total heating load, about 49.0% can be handled by solar energy. Based on optimized results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage

  5. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review. (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim


    The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated

  6. Real-time monitoring of emissions with traffic data, simulation and air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Wilmink, I.R.


    This paper investigates the possibility to decide when to apply a (dynamic) traffic management measure to improve the air quality or reduce CO2 emissions, based on a limited set of (measured) data. It is expected that a combination of monitoring and modeling is needed for reliable air quality

  7. Forcing of a photochemical air quality model with atmospheric fields simulated by a regional climate model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M


    Full Text Available to the enhanced greenhouse effect (e.g. Engelbrecht et al, 2009). Such changes are likely to influence the future transport and chemistry of air pollutants over the region. The complexity in which climate change may affect regional air quality is evident...

  8. Towards a performance assessment methodology using computational simulation for air distribution system designs in operating rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, M.D.A.


    One of the important performance requirements for an air distribution system for an operating room (OR) is to provide good indoor environmental conditions in which to perform operations. Important conditions in this respect relate to the air quality and to the thermal conditions for the surgical

  9. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.


    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  10. Combating corruption in global health. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn


    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Enhancing Brigade Combat Team Adaptability (United States)


    Developing Learning Infrastructures (Training, Education , Practice, Research, Doctrine) -Create a shared vision -Build the business case (assess/Buy...To effectively respond to the characteristics of the operational environment, Brigade Combat Teams must be able to learn constantly from experience...behavior. Organizational adaptive behavior consists of three supporting emergent behaviors which are: self-organization, learning , and organizational

  12. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin


    alternative routes. On the other hand, European border control and its ‘combat against smugglers’ has emerged as a massively lucrative market for the European arms industry, both in terms of contracts to guard the EU’s external borders and in terms of the export of weapons and control systems to North African...

  13. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes. (United States)

    Voight, Mike


    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  14. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  15. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  16. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.


    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  17. Simulating air temperature in an urban street canyon in all weather conditions using measured data at a reference meteorological station (United States)

    Erell, E.; Williamson, T.


    A model is proposed that adapts data from a standard meteorological station to provide realistic site-specific air temperature in a city street exposed to the same meso-scale environment. In addition to a rudimentary description of the two sites, the canyon air temperature (CAT) model requires only inputs measured at standard weather stations; yet it is capable of accurately predicting the evolution of air temperature in all weather conditions for extended periods. It simulates the effect of urban geometry on radiant exchange; the effect of moisture availability on latent heat flux; energy stored in the ground and in building surfaces; air flow in the street based on wind above roof height; and the sensible heat flux from individual surfaces and from the street canyon as a whole. The CAT model has been tested on field data measured in a monitoring program carried out in Adelaide, Australia, in 2000-2001. After calibrating the model, predicted air temperature correlated well with measured data in all weather conditions over extended periods. The experimental validation provides additional evidence in support of a number of parameterisation schemes incorporated in the model to account for sensible heat and storage flux.

  18. Measurement and simulation of the in-flight radiation exposure on different air routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.


    The exposure of air-crew personnel to cosmic radiation is considered to be occupational exposure and requirements for dose assessment are given in the European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. The High-Temperature Ratio (HTR) Method for LiF: Mg, Ti TLDs utilizes the well-investigated relative intensity of the combined high-temperature glow peaks 6 and 7 compared with the dominant peak 5 (left-hand side of Figure 1) as an indication of the dose-average LET of a mixed radiation field of unknown composition. The difference in the peak-5 readings of the neutron-sensitive TLD-600 ( 6 LiF: Mg, Ti) and the neutron-insensitive TLD-700 ( 7 LiF: Mg, Ti) can be utilized to assess the neutron dose equivalent accumulated in-flight. For this purpose, the dosemeter crystals were calibrated individually in the CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) [8] which simulates the cosmic-ray induced neutron spectrum in good detail. The experiments conducted onboard passenger aircraft on different north-bound and trans-equatorial flight routes were aimed at the following: to measure the total dose equivalent accumulated during the flight, to assess the contribution of neutrons, and to compare the results with calculations by means of the well-known CARI computer code. Measurements were performed on a series of eight north-bound flights between Cologne and Washington as well as on the routes Vienna-Atlanta, Vienna-Sydney and Vienna-Tokyo during different solar activity conditions. Precise altitude and route profiles were recorded by the pilots. The experimental results were compared with model calculations using the latest release 6M of the CARI code. Precise altitude and route data on a ten-minute to one-hour scale were taken as input. The calculated dose values indicate that the algorithms employed for the computational assessment of route doses have been significantly improved during the last decade. The CARI results generally tend to be in reasonable agreement with the measured

  19. Contribution of static and dynamic load balancing in a real-time distributed air defence simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available Simulations with a large number of model instances make use of parallel architectures to improve performance. When using such a parallel architecture a challenge is to effectively distribute the simulation objects across the processing platforms...

  20. Effect of Parachute Jump in the Psychophysiological Response of Soldiers in Urban Combat. (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J


    The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver. We analyzed before and after the maneuver the rated perceived exertion, legs strength manifestation, blood lactate, cortical activation, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation and pressure, skin temperature, fine motor skills, and anxiety state. A tactical parachute simulated jump prior to an urban combat maneuver produce significantly (p jump situation in professional Army paratroopers. Independently of the parachute jump, an urban combat maneuver produces a significant increase in rated perceived exertion, blood lactate, heart rate, legs strength, sympathetic modulation and anxiety response as well as a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation and parasympathetic modulation.

  1. Comparison of Austenite Decomposition Models During Finite Element Simulation of Water Quenching and Air Cooling of AISI 4140 Steel (United States)

    Babu, K.; Prasanna Kumar, T. S.


    An indigenous, non-linear, and coupled finite element (FE) program has been developed to predict the temperature field and phase evolution during heat treatment of steels. The diffusional transformations during continuous cooling of steels were modeled using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Komogorov equation, and the non-diffusion transformation was modeled using Koistinen-Marburger equation. Cylindrical quench probes made of AISI 4140 steel of 20-mm diameter and 50-mm long were heated to 1123 K (850 °C), quenched in water, and cooled in air. The temperature history during continuous cooling was recorded at the selected interior locations of the quench probes. The probes were then sectioned at the mid plane and resultant microstructures were observed. The process of water quenching and air cooling of AISI 4140 steel probes was simulated with the heat flux boundary condition in the FE program. The heat flux for air cooling process was calculated through the inverse heat conduction method using the cooling curve measured during air cooling of a stainless steel 304L probe as an input. The heat flux for the water quenching process was calculated from a surface heat flux model proposed for quenching simulations. The isothermal transformation start and finish times of different phases were taken from the published TTT data and were also calculated using Kirkaldy model and Li model and used in the FE program. The simulated cooling curves and phases using the published TTT data had a good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The computation results revealed that the use of published TTT data was more reliable in predicting the phase transformation during heat treatment of low alloy steels than the use of the Kirkaldy or Li model.

  2. A 3D simulation case study of airport air traffic handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. de Swaan Arons


    textabstractModern Windows-based simulation packages bring simulation within reach of decision-makers. The use of graphics enables the manager to observe an animation of the simulated reality, to focus on the essentials of the model without the need to bother about implementation details. In most

  3. Tools for Performance Simulation of Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions of Whole Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten


    Humidity of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings as well as durability of building components. Indoor humidity depends on several factors, such as moisture sources, air change, sorption in materials and possible condensation. Since all...... and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings” by considering all relevant parts of its constituents. It is believed that full understanding of these processes for the whole building is absolutely crucial for future energy optimization of buildings, as this cannot take place without...

  4. A simulation study of the effects of communication delay on air traffic control (United States)


    This study was conducted to examine the impacts of voice communications delays : characteristic of Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) and satellite : communications systems on air traffic system performance, controller stress : and workload, a...

  5. Simulation of air-heated evaporators using a method of local analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, J.A.R.; Cartwright, W.G.


    The development and application of an analytical method for the performance prediction of air-heated evaporators are presented. A local analysis is employed in which the evaporator is considered as a three dimensional matrix of elementary heat transfer modules. For each element, local film coefficients for both air and the evaporating fluid are determined appropriate to the local conditions, including the two-phase flow regime. An application of the method is considered. (Author) [pt

  6. Numerical study by large-eddy simulation on effects and mechanism of air-cooling enhancing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Toshinori; Ishida, Naoyuki; Kitou, Kazuaki


    Learning from the lessons of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear incident in which a long-term station black-out occurred, we have been developing an air-cooling system for boiling water reactors that can operate without electricity for a virtually indefinite time. Improvement in the heat transfer performance of air-cooling is key to the development of the air-cooling system. We developed air-cooling enhancing technologies for the air-cooling system by using heat transfer fins, turbulence-enhancing ribs and a micro-fabrication surface. In our previous study, the performance of these air-cooling enhancing technologies was evaluated by heat transfer tests using a single pipe of the air-cooling heat exchanger. To achieve further improvement of the heat transfer performance, it is important to understand the mechanism of the air-cooling enhancing technologies. In this study, we used the numerical analysis which is based on the filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and the filtered energy equation with the large-eddy simulation in order to investigate the effects and the mechanism of the developed air-cooling enhancing technologies. We found that the analysis results agreed well with the experimental results and the empirical formula results. The heat transfer enhancement mechanism of the heat transfer fin is due to an increase in the heat transfer area. Due to a decrease in the flow velocity at the base of the fins, the increase in the Nusselt number was approximately 15% smaller than the estimated value from the area increase. In the heat transfer enhancement by the turbulence-enhancing ribs, the unsteady behavior of the large-scale vortex generated by the flow separation plays an important role. The enhancement ratio of the Nusselt number by the micro-fabrication surface can be explained by the apparent thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number was increased 4-8% by the micro-fabrication surface. The effect of the micro-fabrication surface is increased by applying

  7. Combating transnational environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana


    Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.

  8. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau; Yu, Gwang Hyeon; Lu, Tianfeng; Chung, Suk-Ho; Yoo, Chun Sang


    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species

  9. Effect of real-time boundary wind conditions on the air flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon—Large eddy simulations (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gu, Zhao-Lin; Cheng, Yan; Lee, Shun-Cheng


    Air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in an urban street canyon are studied under the real-time boundary conditions. A new scheme for realizing real-time boundary conditions in simulations is proposed, to keep the upper boundary wind conditions consistent with the measured time series of wind data. The air flow structure and its evolution under real-time boundary wind conditions are simulated by using this new scheme. The induced effect of time series of ambient wind conditions on the flow structures inside and above the street canyon is investigated. The flow shows an obvious intermittent feature in the street canyon and the flapping of the shear layer forms near the roof layer under real-time wind conditions, resulting in the expansion or compression of the air mass in the canyon. The simulations of pollutant dispersion show that the pollutants inside and above the street canyon are transported by different dispersion mechanisms, relying on the time series of air flow structures. Large scale air movements in the processes of the air mass expansion or compression in the canyon exhibit obvious effects on pollutant dispersion. The simulations of pollutant dispersion also show that the transport of pollutants from the canyon to the upper air flow is dominated by the shear layer turbulence near the roof level and the expansion or compression of the air mass in street canyon under real-time boundary wind conditions. Especially, the expansion of the air mass, which features the large scale air movement of the air mass, makes more contribution to the pollutant dispersion in this study. Comparisons of simulated results under different boundary wind conditions indicate that real-time boundary wind conditions produces better condition for pollutant dispersion than the artificially-designed steady boundary wind conditions.

  10. Observing and simulating the impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Daskalakis, Nikos; Sfakianaki, Maria; Hatziannastassiou, Nikos; Im, Ulas


    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Sahara (Saharan dust), vegetation and the ocean as well as from biomass burning, overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. During the last decades, the Eastern Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including increased vehicle circulation, and industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems for Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole Eastern Mediterranean region. The recent financial crisis resulted in changes in human habits, energy production and subsequently air pollution. This resulted in changes in tropospheric composition that reflect changes in natural emissions and in human behavior have been detected by satellites and simulated by chemistry transport models. The results are presented and their robustness is discussed.

  11. Measuring Virtual Simulations Value in Training Exercises - USMC Use Case (United States)


    performance capability, (2) training realism capability, (3) affective reaction level , and (4) training efficiencies. The first three elements combined...included 18 unclassified events and 11 classified events from air combat element (ACE), ground combat element ( GCE ), and logistics combat element...affective reaction data sheets (measurement for affective reaction level element). Discrepancies in data sheet collection totals resulted from fluid

  12. Target distribution in cooperative combat based on Bayesian optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhifu; Zhang An; Wang Anli


    Target distribution in cooperative combat is a difficult and emphases. We build up the optimization model according to the rule of fire distribution. We have researched on the optimization model with BOA. The BOA can estimate the joint probability distribution of the variables with Bayesian network, and the new candidate solutions also can be generated by the joint distribution. The simulation example verified that the method could be used to solve the complex question, the operation was quickly and the solution was best.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Dinler


    Full Text Available Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion equations were solved. The k-e turbulence model was employed. The fuel mass fraction transport equation was used for modeling of the combustion. For this purpose a computational fluid dynamics code was developed by using the finite volume method with FORTRAN programming code. The moving mesh was utilized to simulate the piston motion. The developed code simulates four strokes of engine continuously. In the case of laminar flow combustion, Arrhenius type combustion equations were employed. In the case of turbulent flow combustion, eddy break-up model was employed. Results were given for rich, stoichiometric, and lean mixtures in contour graphs. Contour graphs showed that lean mixture (l = 1.1 has longer combustion duration.

  14. The use of CFD code for numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)

  15. The use of CFD code for numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor


    For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)

  16. Large eddy simulation and experimental study on vented gasoline-air mixture explosions in a semi-confined obstructed pipe. (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Yang; Wang, Shimao; Qi, Sheng; Zhang, Peili; Chen, Wenzhuo


    In this work, LES simulation coupled with a TFC sub-grid combustion model has been performed in a semi-confined pipe (L/D=10, V=10L) in the presence of four hollow-square obstacles (BR=49.8%) with circular hollow cross-section, in order to study the premixed gasoline-air mixture explosions. The comparisons between simulated results and experimental results have been conducted. It was found that the simulated results were in good agreement with experimental data in terms of flame structures, flame locations and overpressure time histories. Moreover, the interaction between flame propagation process and obstacles, overpressure dynamics were analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial gasoline vapor concentration (lean (ϕ=1.3%), stoichiometric (ϕ=1.7%) and rich (ϕ=2.1%)), and the number of obstacles (from 1 to 4) were also investigated by experiments. Some of the experimental results have been compared with the literature data. It is found that the explosion parameters of gasoline-air mixtures (e.g. the maximum overpressure peaks, average overpressure growth rates, etc.) are different from some other fuels such as hydrogen, methane and LPG, etc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH


    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU


    Full Text Available For decades the issue of training through simulation has been discussed and studied to show its value and importance in fighter pilot training programs. Besides the fact that simulators are less expensive than a real airplane, and eliminate the operational risks that are present in a real flight they bring a significant contribution to the pilot training by their fidelity and realism that they show in such scenarios as in the reality. To measure the efficiency of training transfer from simulator to the aircraft, performance indicators were defined. The purpose of this article is to define these performance indicators and measurement of training transfer within the flight simulator involvement.

  19. Simulation of convection-stabilized low-current glow and arc discharges in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidis, G V


    A two-dimensional model of stationary convection-stabilized low-current glow and arc discharge columns in atmospheric-pressure air is developed which accounts for deviation of the plasma state from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In addition to equations of energy, continuity and momentum (analogous to those used in LTE arc models), the non-LTE model includes balance equations for plasma species and for the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules. The kinetic scheme is used which was developed recently for the simulation of low-current wall-stabilized discharges in air. Results of calculation of discharge parameters over a wide current range are presented. It is shown that the non-equilibrium effects are substantial at currents lower than ∼ 100 mA. The calculated plasma parameters agree with available experimental data

  20. Breakdown voltage at the electric terminals of GCFR-core flow test loop fuel rod simulators in helium and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, W.R.; Conley, T.B.


    Tests were performed to determine the ac and dc breakdown voltage at the terminal ends of a fuel rod simulator (FRS) in helium and air atmospheres. The tests were performed at low pressures (1 to 2 atm) and at temperatures from 20 to 350 0 C (68 to 660 0 F). The area of concern was the 0.64-mm (0.025-in.) gap between the coaxial conductor of the FRS and the sheaths of the four internal thermocouples as they exit the FRS. The tests were prformed to ensure a sufficient safety margin during Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) operations that require potentials up to 350 V ac at the FRS terminals. The primary conclusion from the test results is that the CFTL cannot be operated safely if the terminal ends of the FRSs are surrounded by a helium atmosphere but can be operated safely in air

  1. A Simple Probabilistic Combat Model (United States)


    Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. This page intentionally left blank. ABSTRACT The Lanchester intentionally left blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Abstract iii List of Illustrations vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETERMINISTIC LANCHESTER MODEL...This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION The Lanchester combat model1 is a simple way to assess the effects of quantity and quality

  2. A Theory of Combative Advertising


    Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang


    In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...

  3. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed


    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  4. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz


    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  5. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo


    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  6. Glucose changes and working memory in individuals with type 1 diabetes during air pressure changes simulating skydiving. (United States)

    Yousef, Mohammad; Westman, Anton; Lindberg, Ann; de Lacerda, Cecilia; Jendle, Johan


    Several countries restrict individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from skydiving because of concerns over possible alterations in consciousness. To our knowledge, glucose levels and working memory in individuals with T1DM during skydiving have not been assessed earlier. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in glucose levels and working memory in selected subjects with T1DM compared with control subjects without diabetes mellitus (DM) during ambient air pressure changes as those anticipated during standard skydiving. Six subjects with T1DM and six controls were included. Using a hypobaric chamber, the ambient air pressure was changed to simulate a standard skydive from 4,000 m (13,000 feet) above mean sea level. The procedure was repeated six times to mimic a day of skydiving activity with a median of 8.7 h/day (5(th), 95(th) percentile: 8.1, 9.8 h). All subjects carried a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Capillary glucose tests were taken in order to calibrate the CGM. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate, and working memory, evaluated through digit span, were monitored regularly. No subject experienced documented symptomatic hypoglycemia with impaired working memory during the simulations. One asymptomatic hypoglycemia episode with a plasma glucose level of glucose levels. Interstitial glucose levels of memory between the T1DM patients and the controls. This study of interstitial glucose levels and working memory could not show the activity-specific risk factor (i.e., repetitive rapid-onset hypobaric hypoxia exposures) to be a greater safety concern for selected subjects with T1DM compared with subjects without DM during a simulated day of skydiving. Further studies are needed to clarify the suitability of subjects with T1DM to participate in this air sport.

  7. Fuel-Air Explosive Simulation of Far-Field Nuclear Airblasts. (United States)


    Blastwave Simulator," Sixieme Symposium International sur Les A19 plications Militaires de La Simulation de Souffle, Centre D’Etudes de Gramat , Gramat ... Gramat , Gramat , France, p. 4.2.1, June 1979. 207 7............................. 64. Cooperwaithe, M. and Zwisler, W. H., "TIGER Computer Program

  8. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takatoshi; Hirata, Yosuke; Naito, Susumu; Izumi, Mikio; Yoshimura, Yukio


    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  9. Simulation Engine for Fluid Solid Interaction Problems and its Application to the Modelling of Air Blast Hazards in Block Cave Mining. (United States)

    Galindo Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Ruest, M.


    Air blasts that may occur in a block caving mining operation represent a significant hazard for personnel as well as to mining infrastructure. Uncontrolled caving of a large volume of broken rock into a mine void causes compression of the air within, forcing it to flow at high velocities into connecting tunnels such as extraction points beneath the cave or observation points intersecting the cave. This high velocity flow of air can cause injury to personnel and significant damage to equipment. In this presentation, we introduce a simulation engine for the air blast problem. The solid material is modelled using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the fluid (air) is modelled using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The combined DEM-LBM approach has been introduced by our group at the University of Queensland[1]. LBM allows us to introduce an appropriate equation of state for the air that simulates compressibility as a function of the speed of sound. Validation examples are presented to justify the use of this tool for an air blasting situation. A section view of one simulation is provided in Fig 1. An investigation into the risk of developing air pockets as a function of fragment size distribution is also conducted and described. The fragment size distribution can be assessed during mining and the risk of air pockets forming (and consequently of air blast occurring) can be deduced and mitigation measures put in place. The effect of other key variables that can be determined from geotechnical investigations, such as fracture frequency, are also systematically explored. It is expected that the results of this study can elucidate key features of the air blasting phenomenon in order to formulate safer mining protocols. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the simulation of fluid-solid interaction with particles of general shapes. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2013. 265(0): p. 107-119.

  10. Computational simulation of reactive species production by methane-air DBD at high pressure and high temperature (United States)

    Takana, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishiyama, H.


    Computational simulations of a single streamer in DBD in lean methane-air mixture at pressure of 1 and 3 atm and temperature of 300 and 500 K were conducted for plasma-enhanced chemical reactions in a closed system. The effects of surrounding pressure and temperature are characterized for reactive species production by a DBD discharge. The results show that the production characteristics of reactive species are strongly influenced by the total gas number density and the higher concentration of reactive species are produced at higher pressure and lower gas temperature for a given initial reduced electric field.


    The paper discusses results of tests, conducted in the EPA large chamber facility, determining emissions and chemical degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from one electrical plug-in type pine-scented air freshener in the presence of ozone supplied by a device markete...

  12. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten


    cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  13. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.


    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  14. Comprehensive Validation of Skeletal Mechanism for Turbulent Premixed Methane–Air Flame Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Luca, Stefano; Al-Khateeb, Ashraf N.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio


    A new skeletal mechanism, consisting of 16 species and 72 reactions, has been developed for lean methane–air premixed combustion from the GRI-Mech 3.0. The skeletal mechanism is validated for elevated unburnt temperatures (800 K) and pressures up

  15. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.


    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  16. Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Air Velocity in a Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Bustamante


    Full Text Available A building needs to be designed for the whole period of its useful life according to its requirements. However, future climate predictions involve some uncertainty. Thus, several sustainable strategies of adaptation need to be incorporated after the initial design. In this sense, tunnel ventilation in broiler houses provides high air velocity values (2–3 m·s−1 at animal level to diminish their thermal stress and associated mortality. This ventilation system was experimentally incorporated into a Mediterranean climate. The aim was to resolve these thermal problems in hot seasons, as (traditional cross-mechanical ventilation does not provide enough air velocity values. Surprisingly, very little information on tunnel ventilation systems is available, especially in terms of air velocity. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and a multi-sensor system, the average results are similar (at animal level: 1.59 ± 0.68 m·s−1 for CFD and 1.55 ± 0.66 m·s−1 for measurements. The ANOVA for validation concluded that the use of CFD or measurements is not significant (p-value = 0.1155. Nevertheless, some problems with air velocity distribution were found and need to be solved. To this end, CFD techniques can help by means of virtual designs and scenarios providing information for the whole indoor space.

  17. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.


    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system

  18. Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Safety and Resilience in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.


    Purpose: In order to improve the safety, capacity, economy, and sustainability of air transportation, revolutionary changes are required. These changes might range from the introduction of new technology and operational procedures to unprecedented roles of human operators and the way they interact.

  19. Comparison of Simulated Stem Temperatures and Observed Air Temperatures with Observed Stem Growth in Forest Openings (United States)

    Brian E. Potter; Terry Strong


    Phenology, the study of how plant or animal developmental stages relate to the organism's surrounding climate, is a well established discipline with roots dating back more than 2000 years (Hopp and Blair, 1973). For example, correlations are often noted between budbreak or first blossom and integrated air temperature (commonly referred to as heat sums.) The...

  20. Air pollution simulation and geographical information systems (GIS) applied to Athens International Airport. (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane


    This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in a GIS environment. One of the objectives of the research is to validate the methodology applied to the Athens International Airport, "Eleftherios Venizelos", to produce a realistic estimate of emission inventories, dispersion simulations and comparison to measured data. The methodology used a combination of the Emission Dispersion and Modelling System (EDMS) and the Atmospheric Dispersion and Modelling system (ADMS) to improve the analysis process. The second objective is to conduct numerical simulations under various adverse conditions (e.g. scenarios) and assess the dispersion in the surrounding areas. The study concludes that the use of GIS in environmental assessments provides a valuable advantage for organizing data and entering accurate geographical/topological information for the simulation engine. Emissions simulation produced estimates within 10% of published values. Dispersion simulations indicate that airport pollution will affect neighbouring cities such as Rafina and Loutsa. Presently, there are no measured controls in these areas. In some cases, airport pollution can contribute to as much as 40% of permissible EU levels in VOCs.

  1. The Simulations of Wildland Fire Smoke PM25 in the NWS Air Quality Forecasting Systems (United States)

    Huang, H. C.; Pan, L.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; Huang, J.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.


    The increase of wildland fire intensity and frequency in the United States (U.S.) has led to property loss, human fatality, and poor air quality due to elevated particulate matters and surface ozone concentrations. The NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) built the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System driven by the NCEP North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorology to provide ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) forecast guidance publicly. State and local forecasters use the NWS air quality forecast guidance to issue air quality alerts in their area. The NAQFC PM2.5 predictions include emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, as well as natural sources such as dust storms and wildland fires. The wildland fire emission inputs to the NAQFC is derived from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection product and the emission module of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Wildland fires are unpredictable and can be ignited by natural causes such as lightning or be human-caused. It is extremely difficult to predict future occurrences and behavior of wildland fires, as is the available bio-fuel to be burned for real-time air quality predictions. Assumptions of future day's wildland fire behavior often have to be made from older observed wildland fire information. The comparisons between the NAQFC modeled PM2.5 and the EPA AirNow surface observation show that large errors in PM2.5 prediction can occur if fire smoke emissions are sometimes placed at the wrong location and/or time. A configuration of NAQFC CMAQ-system to re-run previous 24 hours, during which wildland fires were observed from satellites has been included recently. This study focuses on the effort performed to minimize the error in NAQFC PM2.5 predictions

  2. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan


    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  3. Performance of WRF for Simulation of Mesoscale Meteorological Characteristics for Air Quality Assessment over Tropical Coastal City, Chennai (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.


    The land-sea breezes (LSBs) play an important role in transporting air pollution from urban areas on the coast. In this study, the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model is used for predicting boundary layer features to understand the transport of pollution in different seasons over the coastal region of Chennai in Southern India. Sensitivity experiments are conducted with two non-local [Yonsei University (YSU) and Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2)] and three turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure [Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi and Niino Level 2.5 (MYNN2) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE)], planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes for simulating the thermodynamic structure, and low-level atmospheric flow in different seasons. Comparison of simulations with observations from a global positioning system (GPS) radiosonde, meteorological tower, automated weather stations, and Doppler weather radar (DWR)-derived wind data reveals that the characteristics of LSBs vary widely in different seasons and are more prominent during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons (March-September) with large horizontal and vertical extents compared to the post-monsoon and winter seasons. The qualitative and quantitative results indicate that simulations with ACM2 followed by MYNN2 and YSU produced various features of the LSBs, boundary layer parameters and the thermo-dynamical structure in better agreement with observations than other tested physical parameterization schemes. Simulations revealed seasonal variation of onset time, vertical extent of LSBs, and mixed layer depth, which would influence the air pollution dispersion in different seasons over the study region.

  4. Numerically efficient simulation of multi-vaporator air conditioners in highly dynamic boundary conditions; Numerisch effiziente Simulation von Mehrverdampfer-Klimaanlagen unter hochdynamischen Randbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Christian; Kaiser, Christian [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Tegethoff, Wilhelm; Koehler, Juergen [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik


    In the development of physically based models for dynamic simulations of cycle processes, a good equilibrium must be chosen between the degree of detailing and the speed of calculation. Dynamic modelling of mult-evaporator air conditioners is a special challenge as the interaction of several heat transfer fluides at one pressure level may result in numerically challenging effects like reflux. The contribution goes into the simulation of the heat transfer fluids in such systems in highly dynamic boundary conditions, e.g. after shutoff of the compressor. There are different modelling methods, e.g. finite volume, moving boundary, or finite element analysis. The methods are presented and evaluated. For the 1-D finite volume method, various established simplification strategies are presented that may enhance numerical efficiency. It is also shown that the equation system will not always be solvable with these strategies, and an approach to ensure solvability is presented. The new approach is illustrated by the example of a multi-evaporator bus air conditioner. [German] Bei der Erstellung von physikalisch basierten Modellen fuer die dynamische Simulation von Kreisprozessen muss ein gutes Gleichgewicht zwischen Detaillierungsgrad und Rechengeschwindigkeit gewaehlt werden: Das Modell muss die Realitaet hinreichend genau abbilden, im Gegenzug jedoch auch innerhalb eines angemessenen Zeitraums Ergebnisse liefern sowie in allen Betriebszustaenden loesbar sein. Die dynamische Modellierung von Mehrverdampfer-Klimaanlagen stellt im Vergleich zu einfachen Kreisprozessen eine besondere Herausforderung dar, da in diesen Systemen die Interaktion mehrerer Waermeuebertrager auf einem Druckniveau zu numerisch herausfordernden Effekten wie z. B. Rueckstroemung fuehren kann. Dieser Beitrag beschaeftigt sich mit der Simulation der Waermeuebertrager in diesen Systemen unter hochdynamischen Randbedingungen wie z. B. einer Abschaltung des Verdichters. Zur Modellierung der Waermeuebertrager

  5. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer - 2: Second Generation Design and Prototype Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gossman, J


    ...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...

  6. A computer simulation of the transient response of a 4 cylinder Stirling engine with burner and air preheater in a vehicle (United States)

    Martini, W. R.


    A series of computer programs are presented with full documentation which simulate the transient behavior of a modern 4 cylinder Siemens arrangement Stirling engine with burner and air preheater. Cold start, cranking, idling, acceleration through 3 gear changes and steady speed operation are simulated. Sample results and complete operating instructions are given. A full source code listing of all programs are included.

  7. Effects of visual, seat, and platform motion during flight simulator air transport pilot training and evaluation (United States)


    Access to affordable and effective flight-simulation training devices (FSTDs) is critical to safely train airline crews in aviating, navigating, communicating, making decisions, and managing flight-deck and crew resources. This paper provides an over...

  8. The simulated air flow pattern around a moving animal transport vehicle as the basis for a prospective biosecurity risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Seedorf


    Full Text Available Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m3/h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV. Although the front openings show the highest air flow to the outside, the recirculations of air masses between the interior of the ATV and the atmosphere also occur, which complicate the emission and the dispersion characterizations. To specify the future emission rates of ATVs, a database of bioaerosol concentrations within the ATV is necessary in conjunction with high-performance computing resources to simulate the potential dispersion of bioaerosols in the environment.

  9. Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in a coupled air-tissue system. (United States)

    Hestenes, Kjersti; Nielsen, Kristian P; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Stamnes, Knut


    We perform a detailed comparison study of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and discrete-ordinate radiative-transfer (DISORT) calculations of spectral radiances in a 1D coupled air-tissue (CAT) system consisting of horizontal plane-parallel layers. The MC and DISORT models have the same physical basis, including coupling between the air and the tissue, and we use the same air and tissue input parameters for both codes. We find excellent agreement between radiances obtained with the two codes, both above and in the tissue. Our tests cover typical optical properties of skin tissue at the 280, 540, and 650 nm wavelengths. The normalized volume scattering function for internal structures in the skin is represented by the one-parameter Henyey-Greenstein function for large particles and the Rayleigh scattering function for small particles. The CAT-DISORT code is found to be approximately 1000 times faster than the CAT-MC code. We also show that the spectral radiance field is strongly dependent on the inherent optical properties of the skin tissue.

  10. The simulated air flow pattern around a moving animal transport vehicle as the basis for a prospective biosecurity risk assessment. (United States)

    Seedorf, Jens; Schmidt, Ralf-Gunther


    Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs) and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m 3 /h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV. Although the front openings show the highest air flow to the outside, the recirculations of air masses between the interior of the ATV and the atmosphere also occur, which complicate the emission and the dispersion characterizations. To specify the future emission rates of ATVs, a database of bioaerosol concentrations within the ATV is necessary in conjunction with high-performance computing resources to simulate the potential dispersion of bioaerosols in the environment.

  11. Local air gap thickness and contact area models for realistic simulation of human thermo-physiological response (United States)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Mert, Emel; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.


    To evaluate the quality of new energy-saving and performance-supporting building and urban settings, the thermal sensation and comfort models are often used. The accuracy of these models is related to accurate prediction of the human thermo-physiological response that, in turn, is highly sensitive to the local effect of clothing. This study aimed at the development of an empirical regression model of the air gap thickness and the contact area in clothing to accurately simulate human thermal and perceptual response. The statistical model predicted reliably both parameters for 14 body regions based on the clothing ease allowances. The effect of the standard error in air gap prediction on the thermo-physiological response was lower than the differences between healthy humans. It was demonstrated that currently used assumptions and methods for determination of the air gap thickness can produce a substantial error for all global, mean, and local physiological parameters, and hence, lead to false estimation of the resultant physiological state of the human body, thermal sensation, and comfort. Thus, this model may help researchers to strive for improvement of human thermal comfort, health, productivity, safety, and overall sense of well-being with simultaneous reduction of energy consumption and costs in built environment.

  12. Simulations of the impacts of building height layout on air quality in natural-ventilated rooms around street canyons. (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Zhong, Ke; Chen, Yonghang; Kang, Yanming


    Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of building height ratio (i.e., HR, the height ratio of the upstream building to the downstream building) on the air quality in buildings beside street canyons, and both regular and staggered canyons were considered for the simulations. The results show that the building height ratio affects not only the ventilation fluxes of the rooms in the downstream building but also the pollutant concentrations around the building. The parameter, outdoor effective source intensity of a room, is then proposed to calculate the amount of vehicular pollutants that enters into building rooms. Smaller value of this parameter indicates less pollutant enters the room. The numerical results reveal that HRs from 2/7 to 7/2 are the favorable height ratios for the regular canyons, as they obtain smaller values than the other cases. While HR values of 5/7, 7/7, and 7/5 are appropriate for staggered canyons. In addition, in terms of improving indoor air quality by natural ventilation, the staggered canyons with favorable HR are better than those of the regular canyons.

  13. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection. (United States)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O


    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  14. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge (United States)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.


    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  15. Modelling and hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the blowout tract components for passenger compartment air conditioning of motor vehicles; Modellierung und Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation der Komponenten des Ausblastraktes zur Kraftfahrzeuginnenraumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalek, David


    The author investigated the modelling and hardware-in-the-loop simulation of components of the blowout tract of motor car air conditioning systems. The control systems and air conditioning systems are gone into, from the air entering the car to the control systems and sensors for monitoring state variables. The function of the control equipment hardware and software was to be analyzed reproducibly in order to save time and cost. The models were verified using available data. Validation criteria were established for the hardware-in-the-loop simulator. On the basis of selected operating conditions, the performance of the air conditioning control unit inside the vehicle was compared with the simulation results and was evaluated on the basis of the established criteria. (orig.)

  16. Assured communications and combat resiliency: the relationship between effective national communications and combat efficiency (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay


    Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.

  17. Optimum placement of condensing units of split-type air-conditioners by numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avara, Abdollah; Daneshgar, Ehsan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Split-type air-conditioners used in residential or office buildings often have the outdoor condensing units installed at the sidewalls or on the roofs. Installation distance from the supporting wall for the first group and the height of installation for the second group are two factors that affect the condenser efficiency. In this study, a CFD code is used to calculate the effect of distance from the supporting wall on the entrance air temperature and on the on-coil temperature of condenser installed between two walls. In the case of condenser installed on the roof, the effect of installation height of the condenser from the finished roof on on-coil temperature is investigated and the minimum recommended height of installation is determined. (author)

  18. CFD simulations for premixed hydrogen-air deflagration from a vented chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, B.; Ganju, S.


    In water cooled power reactors, significant quantities of hydrogen could be produced by a steam-zirconium (fuel clad) reaction following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) along with non-availability of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Hydrogen in air has the potential for uncontrolled combustion, which has given rise to public concern over the years. The generated hydrogen gets distributed in the different compartment of nuclear reactor containment and may form combustible mixture. Hence, various experimental activities have been performed around the world to investigate severe accident phenomena related to hydrogen combustion. Recently, with the rising concerns for local hydrogen control, numerical calculations for space resolved hydrogen distribution and combustion in the compartment have become an important requirement. Considering all these issues computations have been performed using commercial CFD code CFDACE+ for deflagration of lean dry hydrogen air mixture for a reported experiment. The paper describes the modelling details and main results of the investigation and comparison with experiments

  19. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer


    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  20. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality


    Xie, Y; Paulot, F; Carter, WPL; Nolte, CG; Luecken, DJ; Hutzell, WT; Wennberg, PO; Cohen, RC; Pinder, RW


    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation ch...

  1. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality


    Xie, Y.; Carter, W. P. L.; Nolte, C. G.; Luecken, D. J.; Hutzell, W. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Pinder, R. W.


    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NO_x recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry int...

  2. Cardiorespiratory adaptation to breath-holding in air: Analysis via a cardiopulmonary simulation model. (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Limei Cheng; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W


    Apnea via breath-holding (BH) in air induces cardiorespiratory adaptation that involves the activation of several reflex mechanisms and their complex interactions. Hence, the effects of BH in air on cardiorespiratory function can become hardly predictable and difficult to be interpreted. Particularly, the effect on heart rate is not yet completely understood because of the contradicting results of different physiological studies. In this paper we apply our previously developed cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) to a scenario of BH with a twofold intent: (1) further validating the CP Model via comparison against experimental data; (2) gaining insights into the physiological reasoning for such contradicting experimental results. Model predictions agreed with published experimental animal and human data and indicated that heart rate increases during BH in air. Changes in the balance between sympathetic and vagal effects on heart rate within the model proved to be effective in inverting directions of the heart rate changes during BH. Hence, the model suggests that intra-subject differences in such sympatho-vagal balance may be one of the reasons for the contradicting experimental results.

  3. Simulation study of air and water cooled photovoltaic panel using ANSYS (United States)

    Syafiqah, Z.; Amin, N. A. M.; Irwan, Y. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Aziz, N. A.


    Demand for alternative energy is growing due to decrease of fossil fuels sources. One of the promising and popular renewable energy technology is a photovoltaic (PV) technology. During the actual operation of PV cells, only around 15% of solar irradiance is converted to electricity, while the rest is converted into heat. The electrical efficiency decreases with the increment in PV panel’s temperature. This electrical energy is referring to the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc) and output power generate. This paper examines and discusses the PV panel with water and air cooling system. The air cooling system was installed at the back of PV panel while water cooling system at front surface. The analyses of both cooling systems were done by using ANSYS CFX and PSPICE software. The highest temperature of PV panel without cooling system is 66.3 °C. There is a decrement of 19.2% and 53.2% in temperature with the air and water cooling system applied to PV panel.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of carbon molecular sieve preparation for air separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoobpour, Elham; Ahmadpour, Ali; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba


    Carbon deposition process on activated carbon (AC) in order to produce carbon molecular sieve (CMS) was simulated using molecular dynamics simulation. The proposed activated carbon for simulation includes micropores with different characteristic diameters and lengths. Three different temperatures of 773 K, 973 K, and 1,273 K were selected to investigate the optimum deposition temperature. Simulation results show that the carbon deposition process at 973 K creates the best adsorbent structure. While at lower temperature some micropore openings are blocked with carbon atoms, at higher temperature the number of deposited carbons on the micropores does not change significantly. Also, carbon deposition process confirms the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with an endothermic behavior. To evaluate the sieving property of adsorbent products, nitrogen and oxygen adsorption on the initial and final adsorbent products are examined. Results show that there is not any considerable difference between the equilibrium adsorption amounts of nitrogen and oxygen on the initial and final adsorbents especially at low pressure (P<10 atm). Although, adsorption kinetics curves of these gases change significantly after the carbon deposition process in comparison with the initial sample. These observations indicate that the final adsorbent has high selectivity towards oxygen compared with the nitrogen, so it can be called a carbon molecular sieve. All simulated results are in good agreement with experiments

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of carbon molecular sieve preparation for air separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoobpour, Elham; Ahmadpour, Ali; Farhadian, Nafiseh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba [University of Tehran, Tehran(Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Carbon deposition process on activated carbon (AC) in order to produce carbon molecular sieve (CMS) was simulated using molecular dynamics simulation. The proposed activated carbon for simulation includes micropores with different characteristic diameters and lengths. Three different temperatures of 773 K, 973 K, and 1,273 K were selected to investigate the optimum deposition temperature. Simulation results show that the carbon deposition process at 973 K creates the best adsorbent structure. While at lower temperature some micropore openings are blocked with carbon atoms, at higher temperature the number of deposited carbons on the micropores does not change significantly. Also, carbon deposition process confirms the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with an endothermic behavior. To evaluate the sieving property of adsorbent products, nitrogen and oxygen adsorption on the initial and final adsorbent products are examined. Results show that there is not any considerable difference between the equilibrium adsorption amounts of nitrogen and oxygen on the initial and final adsorbents especially at low pressure (P<10 atm). Although, adsorption kinetics curves of these gases change significantly after the carbon deposition process in comparison with the initial sample. These observations indicate that the final adsorbent has high selectivity towards oxygen compared with the nitrogen, so it can be called a carbon molecular sieve. All simulated results are in good agreement with experiments.

  6. Simulation Investigation on Combustion Characteristics in a Four-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor with Hydrogen/Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li


    Full Text Available To investigate the combustion characteristics in multi-point lean direct injection (LDI combustors with hydrogen/air, two swirl–venturi 2 × 2 array four-point LDI combustors were designed. The four-point LDI combustor consists of injector assembly, swirl–venturi array and combustion chamber. The injector, swirler and venturi together govern the rapid mixing of hydrogen and air to form the mixture for combustion. Using clockwise swirlers and anticlockwise swirlers, the co-swirling and count-swirling swirler arrays LDI combustors were achieved. Using Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS code for steady-state reacting flow computations, the four-point LDI combustors with hydrogen/air were simulated with an 11 species and 23 lumped reaction steps H2/Air reaction mechanism. The axial velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, total pressure drop coefficient, outlet temperature, mass fraction of OH and emission of pollutant NO of four-point LDI combustors, with different equivalence ratios, are here presented and discussed. As the equivalence ratios increased, the total pressure drop coefficient became higher because of increasing heat loss. Increasing equivalence ratios also corresponded with the rise in outlet temperature of the four-point LDI combustors, as well as an increase in the emission index of NO EINO in the four-point LDI combustors. Along the axial distance, the EINO always increased and was at maximum at the exit of the dump. Along the chamber, the EINO gradually increased, maximizing at the exit of chamber. The total temperature of four-point LDI combustors with different equivalence ratios was identical to the theoretical equilibrium temperature. The EINO was an exponential function of the equivalence ratio.

  7. Direct numerical simulations of the ignition of lean primary reference fuel/air mixtures with temperature inhomogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minhbau


    The effects of fuel composition, thermal stratification, and turbulence on the ignition of lean homogeneous primary reference fuel (PRF)/air mixtures under the conditions of constant volume and elevated pressure are investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a new 116-species reduced kinetic mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs were performed in a fixed volume with a two-dimensional isotropic velocity spectrum and temperature fluctuations superimposed on the initial scalar fields with different fuel compositions to elucidate the influence of variations in the initial temperature fluctuation and turbulence intensity on the ignition of three different lean PRF/air mixtures. In general, it was found that the mean heat release rate increases slowly and the overall combustion occurs fast with increasing thermal stratification regardless of the fuel composition under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. In addition, the effect of the fuel composition on the ignition characteristics of PRF/air mixtures was found to vanish with increasing thermal stratification. Chemical explosive mode (CEM), displacement speed, and Damköhler number analyses revealed that the high degree of thermal stratification induces deflagration rather than spontaneous ignition at the reaction fronts, rendering the mean heat release rate more distributed over time subsequent to thermal runaway occurring at the highest temperature regions in the domain. These analyses also revealed that the vanishing of the fuel effect under the high degree of thermal stratification is caused by the nearly identical propagation characteristics of deflagrations of different PRF/air mixtures. It was also found that high intensity and short-timescale turbulence can effectively homogenize mixtures such that the overall ignition is apt to occur by spontaneous ignition. These results suggest that large thermal stratification leads to smooth operation of homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI

  8. Combating cyberspace fraud in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available in Africa Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Defence, Peace, Safety & Security © CSIR 2007 Combating cyber crime in Africa is a reality • Computer crime... Reduction of Cyber Crime was given as one of the major objectives during the State of the Nation address by President Zuma on 3 June 2009. “Amongst other key initiatives, we will start the process of setting up a Border Management...

  9. Littoral Combat Vessels: Analysis and Comparison of Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiansen, Bryan J


    .... The candidates are a Littoral Combat Ship with a surface warfare module, a National Security Cutter augmented with offensive and defensive weaponry, a "Sea Lance" inshore combat vessel, and a Combat...

  10. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure. (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa


    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Niklas; Vöhringer, O.; Kruck, C.; Eltrop, L.


    Highlights: ► We modeled several configurations of an adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant. ► We analyzed changes in efficiency of these configurations under varying operating conditions. ► The efficiency of the adiabatic CAES plant can reach about 70% for the isentropic configuration. ► In the polytropic case, the efficiency is about 10% lower (at about 60%) than in the isentropic configuration. ► The efficiency is highest for a two-stage CAES configuration and highly dependent on the cooling and heating demand. - Abstract: In this paper, the efficiency of one full charging and discharging cycle of several adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) configurations are analyzed with the help of an energy balance. In the second step main driving factors for the efficiency of the CAES configurations are examined with the help of sensitivity analysis. The results show that the efficiency of the polytropic configuration is about 60%, which is considerable lower than literature values of an adiabatic CAES of about 70%. The high value of 70% is only reached for the isentropic (ideal) configuration. Key element to improve the efficiency is to develop high temperature thermal storages (>600 °C) and temperature resistant materials for compressors. The highest efficiency is delivered by the two-stage adiabatic CAES configuration. In this case the efficiency varies between 52% and 62%, depending on the cooling and heating demand. If the cooling is achieved by natural sources (such as a river), a realistic estimation of the efficiency of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storages (without any greenhouse gas emissions due to fuel consumption) is about 60%.

  12. REMC Computer Simulation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Argon and Air Plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lísal, Martin; Smith, W. R.; Bureš, M.; Vacek, V.; Navrátil, J.


    Roč. 100, č. 15 (2002), s. 2487-2497 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1446; GA ČR GA203/02/0805 Grant - others:NSERC(CA) OGP1041 Keywords : computer simulation * plasma * thermodynamic properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2002

  13. Response of air cleaning system dampers and blowers to simulated tornado transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Idar, E.; Smith, P.; Hensel, E.; Smith, E.


    The effects of tornado-like pressure transients upon dampers and blowers in nuclear air cleaning systems were studied. For the dampers pressure drop as a function of flow rate was obtained and an empirical relationship developed. Transient response was examined for several types of dampers, as was structural integrity. Both centrifugal and axi-vane blowers were tested and transient characteristic curves were generated in outrunning and backflow situations. The transient characteristic curves do not necessarily match the quasi-steady characteristic curves

  14. The realistic consideration of human factors in model based simulation tools for the air traffic control domain. (United States)

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia


    Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload.

  15. Worldwide actions to combat abuse. (United States)


    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  16. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism (United States)


    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  17. Simulation analysis of air flow and turbulence statistics in a rib grit roughened duct. (United States)

    Vogiatzis, I I; Denizopoulou, A C; Ntinas, G K; Fragos, V P


    The implementation of variable artificial roughness patterns on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the ducts of solar air heaters. Different geometries of roughness elements investigated have demonstrated the pivotal role that vortices and associated turbulence have on the heat transfer characteristics of solar air heater ducts by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional, turbulent, unsteady flow around rectangular ribs of variable aspect ratios by directly solving the transient Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the finite elements method. Flow characteristics and several aspects of turbulent flow are presented and discussed including velocity components and statistics of turbulence. The results reveal the impact that different rib lengths have on the computed mean quantities and turbulence statistics of the flow. The computed turbulence parameters show a clear tendency to diminish downstream with increasing rib length. Furthermore, the applied numerical method is capable of capturing small-scale flow structures resulting from the direct solution of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations.

  18. Simulation, experimental validation and kinematic optimization of a Stirling engine using air and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert, Juliette; Chrenko, Daniela; Sophy, Tonino; Le Moyne, Luis; Sirot, Frédéric


    A Stirling engine with nominal output power of 1 kW is tested using air and helium as working gases. The influence of working pressure, engine speed and temperature of the hot source is studied, analyzing instantaneous gas pressure as well as instantaneous and stationary temperature at different positions to derive the effective power. A zero dimensional finite-time thermodynamic, three zones model of a generic Stirling engine is developed and successfully validated against experimental gas temperature and pressure in each zone, providing the effective power. This validation underlines the interest of different working gases as well as different geometric configurations for different applications. Furthermore, the validated model allows parametric studies of the engine, with regard to geometry, working gas and engine kinematics. It is used in order to optimize the kinematic of a Stirling engine for different working points and gases. - Highlights: • A Stirling engine of 1 kW is tested using air and helium as working gas. • Effects of working pressure, speed and temperature on power are studied. • A zero dimensional finite-time thermodynamic, three zones model of it is validated. • The validated model is used for parametric studies and optimization of the engine

  19. Modeling of laser induced air plasma and shock wave dynamics using 2D-hydrodynamic simulations (United States)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; S, Sai Shiva; Chelikani, Leela; Ikkurthi, Venkata Ramana; C. D., Sijoy; Chaturvedi, Shashank; Acrhem, University Of Hyderabad Team; Computational Analysis Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam Team


    The laser induced air plasma dynamics and the SW evolution modeled using the two dimensional hydrodynamic code by considering two different EOS: ideal gas EOS with charge state effects taken into consideration and Chemical Equilibrium applications (CEA) EOS considering the chemical kinetics of different species will be presented. The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption process due to electron-ion and electron-neutrals is considered for the laser-air interaction process for both the models. The numerical results obtained with the two models were compared with that of the experimental observations over the time scales of 200 - 4000 ns at an input laser intensity of 2.3 ×1010 W/cm2. The comparison shows that the plasma and shock dynamics differ significantly for two EOS considered. With the ideas gas EOS the asymmetric expansion and the subsequent plasma dynamics have been well reproduced as observed in the experiments, whereas with the CEA model these processes were not reproduced due to the laser energy absorption occurring mostly at the focal volume. ACRHEM team thank DRDO, India for funding.

  20. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse


    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  1. Oxidation kinetics of simulated metallic spent fuel in air at 200∼300 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, J. S.; Yoo, K. S.; Jo, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, E. P.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Kim, H. D.


    In order to evaluate the long term storage safety study of the metallic spent fuel, U-5Zr, U-5Ti, U-5Ni, U-5Nb, and U-5Hf simulated metallic uranium alloys, known as corrosion resistant alloys, were fabricated and oxidized in oxygen gas at 200 .deg. C ∼ 300 .deg. C. All simulated metallic uranium alloys were more corrosion resistant than pure uranium metal, and corrosion resistance increases Nb, Ni, Ti, Zr, Hf in that order. The oxidation rates of uranium alloys determined and activation energy was calculated for each alloy. The matrix microstructure of the test specimens were analyzed using OM, SEM, and EPMA. It was concluded that Nb was the best acceptable alloying elements for reducing corrosion of uranium metal, and Ni, Ti were also considered to suitable as candidate

  2. Development of a Numerical Approach to Simulate Compressed Air Energy Storage Subjected to Cyclic Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hun Chong


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the long-term response of unlined energy storage located at shallow depth to improve the distance between a wind farm and storage. The numerical approach follows the hybrid scheme that combined a mechanical constitutive model to extract stress and strains at the first cycle and polynomial-type strain accumulation functions to track the progressive plastic deformation. In particular, the strain function includes the fundamental features that requires simulating the long-term response of geomaterials: volumetric strain (terminal void ratio and shear strain (shakedown and ratcheting, the strain accumulation rate, and stress obliquity. The model is tested with a triaxial strain boundary condition under different stress obliquities. The unlined storage subjected to cyclic internal stress is simulated with different storage geometries and stress amplitudes that play a crucial role in estimating the long-term mechanical stability of underground storage. The simulations present the evolution of ground surface, yet their incremental rate approaches towards a terminal void ratio. With regular and smooth displacement fields for the large number of cycles, the inflection point is estimated with the previous surface settlement model.

  3. Sensitivity of air pollution simulations with LOTOS-EUROS to the temporal distribution of anthropogenic emissions (United States)

    Mues, A.; Kuenen, J.; Hendriks, C.; Manders, A.; Segers, A.; Scholz, Y.; Hueglin, C.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.


    In this study the sensitivity of the model performance of the chemistry transport model (CTM) LOTOS-EUROS to the description of the temporal variability of emissions was investigated. Currently the temporal release of anthropogenic emissions is described by European average diurnal, weekly and seasonal time profiles per sector. These default time profiles largely neglect the variation of emission strength with activity patterns, region, species, emission process and meteorology. The three sources dealt with in this study are combustion in energy and transformation industries (SNAP1), nonindustrial combustion (SNAP2) and road transport (SNAP7). First of all, the impact of neglecting the temporal emission profiles for these SNAP categories on simulated concentrations was explored. In a second step, we constructed more detailed emission time profiles for the three categories and quantified their impact on the model performance both separately as well as combined. The performance in comparison to observations for Germany was quantified for the pollutants NO2, SO2 and PM10 and compared to a simulation using the default LOTOS-EUROS emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS simulations were performed for the year 2006 with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 × 25km2. In general the largest impact on the model performance was found when neglecting the default time profiles for the three categories. The daily average correlation coefficient for instance decreased by 0.04 (NO2), 0.11 (SO2) and 0.01 (PM10) at German urban background stations compared to the default simulation. A systematic increase in the correlation coefficient is found when using the new time profiles. The size of the increase depends on the source category, component and station. Using national profiles for road transport showed important improvements in the explained variability over the weekdays as well as the diurnal cycle for NO2. The largest impact of the SNAP1

  4. Foundations for computer simulation of a low pressure oil flooded single screw air compressor (United States)

    Bein, T. W.


    The necessary logic to construct a computer model to predict the performance of an oil flooded, single screw air compressor is developed. The geometric variables and relationships used to describe the general single screw mechanism are developed. The governing equations to describe the processes are developed from their primary relationships. The assumptions used in the development are also defined and justified. The computer model predicts the internal pressure, temperature, and flowrates through the leakage paths throughout the compression cycle of the single screw compressor. The model uses empirical external values as the basis for the internal predictions. The computer values are compared to the empirical values, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. Recommendations are made for future efforts to improve the computer model and to verify some of the conclusions that are drawn.

  5. Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emad, A.A.; El Shazly, S.M.; Kassem, Kh.O.


    A line source model, developed in laboratory of environmental physics, faculty of science at Qena, Egypt is proposed to describe the downwind dispersion of pollutants near roadways, at different cities in Egypt. The model is based on the Gaussian plume methodology and is used to predict air pollutants' concentrations near roadways. In this direction, simple software has been presented in this paper, developed by authors, adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique for operating in various windows-based microcomputers. The software interface and code have been designed by Microsoft Visual basic 6.0 based on the Gaussian diffusion equation. This software is developed to predict concentrations of gaseous pollutants (eg. CO, SO 2 , NO 2 and particulates) at a user specified receptor grid

  6. Monte Carlo Simulations on the water-to-air stopping power ratio for carbon ion dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkner, Katrin; Bassler, Niels; Sobolevsky, Nikolai


    Many papers discussed the I value for water given by the ICRU, concluding that a value of about 80±2  eV instead of 67.2  eV would reproduce measured ion depth-dose curves. A change in the I value for water would have an effect on the stopping power and, hence, on the water-to-air stopping power...... tables and ICRU reports. The stopping power ratio is calculated via track-length dose calculation with SHIELD-HIT07. In the calculations, the stopping power ratio is reduced to a value of 1.119 in the plateau region as compared to the cited value of 1.13 in IAEA TRS-398. At low energies the stopping...

  7. A Comparative Cycle and Refrigerant Simulation Procedure Applied on Air-Water Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian


    A vapor compression heat pump absorbs heat from the environment at a low temperature level and rejects heat at a high temperature level. The bigger the difference between the two temperature levels the more challenging is it to gain high energy efficiency with a basic cycle layout as found in most...... small capacity heat pump applications today. Many of the applicable refrigerants also reach their technical limits regarding low vapor pressure for very low source temperatures and high discharge temperatures for high sink temperatures. These issues are especially manifest for air-water heat pumps. Many...... alternative cycle setups and refrigerants are known to improve the energy efficiency of a vapor compression cycle and reduce discharge temperatures. However not all of them are feasible for small capacity heat pumps from a cost and complexity point of view. This paper presents a novel numerical approach...

  8. The "Grey Zone" cold air outbreak global model intercomparison: A cross evaluation using large-eddy simulations (United States)

    Tomassini, Lorenzo; Field, Paul R.; Honnert, Rachel; Malardel, Sylvie; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron; Saitou, Kei; Noda, Akira T.; Seifert, Axel


    A stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition as observed in a cold air outbreak over the North Atlantic Ocean is compared in global climate and numerical weather prediction models and a large-eddy simulation model as part of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation "Grey Zone" project. The focus of the project is to investigate to what degree current convection and boundary layer parameterizations behave in a scale-adaptive manner in situations where the model resolution approaches the scale of convection. Global model simulations were performed at a wide range of resolutions, with convective parameterizations turned on and off. The models successfully simulate the transition between the observed boundary layer structures, from a well-mixed stratocumulus to a deeper, partly decoupled cumulus boundary layer. There are indications that surface fluxes are generally underestimated. The amount of both cloud liquid water and cloud ice, and likely precipitation, are under-predicted, suggesting deficiencies in the strength of vertical mixing in shear-dominated boundary layers. But also regulation by precipitation and mixed-phase cloud microphysical processes play an important role in the case. With convection parameterizations switched on, the profiles of atmospheric liquid water and cloud ice are essentially resolution-insensitive. This, however, does not imply that convection parameterizations are scale-aware. Even at the highest resolutions considered here, simulations with convective parameterizations do not converge toward the results of convection-off experiments. Convection and boundary layer parameterizations strongly interact, suggesting the need for a unified treatment of convective and turbulent mixing when addressing scale-adaptivity.

  9. Numerical simulation of nanosecond pulsed DBD in lean methane–air mixture for typical conditions in internal engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya


    Detailed two-dimensional numerical simulations of a high energy loading nanosecond dc pulse DBD in a lean methane–air mixture were conducted for plasma-assisted combustion by integrating individual models of plasma chemistry, photoionization and energy loading. The DBD streamer propagation process with radical productions was clarified at 10 atm and 600 K as under the condition of actual internal engines at ignition. Energy is loaded to the streamer first by the formation of plasma channel and then ceased due to the self-shielding effect. Because of the inversed electric field in a discharge space during decrease in applied voltage, energy is loaded to the discharge again. It was found that higher energy is loaded to the DBD streamer for larger dielectric constant even at lower applied voltage, and higher number density of oxygen radical is produced at almost the same radical production efficiency. (paper)

  10. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  11. A numerical simulation study on the impact of smoke aerosols from Russian forest fires on the air pollution over Asia (United States)

    Zhu, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuzhi; Jia, Rui; Hua, Shan; Shao, Tianbin; Wang, Bing


    Serious forest fires were observed over Siberia, particularly in the vast area between Lake Baikal and the Gulf of Ob, during the period of 18-27 July 2016 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite simultaneously detected a multitude of smoke aerosols surrounding the same area. Combing a Lagrangian Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model output, the transport of smoke aerosols and the quantification of impact of Russian forest fires on the Asia were investigated. From model simulations, two transport paths were determined for the smoke plumes from the Russian forest fires. The first path was directed southwestward from Russia to Central Asia and eventually Xinjiang Province of China, furthermore, the second path was directed southeastward through Mongolia to Northeast China. The FLEXPART-WRF model simulations also revealed that the smoke aerosol concentrations entering the Central Asia, Mongolia and Northern China were approximately 60-300 μg m-3, 40-250 μg m-3 and 5-140 μg m-3, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerosol particles from these forest fires have an impact on the air quality in Asia. With the arrival of smoke aerosols from the Russian forest fires, the near-surface PM10 concentrations over Altay, Hulunbuir and Harbin increased to 61, 146 and 42 μg m-3, respectively. In conclusion, smoke aerosols from Russian forest fires can variably influence the air quality over Central Asia, Mongolia and Northern China.

  12. Airflow and air quality simulations over the western mountainous region with a four-dimensional data assimilation technique (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Kao, Chih-Yue; Bunker, Susan

    We apply a three-dimensional meteorological model with a four-dimensional data assimilation (4-DDA) technique to simulate diurnal variations of wind, temperature, water vapor, and turbulence in a region extending from the west coast to east of the Rockies and from northern Mexico to Wyoming. The wind data taken during the 1985 SCENES ( Subregional Cooperative Electric Utility, Dept. of Defense, National Park Service, and Environmental Protection Agency Study on Visibility) field experiments are successfully assimilated into the model through the 4-DDA technique by 'nudging' the modeled winds toward the observed winds. The modeled winds and turbulence fields are then used in a Lagrangian random-particle statistical model to investigate how pollutants from potential sources are transported and diffused. Finally, we calculate the ground concentrations through a kernel density estimator. Two scenarios in different weather patterns are investigated with simulation periods up to 6 days. One is associated with the evolution of a surface cold front and the other under a high-pressure stagnant condition. In the frontal case, the impact of air-mass movement on the ground concentrations of pollutants released from the Los Angeles area is well depicted by the model. Also, the pollutants produced from Los Angeles can be transported to the Grand Canyon area within 24 h. However, if we use only the data that were obtained from the regular NWS rawinsonde network, whose temporal and spatial resolutions are coarser than those of the special network, the plume goes north-northeast and never reaches the Grand Canyon area. In the stagnant case, the pollutants meander around the source area and can have significant impact on local air quality.

  13. Application of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to a forest canopy: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.L.; Alexander, Y.


    Forest ecosystems constitute an important part of the planet's land cover. Understanding their exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere is crucial in projecting future net atmospheric CO 2 increases. It is also important that experimental studies of these processes be performed under conditions which are as realistic as possible, particularly with respect to photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. New technology and experimental protocols now exist which can facilitate studying an undisturbed forest canopy under long-term enriched CO 2 conditions. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program of the International Council of Scientific Unions has established a subprogram on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). This program is driven by two major concerns: to be able to predict the effects of global change on the structure and function of ecosystems, and to predict how these changes will control both atmospheric CO 2 and climate, through various feedback pathways. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a system for exposing field-grown plants to controlled elevated concentrations of atmospheric gases, without use of confining chambers that alter important atmospheric exchange processes. This system, called FACE for Free Air CO 2 Enrichment. This paper focuses on the fluid mechanics of free-air fumigation and uses a numerical simulation model based on superposed gaussian plumes to project how the present ground-based system could be used to fumigate an elevated forest canopy

  14. Study on the thermal ignition of gasoline-air mixture in underground oil depots based on experiment and numerical simulation (United States)

    Ou, Yihong; Du, Yang; Jiang, Xingsheng; Wang, Dong; Liang, Jianjun


    The study on the special phenomenon, occurrence process and control mechanism of gasoline-air mixture thermal ignition in underground oil depots is of important academic and applied value for enriching scientific theories of explosion safety, developing protective technology against fire and decreasing the number of fire accidents. In this paper, the research on thermal ignition process of gasoline-air mixture in model underground oil depots tunnel has been carried out by using experiment and numerical simulation methods. The calculation result has been demonstrated by the experiment data. The five stages of thermal ignition course, which are slow oxidation stage, rapid oxidation stage, fire stage, flameout stage and quench stage, have been firstly defined and accurately descried. According to the magnitude order of concentration, the species have been divided into six categories, which lay the foundation for explosion-proof design based on the role of different species. The influence of space scale on thermal ignition in small-scale space has been found, and the mechanism for not easy to fire is that the wall reflection causes the reflux of fluids and changes the distribution of heat and mass, so that the progress of chemical reactions in the whole space are also changed. The novel mathematical model on the basis of unification chemical kinetics and thermodynamics established in this paper provides supplementary means for the analysis of process and mechanism of thermal ignition.

  15. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model. (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew


    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  16. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait


    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  17. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait


    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  18. Sensitivity of air pollution simulations with LOTOS-EUROS to temporal distribution of anthropogenic emissions (United States)

    Mues, A.; Kuenen, J.; Hendriks, C.; Manders, A.; Segers, A.; Scholz, Y.; Hueglin, C.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.


    In this study the sensitivity of the model performance of the chemistry transport model (CTM) LOTOS-EUROS to the description of the temporal variability of emissions was investigated. Currently the temporal release of anthropogenic emissions is described by European average diurnal, weekly and seasonal time profiles per sector. These default time profiles largely neglect the variation of emission strength with activity patterns, region, species, emission process and meteorology. The three sources dealt with in this study are combustion in energy and transformation industries (SNAP1), non-industrial combustion (SNAP2) and road transport (SNAP7). First the impact of neglecting the temporal emission profiles for these SNAP categories on simulated concentrations was explored. In a~second step, we constructed more detailed emission time profiles for the three categories and quantified their impact on the model performance separately as well as combined. The performance in comparison to observations for Germany was quantified for the pollutants NO2, SO2 and PM10 and compared to a simulation using the default LOTOS-EUROS emission time profiles. In general the largest impact on the model performance was found when neglecting the default time profiles for the three categories. The daily average correlation coefficient for instance decreased by 0.04 (NO2), 0.11 (SO2) and 0.01 (PM10) at German urban background stations compared to the default simulation. A systematic increase of the correlation coefficient is found when using the new time profiles. The size of the increase depends on the source category, the component and station. Using national profiles for road transport showed important improvements of the explained variability over the weekdays as well as the diurnal cycle for NO2. The largest impact of the SNAP1 and 2 profiles were found for SO2. When using all new time profiles simultaneously in one simulation the daily average correlation coefficient increased by 0

  19. Fire simulation in large compartments with a fire model 'CFAST'. Part 1. Survey of applicability for analyzing air-temperature profile in compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Shirai, Koji; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi


    The basic performance of numerical analysis of air-temperature profiles in large-scale compartments by using a zone model, CFAST (Consolidated model of Fire growth And Smoke Transport), which has been widely applied for fire protection design of buildings is examined. Special attentions are paid to the dependence of the setting boundary conditions and the choosing model parameters. The simulations carried out under the denkyoken-test conditions, in which the air-temperature profiles in compartments and the heat-release rate of a fire have been precisely measured, indicate that the CFAST has a capability to appropriately represent the time-histories of air-temperature in the high air-temperature layer generated in the vicinity of ceiling of the compartment which includes the source of a fire, by applying the proper boundary conditions, i.e., time-histories of air-temperature in the upper (high temperature) layer given by the CFAST agree well with those of observations. The sensitivity analysis in the simulations also reveals that the appropriately setting of the boundary-conditions, especially for the heat-release ratio from a fire and the heat-transfer rate from walls of compartments to ambient air is vital. Contrary to this, the impacts of choosing numerical parameters on the air-temperature analysis are quite small. (author)

  20. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, Dennis


    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane


    the center of mass for three different judo-throwing techniques. McGuigan et al. (2006 explore the utility of isometric strength training among a sample of wrestlers. Body fat and weight management play an important role in combat sports. Kazemi et al., 2006 identify the profile of the Olympic champions and Pieter et al., 2006 assess the relative total body fat and skinfold patterning of Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Bledsoe et al., 2006 examine the prevalence and incidence of injury in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Competitions. Nunan (2006 sought to develop a sport-specific fitness test for competitive Karate practitioners with results suggesting that the new test accurately simulates the actions of competitive Karate sparring. Blais and Trilles, 2006 propose a specific piece of apparatus designed to enhance judo performance In terms of skill analysis, Hristovski et al., 2006 examine the factors that boxers use when deciding to punch a target. Myers et al., 2006 investigated judging practices and processes in Muay Thai. The subjective nature of combat sport scoring means that this is an universal issue. Devonport, 2006 uses qualitative techniques to explore psychological issues relate to success in kickboxing. Stevens et al., 2006 used a transactional design to investigate changes in mood states and emotions in a judo player during Olympic trials. Wong et al., 2006 explored mood-performance relationships among Malaysian athletes with results lending some support to the conceptual framework for mood-performance relationships offered by Lane and Terry, 2000. Jones et al., 2006 investigated motivational profiles of martial artists. The range of articles and suggestions for future research should inspire researchers and practitioners alike to investigate the efficacy of their interventions, test the validity of the measures, develop new measures and develop specific theories. This special edition has raised more questions than answers but in

  2. Global model simulations of air pollution during the 2003 European heat wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ordóñez


    Full Text Available Three global Chemistry Transport Models – MOZART, MOCAGE, and TM5 – as well as MOZART coupled to the IFS meteorological model including assimilation of ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO satellite column retrievals, have been compared to surface measurements and MOZAIC vertical profiles in the troposphere over Western/Central Europe for summer 2003. The models reproduce the meteorological features and enhancement of pollution during the period 2–14 August, but not fully the ozone and CO mixing ratios measured during that episode. Modified normalised mean biases are around −25% (except ~5% for MOCAGE in the case of ozone and from −80% to −30% for CO in the boundary layer above Frankfurt. The coupling and assimilation of CO columns from MOPITT overcomes some of the deficiencies in the treatment of transport, chemistry and emissions in MOZART, reducing the negative biases to around 20%. The high reactivity and small dry deposition velocities in MOCAGE seem to be responsible for the overestimation of O3 in this model. Results from sensitivity simulations indicate that an increase of the horizontal resolution to around 1°×1° and potential uncertainties in European anthropogenic emissions or in long-range transport of pollution cannot completely account for the underestimation of CO and O3 found for most models. A process-oriented TM5 sensitivity simulation where soil wetness was reduced results in a decrease in dry deposition fluxes and a subsequent ozone increase larger than the ozone changes due to the previous sensitivity runs. However this latest simulation still underestimates ozone during the heat wave and overestimates it outside that period. Most probably, a combination of the mentioned factors together with underrepresented biogenic emissions in the models, uncertainties in the modelling of vertical/horizontal transport processes in the proximity of the boundary layer as well as limitations of

  3. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju


    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively

  4. Simulation and measurements of the response of an air ionisation chamber exposed to a mixed high-energy radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincke, H.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Perrin, D.; Theis, C.


    CERN's radiation protection group operates a network of simple and robust ionisation chambers that are installed inside CERN's accelerator tunnels. These ionisation chambers are used for the remote reading of ambient dose rate equivalents inside the machines during beam-off periods. This Radiation Protection Monitor for dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity ('PMI', trade name: PTW, Type 34031) is a non-confined air ionisation plastic chamber which is operated under atmospheric pressure. Besides its current field of operation it is planned to extend the use of this detector in the Large Hadron Collider to measure radiation under beam operation conditions to obtain an indication of the machine performance. Until now, studies of the PMI detector have been limited to the response to photons. In order to evaluate its response to other radiation components, this chamber type was tested at CERF, the high-energy reference field facility at CERN. Six PMI detectors were installed around a copper target being irradiated by a mixed hadron beam with a momentum of 120 GeV c -1 . Each of the chosen detector positions was defined by a different radiation field, varying in type and energy of the incident particles. For all positions, detailed measurements and FLUKA simulations of the detector response were performed. This paper presents the promising comparison between the measurements and simulations and analyses the influence of the different particle types on the resulting detector response. (authors)

  5. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gwon Woo [Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju [Environmental and Plant Engineering Research Institute, KICT, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively.

  6. The Foulness multi-ton air blast simulator. Part 2. Recent developments - the linear charge driven facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, P.M.


    The gun-driven facility for simulating nuclear air blast has been described in Part 1 (AWRE Report 031/74). It was, however, subject to certain limitations in providing the requisite blast parameters for nuclear hardening. The efficiency of the simulator has been improved beyond that of the gun-driven facility to produce blast waves of higher peak overpressure, longer positive duration and greater equivalent yield. This has been done by firing in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section of the tunnel instead of in the guns. Various line charge arrangements were investigated and the pressures and strains developed in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section were measured. The shock loading on the tube walls was less than that produced by firing in the guns and consisted of a short duration shock decaying to a lower amplitude pressure pulse of longer duration (1 ms), followed by a few reflected shocks which the tube walls were well able to withstand. The equipment is described and results discussed. (author)

  7. Wind tunnel simulation of air pollution dispersion in a street canyon. (United States)

    Civis, Svatopluk; Strizík, Michal; Janour, Zbynek; Holpuch, Jan; Zelinger, Zdenek


    Physical simulation was used to study pollution dispersion in a street canyon. The street canyon model was designed to study the effect of measuring flow and concentration fields. A method of C02-laser photoacoustic spectrometry was applied for detection of trace concentration of gas pollution. The advantage of this method is its high sensitivity and broad dynamic range, permitting monitoring of concentrations from trace to saturation values. Application of this method enabled us to propose a simple model based on line permeation pollutant source, developed on the principle of concentration standards, to ensure high precision and homogeneity of the concentration flow. Spatial measurement of the concentration distribution inside the street canyon was performed on the model with reference velocity of 1.5 m/s.

  8. Desain dan Implementasi Remote Terminal Unit (RTU Berbasis Arm Cortex pada Simulator Distribusi Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murie Dwiyaniti


    Full Text Available In industry, the control apparatus and instruments at the field level use a PLC in general. Unfortunately, PLC is a proprietary or copyright of a multinational corporation, which make their costs relatively expensive. Alternative controllers can be implemented based on RTU microcontrollers which are of low costs, low power consumption but have high reliability and can be applied in a variety of plants. In this research, RTU based on a microcontroller, 32-bit ARM Cortex XMC 4500, has been developed and applied as a controller of water distribution simulator. This RTU has 8 inputs and 6 outputs digital, 3 inputs and 2 outputs analog. The result shows that the RTU works properly in accordance to the specifications that had been predetermined. This has been proven by the proper functioning of all digital and analog IO modules, serial communication modules and power supply modules.

  9. Simulation evaluation of TIMER, a time-based, terminal air traffic, flow-management concept (United States)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.


    A description of a time-based, extended terminal area ATC concept called Traffic Intelligence for the Management of Efficient Runway scheduling (TIMER) and the results of a fast-time evaluation are presented. The TIMER concept is intended to bridge the gap between today's ATC system and a future automated time-based ATC system. The TIMER concept integrates en route metering, fuel-efficient cruise and profile descents, terminal time-based sequencing and spacing together with computer-generated controller aids, to improve delivery precision for fuller use of runway capacity. Simulation results identify and show the effects and interactions of such key variables as horizon of control location, delivery time error at both the metering fix and runway threshold, aircraft separation requirements, delay discounting, wind, aircraft heading and speed errors, and knowledge of final approach speed.

  10. Simulation of subnanosecond streamers in atmospheric-pressure air: Effects of polarity of applied voltage pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)


    Results of simulation of subnanosecond streamer propagation in corona gap configuration, obtained in the framework of 2D fluid model, are presented. Effects related with the polarity of a voltage pulse applied to the stressed electrode are discussed. It is argued that these effects (dependence of the discharge current and propagation velocity on the polarity of applied voltage) observed in experiments can be attributed to the difference in initial (preceding the streamer formation) distributions of charged species inside the gap. This difference can be caused by preionization (at negative polarity) of the gas inside the discharge gap by runaway electrons. Calculated streamers have large widths (up to 1 cm) and move with velocities in the range of 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10 }cm s{sup −1}, similar to experimental data.

  11. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-air reacting flows in rectangular channels with catalytic surface reactions (United States)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Abou-Ellail, Mohsen M.; Elhaw, Samer; Saeed Ibrahim, Mohamed


    In this work a prediction was numerically modeled for a catalytically stabilized thermal combustion of a lean homogeneous mixture of air and hydrogen. The mixture flows in a narrow rectangular channel lined with a thin coating of platinum catalyst. The solution using an in-house code is based on the steady state partial differential continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations for the mixture and species involved in the reactions. A marching technique is used along the streamwise direction to solve the 2-D plane-symmetric laminar flow of the gas. Two chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms were included; one for the gas phase reactions consisting of 17 elementary reactions; of which 7 are forward-backward reactions while the other mechanism is for the surface reactions—which are the prime mover of the combustion under a lean mixture condition—consisting of 16 elementary reactions. The results were compared with a former congruent experimental work where temperature was measured using thermocouples, while using PLIF laser for measuring water and hydrogen mole fractions. The comparison showed good agreement. More results for the velocities, mole fractions of other species were carried out across the transverse and along the streamwise directions providing a complete picture of overall mechanism—gas and surface—and on the production, consumptions and travel of the different species. The variations of the average OH mole fraction with the streamwise direction showed a sudden increase in the region where the ignition occurred. Also the rate of reactions of the entire surface species were calculated along the streamwise direction and a surface water production flux equation was derived by calculating the law of mass action's constants from the concentrations of hydrogen, oxygen and the rate of formation of water near the surface.

  12. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xie


    Full Text Available The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism within the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency CMAQ model. The results show improved model performance for a range of species compared against aircraft observations from the INTEX-NA/ICARTT 2004 field campaign. We further investigate the key processes in isoprene nitrate chemistry and evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the isoprene nitrate yield, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 recycling efficiency, dry deposition velocity, and RO2 + HO2 reaction rates. We focus our examination on the southeastern United States, which is impacted by both abundant isoprene emissions and high levels of anthropogenic pollutants. We find that NOx concentrations increase by 4–9% as a result of reduced removal by isoprene nitrate chemistry. O3 increases by 2 ppbv as a result of changes in NOx. OH concentrations increase by 30%, which can be primarily attributed to greater HOx production. We find that the model can capture observed total alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (∑ANs and their relationship with O3 by assuming either an isoprene nitrate yield of 6% and daytime lifetime of 6 hours or a yield of 12% and lifetime of 4 h. Uncertainties in the isoprene nitrates can impact ozone production by 10% and OH concentrations by 6%. The uncertainties in NOx recycling efficiency appear to have larger effects than uncertainties in isoprene nitrate yield and dry deposition velocity. Further progress depends on improved understanding of

  13. Verification of a smart wing design for a micro-air-vehicle through simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, V.; Chen, Y.; Nejad-Ensan, M.; Martinez, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research; Wong, F. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Valcartier, PQ (Canada); Kraemer, K. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Directorate of Technical Airworthiness and Engineering Support


    Micro-air-vehicles (MAV) are small, light-weight aircraft that perform a variety of missions. This paper described a smart wing structure consisting of a composite spar and ailerons with integrated piezoceramic fibre actuators that was designed for MAV use. This fixed-wing MAV can hover vertically like a rotary-wing vehicle through a flight manoeuvre known as prop-hanging. In order to maintain MAV orientation, the hover manoeuvre requires roll control of the fixed-wing aircraft through differential aileron deflection. Since conventional aileron control systems have components that add weight, it is necessary to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV with less power requirements. This paper proposed a smart wing structure that consists of a composite spar and ailerons that have bimorph active ribs consisting of piezoceramic fiber actuators with interdigitated electrodes. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the piezoceramic fiber actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electro active polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. The EAP skin enhances the actuation by providing a electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer. Analytical modeling and finite element analysis showed that the proposed smart wing concept achieved a target deflection of 30 degrees in both the wind-off and wind-on flight conditions. The smart structure approach with active materials enabled the design of a lightweight, robust wing by reducing the number of components typically associated with conventional aileron control systems. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations? (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan


    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  15. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight (United States)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany


    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  16. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.


    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  17. An evidence accumulation model for conflict detection performance in a simulated air traffic control task. (United States)

    Neal, Andrew; Kwantes, Peter J


    The aim of this article is to develop a formal model of conflict detection performance. Our model assumes that participants iteratively sample evidence regarding the state of the world and accumulate it over time. A decision is made when the evidence reaches a threshold that changes over time in response to the increasing urgency of the task. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of conflict geometry and timing on response proportions and response time. The model is able to predict the observed pattern of response times, including a nonmonotonic relationship between distance at point of closest approach and response time, as well as effects of angle of approach and relative velocity. The results demonstrate that evidence accumulation models provide a good account of performance on a conflict detection task. Evidence accumulation models are a form of dynamic signal detection theory, allowing for the analysis of response times as well as response proportions, and can be used for simulating human performance on dynamic decision tasks.

  18. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  19. Practical demonstration of urban air quality simulation models. Part I. A report of the NATO/CCMS pilot study on air pollution assessment methodology and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Report shows cooperation of NATO member nations in developing standardized methods for emissions data storage and retrieval to support requirements in conduct of national air quality management programs. Shows cooperation in developing standardized techniques for projecting emissions and predicting future ambient air quality.

  20. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model – Part 2: Modifications for simulating natural emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mueller


    Full Text Available The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.6 has been revised with regard to the representation of chlorine (HCl, ClNO2 and sulfur (dimethylsulfide, or DMS, and H2S, and evaluated against observations and earlier published models. Chemistry parameterizations were based on published reaction kinetic data and a recently developed cloud chemistry model that includes heterogeneous reactions of organic sulfur compounds. Evaluation of the revised model was conducted using a recently enhanced data base of natural emissions that includes ocean and continental sources of DMS, H2S, chlorinated gases and lightning NOx for the continental United States and surrounding regions. Results using 2002 meteorology and emissions indicated that most simulated "natural" (plus background chemical and aerosol species exhibit the expected seasonal variations at the surface. Ozone exhibits a winter and early spring maximum consistent with ozone data and an earlier published model. Ozone distributions reflect the influences of atmospheric dynamics and pollutant background levels imposed on the CMAQ simulation by boundary conditions derived from a global model. A series of model experiments reveals that the consideration of gas-phase organic sulfur chemistry leads to sulfate aerosol increases over most of the continental United States. Cloud chemistry parameterization changes result in widespread decreases in SO2 across the modeling domain and both increases and decreases in sulfate. Most cloud-mediated sulfate increases occurred mainly over the Pacific Ocean (up to about 0.1 μg m−3 but also over and downwind from the Gulf of Mexico (including parts of the eastern US. Geographic variations in simulated SO2 and sulfate are due to the link between DMS/H2S and their byproduct SO2, the heterogeneity of cloud cover and precipitation (precipitating clouds act as

  1. Numerical Simulation for a Three-Dimensional Air Pollution Measurement Model in a Heavy Traffic Area under the Bangkok Sky Train Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalee Suebyat


    Full Text Available Air pollutant levels in Bangkok are generally high in street tunnels. They are particularly elevated in almost closed street tunnels such as an area under the Bangkok sky train platform with high traffic volume where dispersion is limited. There are no air quality measurement stations in the vicinity, while the human population is high. In this research, the numerical simulation is used to measure the air pollutant levels. The three-dimensional air pollution measurement model in a heavy traffic area under the Bangkok sky train platform is proposed. The finite difference techniques are employed to approximate the modelled solutions. The vehicle air pollutant emission due to the high traffic volume is mathematically assumed by the pollutant sources term. The simulation is also considered in averaged and moving pollutant sources due to manner vehicle emission. The proposed approximated air pollutant concentration indicators can be replaced by user required gaseous pollutants indices such as NOx, SO2, CO, and PM2.5.

  2. Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment (United States)

    Baird, Michael J.


    A real-life analytical assignment is presented to students, who had to examine an air conditioning coolant solution for metal contamination using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). This hands-on access to a real problem exposed the undergraduate students to the mechanism of AAS, and promoted participation in a simulated industrial activity.

  3. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, K.F.; Brioude, J.; Burrow, J.P.; Gouw, de J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.F.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Lintel Hekkert, te L.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.


    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National

  4. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta


    Experiments were carried out in a simulated 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin, installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which cabin air quality and passenger symptoms are affected by ozone chemistry. A total of 30 subjects were exposed to four conditions: two rates of outside...

  5. The Impact of Combat Status on Veterans' Attitudes Toward Help Seeking: The Hierarchy of Combat Elitism. (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy; Brown, Jodi Constantine


    Many veterans do not seek assistance for mental health concerns despite the staggering prevalence of trauma-related symptomatology. Barriers to service provision include personal and professional stigma and inter-veteran attitudes that dictate who is more or less deserving of services. Veteran attitudes are shaped by military culture, which promotes a hyper-masculine paradigm upholding combat experience as the defining feature of the "ideal soldier." The stratification of soldiers into combat or non-combat status creates a hierarchy of combat elitism that extends far beyond active duty. This pilot study surveyed veterans (n = 24) to explore how combat experience may affect attitudes toward help seeking. Findings indicate combat and non-combat veterans are less accepting of non-combat veterans' help-seeking behavior, supporting the notion that veterans' attitudes toward help seeking are influenced by combat status. Despite limitations, the results of this study reflect a need for increased attention to the attitudes veterans have about each other and themselves.

  6. Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure (United States)

    Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad


    Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.

  7. Numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Puente, Jesus, E-mail: [Centro Federal de Educaçao Tecnologica Celso Suckowda Fonseca (CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Baliza, Ana R., E-mail: [Eletrobras Eletronuclear Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)


    After a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the temperature of the fuel elements cladding increases dramatically due to the heat produced by the fission products decay, which is not adequately removed by the vapor contained in the core. In order to avoid this sharp rise in temperature and consequent melting of the core, the Emergency Core Cooling System is activated. This system initially injects borated water from accumulator tanks of the reactor through the inlet pipe (cold leg) and the outlet pipe (hot leg), or through the cold leg only, depending on the plant manufacturer. Some manufacturers add to this, direct injection into the upper plenum of the reactor. The penetration of water into the reactor core is a complex thermo fluid dynamic process because it involves the mixing of water with the vapor contained in the reactor, added to that generated in the contact of the water with the still hot surfaces in various geometries. In some critical locations, the vapor flowing in the opposite direction of the water can control the penetration of this into the core. This phenomenon is known as Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) or Flooding, and it is characterized by the control that a gas exerts in the liquid flow in the opposite direction. This work presents a proposal to use a CFD to simulate the CCFL phenomenon. Numerical computing can provide important information and data that is difficult or expensive to measure or test experimentally. Given the importance of computational science today, it can be considered a third and independent branch of science on an equal footing with the theoretical and experimental sciences. (author)

  8. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P


    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  9. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David


    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  10. Innovative contracting strategies for combating climate change. (United States)


    The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...

  11. 2001 Industry Studies: Land Combat Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alyaqout, Faisal


    .... The days when production lines and factories hummed at peak capacity are gone. Orders for land combat systems have been reduced by nearly two-thirds since 1990, and competition for what few procurement dollars remain is stiff...

  12. Combat Neurosis in the Battered Teacher. (United States)

    Science News, 1978


    Investigates the effect of school violence on classroom teachers. The study of 253 Los Angeles inner city classroom teachers reveals that many of them have developed conditions similar to the combat neurosis found in soldiers at war. (HM)

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.


    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  14. Sensitivity of local air quality to the interplay between small- and large-scale circulations: a large-eddy simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wolf-Grosse


    Full Text Available Street-level urban air pollution is a challenging concern for modern urban societies. Pollution dispersion models assume that the concentrations decrease monotonically with raising wind speed. This convenient assumption breaks down when applied to flows with local recirculations such as those found in topographically complex coastal areas. This study looks at a practically important and sufficiently common case of air pollution in a coastal valley city. Here, the observed concentrations are determined by the interaction between large-scale topographically forced and local-scale breeze-like recirculations. Analysis of a long observational dataset in Bergen, Norway, revealed that the most extreme cases of recurring wintertime air pollution episodes were accompanied by increased large-scale wind speeds above the valley. Contrary to the theoretical assumption and intuitive expectations, the maximum NO2 concentrations were not found for the lowest 10 m ERA-Interim wind speeds but in situations with wind speeds of 3 m s−1. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated empirical relationships between the large-scale forcing and the local wind and air quality parameters. We conducted 16 large-eddy simulation (LES experiments with the Parallelised Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM for atmospheric and oceanic flows. The LES accounted for the realistic relief and coastal configuration as well as for the large-scale forcing and local surface condition heterogeneity in Bergen. They revealed that emerging local breeze-like circulations strongly enhance the urban ventilation and dispersion of the air pollutants in situations with weak large-scale winds. Slightly stronger large-scale winds, however, can counteract these local recirculations, leading to enhanced surface air stagnation. Furthermore, this study looks at the concrete impact of the relative configuration of warmer water bodies in the city and the major transport corridor. We found that a

  15. Sensitivity of local air quality to the interplay between small- and large-scale circulations: a large-eddy simulation study (United States)

    Wolf-Grosse, Tobias; Esau, Igor; Reuder, Joachim


    Street-level urban air pollution is a challenging concern for modern urban societies. Pollution dispersion models assume that the concentrations decrease monotonically with raising wind speed. This convenient assumption breaks down when applied to flows with local recirculations such as those found in topographically complex coastal areas. This study looks at a practically important and sufficiently common case of air pollution in a coastal valley city. Here, the observed concentrations are determined by the interaction between large-scale topographically forced and local-scale breeze-like recirculations. Analysis of a long observational dataset in Bergen, Norway, revealed that the most extreme cases of recurring wintertime air pollution episodes were accompanied by increased large-scale wind speeds above the valley. Contrary to the theoretical assumption and intuitive expectations, the maximum NO2 concentrations were not found for the lowest 10 m ERA-Interim wind speeds but in situations with wind speeds of 3 m s-1. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated empirical relationships between the large-scale forcing and the local wind and air quality parameters. We conducted 16 large-eddy simulation (LES) experiments with the Parallelised Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) for atmospheric and oceanic flows. The LES accounted for the realistic relief and coastal configuration as well as for the large-scale forcing and local surface condition heterogeneity in Bergen. They revealed that emerging local breeze-like circulations strongly enhance the urban ventilation and dispersion of the air pollutants in situations with weak large-scale winds. Slightly stronger large-scale winds, however, can counteract these local recirculations, leading to enhanced surface air stagnation. Furthermore, this study looks at the concrete impact of the relative configuration of warmer water bodies in the city and the major transport corridor. We found that a relatively small local water

  16. Simulation of transient heat transfer during cooling and heating of whole sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) roots under forced-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korese, Joseph Kudadam; Sturm, Barbara; Román, Franz; Hensel, Oliver


    Highlights: • Heat transfer of whole sweet potato roots under forced-air cooling and heating is investigated. • Experiments were carried out in a cooling and heating chamber. • The cooling and heating rate and time was clearly depended on air velocity and roots size. • Simulated and experimental data on cooling and heating times were compared for validation. • Simulation results quantitatively agreed with experimental results. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated how different air velocity and temperature affect the cooling and heating rate and time of individual sweet potato roots. Additionally, we modified and applied a simulation model which is based on the fundamental solution of the transient equations for estimating the cooling and heating time at the centre of sweet potato roots. The model was adapted to receive input parameters such as thermo-physical properties of whole sweet potato roots as well as the surrounding air properties, and was verified with experimental transient temperature data. The experimental results showed that the temperature at the centre and the under skin of sweet potato roots is almost homogeneous during forced convection cooling and heating. The cooling and heating time was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by high air velocity and sweet potato root size. The simulation results quantitatively agreed with the experimental transient data. This research, thus provides a reliable experimental and theoretical basis for understanding the temperature variations as well as estimating the cooling and heating times in individual sweet potato roots under forced convection cooling and heating. The result from this study could be applied to design and optimize forced-air treatment equipments with improved energy efficiency as well as ensuring safety and the maintenance of sweet potato roots quality.

  17. University Research Initiative Program for Combat Readiness (United States)


    microscope image of one of the lenses. This array was selected for testing because it is fabricated in a relatively inexpensive polyacrylic material, the...potent analogues of the potassium -sparing diuretic, amiloride. However, our results 179 University Reasearch Initiative for Combat Readiness Annual Report...for Combat Readiness Annual Report for the period June 1, 1998 - June 30, 1999 Roger H. Sawyer University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 May

  18. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI (United States)


    non-combatants to military operations in an urban area. We show how to link this model with COMBATXXI at the application programming interface (API...level so that the model can be run in tight conjunction with COMBATXXI. TRAC and other anaytic organizations can use this type of crowd model to... organizations , and materiel. crowd, agent-based modeling , combat models , COMBATXXI, NetLogo, mega-cities, civilians on the battlefield Unclassified U U U U 39

  19. Assessing the accuracy of mathematical models used in thermoelectric simulation: Thermal influence of insulated air zone and radiation heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junling; Du, Qungui; Chen, Min; Li, Bo; Zhang, Dongwen


    An accurate mathematical model of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) provides the basis for the analysis and design of thermoelectric conversion system. TEM models from the literature are only valid for the heat transfer of N-type and P-type thermoelectric couples without considering air around the actual thermoelectric couples of TEMs. In fact, air space imposes significant influence on the model computational accuracy, especially for a TEM with large air space inside. In this study, heat transfer analyses of air between the TEM cold and hot plates were carried out in order to propose a new mathematical model that minimises simulation errors. This model was applied to analyse characteristic parameters of two typical TEMs, and the ratio of cross-sectional area of air space to thermocouples were 48.2% and 80.0%, respectively. The average relative errors in simulation decreased from 5.2% to 2.8% and from 12.8% to 3.7%, respectively. It is noted that our new model gives result more accurate than models from the literature provided that higher temperature difference occurs between hot side and cold side of TEM. Thus, the proposed model is of theoretical significance in guiding future design of TEMs for high-power or large-temperature-difference thermoelectric conversion systems. - Highlights: • Built a new accurate model for thermoelectric modules with inner air heat transfer. • Analysed the influence on heat transfer of the air within the TEM ∗ . • Reduced simulation errors for high-power thermoelectric conversion systems. • Two typical TEMs were measured with a good agreement with theoretical results. • ∗ TEM is the abbreviation of thermoelectric module

  20. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.


    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4